WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate infrared radiation

  1. Observation of near and intermediate infrared galactic radiation by the rocket K-10-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Matsumoto, Toshio; Mizuno, Tomohisa; Murakami, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Kunio

    1981-01-01

    The spatial and the energy spectra of near and intermediate infrared radiation were observed by using a detector system loaded on a rocket. The detector system is a He-cooled infrared telescope, and consists of an optical system, a cryostat, an electronic system, and a star sensor. The system was loaded on the rocket K-10-14, and the observation was made for about 400 second on August 27, 1980. For the radiation with wavelength of 2.4 mu m and 4.6 mu m, the intensity of galactic light around 338, 9, 15 and 12 degree of galactic longitude was observed. For the wavelength of 7.6, 10.1 and 14.7 mu m, the data around 340 and 10 degree of galactic longitude were obtained. The latitudinal distribution of radiation of 2.4 and 4.6 mu m was measured. After the correction for interstellar absorption, it can be said that the galactic radiation of wavelength between 2.4 mu m and 7.6 mu m was mainly composed of the radiation from light balls of late type stars. (Kato, T.)

  2. Infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Ellis, R.J.; Murray, W.E.; Parr, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    All people are exposed to IR radiation from sunlight, artificial light and radiant heating. Exposures to IR are quantified by irradiance and radiant exposure to characterize biological effects on the skin and cornea. However, near-IR exposure to the retina requires knowledge of the radiance of the IR source. With most IR sources in everyday use the health risks are considered minimal; only in certain high radiant work environments are individuals exposed to excessive levels. The interaction of IR radiation with biological tissues is mainly thermal. IR radiation may augment the biological response to other agents. The major health hazards are thermal injury to the eye and skin, including corneal burns from far-IR, heat stress, and retinal and lenticular injury from near-IR radiation. 59 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Infrared Radiation and Blackbody Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut present graph Tutorial Presentation Graph Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial covers the following: How infrared radiation was discovered., The regions of infrared radiation and their relations to temperature., The nature of blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law., The relationship between temperature and the power emitted by radiation.The interactions in this tutorial include clicking to reveal new information, and questions that help students...

  4. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  5. Models for infrared atmospheric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Line and band models for infrared spectral absorption are discussed. Radiative transmittance and integrated absorptance of Lorentz, Doppler, and voigt line profiles were compared for a range of parameters. It was found that, for the intermediate path lengths, the combined Lorentz-Doppler (Voigt) profile is essential in calculating the atmospheric transmittance. Narrow band model relations for absorptance were used to develop exact formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Several continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model were compared with the numerical solutions of the wide band models. By employing the line-by-line and quasi-random band model formulations, computational procedures were developed for evaluating transmittance and upwelling atmospheric radiance. Homogeneous path transmittances were calculated for selected bands of CO, CO2, and N2O and compared with experimental measurements. The upwelling radiance and signal change in the wave number interval of the CO fundamental band were also calculated.

  6. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  7. Infrared spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, P.

    1978-01-01

    Storage rings are normally used as sources of radiation in the X-ray and the u.v. part of the spectrum. It is shown that, with a specially designed component, a storage ring like ACO at Orsay is a very powerful far-infrared source, whose advantages over classical wide band sources are reviewed. (author)

  8. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  9. Infrared radiation from dark globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.G.; Leung, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed by which to study the infrared emission from dark globules heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). The effects of cloud parameters (grain type, optical depth, and density inhomogeneity) on the emergent spectrum and infrared surface brightnesses are studied. Compared with clouds which have internal heat sources, the emergent flux for globules is found to be at least a factor of 10 smaller and to peak at wavelengths 100 μm< or =lambda< or =130 μm for graphite clouds and 310 μm< or =lambda< or =550 μm for silicate clouds. Either limb brightening or limb darkening in the infrared can occur, which depends sensitively on the optical depth. For globules of moderate extinction (greater than approx.10 in the visible), significant infrared limb brightening occurs at wavelengths of grain emission (20 μm< or =lambda< or =600 μm). A physical interpretation of these results is presented. To help remove ambiguities from interpretations of future observations, the observable effects of a grain mixture, variation of the ISRF, as well as beam dilution are examined in detail. The presence of a second grain component alters the emergent spectrum significantly. For a variation of the ISRF within wide limits, the ratio of surface to central temperature (T/sub s//T/sub c/) of an optically thick cloud remains fairly constant (3< or approx. =T/sub s//T/sub c/< or approx. =4). Infrared limb brightening may be smoothed out by beam dilution as well as by density inhomogeneities. Finally, the expected flux densities in the infrared of a typical globule are presented for different beam sizes. The predicted fluxes are within the detection threshold of currently available infrared detectors, using either ground-based or balloon-borne telescopes

  10. Infrared Radiative Properties of Food Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precisely, infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of terahertz radiation and microwaves. The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum spans roughly three orders of magnitude (750 nm to 100 µm) and has been...

  11. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  12. Infrared spectroscopy by use of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanba, Takao

    1991-01-01

    During five years since the author wrote the paper on the utilization of synchrotron radiation in long wavelength region, it seems to be recognized that in synchrotron radiation, the light from infrared to milli wave can be utilized, and is considerably useful. Recently the research on coherent synchrotron radiation in this region using electron linac has been developed by Tohoku University group, and the high capability of synchrotron radiation as light source is verified. This paper is the report on the infrared spectroscopic research using incoherent synchrotron radiation obtained from the deflection electromagnet part of electron storage rings. Synchrotron radiation is high luminance white light source including from X-ray to micro wave. The example of research that the author carried out at UVSOR is reported, and the perspective in near future is mentioned. Synchrotron radiation as the light source for infrared spectroscopy, the intensity and dimensions of the light source, far infrared region and mid infrared region, far infrared high pressure spectroscopic experiment, and the heightening of luminance of synchrotron radiation as infrared light source are described. (K.I.)

  13. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  14. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  15. Corneal Damage from Infrared Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCally, Russell

    2000-01-01

    ...) laser radiation at 10.6 (micrometer) and Tm: YAG laser radiation at 2.02 (micrometer). Retinal damage from sources with rectangular irradiance distributions was also modeled. Thresholds for CO(2...

  16. A mid- to far-infrared variability study of the intermediate Seyfert galaxy, Mk 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, R.; Sembay, S.; Coe, M.J.; Hanson, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    A mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) variability study of the intermediate Seyfert galaxy, Mk 6, is presented using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). We have analysed 25 observations of this source covering a period of about 1 month. Within the expected errors, the source shows no evidence for variability and this may be an indication that there is a strong contribution to the MFIR emission from thermal re-radiation by dust. This interpretation is consistent with previous studies which suggest that the bulk of the far-infrared (30 -100 μm) emission in Seyfert galaxies originates from cool (35 - 75 K) dust associated with star formation regions in the surrounding envelope of the active nucleus. The lack of variability at 12 and 25 μm can also be readily explained by dust emission. However, in this case, the dust temperatures required to produce emission at these wavelengths makes the narrow-line region a more feasible location for the dust grains. (author)

  17. Coherent tunable far infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Tunable, CW, FIR radiation has been generated by nonlinear mixing of radiation from two CO2 lasers in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode. The FIR difference-frequency power was radiated from the MIM diode antenna to a calibrated InSb bolometer. FIR power of 200 nW was generated by 250 mW from each of the CO2 lasers. Using the combination of lines from a waveguide CO2 laser, with its larger tuning range, with lines from CO2, N2O, and CO2-isotope lasers promises complete coverage of the entire FIR band with stepwise-tunable CW radiation.

  18. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L IR > 10 11.5 L ☉ ). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L C II /L FIR ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L C II –L FIR relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L C II /L FIR ratio and the far-IR color L 60 /L 100 observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L C II /L FIR at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L C II /L FIR ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L IR /L CO ′ or L IR /M H 2 ), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ∼ 0.3.

  19. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  20. On the origin of extragalactic infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, H.W.; Kollatschny, W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the infrared radiation flux of galaxies in terms of star formation processes and stellar evolution. Phase transitions in the interstellar medium are discussed, as well as stellar evolution and the time dependent appearance of a galaxy. (U.K.)

  1. Plasmonically enhanced thermomechanical detection of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Zhu, Hai; Reed, Jason C; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2013-04-10

    Nanoplasmonics has been an attractive area of research due to its ability to localize and manipulate freely propagating radiation on the nanometer scale for strong light-matter interactions. Meanwhile, nanomechanics has set records in the sensing of mass, force, and displacement. In this work, we report efficient coupling between infrared radiation and nanomechanical resonators through nanoantenna enhanced thermoplasmonic effects. Using efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy in this plasmo-thermomechanical platform with a nanoslot plasmonic absorber integrated directly on a nanobeam mechanical resonator, we demonstrate room-temperature detection of nanowatt level power fluctuations in infrared radiation. We expect our approach, which combines nanoplasmonics with nanomechanical resonators, to lead to optically controlled nanomechanical systems enabling unprecedented functionality in biomolecular and toxic gas sensing and on-chip mass spectroscopy.

  2. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  3. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara; Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A class of extrasolar giant planets - the so-called `hot Jupiters' - orbit within 0.05 AU of their primary stars. These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD 209458b is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This planet has an anomalously large radius (1.35 times that of Jupiter), which may be the result of ongoing tidal dissipation, but this explanation requires a non-zero o...

  4. Infrared radiation models for atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cess, R. D.; Kratz, D. P.; Caldwell, J.; Kim, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Mutually consistent line-by-line, narrow-band and broad-band infrared radiation models are presented for methane, a potentially important anthropogenic trace gas within the atmosphere. Comparisons of the modeled band absorptances with existing laboratory data produce the best agreement when, within the band models, spurious band intensities are used which are consistent with the respective laboratory data sets, but which are not consistent with current knowledge concerning the intensity of the infrared fundamental band of methane. This emphasizes the need for improved laboratory band absorptance measurements. Since, when applied to atmospheric radiation calculations, the line-by-line model does not require the use of scaling approximations, the mutual consistency of the band models provides a means of appraising the accuracy of scaling procedures. It is shown that Curtis-Godson narrow-band and Chan-Tien broad-band scaling provide accurate means of accounting for atmospheric temperature and pressure variations.

  5. Infrared radiation from an extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara; Richardson, L Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph

    2005-04-07

    A class of extrasolar giant planets--the so-called 'hot Jupiters' (ref. 1)--orbit within 0.05 au of their primary stars (1 au is the Sun-Earth distance). These planets should be hot and so emit detectable infrared radiation. The planet HD 209458b (refs 3, 4) is an ideal candidate for the detection and characterization of this infrared light because it is eclipsed by the star. This planet has an anomalously large radius (1.35 times that of Jupiter), which may be the result of ongoing tidal dissipation, but this explanation requires a non-zero orbital eccentricity (approximately 0.03; refs 6, 7), maintained by interaction with a hypothetical second planet. Here we report detection of infrared (24 microm) radiation from HD 209458b, by observing the decrement in flux during secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the star. The planet's 24-microm flux is 55 +/- 10 microJy (1sigma), with a brightness temperature of 1,130 +/- 150 K, confirming the predicted heating by stellar irradiation. The secondary eclipse occurs at the midpoint between transits of the planet in front of the star (to within +/- 7 min, 1sigma), which means that a dynamically significant orbital eccentricity is unlikely.

  6. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  7. [The study of transpiration influence on plant infrared radiation character].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jun; Zhang, Shuan-Qin; Pan, Jia-Liang; Lian, Chang-Chun; Yang, Hui

    2012-07-01

    Studying vegetation infrared radiation character is the base of developing infrared camouflage and concealment technology of ground military target. Accurate fusion of target and background can be achieved by simulating formation mechanism of vegetation infrared radiation character. Leaf transpiration is characteristic physiological mechanism of vegetation and one of the main factors that influence its infrared radiation character. In the present paper, physical model of leaf energy balance is set up. Based on this model the influence of plant transpiration on leaf temperature is analyzed and calculated. The daily periodic variation of transpiration, leaf temperature and infrared radiation character of typical plants such as camphor tree and holly is actually measured with porometer and infrared thermal imaging system. By contrasting plant leaf with dryness leaf, experimental data indicates that plant transpiration can regulate leaf energy balance effectively and control leaf temperature in a reasonable range and suppress deep range variation of leaf infrared radiation character.

  8. Infrared radiation models for atmospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, David P.; Ces, Robert D.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchy of line-by-line, narrow-band, and broadband infrared radiation models are discussed for ozone, a radiatively important atmospheric trace gas. It is shown that the narrow-band (Malkmus) model is in near-precise agreement with the line-by-line model, thus providing a means of testing narrow-band Curtis-Godson scaling, and it is found that this scaling procedure leads to errors in atmospheric fluxes of up to 10 percent. Moreover, this is a direct consequence of the altitude dependence of the ozone mixing ratio. Somewhat greater flux errors arise with use of the broadband model, due to both a lesser accuracy of the broadband scaling procedure and to inherent errors within the broadband model, despite the fact that this model has been tuned to the line-by-line model.

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  10. Effect of infrared radiation on the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Eman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infrared (IR radiation is becoming more popular in industrial manufacturing processes and in many instruments used for diagnostic and therapeutic application to the human eye. Aim : The present study was designed to investigate the effect of IR radiation on rabbit′s crystalline lens and lens membrane. Materials and Methods: Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were used in the present work. The rabbits were classified into three groups; one of them served as control. The other two groups were exposed to IR radiation for 5 or 10 minutes. Animals from these two irradiated groups were subdivided into two subgroups; one of them was decapitated directly after IR exposure, while the other subgroup was decapitated 1 hour post exposure. IR was delivered from a General Electric Lamp model 250R 50/10, placed 20 cm from the rabbit and aimed at each eye. The activity of Na + -K + ATPase was measured in the lens membrane. Soluble lens proteins were extracted and the following measurements were carried out: estimation of total soluble protein, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. For comparison between multiple groups, analysis of variance was used with significance level set at P < 0.001. Results: The results indicated a change in the molecular weight of different lens crystalline accompanied with changes in protein backbone structure. These changes increased for the groups exposed to IR for 10 minutes. Moreover, the activity of Na + -K + ATPase significantly decreased for all groups. Conclusions: The protein of eye lens is very sensitive to IR radiation which is hazardous and may lead to cataract.

  11. Application of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in food

    OpenAIRE

    D Jafarpour; M Alizadeh; F Siamak

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many uses of radiation in the food industry. Radiation can be considered as one of the new processes and usage of it can offer new features of food. This process in most food doesn’t leave any physical or sensory changes. Therefore, in this review article, the application of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in food was studied. Methods: Search by the keywords “Ultraviolet Radiation Infrared Radiation Food” in databases Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Sci...

  12. Infrared Signature Masking by Air Plasma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Charles H.; Laux, C. O.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained during a research program on the infrared radiation of air plasmas conducted in the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor Charles H. Kruger, with Dr. Christophe O. Laux as Associate Investigator. The goal of this research was to investigate the masking of infrared signatures by the air plasma formed behind the bow shock of high velocity missiles. To this end, spectral measurements and modeling were made of the radiation emitted between 2.4 and 5.5 micrometers by an atmospheric pressure air plasma in chemical and thermal equilibrium at a temperature of approximately 3000 K. The objective was to examine the spectral emission of air species including nitric oxide, atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines, molecular and atomic continua, as well as secondary species such as water vapor or carbon dioxide. The cold air stream injected in the plasma torch contained approximately 330 parts per million of CO2, which is the natural CO2 concentration in atmospheric air at room temperatures, and a small amount of water vapor with an estimated mole fraction of 3.8x10(exp -4).

  13. Radiation response issues for infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalma, Arne H.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers describe the most important radiation response issues for infrared detectors. In general, the two key degradation mechanisms in infrared detectors are the noise produced by exposure to a flux of ionizing particles (e.g.; trapped electronics and protons, debris gammas and electrons, radioactive decay of neutron-activated materials) and permanent damage produced by exposure to total dose. Total-dose-induced damage is most often the result of charge trapping in insulators or at interfaces. Exposure to short pulses of ionization (e.g.; prompt x rays or gammas, delayed gammas) will cause detector upset. However, this upset is not important to a sensor unless the recovery time is too long. A few detector technologies are vulnerable to neutron-induced displacement damage, but fortunately most are not. Researchers compare the responses of the new technologies with those of the mainstream technologies of PV HgCdTe and IBC Si:As. One important reason for this comparison is to note where some of the newer technologies have the potential to provide significantly improved radiation hardness compared with that of the mainstream technologies, and thus to provide greater motivation for the pursuit of these technologies.

  14. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonian, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  15. Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnell, L.; Langford, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    During the calibration and testing of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) focal plane, it was observed that the extrinsic photoconductor detectors were affected by gamma radiation at dose levels of the order of one rad. Since the flight environment will subject the focal plane to dose levels of this order from protons in single pass through the South Atlantic Anomaly, an extensive program of radiation tests was carried out to measure the radiation effects and to devise a method to counteract these effects. The effects observed after irradiation are increased responsivity, noise, and rate of spiking of the detectors after gamma-ray doses of less than 0.1 rad. The detectors can be returned almost to pre-irradiation performance by increasing the detector bias to breakdown and allowing a large current to flow for several minutes. No adverse effects on the detectors have been observed from this bias boost, and this technique will be used for IRAS with frequent calibration to ensure the accuracy of observations made with the instrument.

  16. Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, Paolo; Huang, Jer-Shing; Hecht, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation can strongly enhance the interaction of light with nanoscale matter by their ability to efficiently link propagating and spatially localized optical fields. This ability unlocks an enormous potential for applications ranging from nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy over solar energy conversion, integrated optical nanocircuitry, opto-electronics and density-of-states engineering to ultra-sensing as well as enhancement of optical nonlinearities. Here we review the current understanding of metallic optical antennas based on the background of both well-developed radiowave antenna engineering and plasmonics. In particular, we discuss the role of plasmonic resonances on the performance of nanoantennas and address the influence of geometrical parameters imposed by nanofabrication. Finally, we give a brief account of the current status of the field and the major established and emerging lines of investigation in this vivid area of research.

  17. Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, Paolo [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Huang, Jer-Shing [Department of Chemistry and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hecht, Bert [Nano-Optics and Biophotonics Group, Department of Experimental Physics 5, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Research Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), Physics Institute, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation can strongly enhance the interaction of light with nanoscale matter by their ability to efficiently link propagating and spatially localized optical fields. This ability unlocks an enormous potential for applications ranging from nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy over solar energy conversion, integrated optical nanocircuitry, opto-electronics and density-of-states engineering to ultra-sensing as well as enhancement of optical nonlinearities. Here we review the current understanding of metallic optical antennas based on the background of both well-developed radiowave antenna engineering and plasmonics. In particular, we discuss the role of plasmonic resonances on the performance of nanoantennas and address the influence of geometrical parameters imposed by nanofabrication. Finally, we give a brief account of the current status of the field and the major established and emerging lines of investigation in this vivid area of research.

  18. Infrared radiation in the energy balance of the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordiets, B.F.; Markov, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of the infrared radiation to the energy balance of the Earth's upper atmosphere is discussed. The theoretical analysis has been carried out of the mechanisms of the transformation of the energy of outgoing particles and the ultraviolet-radiation of the Sun absorbed at the heights of Z >= 90 km into the infrared radiation. It is found out the the infrared radiation within the wave length range of 1.2-20 μ is more intensive that the 63 μ radiation of atomic oxygen and plays an important role in the general energy balance and the thermal regime of the thermosphere. It has been found out too that in the area of Z >= 120 km heights the radiation in the 5.3 μ NO band is the most intensive. This radiation is to be considered for the more accurate description of parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, density) conditioning the nature of the translocation of ionospheric sounds (ISS)

  19. Transport of infrared radiation in cuboidal clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshvardhan, MR.; Weinman, J. A.; Davies, R.

    1981-01-01

    The transport of infrared radiation in a single cuboidal cloud is modeled using a variable azimuth two-stream approximation. Computations are made at 10 microns for a Deirmendjian (1969) C-1 water cloud where the single scattering albedo is equal to 0.638 and the asymmetry parameter is 0.865. The results indicate that the emittance of the top face of the model cloud is always less than that for a plane parallel cloud of the same optical depth. The hemispheric flux escaping from the cloud top possesses a gradient from the center to the edges which are warmer when the cloud is over warmer ground. Cooling rate calculations in the 8-13.6 micron region demonstrate that there is cooling out of the sides of the cloud at all levels even when there is heating of the core from the ground below. The radiances exiting from model cuboidal clouds are computed by path integration over the source function obtained with the two-stream approximation. Results indicate that the brightness temperature measured from finite clouds will overestimate the cloud-top temperature.

  20. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  1. Infrared metaphysics: the elusive ontology of radiator (part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonelli, S.; Chang, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hardly any ontological result of modern science is more firmly established than the fact that infrared radiation differs from light only in wavelength; this is part of the modern conception of the continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation reaching from radio waves to gamma radiation. Yet,

  2. [Characteristics of infrared radiation of meridians and acupoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Juan-Juan; Shen, Xue-Yong; Zhao, Yi

    2010-10-01

    Infrared radiation temperature and characteristics of infrared spectrum of meridians and acupoints are summarized in this article. The infrared radiant track along the running course of meridians might be a ubiquitous phenomenon of the vital activity. The high temperature bands below the meridian lines at the cuticular layer are often taken as the manifestation of the tract. It could be induced by various stimulations on acupoints with warm-needling as the best causative method. High temperature and low resistance are considered as 2 features of the acupoint zone. The adenosine-triphosphate energy metabolism of the acupoint zone is higher than the non-point zone, which indicates that essential physiological and pathological information are carried by infrared radiation temperature of acupoint and infrared spectrum of acupoint. However, it is realized that study on characteristics of infrared radiation only is far from enough to reveal the essence of meridians and acupoints. And much still remains to be done in strengthening basic studies of characteristics of infrared radiation, structure pattern of meridians and acupoints as well as volt-ampere characteristics.

  3. Intermediate L-K molecular orbital radiation from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinig, K.H.; Jaeger, H.U.; Richter, H.; Woittennek, H.

    1975-09-01

    The structure of x-ray continua observed recently in violent collisions between intermediate mass atoms can be explained by a superposition of K molecular orbital (KMO) radiation and of an intermediate L-K molecular orbital (ILKMO) radiation of high intensity which is due to 2psigma vacancies. (author)

  4. Research for Actively Reducing Infrared Radiation by Thermoelectric Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Kyomin; Kim, Woochul [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a technology for reducing infrared radiation through the active cooling of hot surfaces by using a thermoelectric refrigerator. Certain surfaces were heated by aerodynamic heating, and the heat generation processes are proposed here. We calculated the temperatures and radiations from surfaces, while using thermoelectric refrigerators to cool the surfaces. The results showed that the contrast between the radiations of certain surfaces and the ambient environments can be removed using thermoelectric refrigerators.

  5. Analysis of polymer foil heaters as infrared radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Krzysztof; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Skwarek, Agata

    2012-01-01

    Infrared radiation as a heat source is used in many fields. In particular, the positive effect of far-infrared radiation on living organisms has been observed. This paper presents two technological solutions for infrared heater production using polymer-silver and polymer-carbon pastes screenprinted on foil substrates. The purpose of this work was the identification of polymer layers as a specific frequency range IR radiation sources. The characterization of the heaters was determined mainly by measurement of the surface temperature distribution using a thermovision camera and the spectral characteristics were determined using a special measuring system. Basic parameters obtained for both, polymer silver and polymer carbon heaters were similar and were as follows: power rating of 10–12 W/dm 2 , continuous working surface temperature of 80–90 °C, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) about +900 ppm/K for polymer-carbon heater and about +2000 ppm/K for polymer-silver, maximum radiation intensity in the wavelength range of 6–14 μm with top intensity at 8.5 μm and heating time about 20 min. For comparison purposes, commercial panel heater was tested. The results show that the characteristics of infrared polymer heaters are similar to the characteristics of the commercial heater, so they can be taken into consideration as the alternative infrared radiation sources.

  6. Protoplanetary disks around intermediate-mass stars: the asset of imaging in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, Coralie

    2006-01-01

    The accrued efficiency of the instruments in many wavelengths has allowed to show that most young stellar objects were surrounded by circumstellar matter distributed in a disk. Direct imaging of such systems is very difficult because of their narrow angular size and their weak luminosity in comparison with the star. Nowadays, 50 % of low-mass pre-main sequence stars, i.e. T Tauri stars, are surrounded by a disk. This proportion is less obvious for intermediate-mass stars, like Herbig Ae stars, that are less numerous and whose direct disk detection is more difficult. Until now, only the interpretation of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of such objects allows to have access to the geometry of the disk. But the solutions are degenerated and several parameters fit the same SED. It is essential to have direct images of the objects, the only evidence of the presence of disks. This PhD allows to show that mid-infrared imaging could rise a part of the degeneracy of the disk's parameters linked to the fit of the SED for several objects and gives constraints on the minimum external radius and inclination of the disk. We present a new observation mode with VISIR, the mid-infrared imager and spectrometer on the VLT (ESO, Chile): the so-called BURST mode. This mode allows to reach the diffraction limit of the telescope. Thanks to mid-infrared imaging with this instrument, we were able, for the first time, to have access to the geometry of a disk (flared structure) around a massive star that was, until now, only deduced from the SED modelling. (author) [fr

  7. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-05-07

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  8. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  9. Infrared Radiation Filament And Metnod Of Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edward A.

    1998-11-17

    An improved IR radiation source is provided by the invention. A radiation filament has a textured surface produced by seeded ion bombardment of a metal foil which is cut to a serpentine shape and mounted in a windowed housing. Specific ion bombardment texturing techniques tune the surface to maximize emissions in the desired wavelength range and to limit emissions outside that narrow range, particularly at longer wavelengths. A combination of filament surface texture, thickness, material, shape and power circuit feedback control produce wavelength controlled and efficient radiation at much lower power requirements than devices of the prior art.

  10. Stimulated transition radiation in the far-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settakorn, C.; Hernandez, M.; Wiedemann, H.

    1997-08-01

    Stimulated transition radiation is generated by recycling coherent far-infrared light pulses of transition radiation in a special cavity. The cavity length is designed to be adjustable. At specific intervals the light of a previous bunch coincides at the radiator with the arrival of a subsequent bunch. In this situation, the external electromagnetic field stimulates the emission of higher intensity transition radiation. It is expected that the extracted energy from the cavity will be about 17 times more than would be possible without recycling

  11. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  12. Infrared radiative transfer in dense disks around young stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, W.R.F.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional radiative transfer program has been used to determine the temperature distribution within cylindrically symmetric, centrally heated dust clouds. In particular, the disk-shaped structures observed around young luminous stars have been modeled. Changing the dust distribution in these disks primarily affected the observed morphology in the near-infrared and far-infrared, and at millimeter wavelengths. The overall cloud spectrum, however, was mainly determined by the characteristics of the grains themselves. Comparison with published far-infrared and molecular line data has indicated that the dust density can generally be modeled by a power-law distribution in r with index of -2 and an exponential in z with disk thickness proportional to 1/r. When observed nearly edge-on, scattered direct stellar radiation is observed in the polar regions in the form of comet-shaped lobes of emission. 26 references

  13. Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation using COBE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This project was initiated to allow completion of the primary investigation of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (CORE) mission, and to study the implications of those findings. The Principal Investigator (PI) on this grant was also the Principal Investigator on the DIRBE team. The project had two specific goals: Goal 1: Seek improved limits upon, or detections of, the cosmic infrared background radiation using data from the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). Goal 2: Explore the implications of the limits and measured values of the cosmic infrared background for energy releases in the Universe since the formation of the first luminous sources. Both of these goals have been successfully accomplished.

  14. Rectenna that converts infrared radiation to electrical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W.

    2016-09-06

    Technologies pertaining to converting infrared (IR) radiation to DC energy are described herein. In a general embodiment, a rectenna comprises a conductive layer. A thin insulator layer is formed on the conductive layer, and a nanoantenna is formed on the thin insulator layer. The thin insulator layer acts as a tunnel junction of a tunnel diode.

  15. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  16. Health effects of exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuerauf, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A working group on the Health Effects of Exposure to Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation met in Sofia (Bulgaria) from February 21-25, 1978. The conference was organized by the European Regional Bureau of the World Health Organization, WHO, in cooperation with the Bulgarian government. The main task for the participants was the revision and discussion of two guidelines. A Manual on Nonionizing Radiation Protection will be made available in 1979 to governmental and official organs to support them in establishing standards for the control of radiation. (orig.) [de

  17. ESTIMATION OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF FOUNDRY WORKERS BY INFRARED (HEAT RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lazarenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of infrared radiations, their influence on human organism is given. The results of investigation of infrared (heat radiation intensity on the workers in foundries are given.

  18. Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoué, Shojiro; Kabaya, Morihiro

    1989-09-01

    Contrary to previous presumption, accumulated evidence indicates that far-infrared rays are biologically active. A small ceramic disk that emist far-infrared rays (4 16 μm) has commonly been applied to a local spot or a whole part of the body for exposure. Pioneering attempts to experimentally analyze an effect of acute and chronic radiation of far-infrared rays on living organisms have detected a growth-promoting effect in growing rats, a sleep-modulatory effect in freely behaving rats and an insomiac patient, and a blood circulation-enhancing effect in human skin. Question-paires to 542 users of far-infrared radiator disks embedded in bedelothes revealed that the majority of the users subjectively evaluated an improvement of their health. These effects on living organisms appear to be non-specifically triggered by an exposure to far-infrared rays, which eventually induce an increase in temperature of the body tissues or, more basically, an elevated motility of body fluids due to decrease in size of water clusters.

  19. Research on cloud background infrared radiation simulation based on fractal and statistical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingrun; Xu, Qingshan; Li, Xia; Wu, Kaifeng; Dong, Yanbing

    2018-02-01

    Cloud is an important natural phenomenon, and its radiation causes serious interference to infrared detector. Based on fractal and statistical data, a method is proposed to realize cloud background simulation, and cloud infrared radiation data field is assigned using satellite radiation data of cloud. A cloud infrared radiation simulation model is established using matlab, and it can generate cloud background infrared images for different cloud types (low cloud, middle cloud, and high cloud) in different months, bands and sensor zenith angles.

  20. Generating Far-Infrared Radiation By Two-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstain, Shmuel

    1992-01-01

    Far-infrared radiation 1 to 6 GHz generated by two-wave mixing in asymmetrically grown GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well devices. Two near-infrared semiconductor diode lasers phase-locked. Outputs amplified, then combined in semiconductor nonlinear multiple-quantum-well planar waveguide. Necessary to optimize design of device with respect to three factors: high degree of confinement of electromagnetic field in nonlinear medium to maximize power density, phase matching to extend length of zone of interaction between laser beams in non-linear medium, and nonlinear susceptibility. Devices used as tunable local oscillators in heterodyne-detection radiometers.

  1. Infrared radiative properties of anodized aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V.C.; Sharma, A.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements of anodic film thicknesses and their total hemispherical thermal emittance for various current densities (0.55-3.85 ampere/dm/sup 2/), anodizing times (1-20 min), and oxalic acid concentrations (1-6 wt.%) show a linear relationship between the film thickness and the total hemispherical thermal emittance (epsilon). Changes in oxalic acid concentration (2-4 wt.%) have no significant effect on the film growth-rate and the rate at which epsilon increases with increasing anodizing time. Measurements of epsilon for wavelengths from 3 to 30 ..mu..m show that the film growth-rate has a marked effect on the I.R. radiative properties of aluminum.

  2. Intermediate bands versus levels in non-radiative recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, Antonio; Marti, Antonio; Antolin, Elisa; Tablero, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    There is a practical interest in developing semiconductors with levels situated within their band gap while preventing the non-radiative recombination that these levels promote. In this paper, the physical causes of this non-radiative recombination are analyzed and the increase in the density of the impurities responsible for the mid-gap levels to the point of forming bands is suggested as the means of suppressing the recombination. Simple models supporting this recommendation and helping in its quantification are presented

  3. Intermediate L-K molecular-orbital radiation from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinig, K.H.; Jaeger, H.U.; Richter, H.; Woittennek, H.

    1976-01-01

    The structure of X-ray continua observed recently in violent collisions between mean-mass atoms can be explained by a superposition of K molecular orbital (KMO) radiation and an intermediate L-K molecular orbital (ILKMO) radiation of high intensity which is due to 2psigma vacancies. (Auth.)

  4. Fast infrared detectors for beam diagnostics with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.; Drago, A.; Piccinini, M.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; De Sio, A.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beam diagnostic is a fundamental constituent of any particle accelerators either dedicated to high-energy physics or to synchrotron radiation experiments. All storage rings emit radiations. Actually they are high brilliant sources of radiation: the synchrotron radiation emission covers from the infrared range to the X-ray domain with a pulsed structure depending on the temporal characteristics of the stored beam. The time structure of the emitted radiation is extremely useful as a tool to perform time-resolved experiments. However, this radiation can be also used for beam diagnostic to determine the beam stability and to measure the dimensions of the e - or e + beam. Because of the temporal structure of the synchrotron radiation to perform diagnostic, we need very fast detectors. Indeed, the detectors required for the diagnostics of the stored particle bunches at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and FEL need response times in the sub-ns and even ps range. To resolve the bunch length and detect bunch instabilities, X-ray and visible photon detectors may be used achieving response times of a few picoseconds. Recently, photon uncooled infrared devices optimized for the mid-IR range realized with HgCdTe semiconductors allowed to obtain sub-nanosecond response times. These devices can be used for fast detection of intense IRSR sources and for beam diagnostic. We present here preliminary experimental data of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission of DAΦNE, the electron positron collider of the LNF laboratory of the INFN, performed with new uncooled IR detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds

  5. Lageos orbit decay due to infrared radiation from earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    1987-01-01

    Infrared radiation from the earth may be the principal reason for the decay of Lageos' orbit. The radiation heats up the laser retroreflectors embedded in Lageos' aluminum surface. This creates a north-south temperature gradient on the satellite. The gradient in turn causes a force to be exerted on Lageos because of recoil from photons leaving its surface. The delayed heating of the retroreflectors due to their thermal inertia gives the force a net along-track component which always acts like drag. A simple thermal model for the retroreflectors indicates that this thermal drag accounts for about half the observed average along-track acceleration of -3.3 x 10 to the -10th power m/sec squared. The contribution from the aluminum surface to this effect is negligible. The infrared effect cannot explain the large observed fluctuations in drag which occur mainly when the orbit intersects the earth's shadow.

  6. Effect of radiation damage on the infrared properties of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis Faridah Md Nori; Yusof Mohd Amin; Rosli Mahat; Burhanuddin Kamaluddin

    1991-01-01

    Apatites are known to contain radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium at a few ppm in concentration. These elements decay and produce fission tracks inside the crystals. The presence of such tracks have been known to affect the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of apatites. These fission tracks can be removed by annealing the crystals in air. In this paper we present the result of a preliminary study on the effect of radiation damage on the infrared transmission of apatites

  7. Origin of the visual and infrared pulsations in the intermediate polar FO Aqr (H2215-086)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriman, G; Bailey, J; Axon, D J; Hough, J H

    1986-12-01

    Simultaneous visual and infrared polarimetry of the intermediate polar FO Aqr (H2215-086) shows that its visual and infrared pulsations, seen at the rotation period of the white dwarf, are not circularly polarized. This is despite the fact that the infrared pulsations come from optically thin material: if cyclotron emission is important, it must be efficiently depolarized without the pulsations being hidden. We describe how this may come about, and discuss what further measurements will best establish whether cyclotron emission is important. The visual pulsations come from opaque material, and most likely arise from reprocessing at the surface of the white dwarf, but the possibility that cyclotron emission is important in the visual too cannot be definitely excluded.

  8. The origin of the visual and infrared pulsations in the intermediate polar FO Aqr (H2215-086)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, G.; Axon, D.J.; Hough, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous visual and infrared polarimetry of the intermediate polar FO Aqr (H2215-086) shows that its visual and infrared pulsations, seen at the rotation period of the white dwarf, are not circularly polarized. This is despite the fact that the infrared pulsations come from optically thin material: if cyclotron emission is important, it must be efficiently depolarized without the pulsations being hidden. We describe how this may come about, and discuss what further measurements will best establish whether cyclotron emission is important. The visual pulsations come from opaque material, and most likely arise from reprocessing at the surface of the white dwarf, but the possibility that cyclotron emission is important in the visual too cannot be definitely excluded. (author)

  9. Development of infrared communication in radiation protection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Choithramani, S.J.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Infra-red communication has many important applications in instrumentation and control. Different types of nuclear instruments are used for radiation protection and surveillance program. The application of this mode of communication in these instruments helps in monitoring of inaccessible or high radiation field areas by avoiding undue exposure to the occupational worker. The demand for remotely controlled monitoring instruments and wireless data communication in the mobile computing environment has rapidly increased. This is due to the increasing need for on-line radiological data analysis with minimum human interventions, especially so if the monitoring is in hazardous environment. The wireless communication can be achieved using different communication methodology for short and long range communication. The infrared based communication is used for different applications for short range up to 9-10 meters. The use of this mode of communication has been implemented in some of the radiation monitoring instruments developed in house. The evaluation of data communication using this mode was conducted for the systems like Environmental Radiation Monitor (ERM) and results showed that data communication error is less than 0.1% up to 10 meter distance. (author)

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on cryogenic infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Lakew, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is one of three experiments to be carried aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite scheduled to be launched by NASA on a Delta rocket in 1989. The DIRBE is a cryogenic absolute photometer operating in a liquid helium dewar at 1.5 K. Photometric stability is a principal requirement for achieving the scientific objectives of this experiment. The Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), launched in 1983, which used detectors similar to those in DIRBE, revealed substantial changes in detector responsivity following exposure to ionizing radiation encountered on passage through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Since the COBE will use the same 900 Km sun-synchronous orbit as IRAS, ionizing radiation-induced performance changes in the detectors were a major concern. Here, ionizing radiation tests carried out on all the DIRBE photodetectors are reported. Responsivity changes following exposure to gamma rays, protons, and alpha particle are discussed. The detector performance was monitored following a simulated entire mission life dose. In addition, the response of the detectors to individual particle interactions was measured. The InSb photovoltaic detectors and the Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors revealed no significant change in responsivity following radiation exposure. The Ge:Ga detectors show large effects which were greatly reduced by proper thermal annealing.

  11. Radiative heat transfer between nanoparticles enhanced by intermediate particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiative heat transfer between two polar nanostructures at different temperatures can be enhanced by resonant tunneling of surface polaritons. Here we show that the heat transfer between two nanoparticles is strongly varied by the interactions with a third nanoparticle. By controlling the size of the third particle, the time scale of thermalization toward the thermal bath temperature can be modified over 5 orders of magnitude. This effect provides control of temperature distribution in nanoparticle aggregation and facilitates thermal management at nanoscale.

  12. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Almutawa, Fahad; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on cutaneous erythema, immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning are affected by a variety of factors. Some of these factors include the depth of cutaneous penetration of the specific wavelength, the individual skin type, and the absorption spectra of the different chromophores in the skin. UVB is an effective spectrum to induce erythema, which is followed by delayed tanning. UVA induces immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning. At high doses, UVA (primarily UVA2) can also induce erythema in individuals with skin types I-II. Visible light has been shown to induce erythema and a tanning response in dark skin, but not in fair skinned individuals. Infrared radiation produces erythema, which is probably a thermal effect. In this article we reviewed the available literature on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on the skin in regards to erythema and pigmentation. Much remains to be learned on the cutaneous effects of visible light and infrared radiation.

  13. Ultraviolet light and infrared radiation. Measurement and hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Salsi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet, light and infrared radiation exists in many work places and can be dangerous in many ways, especially for the eyes. The INRS has developed a method and an apparatus for measuring on site or in a laboratory the spectral energy distribution of such radiation and the luminance of the source. With current knowledge of the effects of radiation on the eyes and by comparing readings taken and recommended limit values, it is possible to determine the risk levels at work places in the different wave ranges. Two examples of readings taken at a pot furnace in a crystal glass factory and at an MAG welding station are given and the appropriate protective measures described [fr

  14. Development of paints with infrared radiation reflective properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Coser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge buildings situated in hot regions of the Globe need to be agreeable to their residents. Air conditioning is extensively used to make these buildings comfortable, with consequent energy consumption. Absorption of solar visible and infrared radiations are responsible for heating objects on the surface of the Earth, including houses and buildings. To avoid excessive energy consumption, it is possible to use coatings formulated with special pigments that are able to reflect the radiation in the near- infrared, NIR, spectrum. To evaluate this phenomenon an experimental study about the reflectivity of paints containing infrared-reflective pigments has been made. By irradiating with an IR source and by measuring the surface temperatures of the samples we evaluated: color according to ASTM D 2244-14, UV/VIS/NIR reflectance according to ASTM E 903-12 and thermal performance. Additionally, the spectral reflectance and the IR emittance were measured and the solar reflectance of the samples were calculated. The results showed that plates coated with paints containing IR-reflecting pigments displayed lower air temperature on the opposite side as compared to conventional coatings, indicating that they can be effective to reflect NIR and decrease the temperature of buildings when used in roofs and walls.

  15. OH far-infrared emission from low- and intermediate-mass protostars surveyed with Herschel-PACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wampfler, Susanne Franziska; Bruderer, S.; Karska, A.

    2013-01-01

    fluxes nor their broad line widths, strongly suggesting an outflow origin. Slab excitation models indicate that the observed excitation temperature can either be reached if the OH molecules are exposed to a strong far-infrared continuum radiation field or if the gas temperature and density...... are sufficiently high. Using realistic source parameters and radiation fields, it is shown for the case of Ser SMM1 that radiative pumping plays an important role in transitions arising from upper level energies higher than 300 K. The compact emission in the low-mass sources and the required presence of a strong...

  16. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A fast infrared radiative transfer model for overlapping clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Jianguo; Yang Ping; Huang Hunglung; Davies, James E.; Li Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Hu, Yong X.

    2007-01-01

    A fast infrared radiative transfer model (FIRTM2) appropriate for application to both single-layered and overlapping cloud situations is developed for simulating the outgoing infrared spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In FIRTM2 a pre-computed library of cloud reflectance and transmittance values is employed to account for one or two cloud layers, whereas the background atmospheric optical thickness due to gaseous absorption can be computed from a clear-sky radiative transfer model. FIRTM2 is applicable to three atmospheric conditions: (1) clear-sky (2) single-layered ice or water cloud, and (3) two simultaneous cloud layers in a column (e.g., ice cloud overlying water cloud). Moreover, FIRTM2 outputs the derivatives (i.e., Jacobians) of the TOA brightness temperature with respect to cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to assess the performance of FIRTM2 for two spectral regions, namely the longwave (LW) band (587.3-1179.5 cm -1 ) and the short-to-medium wave (SMW) band (1180.1-2228.9 cm -1 ). The assessment is carried out in terms of brightness temperature differences (BTD) between FIRTM2 and the well-known discrete ordinates radiative transfer model (DISORT), henceforth referred to as BTD (F-D). The BTD (F-D) values for single-layered clouds are generally less than 0.8 K. For the case of two cloud layers (specifically ice cloud over water cloud), the BTD (F-D) values are also generally less than 0.8 K except for the SMW band for the case of a very high altitude (>15 km) cloud comprised of small ice particles. Note that for clear-sky atmospheres, FIRTM2 reduces to the clear-sky radiative transfer model that is incorporated into FIRTM2, and the errors in this case are essentially those of the clear-sky radiative transfer model

  18. Identification of a Methane Oxidation Intermediate on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Surfaces with Fourier Transform Infrared Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Michael B; Steinhurst, Daniel A; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C

    2013-04-18

    Fuel interactions on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes are studied with in situ Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIRES). SOFCs are operated at 800 °C with CH4 as a representative hydrocarbon fuel. IR signatures of gas-phase oxidation products, CO2(g) and CO(g), are observed while cells are under load. A broad feature at 2295 cm(-1) is assigned to CO2 adsorbed on Ni as a CH4 oxidation intermediate during cell operation and while carbon deposits are electrochemically oxidized after CH4 operation. Electrochemical control provides confirmation of the assignment of adsorbed CO2. FTIRES has been demonstrated as a viable technique for the identification of fuel oxidation intermediates and products in working SOFCs, allowing for the elucidation of the mechanisms of fuel chemistry.

  19. Intensification of ultraviolet-induced dermal damage by infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligman, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the role of IR in actinic damage to the dermis, albino guinea pigs were irradiated for 45 weeks with UV-B and UV-A, with and without IR. Control animals received IR only or no irradiation at all. Unirradiated dermis contains small amounts of elastic fibers in the upper dermis with greater depositions around follicles and sebaceous glands. After irradiation with UV, the fibers became more numerous, thicker, and more twisted; IR alone producd many fine, feathery fibers. The addition of IR to UV resulted in dense matlike elastic fiber depositions that exceeded what was observed with either irradiation alone. In combination or alone UV and IR radiation produced a large increase in ground substance, a finding also seen in actinically damaged human skin. Infrared radiation, in the physiologic range, though pleasant is not innocuous. (orig./MG) [de

  20. OH megamasers: dense gas & the infrared radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, JiangShui; Liu, Wei; Xu, Jie

    2018-06-01

    To investigate possible factors related to OH megamaser formation (OH MM, L_{H2O}>10L_{⊙}), we compiled a large HCN sample from all well-sampled HCN measurements so far in local galaxies and identified with the OH MM, OH kilomasers (L_{H2O}gas and the dense gas, respectively), we found that OH MM galaxies tend to have stronger HCN emission and no obvious difference on CO luminosity exists between OH MM and non-OH MM. This implies that OH MM formation should be related to the dense molecular gas, instead of the low-density molecular gas. It can be also supported by other facts: (1) OH MMs are confirmed to have higher mean molecular gas density and higher dense gas fraction (L_{HCN}/L_{CO}) than non-OH MMs. (2) After taking the distance effect into account, the apparent maser luminosity is still correlated with the HCN luminosity, while no significant correlation can be found at all between the maser luminosity and the CO luminosity. (3) The OH kMs tend to have lower values than those of OH MMs, including the dense gas luminosity and the dense gas fraction. (4) From analysis of known data of another dense gas tracer HCO^+, similar results can also be obtained. However, from our analysis, the infrared radiation field can not be ruled out for the OH MM trigger, which was proposed by previous works on one small sample (Darling in ApJ 669:L9, 2007). On the contrary, the infrared radiation field should play one more important role. The dense gas (good tracers of the star formation) and its surrounding dust are heated by the ultra-violet (UV) radiation generated by the star formation and the heating of the high-density gas raises the emission of the molecules. The infrared radiation field produced by the re-radiation of the heated dust in turn serves for the pumping of the OH MM.

  1. Study of Radiation Shielding Analysis for Low-Intermediate Level Waste Transport Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Unjang; Song, Yangsoo; Kim, Sukhoon; Ko, Jaehoon [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In Korea, it is planed to transport Low-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) from each nuclear power plant site to Kyongju LILW repository after 2009. Transport through the sea using ship is one of the most prospective ways of LILW transport for current situation in Korea. There are domestic and international regulations for radiation dose limit for radioactive material transport. In this article, radiation shielding analysis for LILW transport ship is performed using 3-D computer simulation code, MCNP. As a result, the thickness and materials for radiation shielding walls next to cargo in the LILW transport ship are determined.

  2. The influence of infrared radiation on short-term ultraviolet-radiation-induced injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidbey, K.H.; Witkowski, T.A.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Because heat has been reported to influence adversely short- and long-term ultraviolet (UV)-radiation-induced skin damage in animals, we investigated the short-term effects of infrared radiation on sunburn and on phototoxic reactions to topical methoxsalen and anthracene in human volunteers. Prior heating of the skin caused suppression of the phototoxic response to methoxsalen as evidenced by an increase in the threshold erythema dose. Heat administered either before or after exposure to UV radiation had no detectable influence on sunburn erythema or on phototoxic reactions provoked by anthracene

  3. Planck intermediate results: XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combinati...

  4. Resistance of Feather-Associated Bacteria to Intermediate Levels of Ionizing Radiation near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Mario Xavier; Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Genevaux, Pierre; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Heeb, Philipp

    2016-03-15

    Ionizing radiation has been shown to produce negative effects on organisms, although little is known about its ecological and evolutionary effects. As a study model, we isolated bacteria associated with feathers from barn swallows Hirundo rustica from three study areas around Chernobyl differing in background ionizing radiation levels and one control study site in Denmark. Each bacterial community was exposed to four different γ radiation doses ranging from 0.46 to 3.96 kGy to test whether chronic exposure to radiation had selected for resistant bacterial strains. Experimental radiation duration had an increasingly overall negative effect on the survival of all bacterial communities. After exposure to γ radiation, bacteria isolated from the site with intermediate background radiation levels survived better and produced more colonies than the bacterial communities from other study sites with higher or lower background radiation levels. Long-term effects of radiation in natural populations might be an important selective pressure on traits of bacteria that facilitate survival in certain environments. Our findings indicate the importance of further studies to understand the proximate mechanisms acting to buffer the negative effects of ionizing radiation in natural populations.

  5. Origin of the low frequency radiation emitted by radiative polaritons excited by infrared radiation in planar La2O3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Johnson, Anita J; Schwab, Yosyp; Mann, Harkirat S; Francoeur, Mathieu; Hammonds, James S; Scarel, Giovanna

    2013-01-23

    Upon excitation in thin oxide films by infrared radiation, radiative polaritons are formed with complex angular frequency ω, according to the theory of Kliewer and Fuchs (1966 Phys. Rev. 150 573). We show that radiative polaritons leak radiation with frequency ω(i) to the space surrounding the oxide film. The frequency ω(i) is the imaginary part of ω. The effects of the presence of the radiation leaked out at frequency ω(i) are observed experimentally and numerically in the infrared spectra of La(2)O(3) films on silicon upon excitation by infrared radiation of the 0TH type radiative polariton. The frequency ω(i) is found in the microwave to far infrared region, and depends on the oxide film chemistry and thickness. The presented results might aid in the interpretation of fine structures in infrared and, possibly, optical spectra, and suggest the study of other similar potential sources of electromagnetic radiation in different physical scenarios.

  6. Far Infrared Spectrometry of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    I describe two experiments to measure the cosmic background radiation near 1 mm wavelength. The first was a ground-based search for spectral lines, made with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and an InSb detector. The second is a measurement of the spectrum from 3 to 18 cm{sup -1}, made with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a polarizing Michelson interferometer, cooled in liquid helium, and operated with a germanium bolometer. I give the theory of operation, construction details, and experimental results. The first experiment was successfully completed but the second suffered equipment malfunction on its first flight. I describe the theory of Fourier transformations and give a new understanding of convolutional phase correction computations. I discuss for infrared bolometer calibration procedures, and tabulate test results on nine detectors. I describe methods of improving bolometer sensitivity with immersion optics and with conductive film blackening.

  7. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Mauro F; Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation  (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications.  This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g.  sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz ...

  8. Optical response of thin amorphous films to infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, J.; Coimbra, C. F. M.

    2018-03-01

    We briefly review the electrical-optical response of materials to radiative forcing within the formalism of the Kramers-Kronig relations. A commensurate set of criteria is described that must be met by any frequency-domain model representing the time-domain response of a real (i.e., physically possible) material. The criteria are applied to the Brendel-Bormann (BB) oscillator, a model that was originally introduced for its fidelity at reproducing the non-Lorentzian peak broadening experimentally observed in the infrared absorption by thin amorphous films but has since been used for many other common materials. We show that the BB model fails to satisfy the established physical criteria. Taking an alternative approach to the model derivation, a physically consistent model is proposed. This model provides the appropriate line-shape broadening for modeling the infrared optical response of thin amorphous films while adhering strictly to the Kramers-Kronig criteria. Experimental data for amorphous alumina (Al2O3 ) and amorphous quartz silica (SiO2) are used to obtain model parametrizations for both the noncausal BB model and the proposed causal model. The proposed model satisfies consistency criteria required by the underlying physics and reproduces the experimental data with better fidelity (and often with fewer parameters) than previously proposed permittivity models.

  9. On the Generation of Intermediate Number Squeezed State of the Quantized Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseia, B.; de Lima, A. F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    Recently, a new state of the quantized radiation field — the intermediate number squeezed state (INSS) — has been introduced in the literature: it interpolates between the number state |n> and the squeezed state |z, α>=Ŝ(z)|α>, and exhibits interesting nonclassical properties as antibunching, sub-Poissonian statistics and squeezing. Here we introduce a slight modification in the previous definition allowing us a proposal to generate the INSS. Nonclassical properties using a new set of parameters are also studied.

  10. Generation of pulsed far-infrared radiation and its application for far-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Yasuhiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-07-01

    So-called time-resolved spectroscopy technique has been used from old time as the means for studying the dynamic optical property, light-induced reaction and so on of matters. As an example, there is the method called pump and probe, and here, the wavelength of this probe light is the problem. If the object energy region is limited to about 0.1 eV, fast time-resolved spectroscopy is feasible relatively easily. However, energy region is extended to low energy region, the light source which is available as the pulsed probe light having sufficient intensity is limited. In this paper, the attempt of time-resolved spectroscopy utilizing coherent radiation, which has ended in failure, and the laser pulse-induced far-infrared radiation which can be utilized as new far-infrared probe light are reported. The reason why far-infrared radiation is used is explained. The attempt of time-resolved spectroscopy using NaCl crystals is reported on the equipment, the method of measuring absorption spectra and the results. Laser pulse-induced far-infrared radiation and the method of generating it are described. The multi-channel detector for far-infrared radiation which was made for trial is shown. (K.I.)

  11. A Simple, Student-Built Spectrometer to Explore Infrared Radiation and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Wilson, Tiffany A.; Bruce, Alice E.; Bessey, S. Max; Flood, Virginia J.

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, students build a spectrometer to explore infrared radiation and greenhouse gases in an inquiry-based investigation to introduce climate science in a general chemistry lab course. The lab is based on the exploration of the thermal effects of molecular absorption of infrared radiation by greenhouse and non-greenhouse gases. A…

  12. Efficacy of six weeks infrared radiation therapy on chronic low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infrared radiation therapy is a modality widely used in Physiotherapy for the management of pain. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of six weeks infrared radiation therapy on pain intensity and functional disability index in subjects suffering from non- specific low back pain. Methods: The ...

  13. Drying characteristics of rough rice by far-infrared radiation heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, T.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the heat radiation characteristics of a far-infrared radiation heater and the drying characteristics of rough rice was investigated to determine the basic data required for utilization of far-infrared rays for drying rough rice. Results of investigations are discussed in detail

  14. Turbid Media Extinction Coefficient for Near-Infrared Laser Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T; Gurdev, L; Vankov, O; Stoyanov, D; Avramov, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, extended investigations are performed of the extinction coefficient of Intralipid-20% dilutions in distilled water depending on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths in the red and near-infrared regions covering the so-called tissue optical window. The extinction is measured by using an approach we have developed recently based on the features of the spatial intensity distribution of laser-radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The measurements are conducted using separately two dilution- containing plexiglass boxes of different sizes and volumes, in order to prove the appropriateness of the assumption of semi-infinite turbid medium. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid – 10% and Intralipid – 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. It is estimated as well that the wavelengths around 1320 nm would be advantageous for deep harmless sensing and diagnostics of tissues

  15. A Thermal Infrared Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Cote, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the longwave radiation parameterization developed at the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for a wide variety of weather and climate applications. Based on the 1996-version of the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory HITRAN data, the parameterization includes the absorption due to major gaseous absorption (water vapor, CO2, O3) and most of the minor trace gases (N2O, CH4, CFCs), as well as clouds and aerosols. The thermal infrared spectrum is divided into nine bands. To achieve a high degree of accuracy and speed, various approaches of computing the transmission function are applied to different spectral bands and gases. The gaseous transmission function is computed either using the k-distribution method or the table look-up method. To include the effect of scattering due to clouds and aerosols, the optical thickness is scaled by the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. The parameterization can accurately compute fluxes to within 1% of the high spectral-resolution line-by-line calculations. The cooling rate can be accurately computed in the region extending from the surface to the 0.01-hPa level.

  16. Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Asenov, D R; Di Martino, E

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared radiation can be used for warm stimulation in caloric irrigation of the equilibrium organ. Aim of this study was to determine whether near infrared radiation offers effective stimulation of the vestibular organ, whether it is well tolerated by the patients and especially whether it is a viable alternative to warm air stimulation in patients with defects of the tympanic membrane and radical mastoid cavities. Patients with perforations of the tympanic membrane (n = 15) and with radical mastoid cavities (n = 13) were tested both with near infrared radiation and warm dry air. A caloric-induced nystagmus could be seen equally effectively and rapidly in all patients. Contrary to stimulation with warm dry air, no paradoxical nystagmus was observed following caloric irrigation with a warm stimulus (near infrared radiation). Results of a questionnaire showed excellent patient acceptance of near infrared stimulation with no arousal effects or unpleasant feeling. In conclusion, near infrared radiation proved to be an alternative method of caloric irrigation to warm dry air in patients with tympanic membrane defects and radical mastoid cavities. Near infrared radiation is pleasant, quick, contact free, sterile and quiet. With this method an effective caloric warm stimulus is available. If near infrared radiation is used for caloric stimulus no evaporative heat loss occurs.

  17. Probing specific molecular processes and intermediates by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: application to the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Kandori, Hideki; Padrós, Esteve

    2011-06-23

    We present a general approach for probing the kinetics of specific molecular processes in proteins by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Using bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as a model we demonstrate that by appropriately monitoring some selected IR bands it is possible obtaining the kinetics of the most important events occurring in the photocycle, namely changes in the chromophore and the protein backbone conformation, and changes in the protonation state of the key residues implicated in the proton transfers. Besides confirming widely accepted views of the bR photocycle, our analysis also sheds light into some disputed issues: the degree of retinal torsion in the L intermediate to respect the ground state; the possibility of a proton transfer from Asp85 to Asp212; the relationship between the protonation/deprotonation of Asp85 and the proton release complex; and the timing of the protein backbone dynamics. By providing a direct way to estimate the kinetics of photocycle intermediates the present approach opens new prospects for a robust quantitative kinetic analysis of the bR photocycle, which could also benefit the study of other proteins involved in photosynthesis, in phototaxis, or in respiratory chains.

  18. In situ mid-infrared analyses of reactive gas-phase intermediates in TEOS/Ozone SAPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whidden, Thomas K.; Doiron, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present in situ characterizations of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactors used in silicon dioxide thin film depositions. The characterizations are based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The infrared absorption data are interpreted within the context of process and thin film properties and the bearing of the spectroscopic data upon the chemical mechanisms extant in the deposition reaction. The relevance of the interpretations to real-time process control is discussed. The process under study in this work is TEOS/ozone-based deposition of silicon dioxide thin films at subatmospheric pressures. This process exhibits many desirable properties but has fundamental problems that may be solvable by reaction control based on in situ analyses and the real-time manipulation of reagent concentrations and process conditions. Herein we discuss our preliminary data on characterizations of TEOS/ozone chemistries in commercial reactor configurations. Reaction products and reactive intermediate species are detected and identified. Quantitative in situ measurements of the reagent materials are demonstrated. Preliminary correlations of these data with process and thin film properties are discussed

  19. Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

  20. Analysis of the selected optical parameters of filters protecting against hazardous infrared radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Owczarek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the selected optical parameters of protective optic filters used for protection of the eyes against hazardous radiation within the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrum range. The indexes characterizing transmission and reflection of optic radiation incident on the filter are compared. As it follows from the completed analysis, the newly developed interference filters provide more effective blocking of infrared radiation in comparison with the currently used protec...

  1. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  2. Study on the infrared radiation performance of Tourmaline composite and its effect on the diesel characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian Bin; Yu, Hong Liang; Sun, Di; Ma, Fong Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The black tourmaline, magnesium tourmaline, and spinel were ground into powder, and the infrared radiation material was prepared by adding the ceramic powder, clay and the other material into the tourmaline powder according to a certain proportion. The infrared radiation property was tested and analyzed, the diesel was infrared radiation activated by the composite material, and the physicochemical property of fuel oil was analyzed pre-test and post-test. The result shows that the infrared absorption spectrum of the black tourmaline of different particle size is stable. After the diesel oil was infrared radiation activated by tourmaline composite materials, the physicochemical property of diesel oil was changed, the activation energy decreased, the viscosity and surface tension of fuel oil were reduced.

  3. INTERMEDIATE RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF 36 LATE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, R. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Martin, E. L.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Bouy, H. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Montgomery, M. M. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, P.O. Box 162385, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Rodler, F. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Torre C5-parell-2a planta, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Del Burgo, C. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Phan Bao, N. [Department of Physics, HCMIU, Vietnam National University Administrative Building, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, HCM (Viet Nam); Lyubchik, Y.; Pavlenko, Y. [Main Astronomical Observatory of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Zabolotnoho, 27, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Tata, R., E-mail: rohit@psu.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Islas Canarias (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    We present observations of 36 late M dwarfs obtained with the Keck II/NIRSPEC in the J band at a resolution of {approx}20,000. We have measured projected rotational velocities, absolute radial velocities, and pseudo-equivalent widths of atomic lines. Twelve of our targets did not have previous measurements in the literature. For the other 24 targets, we confirm previously reported measurements. We find that 13 stars from our sample have v sin i below our measurement threshold (12 km s{sup -1}) whereas four of our targets are fast rotators (v sin i > 30 km s{sup -1}). As fast rotation causes spectral features to be washed out, stars with low projected rotational velocities are sought for radial velocity surveys. At our intermediate spectral resolution, we have confirmed the identification of neutral atomic lines reported in McLean et al. We also calculated pseudo-equivalent widths of 12 atomic lines. Our results confirm that the pseudo-equivalent width of K I lines is strongly dependent on spectral types. We observe that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe I and Mn I lines remains fairly constant with later spectral type. We suggest that these lines are particularly suitable for deriving metallicities for late M dwarfs.

  4. Use of infrared radiation thermometers for temperature control of plastic and paper webs in electric infrared ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Using infrared radiation thermometers in conjunction with infrared heater systems requires special considerations to ensure that accuracy will be achieved. If the thermometer picks up infrared radiation from the heaters, faulty readings can occur. Two methods are generally employed to eliminate this interference. Sight tubes are used to block infrared rays from entering the sensor lens, and a thermometer is chosen which responds to a different wavelength than that being emitted from the infrared heaters. The main types of electric infrared heaters are: (a) screw-in bulbs (shortwave); (b) evacuated tungsten filament tubes (shortwave); (c) quartz tubes (medium wave); (d) quartz panel heaters (medium wave); (e) Ceramic heaters (medium-long wave); (f) metal sheath heaters (medium-long wave). Positioning of a sensor on a production line is dictated by the product being processed and the desired use of the temperature information. The most common location for a sensor is just after the infrared unit. The pyrometer information can be used for setting up the process, for quality control, for heater failure detection, and for control of the heaters. For wide web application in which uniformity across the web is essential, traversing sensors can be used to scan the web to ensure a uniform heating of the product. This information then can be used to control infrared profiling zones which are positioned across the web. In plastics applications, the thermometer most commonly is positioned also at the exit end of the infrared unit. Control functions are similar to those just listed. In some indexing machines, the plastic is sensed while still in the last index station, and the index an be initiated by the thermometer

  5. In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy of Oligoaniline Intermediates Created under Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šeděnková, Ivana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-12-26

    The progress of the oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate in an alkaline aqueous medium has been monitored in situ by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The growth of the microspheres and of the film at the ATR crystal surface, as well as the changes proceeding in the surrounding aqueous medium, are reflected in the spectra. The evolution of the spectra and the changes in the molecular structure occurring during aniline oxidation in alkaline medium are discussed with the help of differential spectra. Several processes connected with the various stages of aniline oxidation were distinguished. The progress of hydrolysis of the aniline in water and further an oxidation of aminophenol to benzoquinone imines in the presence of peroxydisulfate in alkaline medium have been detected in the spectra in real time. The precipitated solid oxidation product was analyzed by mass spectrometry. It is composed of oligomers, mainly trimers to octamers, of various molecular structures incorporating in addition to aniline constitutional units also p-benzoquinone or p-benzoquinoneimine moieties.

  6. Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy as monotherapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has been advanced as monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer. We examined the dose distributions and early clinical outcomes using this modality for the treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods Forty-one sequential hormone-naïve intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients received 35–36.25 Gy of CyberKnife-delivered SBRT in 5 fractions. Radiation dose distributions were analyzed for coverage of potential microscopic ECE by measuring the distance from the prostatic capsule to the 33 Gy isodose line. PSA levels, toxicities, and quality of life (QOL measures were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results All patients completed treatment with a mean coverage by the 33 Gy isodose line extending >5 mm beyond the prostatic capsule in all directions except posteriorly. Clinical responses were documented by a mean PSA decrease from 7.67 ng/mL pretreatment to 0.64 ng/mL at the median follow-up of 21 months. Forty patients remain free from biochemical progression. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Mean EPIC urinary irritation/obstruction and bowel QOL scores exhibited a transient decline post-treatment with a subsequent return to baseline. No significant change in sexual QOL was observed. Conclusions In this intermediate-risk patient population, an adequate radiation dose was delivered to areas of expected microscopic ECE in the majority of patients. Although prospective studies are needed to confirm long-term tumor control and toxicity, the short-term PSA response, biochemical relapse-free survival rate, and QOL in this interim analysis are comparable to results reported for prostate brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Trial registration The Georgetown Institutional Review Board has approved this retrospective study (IRB 2009–510.

  7. Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy as monotherapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Andrew W; Lei, Siyuan; Suy, Simeng; Lynch, John H; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Collins, Sean P; Wang, Hongkun; Oermann, Eric K; Sherer, Benjamin A; Uhm, Sunghae; Chen, Viola J; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Hanscom, Heather N; Kim, Joy S

    2013-01-01

    Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been advanced as monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer. We examined the dose distributions and early clinical outcomes using this modality for the treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Forty-one sequential hormone-naïve intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients received 35–36.25 Gy of CyberKnife-delivered SBRT in 5 fractions. Radiation dose distributions were analyzed for coverage of potential microscopic ECE by measuring the distance from the prostatic capsule to the 33 Gy isodose line. PSA levels, toxicities, and quality of life (QOL) measures were assessed at baseline and follow-up. All patients completed treatment with a mean coverage by the 33 Gy isodose line extending >5 mm beyond the prostatic capsule in all directions except posteriorly. Clinical responses were documented by a mean PSA decrease from 7.67 ng/mL pretreatment to 0.64 ng/mL at the median follow-up of 21 months. Forty patients remain free from biochemical progression. No Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Mean EPIC urinary irritation/obstruction and bowel QOL scores exhibited a transient decline post-treatment with a subsequent return to baseline. No significant change in sexual QOL was observed. In this intermediate-risk patient population, an adequate radiation dose was delivered to areas of expected microscopic ECE in the majority of patients. Although prospective studies are needed to confirm long-term tumor control and toxicity, the short-term PSA response, biochemical relapse-free survival rate, and QOL in this interim analysis are comparable to results reported for prostate brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy. The Georgetown Institutional Review Board has approved this retrospective study (IRB 2009–510)

  8. A brief review of intermediate controlled nuclear syntheses (ICNS) without harmful radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanjewar, R. B. [Department of Chemistry Dharampeth M. P. Deo Memorial Science College, NAGPUR-440033, India rb-lanjewar@rediffmail.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    Hadronic mechanics gave birth to new magnecular fuels. The present day demand is of clean energy source that is cheap and abundant. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind etc. Nuclear energy conventionally produced by fission reactions emits hazardous radiation and radioactive waste. The requirements of clean and safe energy gets fulfilled by novel fuel that achieved by elevating the traditional quantum mechanics to hadronic mechanics and to hadronic chemistry. In the present paper, a comprehensive review on both the theoretical and experimental aspect of the Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Synthesis (ICNS) as developed by Italian American Scientist Professor R. M. Santilli.

  9. Spin tests for intermediate states in radiative psi'(3684) decay chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, P.K.; Hey, A.J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the multiple angular-correlation functions for the sequential decays psi'(1 - ) → γ + chi, chi → M anti M, where M is a spinless meson, and psi'(1 - ) → γ 1 + chi, chi → γ 2 + psi, psi (1 - ) → l anti l, when the psi' is formed in e + e - collisions, shows that these can unambiguously distinguish between the spin assignments s/sub chi/ = 0, 1 or 2 for the intermediate states occurring in these decays, as well as determine the multipole amplitudes contributing to the radiative transitions. No dynamical assumptions are made beyond the conservation of angular momentum and parity; recoils are fully taken into account

  10. Research on infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark1200 high-temperature coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuyao; Huan, Kewei; Dong, Wei; Wang, Jinghui; Zang, Yanzhe; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2014-11-01

    Pyromark 1200 (Tempil Co, USA), which is a type of high-temperature high-emissivity coating, is silicon-based with good thermal radiation performance. Its stably working condition is at the temperature range 589~922 K thus a wide range of applications in industrial, scientific research, aviation, aerospace and other fields. Infrared emissivity is one of the most important factors in infrared radiation characteristics. Data on infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 is in shortage, as well as the reports on its infrared radiation characteristics affected by its spray painting process, microstructure and thermal process. The results of this research show that: (1) The coating film critical thickness on the metal base is 10μm according to comparison among different types of spray painting process, coating film thickness, microstructure, which would influence the infrared radiation characteristics of Pyromark 1200 coating. The infrared spectral emissivity will attenuate when the coating film thickness is lower or much higher than that. (2) Through measurements, the normal infrared radiation characteristics is analyzed within the range at the temperature range 573~873 K under normal atmospheric conditions, and the total infrared spectral emissivity of Pyromark 1200 coating is higher than 0.93 in the 3~14 μm wavelength range. (3) The result of 72-hour aging test at the temperature 673 K which studied the effect of thermal processes on the infrared radiation characteristics of the coating shows that the infrared spectral emissivity variation range is approximately 0.01 indicating that Pyromark 1200 coating is with good stability. Compared with Nextel Velvet Coating (N-V-C) which is widely used in optics field, Pyromark 1200 high-temperature coating has a higher applicable temperature and is more suitable for spraying on the material surface which is in long-term operation under high temperature work conditions and requires high infrared spectral emissivity.

  11. Radiation resistant PIDECα cell using photon intermediate direct energy conversion and a 210Po source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles L; Schott, Robert J; Prelas, Mark A; Wisniewski, Denis A; Rothenberger, Jason B; Lukosi, Eric D; Oh, Kyuhak

    2018-02-01

    Radiation damage is a significant concern with both alphavoltaic and betavoltaic cells because their performance degrades, especially with high-energy - (>200keV) beta and alpha particles. Indirect excitation methods, such as the Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) framework, can protect the transducer from radiation. A nuclear battery using a 90 Sr beta source was constructed by the author's research group, which demonstrated the radiation resistance of a PIDEC cell driven by beta particles (PIDECβ cell). Use of alpha sources to drive nuclear batteries would appear to be much more attractive than beta sources due to higher potential power density. However, they are also subject to higher rates of radiation damage. This paper describes the successful incorporation of alpha particles into the PIDEC framework using the alpha emitter 210 Po to form a PIDECα cell. The PIDECα cell transducer was exposed to alpha particles for over one year without experiencing adverse effects from radiation damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological Effects of Sunlight, Ultraviolet Radiation, Visible Light, Infrared Radiation and Vitamin D for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    Humans evolved in sunlight and had depended on sunlight for its life giving properties that was appreciated by our early ancestors. However, for more than 40 years the lay press and various medical and dermatology associations have denounced sun exposure because of its association with increased risk for skin cancer. The goal of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits that have been associated with exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet B (UVB), visible and infrared radiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. DISCOVERING BRIGHT QUASARS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFTS BASED ON OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Wang, Feige

    2013-01-01

    The identification of quasars at intermediate redshifts (2.2 < z < 3.5) has been inefficient in most previous quasar surveys since the optical colors of quasars are similar to those of stars. The near-IR K-band excess technique has been suggested to overcome this difficulty. Our recent study also proposed to use optical/near-IR colors for selecting z < 4 quasars. To verify the effectiveness of this method, we selected a list of 105 unidentified bright targets with i ≤ 18.5 from the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6 with both SDSS ugriz optical and UKIDSS YJHK near-IR photometric data, which satisfy our proposed Y – K/g – z criterion and have photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 estimated from the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data. We observed 43 targets with the BFOSC instrument on the 2.16 m optical telescope at Xinglong station of the National Astronomical Observatory of China in the spring of 2012. We spectroscopically identified 36 targets as quasars with redshifts between 2.1 and 3.4. The high success rate of discovering these quasars in the SDSS spectroscopic surveyed area further demonstrates the robustness of both the Y – K/g – z selection criterion and the photometric redshift estimation technique. We also used the above criterion to investigate the possible stellar contamination rate among the quasar candidates of SDSS DR6, and found that the rate is much higher when selecting 3 < z < 3.5 quasar candidates than when selecting lower redshift candidates (z < 2.2). The significant improvement in the photometric redshift estimation when using the nine-band SDSS-UKIDSS data over the five-band SDSS data is demonstrated and a catalog of 7727 unidentified quasar candidates in SDSS DR6 selected with optical/near-IR colors and having photometric redshifts between 2.2 and 3.5 is provided. We also tested the Y – K/g – z selection criterion with the recently released SDSS-III/DR9 quasar catalog and found that 96.2% of 17,999 DR9 quasars with UKIDSS Y- and K

  14. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  15. Satellite Infrared Radiation Measurements Prior to the Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulintes, S.; Bryant, N.; Taylor, Patrick; Freund, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and increases in mid-infrared (IR) flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. We present and &scuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of Jan 22, 2003 Colima (M6.7) Mexico, Sept. 28 .2004 near Parkfield (M6.0) in California and Northern Sumatra (M8.5) Dec. 26,2004. Previous analysis of earthquake events has indicated the presence of an IR anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. Our procedures analyze nighttime satellite data that records the general condtion of the ground after sunset. We have found from the MODIS instrument data that five days before the Colima earthquake the IR land surface nighttime temperature rose up to +4 degrees C in a 100 km radius around the epicenter. The IR transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +1 degree C and is significantly smaller than the IR anomaly around the Colima epicenter. Ground surface temperatures near the Parkfield epicenter four days prior to the earthquake show steady increase. However, on the night preceding the quake, a significant drop in relative humidity was indicated, process similar to those register prior to the Colima event. Recent analyses of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicate significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and/or gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly usually covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have found strong anomalies signal (two sigma) along the epicentral area signals on Dec 21

  16. Spinning projectile's attitude measurement with LW infrared radiation under sea-sky background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miaomiao; Bu, Xiongzhu; Yu, Jing; He, Zilu

    2018-05-01

    With the further development of infrared radiation research in sea-sky background and the requirement of spinning projectile's attitude measurement, the sea-sky infrared radiation field is used to carry out spinning projectile's attitude angle instead of inertial sensors. Firstly, the generation mechanism of sea-sky infrared radiation is analysed. The mathematical model of sea-sky infrared radiation is deduced in LW (long wave) infrared 8 ∼ 14 μm band by calculating the sea surface and sky infrared radiation. Secondly, according to the movement characteristics of spinning projectile, the attitude measurement model of infrared sensors on projectile's three axis is established. And the feasibility of the model is analysed by simulation. Finally, the projectile's attitude calculation algorithm is designed to improve the attitude angle estimation accuracy. The results of semi-physical experiments show that the segmented interactive algorithm estimation error of pitch and roll angle is within ±1.5°. The attitude measurement method is effective and feasible, and provides accurate measurement basis for the guidance of spinning projectile.

  17. Development of models for thermal infrared radiation above and within plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw u, Kyaw T.

    1992-01-01

    Any significant angular dependence of the emitted longwave radiation could result in errors in remotely estimated energy budgets or evapotranspiration. Empirical data and thermal infrared radiation models are reviewed in reference to anisotropic emissions from the plant canopy. The biometeorological aspects of linking longwave models with plant canopy energy budgets and micrometeorology are discussed. A new soil plant atmosphere model applied to anisotropic longwave emissions from a canopy is presented. Time variation of thermal infrared emission measurements is discussed.

  18. Application of gas-fired infra-red radiator to thermal disinfection of horticultural substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawer, M.; Osiński, A.

    1998-01-01

    The studies were carried out on heating horticultural substrate (moor peat - bark, 1:1 by volume) with a gas-fired infra-red radiator to destroy the pests and pathogens. Minimum distance between radiator and substrate surface was determined considering assumed time of heating. Dynamics of substrate heating was determined depending on its layer thickness and kind of surface under substrate layer; black rubber, ground steel sheet and aluminium foil were used as the surface. Considerable decreasing of infra-red radiation penetrability through the substrate layer above 7 mm thick was found as well as an significant effect of the radiation reflected from the surface under substrate layer on the intensity of its heating. It was also stated that heating horticultural substrates with the gas-fired infra-red radiator enables to rise the temperature of thin substrate layer up to 70 degree of C within relatively short time [pl

  19. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. 1; Radiation-Hydrodynamics Solution for the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan. G. S.; Kallman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scale by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the 2D radiation transfer problem in a flux limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary 1D models for the wind, and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for AGN luminosities greater than 0.1 L(sub edd) external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 infrared-driven winds is a viable option for the AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.

  20. Studies on the hyperthermic effect of the body on utilization of far infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Yong Wun; Cho, Chul Ku; Kim, Kyung Jung [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated that strong heat reaction of far infrared radiation material could have the possibility for hyperthermia in patients. Objective was CaSki cell, human uterocervical cancer cell line and they observed descending effect remarkably to compare the effect of cell death by high temperature due to far infrared radiation, platelet numbers of experimental group to compare the control were increased 7 {approx} 17%, and lymphocyte numbers 20 {approx} 40 %. High acidity in tumor tissue due to the concentration of lactic acid, so the effects of far infrared had the result to the possibility to reduce the fatigue stuff. The secretion of endorphin as cerebroneuron substance than epinephrine, sympathetic nerve substance could be reduction of pain in cancer patients because of the effect of far infrared. Above data of experiment, we were found multiple the biological efficacy of far infrared about the possibility of medical utilization. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Studies on the hyperthermic effect of the body on utilization of far infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yong Wun; Cho, Chul Ku; Kim, Kyung Jung

    1996-12-01

    This study investigated that strong heat reaction of far infrared radiation material could have the possibility for hyperthermia in patients. Objective was CaSki cell, human uterocervical cancer cell line and they observed descending effect remarkably to compare the effect of cell death by high temperature due to far infrared radiation, platelet numbers of experimental group to compare the control were increased 7 ∼ 17%, and lymphocyte numbers 20 ∼ 40 %. High acidity in tumor tissue due to the concentration of lactic acid, so the effects of far infrared had the result to the possibility to reduce the fatigue stuff. The secretion of endorphin as cerebroneuron substance than epinephrine, sympathetic nerve substance could be reduction of pain in cancer patients because of the effect of far infrared. Above data of experiment, we were found multiple the biological efficacy of far infrared about the possibility of medical utilization. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation.

  3. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Radiation control report on intermediate heat exchanger replacement and related works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanou, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Sasajima, T.; Hoshiba, H.; Emori, S.; Shindou, K.

    2002-03-01

    The 13th periodical inspection of the experimental fast reactor JOYO is being made from Jun. 2000 to Jan. 2003. While this inspection, from the end of Oct. 2000 to Nov. 2001, the MK-III modification work on heat transport system was made in lower region of the reactor containment vessel in the reactor facility (under floor area). In the MK-III modification work, the works important to radiation control were the replacement of intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) and fixtures, and the picking out of the surveillance material from primary heat transport piping carried out in the maintenance building. Because the working areas of these works were executed in small space around the complicated primary heat transport piping, workability was bad and dose rate from the corrosion products (CP) in piping or fixtures was high. In such condition, radiation control was performed mainly concerned about external exposure. The planted total external exposure of the IHX replacement and related works was 7135 man-mSv (target of total dose control: less than 5708 man-mSv, 80% of the plan), derived from special radiation work plants for segmental works, concerned about work procedure, number of workers, period of work, dose rate of working area and surface dose rate of equipments. The special radiation control organization was established for such long and large-scale work. The spatial organization held detailed discussion about radiation control of this work with the execution section and contractors appropriately, performance careful external/internal exposure control and surface contamination control and made efforts to reduce te external exposure thoroughly. As a result of these action, the total external exposure was 2386 man·mSv (≅33% of the plan, ≅42% of the target) and the maximum individual exposure were 24.7 mSv for staffs and 21.7mSv for contractors. The dose rate, surface contamination and air contamination while the works were kept under the control level with the

  5. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  6. Cover materials excluding near infrared radiation: effect on greenhouse climate and plant processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, S.; Dai, J.

    2008-01-01

    Only about half of the energy that enters a greenhouse as sun radiation is in the wavelength range that is useful for photosynthesis (PAR, Photosynthetically Active Radiation). Nearly all the remaining energy fraction is in the Near InfraRed range (NIR) and warms the greenhouse and crop and does

  7. Method for generation of tunable far infrared radiation from two-dimensional plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Tunable far infrared radiation is produced from two-dimensional plasmons in a heterostructure, which provides large inversion-layer electron densities at the heterointerface, without the need for a metallic grating to couple out the radiation. Instead, a light interference pattern is produced on the planar surface of the heterostructure using two coherent laser beams of a wavelength selected to be strongly absorbed by the heterostructure in order to penetrate through the inversion layer. The wavelength of the far infrared radiation coupled out can then be readily tuned by varying the angle between the coherent beams, or varying the wavelength of the two interfering coherent beams, thus varying the periodicity of the photoconductivity grating to vary the wavelength of the far infrared radiation being coupled out.

  8. The spectral distribution of intermediate L-K molecular-orbital radiation in symmetric heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinig, K.-H.; Jager, H.-U.; Richter, H.; Woittennek, H.; Frank, W.; Gippener, P.; Kaun, K.-H.; Manfrass, P.

    1977-01-01

    Two distinct x-ray continua C1 and C2 above the characteristic lines are observed in high-energy collisions between atoms with atomic numbers of 28 to 57. This structure is explained by a superposition of K molecular-orbital (KMO) radiation and of an intermediate L-K molecular-orbital (ILKMO) radiation of high intensity which is due to 2psigma vacancies. In the framework of the dynamical theory of intermediate molecular phenomena and using a scaling of the H 2 + correlation diagram with screened state-dependent charges good agreement between the shapes of the measured and calculated spectra is obtained. (author)

  9. The infrared radiation spectrum of acupoint taiyuan (LU 9) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Shen, Xue-yong; Wang, Li-zhen; Wei, Jian-zi; Cheng, Ke

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the distinctive pathological characteristics in the spectrums of spontaneous infrared radiation at the Taiyuan (LU 9) acupoint in patients with asthma. A highly sensitive infrared spectrum detecting device was used to detect the spectrums of spontaneous infrared radiation at Taiyuan (LU 9) in 37 asthma patients and 34 healthy volunteers. Asthma patients had significantly lower infrared intensity than that of the healthy volunteers (P>0.01). Asthma patients had significantly lower overall infrared radiation intensity at the left Taiyuan (LU 9) than that of healthy volunteers (P > 0.05), but there was no significant difference between healthy volunteers and asthma patients at the right Taiyuan (LU 9) (P > 0.05). The infrared radiation intensity of 17 wavelength spots at the left Taiyuan (LU 9) and 4 wavelength spots at the right Taiyuan (LU 9) in asthma patients were significantly lower than those of healthy volunteers (P > 0.05). At 2 microm, the infrared radiation intensity of asthma patients was significantly stronger than that of healthy volunteers (P > 0.05). At 19 wavelength spots in the healthy volunteers and at 4 wave-length spots in the asthma patients, the left Taiyuan (LU 9) showed a significantly stronger intensity than that of the right Taiyuan (LU 9) (P > 0.05S). By Pearson's chi2 test, healthy volunteers had more wavelength spots that were significantly different between the left and right Taiyuan (LU 9) than the asthma patients (P > 0.01). Changes in the infrared spectrum at the Taiyuan (LU 9) acupoint in asthma patients may reflect distinct pathological changes. Certain acupuncture points may be related to specific organs.

  10. A model of hemo-immunopoietic system adaptation to chronic low and intermediate radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibkova, D.Z.; Andreeva, O.G.; Efimova, N.V.; Akleev, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper radiobiological conformities to natural laws of mice's hemoimmunopoiesis systems (lines CBA and C 57 Bl/6) were investigated upon chronic internal with lowering power doses of β- irradiation 90 Sr and external γ-irradiation with constant power. It was shown that determinative effects of long chronic irradiation become apparent upon development of chronic radioactive effect for experimental animals were observed upon γ-irradiation with power 6 cGy/day and more or under internal with lowering power dose of β-irradiation 90 Sr introduced in concentration above 1.1 c Bq/g, that is correlated with appreciations of other author's made before, concerning 'critical' level of power doses for hemopoietic system. It was shown that reduction of medium length of animals' life correlates with dis-balance into a system and between systems' links of immuno- and hemopoiesis. Physiological balance of those systems was supplied genetically by determinative systems of sanogenesis, responded for forming adaptive processes in organism. Characteristics of positive and negative inter and outward systems' links, induced by additional radiation exposure and noticeably modified constitutive regulative mechanisms being before were made more exact. A model for adaptation of hemoimmunopoiesis system to chronic radiation exposure in a rate of low and intermediate power doses was modeled. A possibility of full or part regeneration of hemopoiesis depending on power dose and kind of irradiation was experimentally substantiated. (author)

  11. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  12. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Infrared A radiation promotes survival of human melanocytes carrying ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeswenger, Susanne; Schwarz, Agatha; Födinger, Dagmar; Müller, Susanne; Pehamberger, Hubert; Schwarz, Thomas; Jantschitsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The link between solar radiation and melanoma is still elusive. Although infrared radiation (IR) accounts for over 50% of terrestrial solar energy, its influence on human skin is not well explored. There is increasing evidence that IR influences the expression patterns of several molecules independently of heat. A previous in vivo study revealed that pretreatment with IR might promote the development of UVR-induced non-epithelial skin cancer and possibly of melanoma in mice. To expand on this, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of IR on UVR-induced apoptosis and DNA repair in normal human epidermal melanocytes. The balance between these two effects is a key factor of malignant transformation. Human melanocytes were exposed to physiologic doses of IR and UVR. Compared to cells irradiated with UVR only, simultaneous exposure to IR significantly reduced the apoptotic rate. However, IR did not influence the repair of UVR-induced DNA damage. IR partly reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of UVR via modification of the expression and activity of proteins mainly of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, IR enhances the survival of melanocytes carrying UVR-induced DNA damage and thereby might contribute to melanomagenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A unique combination of infrared and microwave radiation accelerates wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, J Mark; Warner, Dave; Hardesty, Robert A; Oberg, Kerby C

    2003-01-01

    Light or electromagnetic radiation has been reported to enhance wound healing. The use of selected spectra, including infrared and microwave, has been described; however, no studies to date have examined the potential benefit of combining these spectra. In this study, a device that emits electromagnetic radiation across both the infrared and microwave ranges was used. To test the effects of this unique electromagnetic radiation spectrum on wound healing, two clinically relevant wound-healing models (i.e., tensile strength of simple incisions and survival of McFarlane flaps) were selected. After the creation of a simple full-thickness incision (n = 35 rats) or a caudally based McFarlane flap (n = 33 rats), animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: untreated control, infrared, or combined electromagnetic radiation. Treatment was administered for 30 minutes, twice daily for 18 days in animals with simple incisions, and 15 days in animals with McFarlane flaps. The wound area or flap was harvested and analyzed, blinded to the treatment regimens. A p value of less than 0.05 obtained by analysis of variance was considered to be statistically significant. Animals receiving combined electromagnetic radiation demonstrated increased tensile strength (2.62 N/mm2) compared with animals receiving infrared radiation (2.36 N/mm2) or untreated controls (1.73 N/mm2, p radiation had increased flap survival (78.0 percent) compared with animals receiving infrared radiation (69.7 percent) and untreated controls (63.1 percent, p radiation provided a distinct advantage in wound healing that might augment current treatment regimens.

  15. Vibrational relaxation of CDCl3 induced by infrared laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.F.; Azcarate, M.L.; Alonso, E.M.; Dangelo, R.J.; Quel, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A CO 2 TEA laser was used to excite mode ν 4 of CDCl 3 (914cm- 1 ). The laser was constructed at the laboratory, tuned in line 10P(48), (10.91 μm). Infrared fluorescence technique was used to determine V-T/R relaxation times for CDCl 3 both pure and in Ar mixtures. (Author). 9 refs., 3 figs

  16. Invisible Misconceptions: Student Understanding of Ultraviolet and Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Asghar, Anila; Crockett, C.; Sadler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The importance of nonvisible wavelengths for the study of astronomy suggests that student understanding of nonvisible light is an important consideration in astronomy classrooms. Questionnaires, interviews, and panel discussions were used to investigate 6-12 student and teacher conceptions of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR). Alternative…

  17. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  18. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  19. Infrared radiation has potential antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in animal model of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Kawahara, Yoshinari; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Mori, Ayumi; Goto, Shinjiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Matsushita, Hirotaka; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Fujikura, Yoshihisa

    2011-04-01

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in humans. The antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of infrared radiation were evaluated using an experimental animal model. Rats were randomly assigned to either an acutely or chronically exposed infrared radiation group or to a nonexposed control group. Acutely exposed rats were treated with an infrared radiation machine for one session, whereas chronically exposed animals were treated with an infrared radiation for 10 sessions. Control group rats were exposed to the sound of the infrared radiation machine as a sham treatment. After infrared radiation or control exposure, rats underwent behavioral evaluation, including elevated plus maze test, light/dark box, and forced swim test. Chronic infrared radiation exposure decreased indicators of depression- and anxiety-like behavior. No significant effect on general locomotor activity was observed. The number of BrdU-positive cells in CA1 of the hippocampus was significantly increased in both acutely and chronically exposed infrared radiation groups compared with the control group. These results indicate that chronic infrared radiation might produce antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchrotron radiation in the Far-Infrared: Adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, F.M.; Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Chabal, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation in the Far Infrared offers the potential for a broadband source of high brightness and intensity. Recent development of a Far-Infrared Beamline at the NSLS in Brookhaven provides an unique high intensity source in the FIR spectral range (800-10 cm -1 ). This talk reviews its application to surface vibrational spectroscopy of low frequency adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions on metal surfaces

  1. Numerical study on the influence of aluminum on infrared radiation signature of exhaust plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Qing-qing; Li, Shi-peng; Wang, Ning-fei

    2013-09-01

    The infrared radiation signature of exhaust plume from solid propellant rockets has been widely mentioned for its important realistic meaning. The content of aluminum powder in the propellants is a key factor that affects the infrared radiation signature of the plume. The related studies are mostly on the conical nozzles. In this paper, the influence of aluminum on the flow field of plume, temperature distribution, and the infrared radiation characteristics were numerically studied with an object of 3D quadrate nozzle. Firstly, the gas phase flow field and gas-solid multi phase flow filed of the exhaust plume were calculated using CFD method. The result indicates that the Al203 particles have significant effect on the flow field of plume. Secondly, the radiation transfer equation was solved by using a discrete coordinate method. The spectral radiation intensity from 1000-2400 cm-1 was obtained. To study the infrared radiation characteristics of exhaust plume, an exceptional quadrate nozzle was employed and much attention was paid to the influences of Al203 particles in solid propellants. The results could dedicate the design of the divert control motor in such hypervelocity interceptors or missiles, or be of certain meaning to the improvement of ingredients of solid propellants.

  2. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. II. Multidimensional, Radiation-Hydrodynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Anton; Kallman, Tim; Bisno\\vatyiI-Kogan, Gennadyi

    2011-01-01

    We explore a detailed model in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration results from the extinction of AGN radiation in a global ow driven by the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains. We assume that external illumination by UV and soft X-rays of the dusty gas located at approximately 1pc away from the supermassive black hole is followed by a conversion of such radiation into IR. Using 2.5D, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations in a ux-limited di usion approximation we nd that the external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via out ows driven by infrared radiation pressure in AGN with luminosities greater than 0:05 L(sub edd) and Compton optical depth, Tau(sub T) approx > & 1.

  3. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A climate index derived from satellite measured spectral infrared radiation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, M. D.; Fox, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical infrared radiative emitting structure (VIRES) climate index, based on radiative transfer theory and derived from the spectral radiances typically used to retrieve temperature profiles, is introduced. It is assumed that clouds and climate are closely related and a change in one will result in a change in the other. The index is a function of the cloud, temperature, and moisture distributions. It is more accurately retrieved from satellite data than is cloudiness per se. The VIRES index is based upon the shape and relative magnitude of the broadband weighting function of the infrared radiative transfer equation. The broadband weighting curves are retrieved from simulated satellite infrared sounder data (spectral radiances). The retrieval procedure is described and the error error sensitivities of the method investigated. Index measuring options and possible applications of the VIRES index are proposed.

  5. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Meng, Junping, E-mail: srlj158@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liang, Jinsheng; Duan, Xinhui [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Huo, Xiaoli [Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Tang, Qingguo [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials for Ecological Environment and Information (Hebei University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300130 (China); Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibits excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.

  6. Theoretical analysis of infrared radiation shields of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    For a system of N diffuse, gray body radiation shields which view only adjacent surfaces and space, the net radiation method for enclosures has been used to formulate a system of linear, nonhomogeneous equations in terms of the temperatures to the fourth power of each surface in the coupled system of enclosures. The coefficients of the unknown temperatures in the system of equations are expressed in terms of configuration factors between adjacent surfaces and the emissivities. As an application, a system of four conical radiation shields for a spin stabilized STARPROBE spacecraft has been designed and analyzed with respect to variations of the cone half angles, the intershield spacings, and emissivities.

  7. Effects of laser radiation parameters of the infrared multiphoton dissociation of protonated trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungureanu, C.; Almasan, V.

    1994-01-01

    The favorable properties of the infrared multiphoton absorption and dissociation of trichloroethylene-H, (C 2 HCl 3 ), by TEA-CO 2 laser radiation and rapid isotopic exchange between this molecule and water, indicate that it can be a promising further candidate for the final enrichment of heavy water (> 98% D 2 O), by laser method. We present the results obtained in the isotopic selectivity of multiphoton absorption measurements and in the study of the pulse energy and frequency laser radiation influence on the infrared multiphoton dissociation of C 2 HCl 3 in isotopic mixture with C 2 DCl 3 . (Author)

  8. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  9. Application of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Jafarpour

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to variety of food and maintenance ways, food irradiation is one of the best ways. Food quality becomes constant in different times by processing of food with radiation and putrefactions can stop by controlling of microorganisms

  10. Application of ultraviolet and infrared radiations in documentoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jorgelina Andrea

    2010-01-01

    UV and IR radiation are located outside the visible electromagnetic spectrum, providing relevant service documentoscopic analysis, referring to the words of author Jose Del Picchia we can say that ''sixth sense to be the expert cabinet . Various bodies under its action and substances or emit luminescence radiating a particular energy, and using pinhole cameras, proper lighting and photographic material, as the case of the radiation used can be achieved discover forged documents by physical or chemical action, revealed secret ink, regeneration of original texts eradicated by fraudulent, amendment, deletion, you can achieve the reconstruction of incipient charred documents, among others, are some of the many specific applications of UV and IR electromagnetic radiation. That contribute to the task expert. (author) [es

  11. Evidence for Solar Cycle Influence on the Infrared Energy Budget and Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Marshall, B. Thomas; Thompson, R. Earl; Williams, Joshua; Turpin, TImothy; Kratz, D. P.; Russell, James M.; Woods, Tom; Gordley, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere. By analyzing nearly five years of data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, we show that the annual mean infrared power radiated by the nitric oxide (NO) molecule at 5.3 m has decreased by a factor of 2.9. This decrease is correlated (r = 0.96) with the decrease in the annual mean F10.7 solar index. Despite the sharp decrease in radiated power (which is equivalent to a decrease in the vertical integrated radiative cooling rate), the variability of the power as given in the standard deviation of the annual means remains approximately constant. A simple relationship is shown to exist between the infrared power radiated by NO and the F10.7 index, thus providing a fundamental relationship between solar activity and the thermospheric cooling rate for use in thermospheric models. The change in NO radiated power is also consistent with changes in absorbed ultraviolet radiation over the same time period.

  12. Far infrared radiation promotes rabbit renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and functional characteristics, and protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Ni; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared radiation, a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum, is beneficial for long-term tissue healing, anti-inflammatory effects, growth promotion, sleep modulation, acceleration of microcirculation, and pain relief. We investigated if far infrared radiation is beneficial for renal proximal tubule cell cultivation and renal tissue engineering. We observed the effects of far infrared radiation on renal proximal tubules cells, including its effects on cell proliferation, gene and protein expression, and viability. We also examined the protective effects of far infrared radiation against cisplatin, a nephrotoxic agent, using the human proximal tubule cell line HK-2. We found that daily exposure to far infrared radiation for 30 min significantly increased rabbit renal proximal tubule cell proliferation in vitro, as assessed by MTT assay. Far infrared radiation was not only beneficial to renal proximal tubule cell proliferation, it also increased the expression of ATPase Na+/K+ subunit alpha 1 and glucose transporter 1, as determined by western blotting. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that far infrared radiation enhanced CDK5R1, GNAS, NPPB, and TEK expression. In the proximal tubule cell line HK-2, far infrared radiation protected against cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity by reducing apoptosis. Renal proximal tubule cell cultivation with far infrared radiation exposure resulted in better cell proliferation, significantly higher ATPase Na+/K+ subunit alpha 1 and glucose transporter 1 expression, and significantly enhanced expression of CDK5R1, GNAS, NPPB, and TEK. These results suggest that far infrared radiation improves cell proliferation and differentiation. In HK-2 cells, far infrared radiation mediated protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing apoptosis, as indicated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 assay.

  13. Use of middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.S. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom). Centre for Earth and Environmental Science Research, School of Geography; Wicks, T. E.; Curran, P.J. [Southampton Univ., Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    Reflected radiation recorded by satellite sensors is a common procedure to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) of boreal forest. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), derived from measurements of visible and near infrared radiation were commonly used to estimate LAI. But research in tropical forest has shown that LAI is more closely related to radiation of middle infrared wavelengths than that of visible wavelengths. This research calculated a vegetation index (VI3) using radiation from vegetation recorded at near and middle infrared wavelengths. In the case of boreal forest, VI3 and LAI displayed a closer relationship than NDVI and LAI. Also, the use of VI3 explained approximately 76 per cent of the variation in field estimates of LAI, versus approximately 46 per cent for NDVI. The authors concluded that consideration should be given to information provided by middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of boreal forest. The research area was located in the Southern Study Area (SSA) of the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmospher Study (BOREAS), situated on the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest, 40 km north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 1 tab., 4 figs., 46 refs.

  14. Study on the radiative decays of h{sub c} via intermediate meson loops model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qi; Li, Gang; Zhang, Yawei [Qufu Normal University, College of Physics and Engineering, Qufu (China)

    2017-05-15

    Recently, the BESIII Collaboration reported two new decay processes: h{sub c}(1P) → γη and γη{sup '}. Inspired by this measurement, we propose to study the radiative decays of h{sub c} via intermediate charmed meson loops in an effective Lagrangian approach. With the acceptable cutoff parameter range, the calculated branching ratios of h{sub c}(1P) → γη and γη{sup '} are of the orders of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2}, respectively. The ratio R{sub h{sub c}} = B(h{sub c} → γη)/ B(h{sub c} → γη{sup '}) can reproduce the experimental measurements with the commonly acceptable α range. This ratio provide us with some information on the η-η{sup '} mixing, which may be helpful for us to test the SU(3)-flavor symmetries in QCD. (orig.)

  15. Bracket debonding by mid-infrared laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelínková, H; Šulc, J; Koranda, P; Němec, M; Dostálová, T; Hofmanova, P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the proper laser radiation for ceramic bracket debonding and the investigation of the tooth root temperature injury. The debonding was investigated by diode-pumped continuously running Tm:YAP and Nd:YAG lasers, and by GaAs laser diode generating radiation with the wavelengths 1.997 μm, 1.444 μm, and 0.808 μm, respectively. The possibility of brackets removal by laser radiation was investigated together with the tooth and, it specifically, root temperature rise. From the results it follows that continuously running diode pumped Tm:YAG or Nd:YAG laser generating wavelengths 1.997 μm or 1.444 μm, respectively, having the output power 1 W can be good candidates for ceramic brackets debonding

  16. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Hovde, Per Jostein

    2012-01-01

    Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for exa...

  17. Polarization of far-infrared radiation from molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, G.; Gonatas, D. P.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Dragovan, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the polarization of far-infrared emission from dust in nine molecular clouds. Detections were obtained in Mon R2, in the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula in Orion, and in Sgr A. Upper limits were set for six other clouds. A comparison of the 100 micron polarization of KL with that previously measured at 270 microns provides new evidence that the polarization is due to emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Comparing the results for Orion with measurements at optical wavelengths, it is inferred that the magnetic field direction in the outer parts of the Orion cloud is the same as that in the dense core. This direction is nearly perpendicular to the ridge of molecular emission and is parallel to both the molecular outflow in KL and the axis of rotation of the cloud core. In Mon R2, the field direction which the measurements imply does not agree withthat derived from 0.9-2.2 micron polarimetry. The discrepancy is attributed to scattering in the near-infrared. In Orion and Sgr A, where comparisons are possible, the measurements are in good agreement with 10 micron polarization measurements.

  18. Non-LTE diagnositics of infrared radiation of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Kutepov, Alexander; Vinatier, Sandrine; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrew; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Yelle (1991) and Garcia-Comas et al, (2011) demonstrated the importance of accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) breakdown in the middle and upper atmosphere of Titan for the interpretation of infrared radiances measured at these heights. In this work, we make further advance in this field by: • updating the non-LTE model of CH4 emissions in Titan's atmosphere and including a new extended database of CH4 spectroscopic parameters • studying the non-LTE CH4 vibrational level populations and the impact of non-LTE on limb infrared emissions of various CH4 ro-vibrational bands including those at 7.6 and 3.3 µm • implementing our non-LTE model into the LTE-based retrieval algorithm applied by Vinatier et al., (2015) for processing the Cassini/CIRS spectra. We demonstrate that accounting for non-LTE leads to an increase in temperatures retrieved from CIRS 7.6 µm limb emissions spectra (˜10 K at 600 km altitude) and estimate how this affects the trace gas density retrieval. Finally, we discuss the effects of including a large number of weak one-quantum and combinational bands on the calculated daytime limb 3.3 µm emissions and the impact they may have on the CH4 density retrievals from the Cassini VIMS 3.3 µm limb emission observations.

  19. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  20. Infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films to pulsed, broadband synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Quijada, M.; Tanner, D.B.; Etemad, S.; DeRosa, F.; Venkatesan, T.; Dutta, B.; Hemmick, D.; Xi, X.

    1990-01-01

    We report studies of a thin high T c film operating as a fast bolometric detector of infrared radiation. The film has a response of infrared radiation. The film has a response of several mV when exposed to a 1 W, 1 ns duration broadband infrared pulse. The decay after the pulse was about 4 ns. The temperature dependence of the response accurately tracked dR/dT. A thermal model, in which the film's temperature varies relative to the substrate, provides a good description of the response. We find no evidence for other (non-bolometric) response mechanisms for temperatures near or well below T c . 13 refs., 4 figs

  1. Numerical study on similarity of plume infrared radiation between reduced-scale solid rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the similarities in plume radiation between reduced and full-scale solid rocket models in ground test conditions through investigation of flow and radiation for a series of scale ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1. The radiative transfer equation (RTE considering gas and particle radiation in a non-uniform plume has been adopted and solved by the finite volume method (FVM to compute the three dimensional, spectral and directional radiation of a plume in the infrared waveband 2–6 μm. Conditions at wavelengths 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm are discussed in detail, and ratios of plume radiation for reduced-scale through full-scale models are examined. This work shows that, with increasing scale ratio of a computed rocket motor, area of the high-temperature core increases as a 2 power function of the scale ratio, and the radiation intensity of the plume increases with 2–2.5 power of the scale ratio. The infrared radiation of plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of Al2O3 particles shows spectral continuity of gray media. Spectral radiation intensity of a computed solid rocket plume’s high temperature core increases significantly in peak radiation spectra of plume gases CO and CO2. Al2O3 particles are the major radiation component in a rocket plume. There is good similarity between contours of plume spectral radiance from different scale models of computed rockets, and there are two peak spectra of radiation intensity at wavebands 2.7–3.0 μm and 4.2–4.6 μm. Directed radiation intensity of the entire plume volume will rise with increasing elevation angle.

  2. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  3. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-06-10

    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  4. A Numerical Simulation for Prediction of Infrared Radiation Emitted from Plain Surfaces with Different Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakilabadi K.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, infrared radiation exiting plain surfaces with different geometries is numerically simulated. Surfaces under consideration are assumed to have steady uniform heat generation inside. Moreover, the boundaries of the surfaces are considered to be at the surroundings temperature. Infrared radiation is calculated based on the temperature profile determined for the surface. The temperature profile of the surface is determined assuming the two dimensional heat conduction equations to govern the problem. The physical domain is transformed into the appropriate computational domain and the governing equation is mapped into the suitable forms in the new coordinate system of variables. After that the temperature profile of the surface is computed, the infrared radiation distribution of the surface is evaluated based on the equations given in the manuscript. The temperature profile as well as the IR images are given in the results section. It is concluded that the maximum value of infrared radiation of the surface occurs at the center. Moreover, it is concluded that among surfaces with equal areas, the one having the largest perimeter has the least value of IR at its center.

  5. High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) for the Nimbus F Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flown on Nimbus F in June 1975, the high resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS) scans with a geographical resolution of 23KM and samples radiance in seventeen selected spectral channels from visible (.7 micron) to far IR (15 micron). Vertical temperature profiles and atmospheric moisture content can be inferred from the output. System operation and test results are described.

  6. Radiation-induced growth and isothermal decay of infrared-stimulated luminescence from feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guralnik, Benny; Li, Bo; Jain, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    the growth and decay of laboratory-regenerated luminescence signals. Here we review a selection of common models describing the response of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) of feldspar to constant radiation and temperature as administered in the laboratory. We use this opportunity to introduce...

  7. University Physics Students' Ideas of Thermal Radiation Expressed in Open Laboratory Activities Using Infrared Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Melander, Emil; Weiszflog, Matthias; Andersson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Background: University physics students were engaged in open-ended thermodynamics laboratory activities with a focus on understanding a chosen phenomenon or the principle of laboratory apparatus, such as thermal radiation and a heat pump. Students had access to handheld infrared (IR) cameras for their investigations. Purpose: The purpose of the…

  8. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

  9. Mapping the infrared background radiation from the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D.; Fazio, G. G.; Traub, W. A.; Urban, E. W.; Katz, L.; Rieke, G. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Poteet, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Spacelab-2 Small Helium-Cooled Infrared Telescope will be used to map extended astronomical sources of low surface brightness emission, to measure the Shuttle induced environment and to develop techniques for managing large volumes of superfluid helium in space. The instrument is an f/4 15.2-cm Herschelian telescope with ten photoconductor detectors in the focal plane. This paper describes the hardware and software aspects of the instrument with emphasis on mission operations. In particular, a description is given of the observing plan formulated to meet the scientific and engineering objectives, the scan drive system, the precautions in design and operation necessary to prevent the sun, moon, and earth from adversely affecting the observations, the implications of thruster firings, and the on-board experiment computer application software to control the scanning of the telescope and support on-board displays.

  10. Numerical Study on Similarity of Plume’s Infrared Radiation from Reduced Scaling Solid Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarity of plume radiation between reduced scaling solid rocket models and full scale ones in ground conditions has been taken for investigation. Flow and radiation of plume from solid rockets with scaling ratio from 0.1 to 1 have been computed. The radiative transfer equation (RTE is solved by the finite volume method (FVM in infrared band 2~6 μm. The spectral characteristics of plume gases have been calculated with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gas (WSGG model, and those of the Al2O3 particles have been solved by the Mie scattering model. Our research shows that, with the decreasing scaling ratio of the rocket engine, the radiation intensity of the plume decreases with 1.5~2.5 power of the scaling ratio. The infrared radiation of the plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of the Al2O3 particles shows grey property. Spectral radiation intensity of the high temperature core of the solid rocket plume increases greatly in the peak absorption spectrum of plume gases. Al2O3 particle is the major radiation composition in the rocket plume, whose scattering coefficient is much larger than its absorption coefficient. There is good similarity between spectral variations of plumes from different scaling solid rockets. The directional plume radiation rises with the increasing azimuth angle.

  11. The effect of clouds on the earth's solar and infrared radiation budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, G. F.; Wu, M.-L. C.; Johnson, W. T.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of global cloudiness on the solar and infrared components of the earth's radiation balance is studied in general circulation model experiments. A wintertime simulation is conducted in which the cloud radiative transfer calculations use realistic cloud optical properties and are fully interactive with model-generated cloudiness. This simulation is compared to others in which the clouds are alternatively non-interactive with respect to the solar or thermal radiation calculations. Other cloud processes (formation, latent heat release, precipitation, vertical mixing) were accurately simulated in these experiments. It is concluded that on a global basis clouds increase the global radiation balance by 40 W/sq m by absorbing longwave radiation, but decrease it by 56 W/sq m by reflecting solar radiation to space. The net cloud effect is therefore a reduction of the radiation balance by 16 W/sq m, and is dominated by the cloud albedo effect. Changes in cloud frequency and distribution and in atmospheric and land temperatures are also reported for the control and for the non-interactive simulations. In general, removal of the clouds' infrared absorption cools the atmosphere and causes additional cloudiness to occur, while removal of the clouds' solar radiative properties warms the atmosphere and causes fewer clouds to form. It is suggested that layered clouds and convective clouds over water enter the climate system as positive feedback components, while convective clouds over land enter as negative components.

  12. The status of the first infrared beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Te; Tong, Yajun; Zhu, Huachun; Zhang, Zengyan; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Min; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the first infrared beamline BL01B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was completed at the end of 2013. The IR beamline collects both edge radiation (ER) and bending magnet radiation (BMR) from a port, providing a solid angle of 40 mrad and 20 mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The optical layout of the infrared beamline and the design of the extraction mirror are described in this paper. A calculation of the beam propagation has been used to optimize the parameters of the optical components. The photon flux and spatial resolution have been measured at the end-station, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation

  13. The status of the first infrared beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Te; Tong, Yajun; Zhu, Huachun; Zhang, Zengyan; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Min, E-mail: chenmin@sinap.ac.cn; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-07-11

    Construction of the first infrared beamline BL01B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was completed at the end of 2013. The IR beamline collects both edge radiation (ER) and bending magnet radiation (BMR) from a port, providing a solid angle of 40 mrad and 20 mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The optical layout of the infrared beamline and the design of the extraction mirror are described in this paper. A calculation of the beam propagation has been used to optimize the parameters of the optical components. The photon flux and spatial resolution have been measured at the end-station, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  14. The status of the first infrared beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Te; Tong, Yajun; Zhu, Huachun; Zhang, Zengyan; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Min; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-07-01

    Construction of the first infrared beamline BL01B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was completed at the end of 2013. The IR beamline collects both edge radiation (ER) and bending magnet radiation (BMR) from a port, providing a solid angle of 40 mrad and 20 mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The optical layout of the infrared beamline and the design of the extraction mirror are described in this paper. A calculation of the beam propagation has been used to optimize the parameters of the optical components. The photon flux and spatial resolution have been measured at the end-station, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  15. Radiation effects in the infrared absorption and the silicon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groza, A.A.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Starchik, M.Yi.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the long-term studies of the silicon irradiated by the high-energy particles are systemised. Using of the electrons, protons, reactor neutrons for irradiation and the wide range of the fluence irradiation have given the possibility to the authors to obtain the information on the character of the formed damages in the lattice of the silicon, to compare the effectiveness of the different damage input depending on the irradiation type, to obtain the information on the radiation damage reconstruction, their impact to the oxygen impurity behaviour, which influences substantially as the silicon properties, as the devices characteristics to be developed on its base

  16. Infrared radiation emerging from smoke produced by brush fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Harshvardhan, M.

    1981-01-01

    The IR radiative transport properties of brush fire smoke clouds, computed for a model with finite horizontal dimensions as well as the more common plane-parallel model, are presented. The finite model is a three-dimensional version of the two-stream approximation applied to cubic clouds of steam, carbon, and silicates. Assumptions are made with regard to the shape and size distributions of the smoke particles. It is shown that 11.5-micron radiometry can detect fires beneath smoke clouds if the path integrated mass density of the smoke is less than or equal to 3 g/sq m.

  17. Dynamics of photoprocesses induced by femtosecond infrared radiation in free molecules and clusters of iron pentacarbonyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kompanets, V. O.; Lokhman, V. N.; Poydashev, D. G.; Chekalin, S. V.; Ryabov, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of photoprocesses induced by femtosecond infrared radiation in free Fe(CO) 5 molecules and their clusters owing to the resonant excitation of vibrations of CO bonds in the 5-μm range has been studied. The technique of infrared excitation and photoionization probing (λ = 400 nm) by femtosecond pulses has been used in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It has been found that an infrared pulse selectively excites vibrations of CO bonds in free molecules, which results in a decrease in the yield of the Fe(CO) 5 + molecular ion. Subsequent relaxation processes have been analyzed and the results have been interpreted. The time of the energy transfer from excited vibrations to other vibrations of the molecule owing to intramolecular relaxation has been measured. The dynamics of dissociation of [Fe(CO) 5 ] n clusters irradiated by femtosecond infrared radiation has been studied. The time dependence of the yield of free molecules has been measured under different infrared laser excitation conditions. We have proposed a model that well describes the results of the experiment and makes it possible, in particular, to calculate the profile of variation of the temperature of clusters within the “evaporation ensemble” concept. The intramolecular and intracluster vibrational relaxation rates in [Fe(CO) 5 ] n clusters have been estimated.

  18. Detecting ship targets in spaceborne infrared image based on modeling radiation anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei; Li, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Using infrared imaging sensors to detect ship target in the ocean environment has many advantages compared to other sensor modalities, such as better thermal sensitivity and all-weather detection capability. We propose a new ship detection method by modeling radiation anomalies for spaceborne infrared image. The proposed method can be decomposed into two stages, where in the first stage, a test infrared image is densely divided into a set of image patches and the radiation anomaly of each patch is estimated by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), and thereby target candidates are obtained from anomaly image patches. In the second stage, target candidates are further checked by a more discriminative criterion to obtain the final detection result. The main innovation of the proposed method is inspired by the biological mechanism that human eyes are sensitive to the unusual and anomalous patches among complex background. The experimental result on short wavelength infrared band (1.560 - 2.300 μm) and long wavelength infrared band (10.30 - 12.50 μm) of Landsat-8 satellite shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection accuracy with higher recall than other classical ship detection methods.

  19. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Frank S.; Hance, Albert B.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  20. Calculation of infrared radiation in the atmosphere by a numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, G.S.S.; Viswanadham, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical method is described for the calculations of the atmospheric infrared flux and radiative cooling rate in the atmosphere. It is suitable for use at all levels below lower stratosphere. The square root pressure correction factor is incorporated in the computation of the corrected optical depth. The water vapour flux emissivity data of Staley and Jurica are used in the model. The versatility of the computing scheme sugests that this method is adequate to evaluate infrared flux and flux divergence in the problems involving a large amount of atmospheric data. (Author) [pt

  1. The role of near infrared radiation in photoaging of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Peter; Haendeler, Judith; Krutmann, Jean

    2008-07-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is non-ionizing, electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760 nm and 1 mm, which is further divided into IRA, IRB and IRC. IR accounts for more than half of the solar energy that reaches the human skin. While IRB and IRC do not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of IRA reaches the dermis. Human skin is increasingly exposed to IRA-radiation; most relevant sources are (i) natural solar radiation consisting of over 30% IRA, (ii) artificial IRA sources used for therapeutic or wellness purposes and (iii) artificial UV sources contaminated with IRA. As part of natural sunlight, IRA significantly contributes to extrinsic skin aging. This article reviews the cutaneous effects of IRA-radiation, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the available protective strategies.

  2. Modeling of spectral atmosphere transmission for infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, B.; Olbrycht, R.

    2009-01-01

    IR radiation transmission of the atmosphere is an important factor during the thermovision remote sensing and measurement. Transmission coefficient of the atmosphere depends on its content and it is attenuated mainly due to the vapor concentration. Every calibrated thermal camera should be equipped with the digital system which implements the transmission model of the atmosphere. The model presented in this work is based on Beer and Bouguer laws. The proposed simplified model of transmission atmosphere is suitable for implementation in the thermal cameras. A simple digital controller of the camera can calculate the transmission coefficient and correct the temperature measurement. The model takes in account both scattering and absorption due the quantum effects when the photons are interacting with the molecules. (author)

  3. External radiation as element of improvement infrared thermography measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is a very versatile non destructive technique which among other uses, can be applied to the study of moisture in buildings. However, this particular application can present some problems strictly related to the characteristics of the thermocamera device. In this case the available equipment works in the IR range of 2.5 to 5.6 μm. In this part of the spectrum, there exists a small and not very intense band of emission of the water molecules (approximately centered at 2.7 μm, in such a way that detection can be difficult through thermovision. In the present paper, a complementary technique to the IR thermography being able of favouring the emission of water on the mentioned band, has been developed. It enhances the capacity of detection of the instrument. Likewise, the process which takes place in the material has been numerically modelled.

    La termografía infrarroja es una técnica no destructiva, muy versátil, que, entre otras aplicaciones, tiene la de ser capaz de suministrar información en torno a la problemática de las humedades en la edificación. Sin embargo, esta aplicación concreta puede presentar algunos problemas directamente relacionados con las propias características de la termocámara utilizada. En el caso del presente trabajo el equipo de termografía infrarroja manejado trabaja en el rango del espectro IR comprendido entre 2,5 y 5,6 μm. En esta región del espectro existe una pequeña y no muy intensa banda de emisión de las moléculas de agua (aproximadamente centrada en 2,7 μm cuya detección puede no ser fácil a través de la termovisión. En el presente trabajo se ha desarrollado una técnica complementaria a la termografía infrarroja que es capaz de favorecer la intensidad de emisión del agua en la región del espectro antes mencionada. En definitiva, dicha técnica estimula la capacidad de detección de la termocámara. Adicionalmente, el proceso hídrico que tiene lugar en el

  4. Infrared spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm−1 and new assignments of bands 2ν9 and ν5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-01-01

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO is important in atmospheric chemistry. It has been detected in the reaction of CH 2 I + O 2 with various spectral methods, including infrared spectroscopy; infrared absorption of CH 2 OO was recorded at resolution 1.0 cm −1 in our laboratory. We have improved our system and recorded the infrared spectrum of CH 2 OO at resolution 0.25 cm −1 with rotational structures partially resolved. Observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative intensities are improved from those of the previous report and agree well with those predicted with quantum-mechanical calculations using the MULTIMODE method on an accurate potential energy surface. Observed rotational structures also agree with the simulated spectra according to theoretical predictions. In addition to derivation of critical vibrational and rotational parameters of the vibrationally excited states to confirm the assignments, the spectrum with improved resolution provides new assignments for bands 2ν 9 at 1234.2 cm −1 and ν 5 at 1213.3 cm −1 ; some hot bands and combination bands are also tentatively assigned

  5. The search for Infrared radiation prior to major earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Taylor, P.; Pulinets, S.

    2004-12-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earth and increases in mid-IR flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. Recent analysis of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicates significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have use the NOAA IR data to differentiate between the global and seasonal variability and these transient local anomalies. Indeed, on the basis of a temporal and spatial distribution analysis, an anomaly pattern is found to occur several days prior some major earthquakes. The significance of these observations was explored using data sets of some recent worldwide events.

  6. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in biological imaging and photovoltaics. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb3+) , and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er3+ states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increases the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14 fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared, and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong columbic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-C; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep C; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-01-08

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in photovoltaics and biological imaging. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb(3+)), and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er(3+) states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increase the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb(3+) to Er(3+) ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14-fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong Coulombic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  8. Possible Mechanism of Infrared Radiation Reception: The Role of the Temperature Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachnev, I. L.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Podzorova, S. A.; Rogachevskii, I. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2018-02-01

    The role of the temperature factor in the mechanism of reception of the CO2 laser low-power infrared (IR) radiation (λ = 10.6 μm) by a sensory neuron membrane has been studied. Organotypic embryonic tissue culture has been used to measure and estimate the temperature of a sensory ganglia monolayer exposed to radiation at different energy densities. The effects of tissue exposure to low-power IR radiation have been investigated. It has been found that inhibition of tissue growth by radiation of low energy density (10-14-10-10 J/cm2) is replaced by tissue growth (10-7-10-4 J/cm2), and again followed by inhibition in the range of 0.1-6 J/cm2. A statistically significant specific reaction to nonthermal radiation has been detected at the radiation power density of 3 × 10-10 J/cm2, which is due to activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase transducer function. The mechanisms of interaction of IR radiation with embryonic nerve tissue have been considered. Low-power IR radiation with the wavelength of 10.6 μm has been demonstrated to specifically activate a novel signal transducer function of the sodium pump, which controls the reception of nonthermal IR radiation in the energy density range of 10-14 to 10-10 J/cm2.

  9. Thermal radiators with embedded pulsating heat pipes: Infra-red thermography and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemadri, Vadiraj A.; Gupta, Ashish; Khandekar, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of exploring potential applications of Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHP), for space/terrestrial sectors, experimental study of embedded PHP thermal radiators, having two different effective Biot numbers respectively, and subjected to conjugate heat transfer conditions on their surface, i.e., natural convection and radiation, has been carried out under different thermo-mechanical boundary conditions. High resolution infrared camera is used to obtain spatial temperature profiles of the radiators. To complement the experimental study, detailed 3D computational heat transfer simulation has also been undertaken. By embedding PHP structures, it was possible to make the net thermal resistance of the mild steel radiator plate equivalent to the aluminum radiator plate, in spite of the large difference in their respective thermal conductivities (k Al ∼ 4k MS ). The study reveals that embedded PHP structures can be beneficial only under certain boundary conditions. The degree of isothermalization achieved in these structures strongly depends on its effective Biot number. The relative advantage of embedded PHP is appreciably higher if the thermal conductivity of the radiator plate material itself is low. The study indicates that the effective thermal conductivity of embedded PHP structure is of the order of 400 W/mK to 2300 W/mK, depending on the operating conditions. - Research highlights: → Study of radiator plates with embedded Pulsating Heat Pipe by infrared thermography. → Radiator is subjected to natural convection and radiation boundary conditions. → Experimental study is supported by 3D simulation. → Effective thermal conductivity of PHPs of the order of 2000 W/mK is obtained. → Efficacy of embedded PHPs depends on the effective Biot number of the system.

  10. Planck intermediate results: XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.

    2014-01-01

    H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10-27 cm2 H-1 × (v/353 GHz) 1.53 ± 0.03for 100 ≤ v ≤ 353 GHz......The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared...... and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area...

  11. Design and calculation of low infrared transmittance and low emissivity coatings for heat radiative applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Da-Hai; Fan, Jin-Peng

    2012-02-01

    The infrared transmittance and emissivity of heat-insulating coatings pigmented with various structural particles were studied using Kubelka-Munk theory and Mie theory. The primary design purpose was to obtain the low transmittance and low emissivity coatings to reduce the heat transfer by thermal radiation for high-temperature applications. In the case of silica coating layers constituted with various structural titania particles (solid, hollow, and core-shell spherical), the dependence of transmittance and emissivity of the coating layer on the particle structure and the layer thickness was investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the coating pigmented with core-shell titania particles exhibits a lower infrared transmittance and a lower emissivity value than that with other structural particles and is suitable to radiative heat-insulating applications.

  12. Estimates of the generation of available potential energy by infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. R.; Nagle, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Data from the National Meteorological Center and net outgoing infrared radiation (IR) data measured by NOAA satellites for January 1977 are used to compute estimates of the spectral and spatial contributions to the net generation of available potential energy in the Northern Hemisphere due to infrared radiation. Although these estimates are necessarily crude, the results obtained indicate that IR causes destruction of both zonal and eddy available potential energy. The contributions from midlatitudes to the zonal and eddy generation are about -5.0 W/sq m and about -0.6 W/sq m, respectively. The eddy generation is due almost entirely to stationary wavenumbers one and two. Comparison with earlier studies and computation of Newtonian cooling coefficients are discussed.

  13. Solar panel thermal cycling testing by solar simulation and infrared radiation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    For the solar panels of the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites OTS/MAROTS and ECS/MARECS the thermal cycling tests were performed by using solar simulation methods. The performance data of two different solar simulators used and the thermal test results are described. The solar simulation thermal cycling tests for the ECS/MARECS solar panels were carried out with the aid of a rotatable multipanel test rig by which simultaneous testing of three solar panels was possible. As an alternative thermal test method, the capability of an infrared radiation method was studied and infrared simulation tests for the ultralight panel and the INTELSAT 5 solar panels were performed. The setup and the characteristics of the infrared radiation unit using a quartz lamp array of approx. 15 sq and LN2-cooled shutter and the thermal test results are presented. The irradiation uniformity, the solar panel temperature distribution, temperature changing rates for both test methods are compared. Results indicate the infrared simulation is an effective solar panel thermal testing method.

  14. Development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Birarda, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    2009/2010 ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY by Birarda Giovanni The detection and measurement of biological processes in a complex living system is a discipline at the edge of Physics, Biology, and Engineering, with major scientific challenges, new technological applications and a great potential impact on dissection of phenomena occurring at tissue, cell, and sub cellular level. The ...

  15. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  16. The effect of near-infrared MLS laser radiation on cell membrane structure and radical generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Jolanta; Pasternak, Kamila; Zavodnik, Ilya; Irzmański, Robert; Wróbel, Dominika; Bryszewska, Maria

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic effects of low-power laser radiation of different wavelengths and light doses are well known, but the biochemical mechanism of the interaction of laser light with living cells is not fully understood. We have investigated the effect of MLS (Multiwave Locked System) laser near-infrared irradiation on cell membrane structure, functional properties, and free radical generation using human red blood cells and breast cancer MCF-4 cells. The cells were irradiated with low-intensity MLS near-infrared (simultaneously 808 nm, continuous emission and 905 nm, pulse emission, pulse-wave frequency, 1,000 or 2,000 Hz) laser light at light doses from 0 to 15 J (average power density 212.5 mW/cm(2), spot size was 3.18 cm(2)) at 22 °C, the activity membrane bound acetylcholinesterase, cell stability, anti-oxidative activity, and free radical generation were the parameters used in characterizing the structural and functional changes of the cell. Near-infrared low-intensity laser radiation changed the acetylcholinesterase activity of the red blood cell membrane in a dose-dependent manner: There was a considerable increase of maximal enzymatic rate and Michaelis constant due to changes in the membrane structure. Integral parameters such as erythrocyte stability, membrane lipid peroxidation, or methemoglobin levels remained unchanged. Anti-oxidative capacity of the red blood cells increased after MLS laser irradiation. This irradiation induced a time-dependent increase in free radical generation in MCF-4 cells. Low-intensity near-infrared MLS laser radiation induces free radical generation and changes enzymatic and anti-oxidative activities of cellular components. Free radical generation may be the mechanism of the biomodulative effect of laser radiation.

  17. Near infrared radiation rescues mitochondrial dysfunction in cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhanyang; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Yadan; McCarthy, Thomas J.; Tedford, Clark E.; Lo, Eng H.; Wang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared radiation (NIR) is known to penetrate and affect biological systems in multiple ways. Recently, a series of experimental studies suggested that low intensity NIR may protect neuronal cells against a wide range of insults that mimic diseases such as stroke, brain trauma and neuro-degeneration. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection with NIR remain poorly defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that low intensity NIR may attenuate hypoxia/ischemia-...

  18. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the effects of simulated space radiation on a polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, J. E.; Long, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the effects of electron radiation on the polyimide PMDA-p,p-prime- ODA. The radiation exposures were made at various dose rates, for a total dose approximately equal to that for 30 years of exposure to electron radiation in geosynchronous earth orbit. At high dose rates the major effect was probably the formation of a polyisoimide or a charged quaternary amine, and at the low dose rates the effect was a reduction in the amount or aromatic ether linkage. In addition, the effects of dose rate for a small total dose were studied. Elevated temperatures occurred at high dose rates and were, in part, probably the cause of the radiation product. The data suggest that dose rates for accelerated simulations of the space environment should not exceed 100,000 rads/sec.

  19. Effects of Near Infrared Radiation on DNA. DLS and ATR-FTIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna; Komorowska, Małgorzata; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena

    2018-01-01

    We presume that the primary effect of Near Infrared (NIR) radiation on aqueous solutions of biological molecules concerns modification of hydrogen bonded structures mainly the global and the hydration shell water molecules. Since water has a significant influence on the DNA structure, we expect that the thermal stability of DNA could be modified by NIR radiation. The herring sperm DNA was exposed to NIR radiation (700-1100 nm) for 5, 10, and 20 min periods. The temperature dependent infrared measurements were done for the thin films formed on the diamond ATR crystal from evaporated DNA solutions exposed and unexposed to NIR radiation. For the NIR-treated samples (at room temperature) the B form was better conserved than in the control sample independently of the irradiation period. Above 50 °C a considerable increase in the A form was only observed for 10 min NIR exposed samples. The hydrodynamic radius, (Rh), studied by the dynamic light scattering, showed drastic decrease with the increasing irradiation time. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed to detect the spectral features correlated with the NIR effect and thermal stability of the DNA films. Obtained results strongly support the idea that the photoionization of water by NIR radiation in presence of DNA molecules is the main factor influencing on its physicochemical properties.

  20. Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Milz, Mathias; Buehler, Stefan A.; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric radiative transfer and remote sensing - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the 19 HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. The mutual differences of the equivalent brightness temperatures are presented and possible causes of disagreement are discussed. In particular, the impact of path integration schemes and atmospheric layer discretization is assessed. When the continuum absorption contribution is ignored because of the different implementations, residuals are generally in the sub-Kelvin range and smaller than 0.1 K for some window channels (and all atmospheric models and lbl codes). None of the three codes turned out to be perfect for all channels and atmospheres. Remaining discrepancies are attributed to different lbl optimization techniques. Lbl codes seem to have reached a maturity in the implementation of radiative transfer that the choice of the underlying physical models (line shape models, continua etc) becomes increasingly relevant.

  1. Infrared radiation increases skin damage induced by other wavelengths in solar urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gálvez, María Victoria; Aguilera, José; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Photodermatoses are typically investigated by analyzing the individual or combined effects of ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and visible light using light sources that simulate portions of the solar spectrum. Infrared radiation (IRR), however, accounts for 53% of incident solar radiation, but its effects are not taken into account in standard phototest protocols. The aim was to analyze the effects of IRR, alone and combined with UVA and visible light on solar urticaria lesions, with a distinction between infrared A (IRA) and infrared B (IRB). We performed standard phototests with UVA and visible light in four patients with solar urticaria and also tested the effects after blocking IRB with a water filter. To analyze the direct effect of IRR, we performed phototests with IRA and IRB. Initial standard phototests that were all positive found the induction of erythema and whealing, while when IRR was blocked from the UVA and visible light sources, three of the patients developed no lesions, while the fourth developed a very small wheal. These results suggest that IRR has the potential to produce and exacerbate lesions caused by other types of radiation. Consideration of these effects during phototesting could help prevent diagnostic errors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Determining the infrared radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative transfer modelling study based on vertically resolved measurements at Lampedusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Daniela; di Sarra, Alcide; Brogniez, Gérard; Denjean, Cyrielle; De Silvestri, Lorenzo; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Formenti, Paola; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Mallet, Marc; Pace, Giandomenico; Sferlazzo, Damiano M.

    2018-03-01

    Detailed measurements of radiation, atmospheric and aerosol properties were carried out in summer 2013 during the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) campaign in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) experiment. This study focusses on the characterization of infrared (IR) optical properties and direct radiative effects of mineral dust, based on three vertical profiles of atmospheric and aerosol properties and IR broadband and narrowband radiation from airborne measurements, made in conjunction with radiosonde and ground-based observations at Lampedusa, in the central Mediterranean. Satellite IR spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) are also included in the analysis. The atmospheric and aerosol properties are used as input to a radiative transfer model, and various IR radiation parameters (upward and downward irradiance, nadir and zenith brightness temperature at different altitudes) are calculated and compared with observations. The model calculations are made for different sets of dust particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index (RI), derived from observations and from the literature. The main results of the analysis are that the IR dust radiative forcing is non-negligible and strongly depends on PSD and RI. When calculations are made using the in situ measured size distribution, it is possible to identify the refractive index that produces the best match with observed IR irradiances and brightness temperatures (BTs). The most appropriate refractive indices correspond to those determined from independent measurements of mineral dust aerosols from the source regions (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco) of dust transported over Lampedusa, suggesting that differences in the source properties should be taken into account. With the in situ size distribution and the most appropriate refractive index the estimated dust IR radiative forcing

  3. Effect of infrared and X-ray radiation on thymus cells and the rate of growth of Ehrlich carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukina, A R; Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Romanchenko, S P; Sorokina, S S

    2012-09-01

    We studied the effect of infrared light with a wavelength of 850 nm and modulated frequency of 101 Hz and X-ray radiation on the induction of cross-adaptive and radiation responses in the thymus and on the rate of tumor growth in mice in vivo. Preliminary exposure to infrared and X-ray radiation was shown to result in recovery in thymus weight after irradiation in a dose of 1.5 Gy and also inhibited the growth rate of Ehrlich carcinoma. These data attest to common mechanisms of the adaptive response induced by infrared and X-ray radiation in mice. Infrared light can be used as an adaptogen to adapt the animals to adverse factors.

  4. [Effects of Light Near-Infrared Radiation on Rats Assessed by Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity in Lymphocytes on Blood Smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunderyakova, N V; Zakharchenko, A V; Zakharchenko, M V; Muller, H; Fedotcheva, I; Kondrashova, M N

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of light near infrared radiation (850 nm), with modulation acoustic frequency of 101 Hz, was studied. The study was conducted on rats, the effect was recorded by succinate dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes on the blood smear after administration of the activating dose of adrenaline, which simulates the state of the organism in the early stages of the pathogenic effects (stress). A pronounced regulating effect of infrared radiation on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in animals activated by adrenaline was shown. Infrared radiation has a normalizing effect reducing the degree of inhibition or activation of the enzyme induced by adrenaline and had no effect on the control animals. Thus, by modulating the activity of succinate dehydrogenase infrared radiation regulates energy production in the mitochondria supported by the most powerful oxidation substrate--succinic acid, which is especially pronounced under stress.

  5. Observation of an intermediate state in psi (3684) radiative cascade decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, W.; Whitaker, J.S.; Abrams, G.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Chinowsky, W.; Feldman, G.J.; Friedberg, C.E.; Fryberger, D.; Goldhaber, G.; Hanson, G.; Hartill, D.L.; Jean-Marie, B.; Kadyk, J.A.; Larsen, R.R.; Litke, A.M.; Luke, D.; Lulu, B.A.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Pierre, F.M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Sadoulet, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Trilling, G.H.; Vannucci, F.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Wiss, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    We present evidence for the existence of an intermediate state observed in the decay sequence psi(3684) → psi(3095)γγ. The mass of the state is either 3500+-10 or 3270+-10 MeV. The branching fraction of the sequence is (3.6+-0.7)%

  6. Blanchability and sensory quality of large runner peanuts blanched in a radiant wall oven using infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Katrina; Adhikari, Koushik; Singh, Rakesh K

    2017-10-01

    The main factors behind the growing popularity of infrared radiation heating in food processing include its energy efficiency, food quality retention and process speed, as well as the simplicity of equipment. Infrared radiation was employed as an alternative heat treatment to the conventional hot air method used in peanut blanching. The present study aimed to investigate the application of infrared heating for blanching peanuts and determine their blanchability and sensory quality under various processing conditions. The total blanchabilities (expressed as a percentage of total blanched) of the infrared radiation trials (radiant wall oven) at 343 °C for 1.5 min, 316 °C for 1.5 min, 288 °C for 1.5 min and 343 °C for 1 min did not differ significantly compared to the hot air control trials (impingement oven) at 100 °C for 30 and 20 min. All infrared trials had significantly lower (P infrared samples demonstrated the possible initiation of oxidation for the conventionally blanched sample at 18 weeks of storage at 24 °C (room temperature), with no indication of oxidation in the infrared samples stored at the same temperature. Infrared radiation peanut blanching is a viable alternative to conventional hot air blanching because of the shorter process time and longer shelf-life, as evident from the sensory storage study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The evaluation of non-ionizing radiation (near-infrared radiation) based medical imaging application: Diabetes foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Jin; Shin, Cheol Won; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Jun Yong; Ahn, Yun Jin; Lim, Cheong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation (NIR) is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and deep tissue penetration in biological material, thereby increasing research interests as a medical imaging technique in the world. However, the use of current near-infrared medical image is extremely limited in Korea (ROK) since it is not well known among radiologic technologists and radiological researchers. Therefore to strengthen the knowledge for NIR medical imaging is necessary so as to prepare a qualified radiological professionals to serve medical images in high-quality on the clinical sites. In this study, an overview of the features and principles of N IR imaging was demonstrated. The latest research topics and worldwide research trends were introduced for radiologic technologist to reinforce their technical skills. In particular, wound care and diabetic foot which have high feasibility for clinical translation were introduced in order to contribute to accelerating NIR research for developing the field of radiological science

  8. The evaluation of non-ionizing radiation (near-infrared radiation) based medical imaging application: Diabetes foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheol Won; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Jun Yong; Ahn, Yun Jin; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Near-infrared radiation (NIR) is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and deep tissue penetration in biological material, thereby increasing research interests as a medical imaging technique in the world. However, the use of current near-infrared medical image is extremely limited in Korea (ROK) since it is not well known among radiologic technologists and radiological researchers. Therefore to strengthen the knowledge for NIR medical imaging is necessary so as to prepare a qualified radiological professionals to serve medical images in high-quality on the clinical sites. In this study, an overview of the features and principles of N IR imaging was demonstrated. The latest research topics and worldwide research trends were introduced for radiologic technologist to reinforce their technical skills. In particular, wound care and diabetic foot which have high feasibility for clinical translation were introduced in order to contribute to accelerating NIR research for developing the field of radiological science.

  9. Resistance of Feather-Associated Bacteria to Intermediate Levels of Ionizing Radiation near Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Gonz?lez, Mario Xavier; Czirj?k, G?bor ?rp?d; Genevaux, Pierre; M?ller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Heeb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been shown to produce negative effects on organisms, although little is known about its ecological and evolutionary effects. As a study model, we isolated bacteria associated with feathers from barn swallows Hirundo rustica from three study areas around Chernobyl differing in background ionizing radiation levels and one control study site in Denmark. Each bacterial community was exposed to four different ? radiation doses ranging from 0.46 to 3.96 kGy to test whether ch...

  10. Probe And Enhancement Of SBS Based Phonons In Infrared Fibers Using Waveguide Coupled External Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.

    1989-06-01

    Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.

  11. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm -1 . Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes

  12. Seedling establishment and distribution of direct radiation in slit-shaped openings of Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brang, P.

    1996-01-01

    Direct radiation is crucial for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling establishment in high-montane and subalpine spruce forests. Fisheye photography was used to estimate the daily distribution of direct radiation in small forest openings on a north-northwest and a south facing slope near Sedrun (Grisons, Switzerland). In slit-shaped openings on the north-northwest facing slope long sunflecks mostly occurred in the afternoon, when the sun shines parallel to the slit axis. This is in accordance to the silvicultural intention. However, since the stands are clumpy and therefore pervious to sunlight, the daily sunfleck distribution is fairly even notwithstanding the slit orientation, and direct radiation at noon is the dominant form of incident energy. In small circular to rectangular openings on the south facing slope direct radiation peaks at noontide. A seeding trial imitating natural seedling establishment was set in place in openings on both slopes. Based on this trial, the relations among seedling establishment, aspect, slit shape, size, and orientation are discussed for Norway spruce forests in the intermediate Alps. The directional weather factors such as radiation and precipitation can be highly influenced by slits, which is why suitable microclimate for seedling establishment can be promoted provided the slits are oriented appropriately. Slits in which the most insolated edges are oriented windward are especially favourable

  13. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  14. Report on the Radiation Effects Testing of the Infrared and Optical Transition Radiation Camera Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Presented in this report are the results tests performed at Argonne National Lab in collaboration with Los Alamos National Lab to assess the reliability of the critical 99Mo production facility beam monitoring diagnostics. The main components of the beam monitoring systems are two cameras that will be exposed to radiation during accelerator operation. The purpose of this test is to assess the reliability of the cameras and related optical components when exposed to operational radiation levels. Both X-ray and neutron radiation could potentially damage camera electronics as well as the optical components such as lenses and windows. This report covers results of the testing of component reliability when exposed to X-ray radiation. With the information from this study we provide recommendations for implementing protective measures for the camera systems in order to minimize the occurrence of radiation-induced failure within a ten month production run cycle.

  15. Long wavelength infrared radiation thermometry for non-contact temperature measurements in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, J.; Zipf, M.; Stark, T.; Arduini, M.; Ebert, H.-P.; Tutschke, A.; Hallam, A.; Hanspal, J.; Langley, M.; Hodge, D.; Hartmann, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the EU project "Sensors Towards Advanced Monitoring and Control of Gas Turbine Engines (acronym STARGATE)" is the development of a suite of advanced sensors, instrumentation and related systems in order to contribute to the developing of the next generation of green and efficient gas turbine engines. One work package of the project deals with the design and development of a long wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation thermometer for the non-contact measurement of the surface temperature of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) during the operation of gas turbine engines. For opaque surfaces (e.g. metals or superalloys) radiation thermometers which are sensitive in the near or short wavelength infrared are used as state-of-the-art method for non-contact temperature measurements. But this is not suitable for oxide ceramic based TBCs (e.g. partially yttria stabilized zirconia) as oxide ceramics are semi-transparent in the near and short wavelength infrared spectral region. Fortunately the applied ceramic materials are non-transparent in the long wavelength infrared and additionally exhibit a high emittance in this wavelength region. Therefore, a LWIR pyrometer can be used for non-contact temperature measurements of the surfaces of TBCs as such pyrometers overcome the described limitation of existing techniques. For performing non-contact temperature measurements in gas turbines one has to know the infrared-optical properties of the applied TBCs as well as of the hot combustion gas in order to properly analyse the measurement data. For reaching a low uncertainty on the one hand the emittance of the TBC should be high (>0.9) in order to reduce reflections from the hot surrounding and on the other hand the absorbance of the hot combustion gas should be low (<0.1) in order to decrease the influence of the gas on the measured signal. This paper presents the results of the work performed by the authors with focus on the implementation of the LWIR pyrometer and the

  16. Drying of Agricultural Products Using Long Wave Infrared Radiation(Part 2). Drying of Welsh Onion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Han, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to clarify the intermittent drying characteristics for welsh onion use of long-wave infrared radiation. When compared with two other methods: use of air and vacuum freezing, this method showed significantly high rate of drying. The experiments were carried out analyzing the influence of different lengths of the welsh onion, different rate of radiation and different temperature of the airflow. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The rate of drying increases as the length of welsh onion decrease and the rate of radiation increase. 2. The airflow, temperature does not influence to the rate of drying. 3. The increasing of the drying time considerably aggravate the quality the dried welsh onion

  17. Infrared radiation scene generation of stars and planets in celestial background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Hong, Yaohui; Xu, Xiaojian

    2014-10-01

    An infrared (IR) radiation generation model of stars and planets in celestial background is proposed in this paper. Cohen's spectral template1 is modified for high spectral resolution and accuracy. Based on the improved spectral template for stars and the blackbody assumption for planets, an IR radiation model is developed which is able to generate the celestial IR background for stars and planets appearing in sensor's field of view (FOV) for specified observing date and time, location, viewpoint and spectral band over 1.2μm ~ 35μm. In the current model, the initial locations of stars are calculated based on midcourse space experiment (MSX) IR astronomical catalogue (MSX-IRAC) 2 , while the initial locations of planets are calculated using secular variations of the planetary orbits (VSOP) theory. Simulation results show that the new IR radiation model has higher resolution and accuracy than common model.

  18. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  19. Shifting of infrared radiation using rotational raman resonances in diatomic molecular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for shifting the frequency of infrared radiation from a CO.sub.2 laser by stimulated Raman scattering in either H.sub.2 or D.sub.2. The device of the preferred embodiment comprises an H.sub.2 Raman laser having dichroic mirrors which are reflective for 16 .mu.m radiation and transmittive for 10 .mu.m, disposed at opposite ends of an interaction cell. The interaction cell contains a diatomic molecular gas, e.g., H.sub.2, D.sub.2, T.sub.2, HD, HT, DT and a capillary waveguide disposed within the cell. A liquid nitrogen jacket is provided around the capillary waveguide for the purpose of cooling. In another embodiment the input CO.sub.2 radiation is circularly polarized using a Fresnel rhomb .lambda./4 plate and applied to an interaction cell of much longer length for single pass operation.

  20. Third harmonic generation of high power far infrared radiation in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, M [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-04-01

    We investigated the third harmonic generation of high power infrared radiation in doped semiconductors with emphasis on the conversion efficiency. The third harmonic generation effect is based on the nonlinear response of the conduction band electrons in the semiconductor with respect to the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. Because this work is directed towards a proposed application in fusion plasma diagnostics, the experimental requirements for the radiation source at the fundamental frequency are roughly given as follows: a wavelength of the radiation at the fundamental frequency in the order of 1 mm and an incident power greater than 1 MW. The most important experiments of this work were performed using the high power far infrared laser of the CRPP. With this laser a new laser line was discovered, which fits exactly the source specifications given above: the wavelength is 676 {mu}m and the maximum power is up to 2 MW. Additional experiments were carried out using a 496 {mu}m laser and a 140 GHz (2.1 mm) gyrotron. The main experimental progress with respect to previous work in this field is, in addition to the use of a very high power laser, the possibility of an absolute calibration of the detectors for the far infrared radiation and the availability of a new type of detector with a very fast response. This detector made it possible to measure the power at the fundamental as well as the third harmonic frequency with full temporal resolution of the fluctuations during the laser pulse. Therefore the power dependence of the third harmonic generation efficiency could be measured directly. The materials investigated were InSb as an example of a narrow gap semiconductor and Si as standard material. The main results are: narrow gap semiconductors indeed have a highly nonlinear electronic response, but the narrow band gap leads at the same time to a low power threshold for internal breakdown, which is due to impact ionization. figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Quantitative proteomics reveals middle infrared radiation-interfered networks in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Li, Ming-Hua; Huang, Tsui-Chin; Hsu, Chia-Lang; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Lee, Si-Chen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2015-02-06

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer-related causes of death worldwide. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is complex and challenging, especially when metastasis has developed. In this study, we applied infrared radiation as an alternative approach for the treatment of TNBC. We used middle infrared (MIR) with a wavelength range of 3-5 μm to irradiate breast cancer cells. MIR significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells. We performed iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the MIR-triggered molecular mechanisms in breast cancer cells. A total of 1749 proteins were identified, quantified, and subjected to functional enrichment analysis. From the constructed functionally enriched network, we confirmed that MIR caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability. Our results reveal the coordinative effects of MIR-regulated physiological responses in concentrated networks, demonstrating the potential implementation of infrared radiation in breast cancer therapy.

  2. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-04-01

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  3. Radiative transfer in spherical circumstellar dust envelopes. III. Dust envelope models of some well known infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiative transfer techniques described elsewhere by the author have been employed to construct dust envelope models of several well known infrared stars. The resulting calculations indicate that the infrared emissivity of circumstellar grains generally must be higher than that which many calculations of small nonsilicate grains yield. This conclusion is dependent to some degree on the (unknown) size of the stellar envelopes considered, but is quite firm in the case of the spatially resolved envelope of IRC+10216. Further observations of the spatial distribution of the infrared radiation from stellar envelopes will be invaluable in deciphering the properties of the circumstellar grains

  4. Infrared spectrophotometry and radiative transfer in optically thick circumstellar dust envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Two-Micron Sky Survey of Neugebauer and Leighton and, more recently, the AFCRL Infrared Sky Survey of Walker and Price have detected numerous compact, isolated, bright infrared sources which are not identified with previously cataloged stars. Observations of many such objects suggest that extensive circumstellar dust envelopes modify the flux from a central source. The present investigations employ broad bandpass photometry at lambda lambda 1.65 μm to 12.5 μm and narrow bandpass spectrophotometry (Δ lambda/lambda approximately 0.015) at lambda lambda 2-4 μm and lambda lambda 8-13 μm to determine the properties of a large sample of such infrared sources. Infrared spectrophotometry can clearly differentiate between normal stars of spectral types M(''oxygen-rich'') and C (''carbon-rich'') on the basis of characteristic absorption bands arising in cool stellar atmospheres. Most of the 2 μ Sky Survey and many of the AFCRL Sky Survey sources appear to be stars of spectral types M and C which are differentiated from normal cool comparison stars only by the presence of extensive circumstellar dust envelopes. Due to the large optical depth of the envelopes, the flux from the star and from the dust cannot be simply separated. Hence solutions of radiative transfer through spherically symmetric envelopes of arbitrary optical depth were generated by a generalized computer code which employed opacities of real dust

  5. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  6. The SILENE reactor: an instrument suitable for studying the impact of intermediate and high radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verray, B.; Leo, Y.; Fouillaud, P.

    2002-01-01

    Designed in 1974 to study the phenomenology and consequences of a criticality accident, the SILENE experimental reactor, an intense source of mixed neutron and gamma radiation, is also suited to radiobiological studies. (author)

  7. Online process control of a pharmaceutical intermediate in a fluidized-bed drier environment using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märk, Julia; Karner, Martin; Andre, Max; Rueland, Jochen; Huck, Christian W

    2010-05-15

    In the production plant of an antibiotic substance, a new fluidized-bed drier has been installed. For online process control of the drying progress and determination of the ideal drying end point, a continuous near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) measuring setup was implemented to rapidly and simultaneously gain all essential product information. A bypass system outside the drier combined with a robust process probe proved to provide the best sampling system geometry. The spectrometer was equipped with an additional laboratory probe for complementary offline analysis. Multivariate calibrations for product assay, water content, and residual solvent were calculated, optimized, and compared for the two probes. The final root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) for the process probe could be reduced to 0.81% for the product assay, 0.25% for water, and 0.06% for acetone. The laboratory-probe prediction values show good agreement with reference data during the testing period. The calibrations of the process probe were checked by comparing its predictions to those of the validated laboratory probe. The monitoring system could be automated to a large extent, and product quality could be improved considerably. The established technology is of high importance for the pharmaceutical industry carrying out high-throughput routine analysis because of its advantages in terms of of time and cost reductions.

  8. Terahertz and infrared Smith-Purcell radiation from Babinet metasurfaces: Loss and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chang, Huiting; Zhang, Chi; Song, Yanan; Hu, Xinhua

    2017-10-01

    When a charged particle moves close and parallel to the surface of a Babinet metasurface composed of metallic C -aperture resonators, strong electromagnetic radiation arises at resonant frequency. Here we systematically study the Smith-Purcell effects in Babinet metasurfaces with different periods. By tuning the period, the resonant (or working) frequency of the metasurface can vary from GHz to THz and infrared ranges. It is found that for working frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the ratio of absorption loss to input power is about 3.7%. Although the loss ratio increases with increasing working frequency, it remains as low as 11% (29%) at a working frequency of 10 THz (224 THz). Due to the existence of loss, a nonlinear relationship is also found between resonant frequency and the reciprocal of period. Our results suggest that Babinet metasurfaces could be a good candidate for fabricating efficient, compact THz and infrared free-electron light sources.

  9. A correlated-k model of radiative transfer in the near-infrared windows of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.C.C.; Irwin, P.G.J.; Taylor, F.W.; Wilson, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a correlated-k-based model for generating synthetic spectra in the near-infrared window regions, from 1.0 to 2.5 μm, emitted from the deep atmosphere of Venus on the nightside. This approach is applicable for use with any near-infrared instrument, ground-based and space-borne, for analysis of the thermal emissions in this spectral range. We also approach this work with the view of using the model, in conjunction with a retrieval algorithm, to retrieve minor species from the Venus Express/VIRTIS instrument. An existing radiative-transfer model was adapted for Venusian conditions to deal with the prevailing high pressures and temperatures and other conditions. A comprehensive four-modal cloud structure model based on Pollack et al. [Near-infrared light from venus' nightside: a spectroscopic analysis. Icarus 1993;103:1-42], using refractive indices for a 75% H 2 SO 4 25% H 2 O mixture from Palmer and Williams [Optical constants of sulfuric acid; application to the clouds of Venus? Appl Opt 1975;14(1):208-19], was also implemented. We then utilized a Mie scattering algorithm to account for the multiple scattering effect between cloud and haze layers that occur in the Venusian atmosphere. The correlated-k model is shown to produce good agreement with ground-based spectra of Venus in the near infrared, and to match the output from a line-by-line radiative-transfer model to better than 10%

  10. Performance of the HIRS/2 instrument on TIROS-N. [High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) was developed and flown on the TIROS-N satellite as one means of obtaining atmospheric vertical profile information. The HIRS/2 receives visible and infrared spectrum radiation through a single telescope and selects 20 narrow radiation channels by means of a rotating filter wheel. A passive radiant cooler provides an operating temperature of 106.7 K for the HgCdTe and InSb detectors while the visible detector operates at instrument frame temperature. Low noise amplifiers and digital processing provide 13 bit data for spacecraft data multiplexing and transmission. The qualities of system performance that determine sounding capability are the dynamic range of data collection, the noise equivalent radiance of the system, the registration of the air columns sampled in each channel and the ability to upgrade the calibration of the instrument to maintain the performance standard throughout life. The basic features, operating characteristics and performance of the instrument in test are described. Early orbital information from the TIROS-N launched on October 13, 1978 is given and some observations on system quality are made.

  11. An intelligent approach for cooling radiator fault diagnosis based on infrared thermal image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Ahmadi, Hojjat; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Mollazade, Kaveh; Russell Smith, Alan John; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new intelligent fault diagnosis and condition monitoring system for classification of different conditions of cooling radiator using infrared thermal images. The system was adopted to classify six types of cooling radiator faults; radiator tubes blockage, radiator fins blockage, loose connection between fins and tubes, radiator door failure, coolant leakage, and normal conditions. The proposed system consists of several distinct procedures including thermal image acquisition, image pre-processing, image processing, two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), feature extraction, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA), and finally classification by artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 2D-DWT is implemented to decompose the thermal images. Subsequently, statistical texture features are extracted from the original images and are decomposed into thermal images. The significant selected features are used to enhance the performance of the designed ANN classifier for the 6 types of cooling radiator conditions (output layer) in the next stage. For the tested system, the input layer consisted of 16 neurons based on the feature selection operation. The best performance of ANN was obtained with a 16-6-6 topology. The classification results demonstrated that this system can be employed satisfactorily as an intelligent condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for a class of cooling radiator. - Highlights: • Intelligent fault diagnosis of cooling radiator using thermal image processing. • Thermal image processing in a multiscale representation structure by 2D-DWT. • Selection features based on a hybrid system that uses both GA and ANN. • Application of ANN as classifier. • Classification accuracy of fault detection up to 93.83%

  12. Investigation of the intermediate LK molecular orbital radiation in heavy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, W.; Kaun, K.-H.; Manfrass, P.

    1981-01-01

    The continuum consisting of an intensive low-energy and a high-energy components in heavy-ion atom collision systems with atomic numbers Z 1 , Z 2 > 28 is studied. The aim of the study is to prove that the C1 continuum cannot be caused by ridiative electron capture (REC) being molecular orbital (MO) radiation to the 2ptau level. It is shown that the comparison of the C1 yields obtained in Kr+Nb asymmetric collisions in gas and solid targets is associated with the formation of vacancies in the lower-Z collision partner and can be interpreted as quasimolecular radiation to the 2ptau orbital level. The strong suppression of the C2 component in the gas target experimets indicates that the MO radiation to the 1stau orbit is emitted preferentially in the two-collision process in symmetric and near-symmetric systems with Z 1 , Z 2 [ru

  13. Soil moisture estimation using reflected solar and emitted thermal infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. D.; Cihlar, J.; Estes, J. E.; Heilman, J. L.; Kahle, A.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Millard, J.; Price, J. C.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Classical methods of measuring soil moisture such as gravimetric sampling and the use of neutron moisture probes are useful for cases where a point measurement is sufficient to approximate the water content of a small surrounding area. However, there is an increasing need for rapid and repetitive estimations of soil moisture over large areas. Remote sensing techniques potentially have the capability of meeting this need. The use of reflected-solar and emitted thermal-infrared radiation, measured remotely, to estimate soil moisture is examined.

  14. Covering that selectively absorbs visible and infrared radiation, and method for the production thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes, Eva; Prieto, C.; Escobar Galindo, R.; Sánchez-García, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to a covering that selectively absorbs visible and infrared radiation, which comprises: (a) a first anti-diffusion barrier layer (2); (b) an IR-reflecting metallic layer (3) made from at least one metallic element selected from a group comprising Au, Ag, Al, Cu, Ti and Pt; (c) at least a second anti-diffusion barrier layer (4) formed by oxidation of the layer (3); (d) a structure that absorbs in the UV-VIS range, which comprises at least a first film (5) and...

  15. Energy conservation. Purposeful regulation and control systems for gas infrared radiation heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitsch, L [GoGaS Goch G.m.b.H. und Co., Dortmund (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    Gas infrared radiators have been in use for a long time for heating large halls of trade and industrial buildings as well as sport centers. The success of this heating system is based mainly on considerably reduced energy consumption as against convective heating systems. However, the biggest energy savings can be achieved when heating systems of this kind are equipped with regulation and control systems which are adapted to the way the rooms are used. Solutions to problems are described and information is given for planning.

  16. Extinction of visible and infrared radiation in rain Comparison of theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, C. W.; Atlas, D.

    1985-01-01

    A critical review is given of the experimental and theoretical results concerning the measurement of rainfall using optical extinction, i.e., the attenuation of radiation with wavelength less than or equal to that of the infrared band. It is shown that rainfall rates found from an empirical relation involving optical extinction generally display average deviations without regard for sign of only 25 percent when compared with those measured by raingages directly beneath the optical beam. It is also shown that the differences between experimental and theoretical results can be explained in terms of variations of the shape of the raindrop size distribution, i.e., deviations from exponentiality.

  17. Analysis of the selected mechanical parameters of coating of filters protecting against hazardous infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Owczarek, Grzegorz; Kubrak, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    This article presents a comparison of the test results of selected mechanical parameters (hardness, Young's modulus, critical force for delamination) for protective filters intended for eye protection against harmful infrared radiation. Filters with reflective metallic films were studied, as well as interference filters developed at the Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB). The test results of the selected mechanical parameters were compared with the test results, conducted in accordance with a standardised method, of simulating filter surface destruction that occurs during use.

  18. Reducing the Harmful Effects of Infrared Radiation on the Skin Using Bicosomes Incorporating β-Carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Fajarí, Lluís; Rodríguez, Gelen; Cócera, Mercedes; Moner, Verónica; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; de la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In this work the effect of infrared (IR) radiation, at temperatures between 25 and 30°C, on the formation of free radicals (FRs) in the skin is studied. Additionally, the influence of IR radiation at high temperatures in the degradation of skin collagen is evaluated. In both experiments the protective effect against IR radiation of phospholipid nanostructures (bicosomes) incorporating β-carotene (Bcb) is also evaluated. The formation of FRs in skin under IR exposure was measured near physiological temperatures (25-30°C) using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The study of the collagen structure was performed by small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. EPR results showed an increase in the hydroxyl radical in the irradiated skin compared to the native skin. The skin collagen was degraded by IR exposure at high temperatures of approximately 65°C. The treatment with Bcb reduced the formation of FRs and kept the structure of collagen. The formation of FRs by IR radiation does not depend on the increase of skin temperature. The decrease of FRs and the preservation of collagen fibers in the skin treated with Bcb indicate the potential of this lipid system to protect skin under IR exposure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF EMBEDDED SUPER STAR CLUSTERS: PREDICTIONS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A.; Wood, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    With high-resolution infrared data becoming available that can probe the formation of high-mass stellar clusters for the first time, appropriate models that make testable predictions of these objects are necessary. We utilize a three-dimensional radiative transfer code, including a hierarchically clumped dusty envelope, to study the earliest stages of super star cluster (SSC) evolution. We explore a range of parameter space in geometric sequences that mimic the hypothesized evolution of an embedded SSC. The inclusion of a hierarchically clumped medium can make the envelope porous, in accordance with previous models and supporting observational evidence. The infrared luminosity inferred from observations can differ by a factor of two from the true value in the clumpiest envelopes depending on the viewing angle. The infrared spectral energy distribution also varies with viewing angle for clumpy envelopes, creating a range in possible observable infrared colors and magnitudes, silicate feature depths, and dust continua. General observable features of cluster evolution differ between envelopes that are relatively opaque or transparent to mid-infrared photons. For optically thick envelopes, evolution is marked by a gradual decline of the 9.8 μm silicate absorption feature depth and a corresponding increase in the visual/ultraviolet flux. For the optically thin envelopes, clusters typically begin with a strong hot dust component and silicates in emission, and these features gradually fade until the mid-infrared polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features are predominant. For the models with a smooth dust distribution, the Spitzer MIPS or Herschel PACS [70]-[160] color is a good probe of the stellar mass relative to the total mass or star formation efficiency (SFE). Likewise, the IRAC/MIPS [3.6]-[24] color can be used to constrain the R in and R out values of the envelope. However, clumpiness confuses the general trends seen in the smooth dust distribution models, making it

  20. A study on radiation shield design of storage facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, JJahirul Haque

    2005-02-01

    Bangladesh has no nuclear power reactor but has only one 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy commission (BAEC) operates a 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor and maintains not only the nuclear facilities at its Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar (near Dhaka) but also the related radiation facilities the whole country. The main sources of radioactive wastes result from the use of sealed and unsealed radiation sources in medicine industry, research, agriculture, etc as well as from operation and maintenance of the nuclear facilities the whole country. As a result radioactive wastes are increasing day by day and these wastes are classified as low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) following the radiation safety philosophy of IAEA recommendations in Bangladesh. Radioactive waste is very sensitive issue to public and environment from the hazardous standpoint of ionizing radiation. Therefore, storage facility of LILW is very essential for safe radioactive waste management in Bangladesh and in parallel: this study is of a great importance due to new installation of this storage facility in future. The basic objective of this study is to recommend the radiation shield design parameters of the installation of storage facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the points of view of radiation safety and sensitivity analysis. The shield design of this installation has been carried out with the Monte Carlo Code MCNP4C and the point Kernel Code Micro Shield 5.05 respectively considering the ICRP-60 (1990) recommendations for occupational exposure limit (10 μ Sv/hr). For more safety purpose every equivalent dose rate at different positions of this installation is considered below 9 μ Sv/hr in this study. The radiation shield design parameters are recommended based on MCNP4C calculated results than those of Micro Shield due to more credible results and these parameters are: (I) 51 cm thickness of

  1. Another intermediate in the photochemistry and radiation chemistry of alkaline aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telser, T.; Schindewolf, U.

    1985-01-01

    By UV flash photolytic and pulse radiolytic experiments of aqueous alkaline solutions we confirm older experiments of Walker et al. and Hart et al., showing that the decay of hydrated electrons gives rise to another intermediate X which by light absorption revives hydrated electrons again. X is formed by a reaction of 1. order with respect to hydrated electrons, the rate of its formation increases with pH, and it decays by a second order process with a rate constant not exceeding 5 . 10 9 M -1 sec -1 , probably leading to hydrogen (e - ->X; 2X->H 2 ). X has maximum light absorption around 270 nm with an extinction coefficient of about 5000 M -1 cm -1 . We will not speculate about the nature of X. (orig.)

  2. Status of the solar and infrared radiation submodels in the LLNL 1-D and 2-D chemical-transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, K.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have implemented a series of state of the art radiation transport submodels in previously developed one dimensional and two dimensional chemical transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere. These submodels provide the capability of calculating accurate solar and infrared heating rates. They are a firm basis for further radiation submodel development as well as for studying interactions between radiation and model dynamics under varying conditions of clear sky, clouds, and aerosols. 37 refs., 3 figs

  3. The polarization of the far-infrared radiation from the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M. W.; Davidson, J. A.; Morris, M.; Novak, G.; Platt, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The first detection of linear polarization of the far-infrared (100-micron) radiation from the about 3-pc-diameter dust ring surrounding the galactic nucleus is reported. The percentage of polarization is between 1 and 2 percent at the three measured positions. It is argued that the polarized radiation is produced by thermal emission from elongated interstellar grains oriented by the local magnetic field. The dust ring is optically thin at 100 microns; therefore the observations sample dust through the entire depth of the cloud and are free of confusing effects due to embedded sources, scattering, or selective absorption. These data provide the first information about the configuration of the magnetic field in the dust ring.

  4. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcherikova, V.V.; Klimakov, B.D.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Vajnson, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose [ru

  5. The effects of radiation (beta/gamma and alpha) on cemented intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.V.C.; Wilding, C.R.

    1990-02-01

    A worldwide review of what has been published on the effects of radiation on cemented ILW has been carried out where properties such as composition and volume of any gas evolved/absorbed, physical properties, chemical evolution and dose rate were considered. It is clear that only a superficial knowledge of the underlying reasons for radiolytic effects exist although there is sufficient data to enable quantities of gas a function of storage time to be predicted. If long term predictions of behaviour are to be made then the understanding of basic radiation chemistry of cement grout needs to be developed in parallel with the wider study of understanding the effects at the elevated temperatures expected to be present in a repository. (author)

  6. Investigation of radiant millimeter wave/terahertz radiation from low-infrared signature targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç, B.; Alkuş, Ü.; Sivaslıgil, M.; Şahin, A. B.; Altan, H.

    2017-10-01

    Millimeter (mm) and sub-mm wave radiation is increasingly becoming a region of interest as better methods are developed to detect in this wavelength range. The development of sensitive focal plane array (FPA) architectures as well as single pixel scanners has opened up a new field of passive detection and imaging. Spectral signatures of objects, a long standing area of interest in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave (MWIR) and Long Wave-IR (LWIR) bands can now be assessed in the mm-wave/terahertz (THz) region. The advantage is that this form of radiation is not as adversely affected by poor atmospheric conditions compared to other bands. In this study, a preliminary experiment in a laboratory environment is performed to assess the radiance from targets with low infrared signatures in the millimeter wave/terahertz (THz) band (<1 THz). The goal of this approach is to be able to model the experimental results to better understand the mm-wave/THz signature of targets with low observability in the IR bands.

  7. Mesoscopic modeling of the response of human dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Ramos, Marta; Stoneham, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Ablation of human dental enamel, a composite biomaterial with water pores, is of significant importance in minimally invasive laser dentistry but progress in the area is hampered by the lack of optimal laser parameters. We use mesoscopic finite element models of this material to study its response to mid-infrared radiation. Our results indicate that the cost-effective, off-the-shelf CO2 laser at λ = 10.6 μm may in fact ablate enamel precisely, reproducibly and with limited unwanted side effects such as cracking or heating, provided that a pulse duration of 10 μs is used. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm), currently popular for laser dentistry, may in fact cause unwanted deep cracking in the enamel when regions with unusually high water content are irradiated, and also provide an explanation for the large range of ablation threshold values observed for this material. The model may be easily adapted to study the response of any composite material to infrared radiation and thus may be useful for the scientific community.

  8. Middle infrared radiation induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in A549 lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Shih, Meng-Her; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3-5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G(2)/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression.

  9. BISERM version 2. Nuclear data library for evaluation of radiation effects in materials induced by neutrons of intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.A.; Stankovsky, A.Yu.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the cross-section data library for studies of radiation effects induced by intermediate energy neutrons. The library contains hydrogen, helium-3 and helium-4 production cross-sections as well as nonelastic and total displacement cross-sections for neutrons in the energy range from threshold to 1 GeV. The cross-sections are given for 259 isotopes from 27 Al to 209 Bi. All this information is given in 18 compressed files plus one file with the catalogue of the data. The library was composed at the Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. It is available on one PC diskette from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section costfree upon request. It requires 4 Mb of disk space after decompression. (author)

  10. Photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe and chrysanthemum to radiation by an infrared lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, C.H.; Lee, S.B.; Jeong, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a low intensity infrared radiation on the growth and photoperiodic responses of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Taos’, and Dendranthema grandiflorum ‘Lemon Eye’ grown in growth chambers. In the first experiment, uniformly-rooted cuttings of ‘Kaluna’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transplanted to 10 cm pots. After a week, pots were transferred from greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers. All chambers were maintained at 25 ± 1 and 70% RH with an 8 hours photoperiod (760 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), provided by high pressure sodium and white fluorescent lamps. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), while the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent lamp (10 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ) or an infrared lamp (15 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 ), respectively. Shoot length, root length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of branches, fresh weight, and dry weight were measured after eight weeks. Flowering occurred on plants maintained in the unlit darkness and under an incandescent lamp during the night period, while only vegetative growth was observed under an infrared lamp. In the second experiment, cuttings of uniformly-rooted ‘Taos’ and ‘Lemon Eye’ were selected and transferred from the greenhouse to three environment-controlled growth chambers with the same environment setting as in the first experiment at a week after potting. During the night period one chamber was left unlit (darkness), the second and third ones were lit with an incandescent or an infrared heating lamp, both at a 0.3 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 PPFD level. After nine weeks, flowering in all treatments was observed, but was slightly delayed under an incandescent and an infrared heating lamp. Because both the incandescent lamp and the infrared lamp slightly delayed flowering in these two species, a more detailed experiment is necessary to find out at which

  11. Time Resolved Detection of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Drago, A.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Pace, E.; Piccinini, M.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is characterized by a very wide spectral emission from IR to X-ray wavelengths and a pulsed structure that is a function of the source time structure. In a storage ring, the typical temporal distance between two bunches, whose duration is a few hundreds of picoseconds, is on the nanosecond scale. Therefore, synchrotron radiation sources are a very powerful tools to perform time-resolved experiments that however need extremely fast detectors. Uncooled IR devices optimized for the mid-IR range with sub-nanosecond response time, are now available and can be used for fast detection of intense IR sources such as synchrotron radiation storage rings. We present here different measurements of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission at DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ-factory for Nice Experiments), the collider of the Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), performed with very fast uncooled infrared detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds. We resolved the emission time structure of the electron bunches of the DAΦNE collider when it works in a normal condition for high energy physics experiments with both photovoltaic and photoconductive detectors. Such a technology should pave the way to new diagnostic methods in storage rings, monitoring also source instabilities and bunch dynamics

  12. [Research on infrared radiation characteristics of skin covering two acupuncture points in the hand and forearm, NeiGuan and LaoGong points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Yu, Wenlong; Cui, Han; Shi, Huafeng; Jin, Lei

    2013-06-01

    In order to research the infrared radiation characteristics of the skin covering Traditional Chinese acupuncture points, which are NeiGuan in the forearm and LaoGong in the center of the palm, we detected continuously the infrared radiation spectra of the human body surface by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that firstly, the differences of the infrared radiation spectra of the human body surface were obvious between individuals. Secondly, the infrared radiation intensity of the human body surface changed with time changing. The infrared radiation intensity in two special wavelength ranges (wavelengths from 6. 79 microm to 6. 85 microm and from 13. 6 microm to 14. 0 microm) changed much more than that in other ranges obviously. Thirdly, the proportions of the infrared radiation spectra changed, which were calculated from the spectra of two different aupuncture points, were same in these two special wavelength ranges, but their magnitude changes were different. These results suggested that the infrared radiation of acupuncture points have the same biological basis, and the mechanism of the infrared radiation in these two special wavelength ranges is different from other tissue heat radiation.

  13. Third harmonic generation of high power far infrared radiation in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this work we investigated the third harmonic generation of high power infrared radiation in doped semiconductors with emphasis on the conversion efficiency. The third harmonic generation effect is based on the nonlinear response of the conduction band electrons in the semiconductor with respect to the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. Because this work is directed towards a proposed application in fusion plasma diagnostics, the experimental requirements for the radiation source at the fundamental frequency are roughly given as follows: a wavelength of the radiation at the fundamental frequency in the order of 1 mm and an incident power greater than 1 MW. The most important experiments of this work were performed using the high power far infrared laser of the CRPP. With this laser a new laser line was discovered, which fits exactly the source specifications given above: the wavelength is 676 μm and the maximum power is up to 2 MW. Additional experiments were carried out using a 496 μm laser and a 140 GHz (2.1 mm) gyrotron. The main experimental progress with respect to previous work in this field is, in addition to the use of a very high power laser, the possibility of an absolute calibration of the detectors for the far infrared radiation and the availability of a new type of detector with a very fast response. This detector made it possible to measure the power at the fundamental as well as the third harmonic frequency with full temporal resolution of the fluctuations during the laser pulse. Therefore the power dependence of the third harmonic generation efficiency could be measured directly. The materials investigated were InSb as an example of a narrow gap semiconductor and Si as standard material. The main results are: narrow gap semiconductors indeed have a highly nonlinear electronic response, but the narrow band gap leads at the same time to a low power threshold for internal breakdown, which is due to impact ionization. (author) figs

  14. Magnetic field dependence of microwave radiation in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1984-01-01

    furnish the current and field dependence of the oscillation configuration, from which can be calculated average voltages, frequencies, and power spectra. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement with regard to the lobe structure of the height of the first zero-field step and/or second...... Fiske step in magnetic field and the field dependence of the radiation frequency within the various lobes, including details such as hysteresis between lobes. The simulations predict an alternation of the dominant frequency component with increasing field that accounts well for the experimental...

  15. Bifurcation and extinction limit of stretched premixed flames with chain-branching intermediate kinetics and radiative loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huangwei; Chen, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Premixed counterflow flames with thermally sensitive intermediate kinetics and radiation heat loss are analysed within the framework of large activation energy. Unlike previous studies considering one-step global reaction, two-step chemistry consisting of a chain branching reaction and a recombination reaction is considered here. The correlation between the flame front location and stretch rate is derived. Based on this correlation, the extinction limit and bifurcation characteristics of the strained premixed flame are studied, and the effects of fuel and radical Lewis numbers as well as radiation heat loss are examined. Different flame regimes and their extinction characteristics can be predicted by the present theory. It is found that fuel Lewis number affects the flame bifurcation qualitatively and quantitatively, whereas radical Lewis number only has a quantitative influence. Stretch rates at the stretch and radiation extinction limits respectively decrease and increase with fuel Lewis number before the flammability limit is reached, while the radical Lewis number shows the opposite tendency. In addition, the relation between the standard flammability limit and the limit derived from the strained near stagnation flame is affected by the fuel Lewis number, but not by the radical Lewis number. Meanwhile, the flammability limit increases with decreased fuel Lewis number, but with increased radical Lewis number. Radical behaviours at flame front corresponding to flame bifurcation and extinction are also analysed in this work. It is shown that radical concentration at the flame front, under extinction stretch rate condition, increases with radical Lewis number but decreases with fuel Lewis number. It decreases with increased radiation loss.

  16. The role of p53 in radiation therapy outcomes for favorable-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Mark A.; Gilchrist, Kennedy W.; Voytovich, Marta; Chappell, Richard J.; Verhoven, Bret M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Some prostate cancers may have molecular alterations that render them less responsive to radiation therapy; identification of these alterations before treatment might allow improved treatment optimization. This study investigated whether p53, a potential molecular determinant, could predict long-term radiation therapy outcome in a restricted group of relatively favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated uniformly with irradiation alone. Methods and Materials: This study included 53 patients previously treated with radiotherapy for favorable-to-intermediate-risk prostate cancer. These patients were selected for relatively low pretreatment PSAs (≤21 ng/mL) and Gleason scores (≤7) to decrease the likelihood of nonlocalized disease, because disease localization was necessary to examine the efficacy of localized radiation therapy. The status of p53 was immunohistochemically assessed in paraffin-embedded pretreatment biopsy specimens, along with appropriate controls. This marker was selected based upon a usable mutation prevalence in early-stage prostate cancer and its potential linkage with radiation response via cell cycle, DNA repair, and cell death pathways. Correlation between p53 mutation and clinical outcome was analyzed in univariate and multivariate fashion and included conventional prognosticators, such as stage, grade, and PSA. Freedom from biochemical failure was determined using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology criteria. Limitations of prior studies were potentially avoided by requiring adequate posttreatment follow-up (median follow-up in nonfailing patients of 5.1 years), as well as pretreatment PSA and Gleason scores that suggested localized disease, and uniformity of treatment. Results: The total group of 53 favorable-to-intermediate-risk patients demonstrated an actuarial biochemical failure rate of 35% at 5 years. Forty percent of all specimens had a greater than 10% labeling index for p53 mutation, and

  17. Non-thermal near-infrared exposure photobiomodulates cellular responses to ionizing radiation in human full thickness skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Anke; Zöller, Nadja; Kippenberger, Stefan; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Layer, Paul G; Heselich, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing and near-infrared radiation are both part of the therapeutic spectrum in cancer treatment. During cancer therapy ionizing radiation is typically used for non-invasive reduction of malignant tissue, while near-infrared photobiomodulation is utilized in palliative medical approaches, e.g. for pain reduction or impairment of wound healing. Furthermore, near-infrared is part of the solar wavelength spectrum. A combined exposure of these two irradiation qualities - either intentionally during medical treatment or unintentionally due to solar exposure - is therefore presumable for cancer patients. Several studies in different model organisms and cell cultures show a strong impact of near-infrared pretreatment on ionizing radiation-induced stress response. To investigate the risks of non-thermal near-infrared (NIR) pretreatment in patients, a human in vitro full thickness skin models (FTSM) was evaluated for radiation research. FTSM were pretreated with therapy-relevant doses of NIR followed by X-radiation, and then examined for DNA-double-strand break (DSB) repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Double-treated FTSM revealed a clear influence of NIR on X-radiation-induced stress responses in cells in their typical tissue environment. Furthermore, over a 24h time period, double-treated FTSM presented a significant persistence of DSBs, as compared to samples exclusively irradiated by X-rays. In addition, NIR pretreatment inhibited apoptosis induction of integrated fibroblasts, and counteracted the radiation-induced proliferation inhibition of basal keratinocytes. Our work suggests that cancer patients treated with X-rays should be prevented from uncontrolled NIR irradiation. On the other hand, controlled double-treatment could provide an alternative therapy approach, exposing the patient to less radiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of ultraviolet and far infrared radiation on microbial decontamination and quality of cumin seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğdu, S Belgin; Ekiz, H İbrahim

    2011-01-01

    Cumin seeds might be exposed to a high level of natural bacterial contamination, and this could potentially create a public health risk besides leading to problems in exportation. Ultraviolet (UVC) and far infrared (FIR) radiation has low penetration power, and due to that, there might be no detrimental defects to the products during a possible decontamination process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of UVC and FIR treatment on microbial decontamination and quality of cumin seeds. For this purpose, FIR treatment at different exposure times and temperatures were applied followed by constant UVC treatment with an intensity of 10.5 mW/cm² for 2 h. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria of the cumin seeds were decreased to the target level of 10⁴ CFU/g after 1.57, 2.8, and 4.8 min FIR treatment at 300, 250, and 200 °C, respectively, following a 2 h UVC treatment. Under the given conditions, a complete elimination for total yeast and molds were obtained while there were no significant changes in volatile oil content and color of the cumin seeds. Consequently, combined UVC and FIR treatment was determined to be a promising method for decontamination of the cumin seeds. This research attempts to apply UVC and far infrared (FIR) radiation for pasteurization of cumin seeds. The data suggested that combined UVC and FIR radiation treatments can become a promising new method for pasteurization of cumin seeds without causing any detrimental defect to the quality parameters. The results of this industry partnered (Kadioglu Baharat, Mersin, Turkey--http://www.kadioglubaharat.com) study were already applied in industrial scale production lines. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The effects of radiation on intermediate-level wasteforms: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, C.R.; Phillips, D.C.; Lyon, C.E.; Burnay, S.G.; Winter, J.A.; Spindler, W.E.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a programme carried out on the evaluation of the effects of radiation on organic ion exchangers in cement, mixed ion exchangers in modified vinyl ester polymer, immobilised fuel hull residues in cement, incinerator ash in cement and combustible PCM in cement. Both β/γ and α irradiation experiments were carried out over a range of dose rates. Cracking and spallation can occur over a wide range of water/cement ratios at a high dose rate of 3.0 Gy s -1 for grouts based on blast furnace slag compositions. Gas pressurisation is the most likely mechanism for the damage. Cement pore water extracted from irradiated samples of combustible PCM had a pH of 9.8 after 9.0 MGy compared to 13.0 for unirradiated controls. (author)

  20. Glow discharge, its sensitivity to infra-red radiation. Observations made during the testing of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.B.; Souten, K.H.; O'Hagan, B.

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that under glow discharge conditions, multiwire proportional chambers are sensitive to infra-red radiation. Discharge current measurements and light change measurements have been made and the effect of the input window on the output signal and the importance of the finish of the anode and HT wires have been investigated. From these observations it would appear that a glow discharge in the form detailed in this report is sensitive to infra-red radiation though work is still required to optimise the parameters of such a device for IR detection or solar cell technology. (UK)

  1. Solid state spectroscopy by using of far-infrared synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanba, Takao [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-07-01

    If the spectroscopic system corresponding to the wavelength region required for experiment is installed, the light source with continuous wavelength is to be obtainable by synchrotron radiation. This report is that of the research on solid state spectroscopy using the ordinary incoherent synchrotron radiation which is obtained from the deflection electromagnet parts of electron storage ring. At present in the world, the facilities which can be utilized in far-infrared spectroscopy region are five, including the UVSOR of Molecular Science Research Institute in Japan. The optical arrangement of the measuring system of the UVSOR is shown. The spectrum distribution of the light passing through the pinholes with different diameter in the place of setting samples was compared in case of the UVSOR and a high pressure mercury lamp, and it was shown that synchrotron radiation has high luminance. The researches on solid state spectroscopy carried out in the above mentioned five facilities are enumerated. In this paper, the high pressure spectroscopic experiment which has been carried out at the UVSOR is reported. The observation of the phase transition of fine particles and the surface phonons of fine particles are described. As fine particle size became smaller, the critical pressure at which phase transition occurred was high. (K.I.)

  2. Nonuniformity correction of infrared cameras by reading radiance temperatures with a spatially nonhomogeneous radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutschwager, Berndt; Hollandt, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel method of nonuniformity correction (NUC) of infrared cameras and focal plane arrays (FPA) in a wide optical spectral range by reading radiance temperatures and by applying a radiation source with an unknown and spatially nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution. The benefit of this novel method is that it works with the display and the calculation of radiance temperatures, it can be applied to radiation sources of arbitrary spatial radiance temperature distribution, and it only requires sufficient temporal stability of this distribution during the measurement process. In contrast to this method, an initially presented method described the calculation of NUC correction with the reading of monitored radiance values. Both methods are based on the recording of several (at least three) images of a radiation source and a purposeful row- and line-shift of these sequent images in relation to the first primary image. The mathematical procedure is explained in detail. Its numerical verification with a source of a predefined nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution and a thermal imager of a predefined nonuniform FPA responsivity is presented. (paper)

  3. The effects of narrow-band middle infrared radiation in enhancing the antitumor activity of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Huang, Pei-Shen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is used as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of ionization radiation therapy; however, high-energy radiation often damages the healthy cells surrounding cancer cells. Low-energy, middle-infrared radiation (MIR) has been shown to prevent tissue damage, and recent studies have begun combining MIR with paclitaxel. However, the cytotoxic effects of this treatment combination remain unclear, and the mechanism underlying its effects on HeLa cells has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the effectiveness of treating HeLa human cervical cancer cells with a combination of paclitaxel for 48 h in conjunction with narrow-band MIR from 3.0 to 5.0 μm. This combined treatment significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells. Specifically, results from Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection and cell mitochondrial membrane potential analyses revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. One possible mechanism underlying cellular apoptosis is an increase in oxidative stress. These preliminary findings provide evidence to support the combination of narrow-band MIR with paclitaxel as an alternative approach in the treatment of human cervical cancer.

  4. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  5. Application and possible mechanisms of combining LLLT (low level laser therapy), infrared hyperthermia and ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Edward H.; Woo, Van H.; Harlin-Jones, Cheryl; Heselich, Anja; Frohns, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Benefit of concomitant infrared hyperthermia and low level laser therapy and ionizing radiation is evaluated in this study. The purpose/objectives: presentation with locally advanced bulky superficial tumors is clinically challenging. To enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy) and/or electron beam therapy we have developed an inexpensive and clinically effective infrared hyperthermia approach that combines black-body infrared radiation with halogen spectrum radiation and discrete wave length infrared clinical lasers LLLT. The goal is to produce a composite spectrum extending from the far infrared to near infrared and portions of the visible spectrum with discrete penetrating wavelengths generated by the clinical infrared lasers with frequencies of 810 nm and/or 830 nm. The composite spectrum from these sources is applied before and after radiation therapy. We monitor the surface and in some cases deeper temperatures with thermal probes, but use an array of surface probes as the limiting safe thermal constraint in patient treatment while at the same time maximizing infrared entry to deeper tissue layers. Fever-grade infrared hyperthermia is produced in the first centimeters while non-thermal infrared effects act at deeper tissue layers. The combination of these effects with ionizing radiation leads to improved tumor control in many cancers.

  6. Cis- and trans-perfluorodecalin: Infrared spectra, radiative efficiency and global warming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, Karine; DeZeeuw, Jasmine; Godin, Paul J.; Strong, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorodecalin (PFD) is a molecule used in various medical applications for its capacity to dissolve gases. This potent greenhouse gas was detected for the first time in the atmosphere in 2005. We present infrared absorption cross-section spectra of a pure vapour of cis- and trans-perfluorodecalin at a resolution of 0.1 cm-1. Measurements were performed in the 560-3000 cm-1 spectral range using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The spectra have been compared with previous experimental data and theoretical calculations by density functional theory. The new experimental absorption cross-sections have been used to calculate a lifetime-corrected radiative efficiency at 300 K of 0.62 W m-2 ppb-1 and 0.57 W.m-2.ppb-1 for the cis and trans isomers respectively. This leads to a 100-year time horizon global warming potential of 8030 for cis-PFD and 7440 for trans-PFD.

  7. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for low- and low-intermediate risk prostate cancer: Is there a dose effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jay Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the efficacy and toxicity of two stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT dose regimens for treatment of early prostate cancer. Forty-one patients treated with 35 Gy were matched with 41 patients treated with 36.25 Gy. Both patient groups received SBRT in 5 fractions over 5 consecutive days using the CyberKnife. Each group had 37 low-risk patients and 4 intermediate-risk patients. No statistically significant differences were present for age, prostate volume, PSA, Gleason score, stage, or risk between the groups. The dose was prescribed to the 83-87% isodose line to cover the prostate and a 5-mm margin all around, except 3 mm posteriorly. The overall median follow-up is 51 months (range, 45-58 months with a median 54 months and 48 months follow-up for the 35-Gy and 36.25-Gy dose groups, respectively. One biochemical failure occurred in each group yielding a 97.5% freedom from biochemical failure. The PSA response has been favorable for all patients with a mean PSA of 0.1 ng/ml at 4-years. Overall toxicity has been mild with 5% late grade 2 rectal toxicity in both dose groups. Late grade 1 urinary toxicity was equivalent between groups; grade 2 urinary toxicity was 5% (2/41 patients and 10% (4/41 patients in the 35-Gy and 36.25-Gy dose groups (p = 0.6969, respectively. Overall, the highly favorable PSA response, limited biochemical failures, limited toxicity, and limited impact on quality of life in these low- to low-intermediate-risk patients are supportive of excellent long-term results for CyberKnife delivered SBRT.

  8. Effect of Infrared Radiation on the Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Sadeghi Moghadam, Ali; Shariati, Abdalali; karimi, Hamid; Haghighizadeh, Mohamad Hossien

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcer is a worldwide health care concern affecting tens of thousands of patients. If these ulcers left untreated, they can create severe complications. Objectives This study was designed to examine the effect of infrared radiation on the healing of diabetic foot ulcer. Patients and Methods This clinical trial was performed on 50 patients referred to Dr. Ganjavian hospital in Dezful city, Iran, with diabetic foot ulcer degree 1 and 2 (based on Wegener Scale). Sample size was determined based on relevant studies of the recent decade. Patients were classified into the intervention and control groups (n = 25 in each group) in terms of age, gender, degree of ulcer, ulcer site and body mass index. In this study, work progress was evaluated according to the checklist of diabetic foot ulcer healing evaluation. Results The results of the current study showed that there was a statistically significant difference in healing ulcers (P < 0.05) and mean healing time (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusions Using the infrared plus routine dressing is more effective than using merely routine dressing. PMID:27942260

  9. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M; Herd, M T; Lawler, J E

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (T c ). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  10. Mathematical modeling of the drying of orange bagasse associating the convective method and infrared radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Sánchez-Sáenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mathematical modeling enables dimensioning of dryers, optimization of drying conditions and the evaluation of process performance. The aim of this research was to describe the behavior of orange bagasse drying using Page's and Fick's second law models, and to assess activation energy (using Arrhenius equation, moisture content, water activity and bulk density of product at the end of the process. The drying experimental assays were performed in 2011 with convective air temperature between 36 and 64 ºC and infrared radiation application time in the range from 23 to 277 s in accordance with the experimental central composite rotatable design. Analysis of variance and F-test were applied to results. At the end of the drying process, moisture content was about 0.09 to 0.87 db and water activity was between 0.25 and 0.87. Bulk density did not vary under studied conditions. Empirical Page's model demonstrated better representation of experimental data than the Fick's model for spheres. Activation energy values were about 18.491; 14.975 and 11.421 kJ mol-1 for infrared application times of 60; 150 e 244 s, respectively.

  11. Dust Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Infrared Ring around the Magnetar SGR 1900+14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natale, G. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; Girart, J. M. [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC–CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans S/N, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Lazzati, D. [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, 301 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Perna, R., E-mail: gnatale@uclan.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A peculiar infrared ring-like structure was discovered by Spitzer around the strongly magnetized neutron star SGR 1900+14. This infrared (IR) structure was suggested to be due to a dust-free cavity, produced by the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) Giant Flare occurring in 1998, and kept illuminated by surrounding stars. Using a 3D dust radiative transfer code, we aimed to reproduce the emission morphology and the integrated emission flux of this structure assuming different spatial distributions and densities for the dust, and different positions for the illuminating stars. We found that a dust-free ellipsoidal cavity can reproduce the shape, flux, and spectrum of the ring-like IR emission, provided that the illuminating stars are inside the cavity and that the interstellar medium has high gas density ( n {sub H} ∼ 1000 cm{sup −3}). We further constrain the emitting region to have a sharp inner boundary and to be significantly extended in the radial direction, possibly even just a cavity in a smooth molecular cloud. We discuss possible scenarios for the formation of the dustless cavity and the particular geometry that allows it to be IR-bright.

  12. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  13. Nighttime Infrared radiative cooling and opacity inferred by REMS Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano, María; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot; Lepinette, Alain; Sebastián, Eduardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    Due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere, the temperature of the surface is controlled primarily by solar heating, and infrared cooling to the atmosphere and space, rather than heat exchange with the atmosphere. In the absence of solar radiation the infrared (IR) cooling, and then the nighttime surface temperatures, are directly controlled by soil termal inertia and atmospheric optical thickness (τ) at infrared wavelengths. Under non-wind conditions, and assuming no processes involving latent heat changes in the surface, for a particular site where the rover stands the main parameter controlling the IR cooling will be τ. The minimal ground temperature values at a fixed position may thus be used to detect local variations in the total dust/aerosols/cloud tickness. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) and Air Temperature Sensor (ATS) in the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover provides hourly ground and air temperature measurements respectively. During the first 100 sols of operation of the rover, within the area of low thermal inertia, the minimal nightime ground temperatures reached values between 180 K and 190 K. For this season the expected frost point temperature is 200 K. Variations of up to 10 K have been observed associated with dust loading at Gale at the onset of the dust season. We will use these measurements together with line-by-line radiative transfer simulations using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martín-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] to estimate the IR atmospheric opacity and then dust/cloud coverage over the rover during the course of the MSL mission. Monitoring the dust loading and IR nightime cooling evolution during the dust season will allow for a better understanding of the influence of the atmosphere on the ground temperature and provide ground truth to models and orbiter measurements. References Martín-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak

  14. Using a helium--neon laser to convert infrared radiation to visible emission on lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurtyunyan, E.A.; Kostanyan, R.B.; Mkrtchyan, V.S.; Mkrtchyan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The conversion of infrared emission to the visible region was investigated by mixing with helium-neon laser emission in lithium niobate crystals. The infrared source was a Globar, and the laser was the LG-75. Emission of the sum frequencies was filtered out. The spectral composition of the converted radiation was analyzed by the ISP-51 spectrograph with an FEU-79 photomultiplier at the output. The amplified photomultiplier signal was recorded by the ChZ-33 frequency meter. By varying the angle between the optical axis of the crystal and the incident emission, infrared radiation in the 1.75 to 3.3 ..mu..m wavelength band could be converted to visible emission. It is suggested that measurement of the wavelength of converted emission might be used to study the distribution of concentration nonhomogeneities in crystals.

  15. Generation of infrared supercontinuum radiation: spatial mode dispersion and higher-order mode propagation in ZBLAN step-index fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob Søndergaard; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2013-01-01

    Using femtosecond upconversion we investigate the time and wavelength structure of infrared supercontinuum generation. It is shown that radiation is scattered into higher order spatial modes (HOMs) when generating a supercontinuum using fibers that are not single-moded, such as a step-index ZBLAN...... not include scattering into HOMs, and including this provides an extra degree of freedom for tailoring supercontinuum sources....

  16. Combined Effect of Infrared and Gamma Radiation on Certain Insects in Stored Wheat Grains and Wheat Flour *

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dosage mortality studies on the infrared radiation and combined effects with 1500 Gy gamma irradiation, which calculated to kill about 50% of adults, were applied to samples of 50 and 100 grams of wheat grains and flour containing newly emerged adults of T. granarium, T. castaneum, S. granarius and R. dominica. The time required to obtain thermal energy from infrared radiation that were lethal to those adults depends not only on the insect species but also on the heat retention characteristics of the grain or flour and the distances from source of radiation to materials. The dose of infrared (180 sec) at which the temperature attained to 64.8 degree C and 54.3 degree C on 50 and 100 g of wheat flour gave about 60.0 and 44.67% adult mortality for T. granarium and 58.67% and 39.33% adult mortality for T. castaneum on distance 4 cm, respectively. The combined gamma radiation (1500 Gy) with the same doses of infrared gave 96.0% and 86.0%, 90.0% and 78.0% adult mortalities for T. granarium and T. castaneum, respectively. At dose 240 sec infrared on 50 and 100 g of wheat grains which received 77 degree C and 69.7 degree C gave about 60.0% and 46.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 56.67% and 42.67% for R. dominica on distance 4 cm, respectively, but the combination of 1500 Gy with the same dose of infrared gave 98.0% and 90.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 94.0% and 88.0% adult mortality for R. dominica, respectively. By rising the time of exposure and reducing distance from IR source, the temperatures were gradually increased causing high adult mortalities. Finally, T. granarium, T. castaneum, and S. granarius were more sensitive than R. dominica.

  17. Report of research and investigation committee for infrared radiation heating technology. Sekigai hosha kanetsu gijutsu kenkyu chosa iinkai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M. (Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The committee was established in July 1990 for research and investigation of infrared (IR) heating technology and finished its activity in March 1993. This report describes the committee members and the results of research and investigation. (1) Application of IR radiation (sensing): the research and investigation results were reported on the following items; the recognition of letters and patterns on cultural properties by IR radiation, the passive sensor (detecting the IR radiated from the object without emitting from the sensor), the IR image system, and the diagnosis of outer wail of buildings. (2) The following were researched on the IR radiation source and IR emitting material; multi-functional heating element having far infrared radiation function and deodorant function, the emissivity of far IR radiation, and the evaluation of the functions by the difference in emissivity. (3) The IR heating technology was described on the following: drying the persimmon using far IR radiation, the present situation of research on IR heating done by foreign power supply companies, and the feature and the application of far IR heater. In addition to these, the following were also reported; (4) measurement of IR radiation and (5) effect of living body and organism.

  18. Sequential Administration of Carbon Nanotubes and Near Infrared Radiation for the Treatment of Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago eSantos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to use carbon nanotubes (CNT coupled with near infrared radiation (NIR to induce hyperthermia, as a novel non-ionizing radiation treatment for primary brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. In this study we report the therapeutic potential of hyperthermia-induced thermal ablation using the sequential administration of carbon nanotubes and NIR. In vitro studies were performed using glioma tumor cell lines (U251, U87, LN229, T98G. Glioma cells were incubated with CNTs for 24 hours followed by exposure to NIR for 10 minutes. Glioma cells preferentially internalized CNTs, which upon NIR exposure, generated heat, causing necrotic cell death. There were minimal effects to normal cells, which correlate to their minimal uptake of CNTs. Furthermore, this protocol caused cell death to glioma cancer stem cells, and drug-resistant as well as drug-sensitive glioma cells. This sequential hyperthermia therapy was effective in vivo, in the rodent tumor model resulting in tumor shrinkage and no recurrence after only one treatment. In conclusion, this sequence of selective CNT administration followed by NIR activation provides a new approach to the treatment of glioma, particularly drug-resistant gliomas.

  19. Wavelength-dependent penetration depth of near infrared radiation into cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkar, M V; Pleshko, N

    2015-04-07

    Articular cartilage is a hyaline cartilage that lines the subchondral bone in the diarthrodial joints. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is emerging as a nondestructive modality for the evaluation of cartilage pathology; however, studies regarding the depth of penetration of NIR radiation into cartilage are lacking. The average thickness of human cartilage is about 1-3 mm, and it becomes even thinner as OA progresses. To ensure that spectral data collected is restricted to the tissue of interest, i.e. cartilage in this case, and not from the underlying subchondral bone, it is necessary to determine the depth of penetration of NIR radiation in different wavelength (frequency) regions. In the current study, we establish how the depth of penetration varies throughout the NIR frequency range (4000-10 000 cm(-1)). NIR spectra were collected from cartilage samples of different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 5 mm) with and without polystyrene placed underneath. A separate NIR spectrum of polystyrene was collected as a reference. It was found that the depth of penetration varied from ∼1 mm to 2 mm in the 4000-5100 cm(-1) range, ∼3 mm in the 5100-7000 cm(-1) range, and ∼5 mm in the 7000-9000 cm(-1) frequency range. These findings suggest that the best NIR region to evaluate cartilage with no subchondral bone contribution is in the range of 4000-7000 cm(-1).

  20. An appraisal of the need for infrared radiation protection in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian; Cadars, Benoît

    2016-03-01

    Many sunscreens incorporate agents that are said to protect against infrared (IR) damage in the skin but we lack any real data on their benefit in the context of normal human behaviour in the sun. The object of this study was to examine typical IR exposure levels to the sun and industrial sources in order to decide whether there is a need for sunscreens to contain agents that protect against IR radiation, specifically the IR-A waveband. We reviewed claims currently made by products offering protection against IR-A and studies on the biological and clinical effects attributed to IR-A, and compared IR-A exposure levels from these studies with those typically received from the sun and from industrial sources. We found that annual levels of IR-A exposure resulting from typical behaviour in the sun are commensurate with those experienced occupationally by workers exposed to industrial sources of IR, such as steel and glass furnaces. Yet these workers appear to suffer little in the way of chronic skin damage. We conclude that there is not compelling evidence to demonstrate that observable, deleterious cutaneous effects are occurring at doses of solar IR radiation corresponding to those experienced by populations in their normal environments and for this reason we believe it is premature to incorporate IR protection into topical sunscreens and to make claims related to ageing of the skin that consumers may expect to see.

  1. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  2. Limb sparing approach: Adjuvant radiation therapy in adults with intermediate or high-grade limb soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merimsky, Ofer; Soyfer, Vjacheslav; Kovner, Felix; Bickels, Jacob; Issakov, Josephine; Flusser, Gideon; Meller, Isaac; Ofer, Oded; Kollender, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    Background: Limb soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are currently treated with limb sparing surgery (LSS) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Patients and methods: Between October 1994 and October 2002, 133 adult patients with intermediate or high-grade limb STS were approached by LSS+RT. Results: RT related toxicity was manageable, with a low rate of severe effects. At 4-year median follow-up, there were 48 recurrences of any type, 23 of isolated local failure, and 35 of systemic spread w/o local failure. DFS and OS were influenced by disease stage II vs I, primary site in the upper limb vs lower limb, MPNST vs other types, induction therapy vs no induction, adequate resection vs marginal resection or involved margins, and good response to induction therapy vs bad response. DFS and OS were Patient's age and sex, tumor depth, acute or late toxicity of RT, or the interval of time between the date of definitive surgery and the start of RT did not affect DFS and or OS. Conclusions: The RT protocol is applicable in the era of complicated, expensive and time-consuming 3D therapy. Our results of LSS+RT in adults with limb HG STS are satisfactory

  3. Pathologic analysis on hyperplasia of mammary gland with different syndromes based on infrared radiation temperature of acupoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Shen, Xueyong; Ying, Jian; Zheng, Juanjuan; Hu, Shengfang; Zhao, Ling; Deng, Haiping; Zhang, Haimeng

    2012-09-01

    To explore the pathologic characteristics of hyperplasia of the mammary gland (HMG) by observing differences in infrared radiation temperature of points of HMG in patients with different syndromes compared with healthy controls. A FLIR Systems Therma CAM P30 infrared thermal camera was used to detect the infrared temperature of Shanzhong (CV 17), Qimen (LR 14), Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Taixi (KI 3), and Taichong (LR 3) in 113 patients with HMG. Of these patients, 71 were placed in the Liver Qi stagnation group, 34 were placed in the Dysfunction of conception and thoroughfare vessels group, and 8 were placed in the Phlegm and blood stasis in combination group. The infrared radiation temperature of each point in the patients was compared with that of healthy controls, and the differences in the infrared radiation temperatures of the points in the patients were analyzed. Overall, the bilateral corresponding point in both the controls and patients exhibited no significant difference in infrared radiation temperature. In all cases, the infrared radiation temperature of the points from proximal to distal tended to decrease. In a comparison of the patients and controls, the infrared radiation temperature of the trunk points Shanzhong (CV 17), Qimen (LR 14), Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6), and Guanyuan (CV 4) of the patients was higher than that of the controls, while the infrared radiation temperature of the lower extremity points Taixi (KI 3) and Taichong (LR 3) was lower than that of the controls. Of these points, Shanzhong (CV 17) (P=0.0368), Zhongwan (CV 12) (P=0.0028), Qihai (CV 6) (P=0.0085), and Guanyuan (CV 4) (P=0.0018) showed significant differences. In a comparison of the corresponding point on the same side in the Liver Qi stagnation group and controls, the infrared radiation temperature of Shanzhong (CV 17) (P=0.0089), right-side Qi-men (LR 14) (P=0.0382), Zhongwan (CV 12) (P= 0.0000), Qihai (CV 6) (P=0.0011), and Guanyuan (CV 4) (P=0

  4. Infrared light-emitting diode radiation causes gravitropic and morphological effects in dark-grown oat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.

  5. The impact of infrared radiation in flight control in the Australian "firebeetle" Merimna atrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Hinz

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR receptors are rare in insects and have only been found in the small group of so-called pyrophilous insects, which approach forest fires. In previous work the morphology of the IR receptors and the physiology of the inherent sensory cells have been investigated. It was shown that receptors are located on the thorax and the abdomen respectively and show an astounding diversity with respect to structure and the presumed transduction mechanism. What is completely missing, however, is any behavioral evidence for the function of the IR receptors in pyrophilous insects. Here we describe the responses of the Australian "firebeetle", Merimna atrata to IR radiation. Beetles in a restrained flight were laterally stimulated with IR radiation of an intensity 20% above a previously determined electrophysiological threshold of the IR organs (40 mW/cm2. After exposure, beetles always showed an avoidance response away from the IR source. Reversible ablation experiments showed that the abdominal IR receptors are essential for the observed behavior. Tests with weaker IR radiation (11.4 mW/cm2 also induced avoidance reactions in some beetles pointing to a lower threshold. In contrast, beetles were never attracted by the IR source. Our results suggest that the IR receptors in Merimna atrata serve as an early warning system preventing an accidental landing on a hot surface. We also tested if another fire specific stimulus, the view of a large smoke plume, influenced the flight. However, due to an unexpected insensitivity of the flying beetles to most visual stimuli results were ambiguous.

  6. The impact of infrared radiation in flight control in the Australian "firebeetle" Merimna atrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Marcel; Klein, Adrian; Schmitz, Anke; Schmitz, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    Infrared (IR) receptors are rare in insects and have only been found in the small group of so-called pyrophilous insects, which approach forest fires. In previous work the morphology of the IR receptors and the physiology of the inherent sensory cells have been investigated. It was shown that receptors are located on the thorax and the abdomen respectively and show an astounding diversity with respect to structure and the presumed transduction mechanism. What is completely missing, however, is any behavioral evidence for the function of the IR receptors in pyrophilous insects. Here we describe the responses of the Australian "firebeetle", Merimna atrata to IR radiation. Beetles in a restrained flight were laterally stimulated with IR radiation of an intensity 20% above a previously determined electrophysiological threshold of the IR organs (40 mW/cm2). After exposure, beetles always showed an avoidance response away from the IR source. Reversible ablation experiments showed that the abdominal IR receptors are essential for the observed behavior. Tests with weaker IR radiation (11.4 mW/cm2) also induced avoidance reactions in some beetles pointing to a lower threshold. In contrast, beetles were never attracted by the IR source. Our results suggest that the IR receptors in Merimna atrata serve as an early warning system preventing an accidental landing on a hot surface. We also tested if another fire specific stimulus, the view of a large smoke plume, influenced the flight. However, due to an unexpected insensitivity of the flying beetles to most visual stimuli results were ambiguous.

  7. The impact of infrared radiation in flight control in the Australian “firebeetle” Merimna atrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Infrared (IR) receptors are rare in insects and have only been found in the small group of so-called pyrophilous insects, which approach forest fires. In previous work the morphology of the IR receptors and the physiology of the inherent sensory cells have been investigated. It was shown that receptors are located on the thorax and the abdomen respectively and show an astounding diversity with respect to structure and the presumed transduction mechanism. What is completely missing, however, is any behavioral evidence for the function of the IR receptors in pyrophilous insects. Here we describe the responses of the Australian “firebeetle”, Merimna atrata to IR radiation. Beetles in a restrained flight were laterally stimulated with IR radiation of an intensity 20% above a previously determined electrophysiological threshold of the IR organs (40 mW/cm2). After exposure, beetles always showed an avoidance response away from the IR source. Reversible ablation experiments showed that the abdominal IR receptors are essential for the observed behavior. Tests with weaker IR radiation (11.4 mW/cm2) also induced avoidance reactions in some beetles pointing to a lower threshold. In contrast, beetles were never attracted by the IR source. Our results suggest that the IR receptors in Merimna atrata serve as an early warning system preventing an accidental landing on a hot surface. We also tested if another fire specific stimulus, the view of a large smoke plume, influenced the flight. However, due to an unexpected insensitivity of the flying beetles to most visual stimuli results were ambiguous. PMID:29432476

  8. Protective effect of infrared-A radiation against damage induced by UVB radiation in the melan-a cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portantiolo Lettnin, Aline; Teixeira Santos Figueiredo Salgado, Mariana; Gonsalez Cruz, Camila; Manoel Rodrigues da Silva-Júnior, Flávio; Cunha Gonzalez, Vinícius; de Souza Votto, Ana Paula; Santos Trindade, Gilma; de Moraes Vaz Batista Filgueira, Daza

    2016-10-01

    The present work evaluated the infrared-A (IR-A) protective effect using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp against the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Effects on cell viability (Trypan blue assay), DNA damage (comet assay), lipid peroxidation (FOX method), reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in melan-a, a non-tumoral murine melanocytic cell line. To define the doses used in the interaction experiments between IR-A+UVB, dose/response curves were made after exposure to IR-A or UVB. The IR-A dose chosen was 0.8J/cm(2) because this dose caused no significant inhibition of proliferation effects and viability decreased. For UVB exposure, a dose of 0.015J/cm(2), which showed a decrease in viable cell number by approximately 50% in relation to control until 72h, was selected. For IR-A+UVB, cell proliferation recovery was showed, decreasing DNA damage and lipid peroxide content when compared to UVB alone. Besides, the results obtained for ROS and antioxidant capacity showed that the protection observed was probably not related to decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, non-thermal IR-A was capable of protecting the melan-a cells from UVB induced damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brachytherapy Improves Biochemical Failure–Free Survival in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Compared With Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L.; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led

  10. Experimental study on infrared radiation temperature field of concrete under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Quan; He, Xueqiu

    2018-05-01

    Infrared thermography, as a nondestructive, non-contact and real-time monitoring method, has great significance in assessing the stability of concrete structure and monitoring its failure. It is necessary to conduct in depth study on the mechanism and application of infrared radiation (IR) of concrete failure under loading. In this paper, the concrete specimens with size of 100 × 100 × 100 mm were adopted to carry out the uniaxial compressions for the IR tests. The distribution of IR temperatures (IRTs), surface topography of IRT field and the reconstructed IR images were studied. The results show that the IRT distribution follows the Gaussian distribution, and the R2 of Gaussian fitting changes along with the loading time. The abnormities of R2 and AE counts display the opposite variation trends. The surface topography of IRT field is similar to the hyperbolic paraboloid, which is related to the stress distribution in the sample. The R2 of hyperbolic paraboloid fitting presents an upward trend prior to the fracture which enables to change the IRT field significantly. This R2 has a sharp drop in response to this large destruction. The normalization images of IRT field, including the row and column normalization images, were proposed as auxiliary means to analyze the IRT field. The row and column normalization images respectively show the transverse and longitudinal distribution of the IRT field, and they have clear responses to the destruction occurring on the sample surface. In this paper, the new methods and quantitative index were proposed for the analysis of IRT field, which have some theoretical and instructive significance for the analysis of the characteristics of IRT field, as well as the monitoring of instability and failure for concrete structure.

  11. Four-Wave Mixing of Gigawatt Power, Long-Wave Infrared Radiation in Gases and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Jeremy James

    The nonlinear optics of gigawatt power, 10 microm, 3 and 200 ps long pulses propagating in gases and semiconductors has been studied experimentally and numerically. In this work, the development of a high-repetition rate, picosecond, CO2 laser system has enabled experiments using peak intensities in the range of 1-10 GW/cm2, approximately one thousand times greater than previous nonlinear optics experiments in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region. The first measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of the atomic and molecular gases Kr, Xe, N2, O2 and the air at a wavelength near 10 microm were accomplished by studying the four-wave mixing (FWM) of dual-wavelength, 200 ps CO2 laser pulses. These measurements indicate that the nonlinearities of the diatomic molecules N2, O2 and the air are dominated by the molecular contribution to the nonlinear refractive index. Supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the infrared spectral range, from 2-20 microm, was realized by propagating 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in an approximately 7 cm long, Cr-doped GaAs crystal. Temporal measurements of the SC radiation show that pulse splitting accompanies the generation of such broadband light in GaAs. The propagation of 3 ps, 10 microm pulses in GaAs was studied numerically by solving the Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (GNLSE). These simulations, combined with analytic estimates, were used to determine that stimulated Raman scattering combined with a modulational instability caused by the propagation of intense LWIR radiation in the negative group velocity dispersion region of GaAs are responsible for the SC generation process. The multiple FWM of a 106 GHz, 200 ps CO2 laser beat-wave propagating in GaAs was used to generate a broadband FWM spectrum that was compressed by the negative group velocity dispersion of GaAs and NaCl crystals to form trains of high-power, picosecond pulses at a wavelength near 10 microm. Experimental FWM spectra obtained using 165 and 882

  12. Post-angioplasty far infrared radiation therapy improves 1-year angioplasty-free hemodialysis access patency of recurrent obstructive lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C-C; Fang, H-C; Mar, G-Y; Liou, J-C; Tseng, C-J; Liu, C-P

    2013-12-01

    To explore the role of far infrared (FIR) radiation therapy for hemodialysis (HD) access maintenance after percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA). This was a prospective observational study. Eligible patients were those who received repeated PTA with the last PTA successfully performed within 1 week before the study enrollments. Consecutively enrolled patients undergoing successful HD treatments after PTA were randomly assigned to the FIR-radiated group or control group without radiation. FIR-radiated therapy meaning 40-minute radiation at the major lesion site or anastomosed site three times a week was continued until an end-point defined as dysfunction-driven re-PTA or the study end was reached. Of 216 participants analyzed, including 97 with arteriovenous grafts (AVG) (49 FIR-radiated participants and 48 control participants) and 119 with arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) (69 FIR-radiated participants and 50 control participants), the FIR-radiated therapy compared with free-radiated usual therapy significantly enhanced PTA-unassisted patency at 1 year in the AVG subgroup (16.3% vs. 2.1%; p radiated therapy improves PTA-unassisted patency in patients with AVG who have undergone previous PTA. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  14. Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy to assess the activity of vancomycin against endocarditis vegetation bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Eric; Jamme, Frédéric; Montassier, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Dominique; Caillon, Jocelyne; Potel, Gilles; Dumas, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy was used to show that vancomycin alters infrared spectra of endocarditis vegetation bacteria, and that vancomycin effects on bacterial biochemical contents are unevenly distributed between peripheral and central areas of bacterial masses. Infrared microspectroscopy is useful to study the activity of antibacterial agents against bacteria in tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Applying multi-criteria analysis to radiation protection optimisation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Schneider, T.; Lombard, J.

    1991-01-01

    Introduction of ALARA principles in the field of radioactive waste management implies a definition of the main characteristics of the decisional framework. Specific aspects should be taken into account: long term effects, large uncertainties and/or probabilistic events, with particular attention to the public and the political authorities. Traditional cost-benefit analysis is not qualified to deal with these different dimensions of the risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the principles of multi-criteria analysis applied to low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. Three categories of barriers can be distinguished acting at different protection levels: site characteristics, waste package and disposal system. A set of possible solutions can be identified, but the selection of the 'optimum' is not easy because of the diversity of the factors to be allowed for. For example, the following problem needs to be addressed: is it preferable to limit public radiation exposure several hundred years ahead or to reduce occupational exposure during the monitoring period of the disposal facility? An optimisation study is currently being performed on the various components of the structure, assuming given site and waste package characteristics. Four steps are distinguished: identification and analysis of options for the structure; selection and estimation of the qualitative and quantitative criteria; determination of the 'most interesting' solutions using multi-criteria analysis; sensitivity analysis and discussion on uncertainties related to the various assumptions. Based on the preliminary findings, the paper focuses on practical solutions to address the methodological issues raised in applying the optimisation procedures to radioactive waste management. (au)

  16. Thin-layer catalytic far-infrared radiation drying and flavour of tomato slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ekow Abano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A far-infrared radiation (FIR catalytic laboratory dryer was designed by us and used to dry tomato. The kinetics of drying of tomato slices with FIR energy was dependent on both the distance from the heat source and the sample thickness. Numerical evaluation of the simplified Fick’s law for Fourier number showed that the effective moisture diffusivity increased from 0.193×10–9 to 1.893×10–9 m2/s, from 0.059×10–9 to 2.885×10–9 m2/s, and, from 0.170×10–9 to 4.531×10–9 m2/s for the 7, 9, and 11 mm thick slices as moisture content decreased. Application of FIR enhanced the flavour of the dried tomatoes by 36.6% when compared with the raw ones. The results demonstrate that in addition to shorter drying times, the flavour of the products can be enhanced with FIR. Therefore, FIR drying should be considered as an efficient drying method for tomato with respect to minimization of processing time, enhancement in flavour, and improvements in the quality and functional property of dried tomatoes.

  17. Computed tomographic analysis of vegetable during far infrared radiation drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneechot, P.; Tojo, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    Far Infrared Radiation (FIR) technology is widely used in the automotive industry to cure painted finishes during manufacturing. FIR drying is used not only in manufacturing but also in agricultural processing such as rice drying. At the present time, FIR drying technology has rarely been used for fruits and vegetables except in research laboratories. In this study, FIR drying and hot air convection drying were compared with respect to energy consumption and time requirement. The internal changes of the agricultural product were also observed during the FIR drying process. A Computed Tomographic (CT) scanner was employed for the observation of the tested material, carrot, and was used to analyze the structural deformation and the internal moisture distribution of the test material. CT data and the hardness of the sample were recorded at regular intervals during the drying experiment. For 200, 400 and 600W FIR drying, the maximum drying rates were 173, 459 and 724%d.b./hr respectively, and the required drying times were 26, 12 and 4.5 hours, respectively. The structure of the carrot sample shrank in accordance with the reduction of moisture content in 200W FIR drying as well as in hot air drying, whereas in 400W and 600W FIR drying the sample was dried without so much deformation

  18. Dynamic thermomechanical response of bimaterial microcantilevers to periodic heating by infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Beomjin; Rosenberger, Matthew; Bhargava, Rohit; Cahill, David G; King, William P

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic thermomechanical response of bimaterial microcantilevers to periodic heating by an infrared laser operating at a wavelenegth of 10.35 μm. A model relates incident radiation, heat transfer, temperature distribution in the cantilever, and thermal expansion mismatch to find the cantilever displacement. Experiments were conducted on two custom-fabricated bimaterial cantilevers and two commercially available bimaterial microcantilevers. The cantilever response was measured as a function of the modulation frequency of the laser over the range of 0.01-30 kHz. The model and the method of cantilever displacement calibration can be applied for bimaterial cantilever with thick coating layer. The sensitivity and signal-to-noise of bimaterial cantilevers were evaluated in terms of either total incident power or incident flux. The custom-fabricated bimaterial cantilevers showed 9X or 190X sensitivity improvement compared to commercial cantilevers. The detection limit on incident flux is as small as 0.10 pW μm(-2) Hz(-1/2).

  19. Antithermal shield for rockets with heat evacuation by infrared radiation reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan RUSU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At high speed, the friction between the air mass and the rocket surface causes a localheating of over 1000 Celsius degrees. For the heat protection of the rocket, on its outside surfacethermal shields are installed.Studying the Coanda effect, the fluid flow on solids surface, respectively, the author Ioan Rusuhas discovered by simply researches that the Coanda effect could be /extended also to the fluid flowon discontinuous solids, namely, on solids provided with orifices. This phenomenon was named by theauthor, the expanded Coanda effect. Starting with this discovery, the author has invented a thermalshield, registered at The State Office for inventions and Trademarks OSIM, deposit F 2010 0153This thermal shield:- is built as a covering rocket sheet with many orifices installed with a minimum space fromthe rocket body- takes over the heat fluid generated by the frontal part of the rocket and avoids the directcontact between the heat fluid and the rocket body- ensures the evacuation of the infrared radiation, generated by the heat fluid flowing overthe shield because of the extended Coanda effect by reflection from the rocket bodysurface.

  20. Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, C.-P.; Rajguru, S. M.; Matic, A. I.; Moreno, E. L.; Fishman, A. J.; Robinson, A. M.; Suh, E.; Walsh, J. T., Jr.

    2011-10-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has received considerable attention over the last few years. It provides an alternative method to artificially stimulate neurons without electrical current or the introduction of exogenous chromophores. One of the primary benefits of INS could be the improved spatial selectivity when compared with electrical stimulation. In the present study, we have evaluated the spatial selectivity of INS in the acutely damaged cochlea of guinea pigs and compared it to stimulation with acoustic tone pips in normal-hearing animals. The radiation was delivered via a 200 µm diameter optical fiber, which was inserted through a cochleostomy into the scala tympani of the basal cochlear turn. The stimulated section along the cochlear spiral ganglion was estimated from the neural responses recorded from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). ICC responses were recorded in response to cochlear INS using a multichannel penetrating electrode array. Spatial tuning curves (STCs) were constructed from the responses. For INS, approximately 55% of the activation profiles showed a single maximum, ~22% had two maxima and ~13% had multiple maxima. The remaining 10% of the profiles occurred at the limits of the electrode array and could not be classified. The majority of ICC STCs indicated that the spread of activation evoked by optical stimuli is comparable to that produced by acoustic tone pips.

  1. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  2. Plasmonic Glasses and Films Based on Alternative Inexpensive Materials for Blocking Infrared Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Besteiro, Lucas; Kong, Xiang-Tian; Wang, Zhiming; Rosei, Federico; Govorov, Alexander O

    2018-04-16

    The need for energy-saving materials is pressing. This Letter reports on the design of energy-saving glasses and films based on plasmonic nanocrystals that efficiently block infrared radiation. Designing such plasmonic composite glasses is nontrivial and requires taking full advantage of both material and geometrical properties of the nanoparticles. We compute the performance of solar plasmonic glasses incorporating a transparent matrix and specially shaped nanocrystals. This performance depends on the shape and material of such nanocrystals. Glasses designed with plasmonic nanoshells are shown to exhibit overall better performances as compared to nanorods and nanocups. Simultaneously, scalable synthesis of plasmonic nanoshells and nanocups is technologically feasible using gas-phase fabrication methods. The computational simulations were performed for noble metals (gold and silver) as well as for alternative plasmonic materials (aluminum, copper, and titanium nitride). Inexpensive plasmonic materials (silver, copper, aluminum, and titanium nitride) show an overall good performance in terms of the commonly used figures of merit of industrial glass windows. Together with numerical data for specific materials, this study includes a set of general rules for designing efficient plasmonic IR-blocking media. The plasmonic glasses proposed herein are good candidates for the creation of cheap optical media, to be used in energy-saving windows in warm climates' housing or temperature-sensitive infrastructure.

  3. Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookless, W.

    1980-12-01

    A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm -1 with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm -1 . The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy

  4. Far-Infrared Radiation Thermotherapy Improves Tissue Fibrosis in Chronic Extremity Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Sadigh, Parviz; Evans, Verity Joyce; Zhou, Huihong; Gao, Weiqing; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-09-29

    Fibrosis can enhance the exacerbation of lymphedema, which becomes obvious in late stage II-III lymphedema. However, whether far-infrared radiation thermotherapy (FIRT) can cure lymphedema fibrosis is still lack of research. This research was to investigate the therapeutic effect of FIRT on tissue fibrosis in the treatment of Late stage II-III lymphedema. Patients accepted only FIRT for a total of 20 sessions. The treatment session duration was 2 hours, and a stable machine temperature of 42°C was maintained throughout treatments. Clinical evaluation and laboratory evaluation were conducted before and after FIRT. Clinical outcome measures included circumference of affected extremity, skin elasticity, ultrasound, patients' subjective assessment, and quality of life (QOL). Laboratory outcome measures included serum and local lymphedema tissue fluid concentrations of fibrosis associated cytokines, tissue growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-18, and caspase-1. Between 2015 and 2016, clinical evaluation of 64 patients with late stage II-III lymphedema was conducted. From this group, 12 cases (18.75%) underwent simultaneous laboratory evaluation. Circumferences of affected extremities improved significantly following treatment (p pain, discomfort, and numbness (p effective treatment for lymphedema tissue fibrosis; it reduces the concentration of fibrosis cytokines in local lymphedema tissues. Consequently, this treatment can reduce the density of fibrosed tissue in the affected extremity, increase skin elasticity, significantly improve clinical symptoms, and improve QOL of patients.

  5. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study of radiation-heterogeneous processes in the system of aluminum-hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhieva, N.N.; Rimikhanova, A.N.; Garibov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) was applied to study the regularities of radiation conversion of hexane on the surface of aluminum. The research object was the thin polished aluminum plate by mark of AD-00 with reflection coefficient R=0.8†0.85 in infrared range λ=2.2†15 μ . As adsorbate unsaturated vapors of spectroscopy clear hexane were used. The absorption of hexane (C 2 H 14 ) was being studied manometric at pressures P=(0.1†1.0)·10 2 Pa , what corresponded to monolayer value of 1-10. The samples were irradiated with γ-quanta of 60 Co with D=1.03 Gy·s -1 doze rate. Infrared reflection spectrum when linear-polarized radiation fall on the sample under angle ψ=10 o was measured by spectrophotometer 'Specord 71 JR' in diapason of 4000-650cm -1 at the temperature by mean of special reflecting arrangements. Formation of molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) and other gaseous products of decomposition were controlled by chromotographical and infrared spectroscopical methods. The analysis of hexane infrared absorption spectra after radiation-stimulated adsorption on the surface of aluminum, points out the formation of H-bonded hydrocarbon complex ( ν∼2680cm -1 ) with much loosening of C-H bond (the molecular form of absorption) and the possibility of proceeding dissociative absorption with formation of metal-alkyls (ν∼2880, 2920, 2970 cm -1 ). Probability of the last mentioned process, which proceeds in the most defective centers, increases with increasing of γ-radiation doze. It was established that the radiation processes in hetero system Al-ads.C 6 H 14 accelerate the radiolysis of hexane. At all these the radiation decomposition of hexane in hetero system Al-ads.C 6 H 14 is accompanied by formation the surface hydrides (ν∼1700-2000 cm -1 ), acetylene (ν∼3200-3300 cm -1 ), ethylene (ν∼980 cm -1 ), and also gaseous products of molecular hydrogen decomposition (H 2 ) and hydrocarbons C 1 -C 5 (bands with maxima 770, 790

  6. Origin of life: hypothesized roles of high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation, thermosynthesis and pre-photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2012-12-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that during the organization of pre-biotic bacterial cell(s), high-energy electrical discharges, infrared radiation (IR), thermosynthesis and possibly pre-photosynthesis were central to the origin of life. High-energy electrical discharges generated some simple organic molecules available for the origin of life. Infrared radiation, both incoming to the Earth and generated on the cooling Earth with day/night and warming/cooling cycles, was a component of heat engine thermosynthesis before enzymes and the genetic code were present. Eventually, a primitive forerunner of photosynthesis and the capability to capture visible light emerged. In addition, the dual particle-wave nature of light is discussed from the perspective that life requires light acting both as a wave and particle.

  7. Installation And Test Of Electron Beam Generation System To Produce Far-Infrared Radiation And X-Ray Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Jinamoon, Witoon; Khangrang, Nopadon; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W.; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Chitrlada, Thongbai; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-10-01

    SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, aims to establish a facility to generate femtosecond electron beams. This electron beam can be used to generate high intensity far-infrared radiation and ultra-short X-ray pulses. The main components of the system are a 3 MeV RF electron gun with a thermionic cathode, an a-magnet as a bunch compressor, and post acceleration 15-20 MeV by a linear accelerator (linac). Between the main components, there are focusing quadrupole magnets and steering magnets to maintain the electron beam within a high vacuum tube. At the end of the beam transport line, a dipole magnet has been installed to function as a beam dump and an energy spectrometer. After the installation and testing of individual major components were completed, we have been investigating the generation of the electron beam, intense far- infrared radiation and ultra short X-ray pulses

  8. TeV gamma rays from 3C 279 - A possible probe of origin and intergalactic infrared radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; De Jager, O. C.; Salamon, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 during 1991 June exhibited a near-perfect power law between 50 MeV and over 5 GeV with a differential spectral index of -(2.02 +/- 0.07). If extrapolated, the gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 should be easily detectable with first-generation air Cerenkov detectors operating above about 0.3 TeV provided there is no intergalactic absorption. However, by using model-dependent lower and upper limits for the extragalactic infrared background radiation field, a sharp cutoff of the 3C 279 spectrum is predicted at between about 0.1 and about 1 TeV. The sensitivity of present air Cerenkov detectors is good enough to measure such a cutoff, which would provide the first opportunity to obtain a measurement of the extragalactic background infrared radiation field.

  9. Effects of electromagnetic radiation (bright light, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields, infrared radiation) on the circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griefahn, Barbara; Künemund, Christa; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Lerchl, Alexander; Degen, Gisela H

    2002-10-01

    Electromagnetic spectra reduce melatonin production and delay the nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate. Seven healthy men (16-22 yrs) completed 4 permuted sessions. The control session consisted of a 24-hours bedrest at infrared radiation (65 degrees C) was applied from 5 pm to 1 am. Salivary melatonin level was determined hourly, rectal temperature and heart rate were continuously recorded. Melatonin synthesis was completely suppressed by light but resumed thereafter. The nadirs of rectal temperature and heart rate were delayed. The magnetic field had no effect. Infrared radiation elevated rectal temperature and heart rate. Only bright light affected the circadian rhythms of melatonin synthesis, rectal temperature, and heart rate, however, differently thus causing a dissociation, which might enhance the adverse effects of shiftwork in the long run.

  10. Generation of infrared supercontinuum radiation: spatial mode dispersion and higher-order mode propagation in ZBLAN step-index fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob Søndergaard; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2013-01-01

    Using femtosecond upconversion we investigate the time and wavelength structure of infrared supercontinuum generation. It is shown that radiation is scattered into higher order spatial modes (HOMs) when generating a supercontinuum using fibers that are not single-moded, such as a step-index ZBLAN...... fiber. As a consequence of intermodal scattering and the difference in group velocity for the modes, the supercontinuum splits up spatially and temporally. Experimental results indicate that a significant part of the radiation propagates in HOMs. Conventional simulations of super-continuum generation do...

  11. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Intersatellite Calibrated Clear-Sky High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Channel 12 Brightness Temperature Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) of intersatellite calibrated channel 12 brightness temperature (TB) product is a gridded global monthly time...

  13. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham; Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy

  14. Effect of infrared radiation A on photoaged hairless mice harboring eumelanin and pheomelanin in the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shizuka; Funasaka, Yoko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-04-01

    Infrared radiation A (IRA) is absorbed by melanin and generates heat. Therefore, the effect of IRA could be well analyzed using skin, which contains melanin in the epidermis. Hairless mice harboring epidermal melanocytes that produce eumelanin, pheomelanin, or non-melanin were generated by backcrossing K14-stem cell factor mice, recessive yellow mice, and then albino hairless mice. High-dose IRA was irradiated over 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB) three times a week for 14 weeks. Tumor formation was assessed every week. The formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and apoptotic cells by the irradiation of IRA and UVB was evaluated. Repetitive irradiation of IRA did not promote tumor formation in all types of mice. Pre-irradiation of IRA to UVB, but not post-irradiation, accelerated the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and enhanced apoptosis; these effects were most obvious in eumelanin-producing mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulation of FLICE (cellular caspase 8)-like inhibitory protein and B-cell lymphoma-extra large and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein by UVB, but further enhancement of these molecules by pre-irradiation of IRA was not observed. These results indicate that IRA does not confer the promotion of UVB-induced carcinogenesis in photoaged mice harboring epidermal melanocytes and that photochemical reaction between IRA and melanin might be involved in the induction of apoptosis and the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by UVB. The enhancement of apoptosis by pre-irradiation of IRA to UVB might be induced by mechanisms other than the modification of the mRNA expression of FLICE (cellular caspase 8)-like inhibitory protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and Bcl-2-associated X. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Near infrared radiation rescues mitochondrial dysfunction in cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhanyang; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Yadan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Tedford, Clark E; Lo, Eng H; Wang, Xiaoying

    2015-04-01

    Near infrared radiation (NIR) is known to penetrate and affect biological systems in multiple ways. Recently, a series of experimental studies suggested that low intensity NIR may protect neuronal cells against a wide range of insults that mimic diseases such as stroke, brain trauma and neurodegeneration. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection with NIR remain poorly defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that low intensity NIR may attenuate hypoxia/ischemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons. Primary cortical mouse neuronal cultures were subjected to 4 h oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation for 2 h, neurons were then treated with a 2 min exposure to 810-nm NIR. Mitochondrial function markers including MTT reduction and mitochondria membrane potential were measured at 2 h after treatment. Neurotoxicity was quantified 20 h later. Our results showed that 4 h oxygen-glucose deprivation plus 20 h reoxygenation caused 33.8 ± 3.4 % of neuron death, while NIR exposure significantly reduced neuronal death to 23.6 ± 2.9 %. MTT reduction rate was reduced to 75.9 ± 2.7 % by oxygen-glucose deprivation compared to normoxic controls, but NIR exposure significantly rescued MTT reduction to 87.6 ± 4.5 %. Furthermore, after oxygen-glucose deprivation, mitochondria membrane potential was reduced to 48.9 ± 4.39 % of normoxic control, while NIR exposure significantly ameliorated this reduction to 89.6 ± 13.9 % of normoxic control. Finally, NIR significantly rescued OGD-induced ATP production decline at 20 min after NIR. These findings suggest that low intensity NIR can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation by rescuing mitochondrial function and restoring neuronal energetics.

  17. Radiation transport in dense interstellar dust clouds. II. Infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed to study the distribution of grain temperature (T/sub d/) and infrared emission from molecular clouds associated with H II regions (with embedded O: B stars). The effects of the following parameters on the temperature structure and the emergent spectrum are studied: grain type (graphite, silicate, and core-mantle grains), optical depth, density inhomogeneity, cloud size, anisotropic scattering, radiation field anisotropy, and characteristics of central heat source. T/sub d/ varies from approximately-greater-than100 K to approximately-less-than20 K throughout the major portion of a cloud, and dielectric grains attain lower temperatures. Due to an inward increase in T/sub d/, the radiation field is strongly forward-peaking, thereby producing a pronounced limb-darkening in the surface brightness. Important features of the computed emission spectra from typical models are compared with available observations, and the importance of beam dilution is emphasized. Theoretical surface brightnesses at selected infrared wavelengths are also presented. The outward radiation pressure on the dust grains is found to exceed the self-gravitational force of the gas over a large portion of a cloud, thus possibly causing the gas in the inner region to expand. Assumptions commonly used in the analysis of infrared observations are examined. Finally, observational methods of deriving the temperature structure (from color and brightness temperatures in the far-infrared), density distribution (from surface brightness at lambdaapproximately-greater-than1 mm), and optical depth (from multiaperture photometry) for the dust component in simple sources are discussed

  18. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  19. The role of androgen deprivation therapy on biochemical failure and distant metastasis in intermediate-risk prostate cancer: effects of radiation dose escalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Michelle S; Kuban, Deborah A; Du, Xianglin L; Lopez, David S; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on the risk of biochemical failure varies at different doses of radiation in patients treated with definitive external beam radiation for intermediate risk prostate cancer (IRPC). This study included 1218 IRPC patients treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles from June 1987 to January 2009 at our institution. Patient, treatment, and tumor information was collected, including age, race, Gleason score, radiation dose, PSA, T-stage, and months on ADT. The median follow-up was 6 years. A total of 421(34.6%) patients received ADT, 211 (17.3%) patients experienced a biochemical failure, and 38 (3.1%) developed distant metastasis. On univariable analyses, higher PSA, earlier year of diagnosis, higher T-stage, lower doses of radiation, and the lack of ADT were associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. No difference in biochemical failure was seen among different racial groups or with the use of greater than 6 months of ADT compared with less than 6 months. On multivariate analysis, the use of ADT was associated with a lower risk of biochemical failure than no ADT (HR, 0.599; 95% CI, 0.367-0.978; P < 0.04) and lower risk of distant metastasis (HR, 0.114; 95% CI, 0.014-0.905; P = 0.04). ADT reduced the risk of biochemical failure and distant metastasis in both low- and high dose radiation groups among men with intermediate-risk PCa. Increasing the duration of ADT beyond 6 months did not reduce the risk of biochemical failures. Better understanding the benefit of ADT in the era of dose escalation will require a randomized clinical trial

  20. Development of a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bormin; Mielikainen, Jarno; Oh, Hyunjong; Allen Huang, Hung-Lung

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-observed radiance is a nonlinear functional of surface properties and atmospheric temperature and absorbing gas profiles as described by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). In the era of hyperspectral sounders with thousands of high-resolution channels, the computation of the radiative transfer model becomes more time-consuming. The radiative transfer model performance in operational numerical weather prediction systems still limits the number of channels we can use in hyperspectral sounders to only a few hundreds. To take the full advantage of such high-resolution infrared observations, a computationally efficient radiative transfer model is needed to facilitate satellite data assimilation. In recent years the programmable commodity graphics processing unit (GPU) has evolved into a highly parallel, multi-threaded, many-core processor with tremendous computational speed and very high memory bandwidth. The radiative transfer model is very suitable for the GPU implementation to take advantage of the hardware's efficiency and parallelism where radiances of many channels can be calculated in parallel in GPUs. In this paper, we develop a GPU-based high-performance radiative transfer model for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched in 2006 onboard the first European meteorological polar-orbiting satellites, METOP-A. Each IASI spectrum has 8461 spectral channels. The IASI radiative transfer model consists of three modules. The first module for computing the regression predictors takes less than 0.004% of CPU time, while the second module for transmittance computation and the third module for radiance computation take approximately 92.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Our GPU-based IASI radiative transfer model is developed to run on a low-cost personal supercomputer with four GPUs with total 960 compute cores, delivering near 4 TFlops theoretical peak performance. By massively parallelizing the second and third modules, we reached 364x

  1. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  2. Radiation budget studies using collocated observations from advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2, and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, Richard A.; Smith, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Collocated observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2 (HIRS/2), and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments onboard the NOAA 9 satellite are combined to describe the broadband and spectral radiative properties of the earth-atmosphere system. Broadband radiative properties are determined from the ERBE observations, while spectral properties are determined from the HIRS/2 and AVHRR observations. The presence of clouds, their areal coverage, and cloud top pressure are determined from a combination of the HIRS/2 and the AVHRR observations. The CO2 slicing method is applied to the HIRS/2 to determine the presence of upper level clouds and their effective emissivity. The AVHRR data collocated within the HIRS/2 field of view are utilized to determine the uniformity of the scene and retrieve sea surface temperature. Changes in the top of the atmosphere longwave and shortwave radiative energy budgets, and the spectral distribution of longwave radiation are presented as a function of cloud amount and cloud top pressure. The radiative characteristics of clear sky conditions over oceans are presented as a function of sea surface temperature and atmospheric water vapor structure.

  3. Structure, electrochemistry and spectroscopy of a new diacylhydrazido-bridged diruthenium complex with a strongly near-infrared absorbing RuIIIRuII intermediate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jana, R.; Sarkar, B.; Bubrin, D.; Fiedler, Jan; Kaim, W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2010), s. 1160-1162 ISSN 1387-7003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 140; GA MŠk OC09043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : crystal structure * hydrazido ligand * near-infrared ruthenium Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.974, year: 2010

  4. Electromagnetic radiation energy arrangement. [coatings for solar energy absorption and infrared reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkis, R. R.; Vehrencamp, J. E. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    A solar energy collector and infrared energy reflector is described which comprises a vacuum deposited layer of aluminum of approximately 200 to 400 Angstroms thick on one side of a substrate. An adherent layer of titanium with a thickness of between 800 and 1000 Angstroms is vacuum deposited on the aluminum substrate and is substantially opaque to solar energy and substantially transparent to infrared energy.

  5. Method of using infrared radiation for assembling a first component with a second component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Whitson, Barry G.; Blue, Craig A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of assembling a first component for assembly with a second component involves a heating device which includes an enclosure having a cavity for inserting a first component. An array of infrared energy generators is disposed within the enclosure. At least a portion of the first component is inserted into the cavity, exposed to infrared energy and thereby heated to a temperature wherein the portion of the first component is sufficiently softened and/or expanded for assembly with a second component.

  6. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  7. Properties in the middle and far infrared radiation of spiral and irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contursi, Alessandra

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this research thesis, the author reports the study in the middle infrared of H II regions belonging to Magellanic clouds. For this purpose, he presents different aspects of infrared emission by the interstellar medium: origin and evolution of interstellar grains, dust studied by astrophysical observations, dust models, infrared observations made by COBE and IRAS satellites, exploitation of the ISO satellite. He also presents the Small and Large Magellanic clouds, and reports the study of the H II N4 region of the large one, imagery and spectroscopy of the H II N66 region of the small one, and the study of silicate emission in the central region of N66. The second part reports the study of cluster normal spiral galaxies in the middle and far infrared. For this purpose, the author discusses the colours in the middle infrared of Virgo's and Coma's galaxies, discusses the properties in the infrared of spiral galaxies (Coma and A1367), based on observations made by ISO [fr

  8. Generation and application of ultrashort coherent mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Scott

    Particle accelerators are useful instruments that help address critical issues for the future development of nuclear energy. Current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency (rf) cavities are too large and expensive for widespread commercial use, and alternative designs must be considered for supplying relativistic beams to small-scale applications, including medical imaging, secu- rity screening, and scientific research in a university-scale laboratory. Laser-driven acceleration using micro-fabricated dielectric photonic structures is an attractive approach because such photonic microstructures can support accelerating fields that are 10 to 100 times higher than that of rf cavity-based accelerators. Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) use commercial lasers as a driving source, which are smaller and less expensive than the klystrons used to drive current rf-based accelerators. Despite the apparent need for compact and economical laser sources for laser-driven acceleration, the availability of suitable high-peak-power lasers that cover a broad spectral range is currently limited. To address the needs of several innovative acceleration mechanisms like DLA, it is proposed to develop a coherent source of mid-infrared (IR) electromagnetic radiation that can be implemented as a driving source of laser accelerators. The use of ultrashort mid-IR high peak power laser systems in various laser-driven acceleration schemes has shown the potential to greatly reduce the optical pump intensities needed to realize high acceleration gradients. The optical intensity needed to achieve a given ponderomotive potential is 25 times less when using a 5-mum mid-IR laser as compared to using a 1-mum near-IR solid-state laser. In addition, dielectric structure breakdown caused by multiphoton ionization can be avoided by using longer-wavelength driving lasers. Current mid-IR laser sources do not produce sufficiently short pulse durations, broad spectral bandwidths

  9. GARLIC — A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code — GARLIC — is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus. - Highlights: • High resolution infrared-microwave radiative transfer model. • Discussion of algorithmic and computational aspects. • Jacobians by automatic/algorithmic differentiation. • Performance evaluation by intercomparisons, verification, validation

  10. Far-infrared radiation inhibits proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by suppressing secretory clusterin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soojin; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Young Mi; Jo, Inho

    2014-04-28

    Far-infrared (FIR) radiation is known to lessen the risk of angiogenesis-related diseases including cancer. Because deficiency of secretory clusterin (sCLU) has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis of endothelial cells (EC), we investigated using human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) whether sCLU mediates the inhibitory effects of FIR radiation. Although FIR radiation ranging 3-25μm wavelength at room temperature for 60min did not alter EC viability, further incubation in the culture incubator (at 37°C under 5% CO2) after radiation significantly inhibited EC proliferation, in vitro migration, and tube formation in a time-dependent manner. Under these conditions, we found decreased sCLU mRNA and protein expression in HUVEC and decreased sCLU protein secreted in culture medium. Expectedly, the replacement of control culture medium with the FIR-irradiated conditioned medium significantly decreased wound closure and tube formation of HUVEC, and vice versa. Furthermore, neutralization of sCLU with anti-sCLU antibody also mimicked all observed inhibitory effects of FIR radiation. Moreover, treatment with recombinant human sCLU protein completely reversed the inhibitory effects of FIR radiation on EC migration and angiogenesis. Lastly, vascular endothelial growth factor also increased sCLU secretion in the culture medium, and wound closure and tube formation of HUVEC, which were significantly reduced by FIR radiation. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which FIR radiation inhibits the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of HUVEC, via decreasing sCLU. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of radiation on intermediate-level waste forms. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, C.R.; Phillips, D.C.; Burnay, S.G.; Spindler, W.E.; Lyon, C.E.; Winter, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this programme was to determine the effects of radiation on the properties of intermediate-level waste forms relevant to their storage and disposal. It had two overall aims: to provide immediate data on the effect of radiation on important European ILW waste forms through accelerated laboratory tests; and to develop an understanding of the degradation processes so that long-term, low dose rate effects can be predicted with confidence from short-term, high dose rate experiments. The programme included cement waste forms containing inorganic wastes, organic matrix waste forms, and cement waste forms containing a substantial component of organic waste. Irradiations were carried out by external gamma sources and by the incorporation of alpha emitters, such as 238 Pu. Irradiated materials included matrix materials, simulated waste forms and real waste forms. 2 figs.; 3 tabs.; 8 refs

  12. Clouds across the Arctic: A spatial perspective uniting surface observations of downwelling infrared radiation, reanalyses and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher J.

    The polar regions serve an important role in the Earth's energy balance by acting as a heat sink for the global climate system. In the Arctic, a complex distribution of continental and oceanic features support large spatial variability in environmental parameters important for climate. Additionally, feedbacks that are unique to the cryosphere cause the region to be very sensitive to climate perturbations. Environmental changes are being observed, including increasing temperatures, reductions in sea ice extent and thickness, melting permafrost, changing atmospheric circulation patterns and changing cloud properties, which may be signaling a shift in climate. Despite these changes, the Arctic remains an understudied region, including with respect to the atmosphere and clouds. A better understanding of cloud properties and their geographical variability is needed to better understand observed changes and to forecast the future state of the system, to support adaptation and mitigation strategies, and understand how Arctic change impacts other regions of the globe. Surface-based observations of the atmosphere are critical measurements in this effort because they are high quality and have high temporal resolution, but there are few atmospheric observatories in the Arctic and the period of record is short. Reanalyses combine assimilated observations with models to fill in spatial and temporal data gaps, and also provide additional model-derived parameters. Reanalyses are spatially comprehensive, but are limited by large uncertainties and biases, in particular with respect to derived parameters. Infrared radiation is a large component of the surface energy budget. Infrared emission from clouds is closely tied to cloud properties, so measurements of the infrared spectrum can be used to retrieve information about clouds and can also be used to investigate the influence clouds have on the surface radiation balance. In this dissertation, spectral infrared radiances and other

  13. Study of the gamma radiation effect on lincomycin by two techniques thermal analysis and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.; Al Aji, Z.

    1999-02-01

    Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)

  14. Study of the gamma radiation effect on the lincomycin by two techniques thermal analysis and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zier, A.; Al-Kassiri, H.

    1999-01-01

    Sample of Lincomycin were irradiated by means of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at dose rate ca. (408 kGy/h) in the range (3, 5, 15, 20)kGy in presence of air. Samples were investigated using two techniques: Thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG)) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). DSC purity study, which depends on Vant Hof equation, showed that the purity of Lincomycin reduced by means of gamma radiation. The purity of theses samples decreased by increasing the dose, and the purity of lincomycin was still above (99%) at dose (10 kGy). To follow up this effects, (FTIR) spectrums of these sample were recorded before and after irradiation. The two peaks at (1500 - 1750 Cm -1 ) which belong to amide group, and the peak at (1050 - 1100 Cm -1 ) which belongs to the S-C groups have reduced. (author)

  15. Outcomes and toxicities in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or brachytherapy and supplemental external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlussel Markovic, Emily; Buckstein, Michael; Stone, Nelson N; Stock, Richard G

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the cancer control outcomes and long-term treatment-related morbidity of brachytherapy as well as combination brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. A retrospective review was conducted in a prospectively collected database of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated either with brachytherapy or brachytherapy and EBRT, with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), in the period 1990-2014. Urinary and erectile dysfunction symptoms were measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the Mount Sinai erectile function scale and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Cancer control endpoints included biochemical failure and development of distant metastases. All statistical analyses were carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier actuarial methods and compared using log-rank tests. Cox regression multivariate analyses were used to test the effect of multiple variables on treatment outcomes. A total of 902 patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 91 months. Of these, 390 received brachytherapy and 512 received combination therapy with EBRT. In patients with one intermediate-risk factor, the addition of EBRT did not significantly affect freedom from biochemical failure or distant metastases. Among patients with two or three intermediate-risk factors, added EBRT did not improve freedom from biochemical failure. Significant differences in late toxicity between patients treated with brachytherapy vs combination brachytherapy and EBRT were identified including urge incontinence (P actuarial methods showed that patients receiving combination therapy more frequently experienced loss of potency, as measured by the Mount Sinai erectile function scale (P = 0.040). Brachytherapy monotherapy results in equal biochemical and distant control in both patients with

  16. Prospective Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Cytotoxic Gene Therapy in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, Svend O., E-mail: sfreyta1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Stricker, Hans [Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Lu, Mei [Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed; Aref, Ibrahim; Pradhan, Deepak; Levin, Kenneth; Kim, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Peabody, James [Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Siddiqui, Farzan; Barton, Kenneth; Pegg, Jan; Zhang, Yingshu; Cheng, Jingfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Bourgeois, Renee [Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Gupta, Nilesh; Lane, Zhaoli [Pathology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Rodriguez, Ron [Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-four men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either OAMCGT plus IMRT (arm 1; n=21) or IMRT only (arm 2; n=23). The primary phase 2 endpoint was acute (≤90 days) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL), prostate biopsy (12-core) positivity at 2 years, freedom from biochemical/clinical failure (FFF), freedom from metastases, and survival. Results: Men in arm 1 exhibited a greater incidence of low-grade influenza-like symptoms, transaminitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than men in arm 2. There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal or genitourinary events or QOL between the 2 arms. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from 37 men (84%). Thirty-three percent of men in arm 1 were biopsy-positive versus 58% in arm 2, representing a 42% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm (P=.13). There was a 60% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm in men with <50% positive biopsy cores at baseline (P=.07). To date, 1 patient in each arm exhibited biochemical failure (arm 1, 4.8%; arm 2, 4.3%). No patient developed hormone-refractory or metastatic disease, and none has died from prostate cancer. Conclusions: Combining OAMCGT with IMRT does not exacerbate the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy and suggests a clinically meaningful reduction in positive biopsy results at 2 years in men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

  17. Prospective Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Cytotoxic Gene Therapy in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, Svend O.; Stricker, Hans; Lu, Mei; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Aref, Ibrahim; Pradhan, Deepak; Levin, Kenneth; Kim, Jae Ho; Peabody, James; Siddiqui, Farzan; Barton, Kenneth; Pegg, Jan; Zhang, Yingshu; Cheng, Jingfang; Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Bourgeois, Renee; Gupta, Nilesh; Lane, Zhaoli; Rodriguez, Ron; DeWeese, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-four men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either OAMCGT plus IMRT (arm 1; n=21) or IMRT only (arm 2; n=23). The primary phase 2 endpoint was acute (≤90 days) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL), prostate biopsy (12-core) positivity at 2 years, freedom from biochemical/clinical failure (FFF), freedom from metastases, and survival. Results: Men in arm 1 exhibited a greater incidence of low-grade influenza-like symptoms, transaminitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than men in arm 2. There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal or genitourinary events or QOL between the 2 arms. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from 37 men (84%). Thirty-three percent of men in arm 1 were biopsy-positive versus 58% in arm 2, representing a 42% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm (P=.13). There was a 60% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm in men with <50% positive biopsy cores at baseline (P=.07). To date, 1 patient in each arm exhibited biochemical failure (arm 1, 4.8%; arm 2, 4.3%). No patient developed hormone-refractory or metastatic disease, and none has died from prostate cancer. Conclusions: Combining OAMCGT with IMRT does not exacerbate the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy and suggests a clinically meaningful reduction in positive biopsy results at 2 years in men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer

  18. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  19. Differential effects of ambient temperature on warm cell responses to infrared radiation in the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Lydia M; Lazzari, Claudio R; Tichy, Harald

    2014-03-01

    Thermoreceptors provide animals with background information about the thermal environment, which is at least indirectly a prerequisite for thermoregulation and assists bloodsucking insects in the search for their host. Recordings from peg-in-pit sensilla and tapered hairs on the antennae of the bug Rhodnius prolixus revealed two physiologically different types of warm cells. Both types responded more strongly to temperature pulses produced by switching between two air streams at different constant temperatures than to infrared radiation pulses employed in still air. In addition, both warm cells were better able to discriminate small changes in air temperature than in infrared radiation. As convective and radiant heat determines the discharge, it is impossible for a single warm cell to signal the nature of the stimulus unequivocally. Individual responses are ambiguous, not with regard to temperature change, but with regard to its source. We argue that the bugs use mechanical flow information to differentiate between pulses of convective and radiant heat. However, if pulses of radiant heat occur together with a constant temperature air stream, the mechanical cues would not allow avoiding ambiguity that convective heat introduces into radiant heat stimulation. In this situation, the warm cell in the tapered hairs produced stronger responses than those in the peg-in-pit sensilla. The reversal in the excitability of the two types of warm cells provides a criterion by which to distinguish the combination of convective and radiant heat from the stimuli presented alone.

  20. Optimum combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podaire, Alain; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Frouin, R.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1991-01-01

    A useful parameter to estimate terrestrial primary productivity, that can be sensed from space, is the daily averaged fraction of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants. To evaluate this parameter, investigators have relied on the fact that the relative amount of radiation reflected by a vegetated surface in the visible and near infrared depends on the fraction of the surface covered by the vegetation and therefore, correlates with absorbed PAR. They have used vegetation indices, namely normalized difference and simple ratio, to derive absorbed PAR. The problem with normalized difference and simple ratio is first, they are non linear functions of radiance or reflectance and therefore, cannot be readily applied to heterogeneous targets, second, they are used in generally nonlinear relationships, which make time integrals of the indices not proportional to primary productivity, and third, the relationships depend strongly on the type of canopy and background. To remove these limitations, linear combinations of visible and near infrared reflectances at optimum (one or two) viewing zenith angles are proposed.

  1. Radiation-Induced Transient Effects in Near Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert A.; Pickel, J.; Marshall, P.; Waczynski, A.; McMurray, R.; Gee, G.; Polidan, E.; Johnson, S.; McKeivey, M.; Ennico, K.; hide

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a test simulate the transient effects of cosmic ray impacts on near infrared focal plane arrays. The objectives of the test are to: 1) Characterize proton single events as function of energy and angle of incidence; 2) Measure charge spread (crosstalk) to adjacent pixels; 3) Assess transient recovery time.

  2. Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

  3. Infrared radiation and inversion population of CO2 laser levels in Venusian and Martian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyets, B. F.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Formation mechanisms of nonequilibrium 10 micron CO2 molecule radiation and the possible existence of a natural laser effect in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars are theoretically studied. An analysis is made of the excitation process of CO2 molecule vibrational-band levels (with natural isotropic content) induced by direct solar radiation in bands 10.6, 9.4, 4.3, 2.7 and 2.0 microns. The model of partial vibrational-band temperatures was used in the case. The problem of IR radiation transfer in vibrational-rotational bands was solved in the radiation escape approximation.

  4. The performances of natural gas infrared radiation in paints baking; Les performances de l`infrarouge gaz pour la cuisson des peintures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourdou, I. [Gaz de France, 75 - Paris (France). Centre d`essais de recherches sur les utilisations du gaz

    1998-04-01

    The direction of research of Gaz de France (GdF) company, in association with the centre for technical studies of aeraulic and thermal industries (CETIAT), has carried out infrared radiation baking tests on real painted parts using natural gas burners. Tests were performed on the Erica test facility. The development of the use of infrared gas burners in the mechanical industry requires an optimum use of this technology in the baking cycle. (J.S.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation sources for photobiology and ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages of synchrotron radiation in several types of spectroscopy, microscopy and diffraction studies are clear. The availability of synchrotron radiation will expand rapidly in the early 1980's as experimental programs start at the new generation of dedicated storage rings

  6. Infrared studies of galactic nebulae. IV - Continuum and line radiation from planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, F. C.; Merrill, K. M.; Stein, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Observations are reported of the detection of IR radiation from several planetary nebulae not previously known to be radiating at these wavelengths. Broad spectral bandwidth observations indicate that ir radiation in excess of that expected from atomic processes is a common phenomenon among these objects. Investigations with narrow spectral bandwidth show that in a few cases the energy in the 10.52-micron line is a significant fraction of the total energy observed in the broad-band measurements and in other cases a relatively small fraction of the total radiation. Other observations on two sources with narrow spectral bandwidth adjacent to the 10.52-micron line indicate that at these wavelengths a true continuum of radiation exists as well as lines. The results are discussed in relation to visual and radio-wavelength data.

  7. Prostate-Specific Antigen 5 Years following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Ablative Procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaan Kataria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOur previous work on early PSA kinetics following prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT demonstrated that an initial rapid and then slow PSA decline may result in very low PSA nadirs. This retrospective study sought to evaluate the PSA nadir 5 years following SBRT for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa.Methods65 low- and 80 intermediate-risk PCa patients were treated definitively with SBRT to 35–37.5 Gy in 5 fractions at Georgetown University Hospital between January 2008 and October 2011. Patients who received androgen deprivation therapy were excluded from this study. Biochemical relapse was defined as a PSA rise >2 ng/ml above the nadir and analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. The PSA nadir was defined as the lowest PSA value prior to biochemical relapse or as the lowest value recorded during follow-up. Prostate ablation was defined as a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate relevant variables on the likelihood of achieving a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml.ResultsThe median age at the start of SBRT was 72 years. These patients had a median prostate volume of 36 cc with a median 25% of total cores involved. At a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 86 and 37% of patients achieved a PSA nadir ≤0.5 and <0.2 ng/ml, respectively. The median time to PSA nadir was 36 months. Two low and seven intermediate risk patients experienced a biochemical relapse. Regardless of the PSA outcome, the median PSA nadir for all patients was 0.2 ng/ml. The 5-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS rate for low- and intermediate-risk patients was 98.5 and 95%, respectively. Initial PSA (p = 0.024 and a lower testosterone at the time of the PSA nadir (p = 0.049 were found to be significant predictors of achieving a PSA nadir <0.2 ng/ml.ConclusionSBRT for low- and intermediate-risk PCa is a convenient treatment option with low PSA nadirs and a high rate of

  8. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, Ken Steffen; Andersen, Ole K.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: CO(2) lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial...... to deeper skin layers. Methods: In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO(2) laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were...... compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results: The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p

  9. A new software tool for computing Earth's atmospheric transmission of near- and far-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a new software tool, ATRAN, which computes the transmittance of Earth's atmosphere at near- and far-infrared wavelengths. We compare the capabilities of this program with others currently available and demonstrate its utility for observational data calibration and reduction. The program employs current water-vapor and ozone models to produce fast and accurate transmittance spectra for wavelengths ranging from 0.8 microns to 10 mm.

  10. Non-invasive detection of soil water content at intermediate field scale using natural neutrons from cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, Sascha; Rivera Villarreyes, Carlos; Baroni, Gabriele [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Erd und Umweltwissenschaften (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The amount of water in the subsurface is a key factor influencing soil hydrology, run-off, evapotranspiration and plant development. A new measurement method is the so called cosmic ray method, recently introduced for soil moisture measurements by Zreda and coworkers. Secondary neutron fluxes, product of the interaction of primary cosmic-rays at the land surface, are strongly moderated by the presence of water in or above soil (soil moisture, snow and biomass water). Neutron counts at the ground/air interface represent a valuable observation at intermediate spatial scale which can be used to quantify stored water while distinguishing different water holding compartments at the land surface. We have performed such measurements in an agricultural field, in comparison with classical soil moisture measurement at a number of point locations. We discuss how to extract soil moisture values from the neutron counts, drawbacks of the method, but also that the results show a temporal development supported by the accompanying data.

  11. Coherent infrared radiation from the ALS generated via femtosecond laser modulation of the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Hao, Z.; Martin, M.C.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse co-propagating through a wiggler at the ALS produces large modulation of the electron energies within a short ∼100 fs slice of the electron bunch. Propagating around the storage ring, this bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to the dispersion of electron trajectories. The length of the perturbation evolves with a distance from the wiggler but is much shorter than the electron bunch length. This perturbation causes the electron bunch to emit short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent infrared light which are automatically synchronized to the modulating laser. The intensity and spectra of the infrared light were measured in two storage ring locations for a nominal ALS lattice and for an experimental lattice with the higher momentum compaction factor. The onset of instability stimulated by laser e-beam interaction had been discovered. The infrared signal is now routinely used as a sensitive monitor for a fine tuning of the laser beam alignment during data accumulation in the experiments with femtosecond x-ray pulses

  12. CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4: Infrared spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallington, Timothy J.; Pivesso, Bruno Pasquini; Lira, Alane Moura; Anderson, James E.; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen; Andersen, Niels Højmark; Hodnebrog, Øivind

    2016-01-01

    Infrared spectra for the title compounds were measured experimentally in 700 Torr of air at 295 K and systematically modeled in B3LYP, M06-2X and MP2 calculations employing various basis sets. Calibrated infrared spectra over the wavenumber range 600–3500 cm"−"1 are reported and combined with literature data to provide spectra for use in experimental studies and radiative transfer calculations. Integrated absorption cross sections are (units of cm"−"1 molecule"−"1): CH_3Cl, 660–780 cm"−"1, (3.89±0.19)×10"−"1"8; CH_2Cl_2, 650–800 cm"−"1, (2.16±0.11)×10"−"1"7; CHCl_3, 720–810 cm"−"1, (4.08±0.20)×10"−"1"7; and CCl_4, 730–825 cm"−"1, (6.30±0.31)×10"−"1"7. CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 have radiative efficiencies of 0.004, 0.028, 0.070, and 0.174 W m"−"2 ppb"−"1 and global warming potentials (100 year horizon) of 5, 8, 15, and 1775, respectively. Quantum chemistry calculations generally predict larger band intensities than the experimental values. The best agreement with experiments is obtained in MP2(Full) calculations employing basis sets of at least triple-zeta quality augmented by diffuse functions. The B3LYP functional is found ill-suited for calculating vibrational frequencies and infrared intensities of halocarbons. - Highlights: • Infrared spectra reported for CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4. • REs of CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 are 0.004, 0.028, 0.070, and 0.174 W m"−"2 ppb"−"1, respectively. • GWPs of CH_3Cl, CH_2Cl_2, CHCl_3, and CCl_4 are 5, 8, 15, and 1775, respectively.

  13. The extent of unwanted infrared photoacoustic signals from polymer sampling tubings exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Solyom, A.; Angeli, G.; Wegh, H.; Postumus, M.; Jalink, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of unwanted photoacoustic (PA) signals due to volatiles released from various polymer tubing materials [transparent, red and black polyethylene (PE), polymer of tetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and copolymer of tetrafluorethylene and hexafluorethylene (FEP)] when exposed to 245 nm radiation was

  14. Measurement of far-infrared subpicosecond coherent radiation for pulse radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, T. E-mail: kozawa@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mizutani, Y.; Yokoyama, K.; Okuda, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S

    1999-06-01

    Using a magnetic bunch compression method, a 26.5 MeV subpicosecond electron single bunch was generated with the L-band linac of Osaka University. The coherent transition radiation emitted from the subpicosecond single bunch was observed at wavelengths from 100 to 700 {mu}m. The intensity was 7.9x10{sup 9} times higher than that of the incoherent transition radiation obtained by calculation. The length of the compressed electron bunch was evaluated to be roughly 50 fs (rms) from the analysis of the spectra of the transition radiation. The coherent transition radiation has high enough intensity to be applied to pulse radiolysis as a pulsed light source.

  15. Effects of high altitude clouds on the earth's infrared radiation flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-C.; Kaplan, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the results of a study of cirrus cloud properties which employed the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' general circulation model and concentrated on the effects of the nonblackness of high clouds on the IR radiation flux. Although the thermal radiation flux is very sensitive to the treatment of cirrus optical properties in the IR, a more realistic assessment will depend on better parameterizations for cirrus cloud formation, persistence, and dissipation.

  16. Planck intermediate results. VII. Statistical properties of infrared and radio extragalactic sources from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue at frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurinsky, N.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschènes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2013-02-01

    We make use of the Planck all-sky survey to derive number counts and spectral indices of extragalactic sources - infrared and radio sources - from the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) at 100 to 857 GHz (3 mm to 350 μm). Three zones (deep, medium and shallow) of approximately homogeneous coverage are used to permit a clean and controlled correction for incompleteness, which was explicitly not done for the ERCSC, as it was aimed at providing lists of sources to be followed up. Our sample, prior to the 80% completeness cut, contains between 217 sources at 100 GHz and 1058 sources at 857 GHz over about 12 800 to 16 550 deg2 (31 to 40% of the sky). After the 80% completeness cut, between 122 and 452 and sources remain, with flux densities above 0.3 and 1.9 Jy at 100 and 857 GHz. The sample so defined can be used for statistical analysis. Using the multi-frequency coverage of the Planck High Frequency Instrument, all the sources have been classified as either dust-dominated (infrared galaxies) or synchrotron-dominated (radio galaxies) on the basis of their spectral energy distributions (SED). Our sample is thus complete, flux-limited and color-selected to differentiate between the two populations. We find an approximately equal number of synchrotron and dusty sources between 217 and 353 GHz; at 353 GHz or higher (or 217 GHz and lower) frequencies, the number is dominated by dusty (synchrotron) sources, as expected. For most of the sources, the spectral indices are also derived. We provide for the first time counts of bright sources from 353 to 857 GHz and the contributions from dusty and synchrotron sources at all HFI frequencies in the key spectral range where these spectra are crossing. The observed counts are in the Euclidean regime. The number counts are compared to previously published data (from earlier Planck results, Herschel, BLAST, SCUBA, LABOCA, SPT, and ACT) and models taking into account both radio or infrared galaxies, and covering a

  17. Predictors of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy With or Without External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Akash; Chen, M.-H.; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.

  18. Fission of intermediate mass nuclei by photons of stopping radiation in the maximum energy range 0,8 - 1,8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de.

    1983-07-01

    The fission of intermediate mass nuclei in Al - Ta interval, induced by stopping radiation phtons of maximum energies between 0,8 and 1.8 GeV is studied. Nd and Sm thin targets and Al, Ti, Co, Zr, Nb, Ag, In and Ta thick targets were used, considering all peculiarities inherent to absorption of fission fragments in the target. The samples were exposed into the 2.5 GeV Electron Synchrotron in Bonn Univerity. The fission fragment tracks were registered in foil type detectors using mica muscovite for Sm and Nd, CR-39 for Al and Ti and makrofol for Co, Zr; Nb, Ag, In, Nd and Ta. The track length and track depth angle distributions were measured for determining fission efficiencies. The fission cross sections and nuclear fissionable of the studied elements were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Ferrites based infrared radiation coatings with high emissivity and high thermal shock resistance and their application on energy-saving kettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianyi; Fan, Xi’an; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ferrites based infrared radiation coating was prepared by HVOF for the first time. • The infrared radiation coatings were applied firstly on the household kettle. • The bonding strength between the coating and substrate could reach 30.7 MPa. • The coating kept intact when cycle reached 27 by quenching from 1000 °C using water. • The energy-saving efficiency of the kettle with coating could reach 30.5%. - Abstract: Starting from Fe 2 O 3 , MnO 2 , Co 2 O 3 and NiO powders, the ferrites based infrared radiation coatings with high emissivity and high thermal shock resistance were successfully prepared on the surface of carbon steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF). The coating thickness was about 120–150 μm and presented a typical flat lamellar structure. The coating surface was rough and some submicron grade grains distributed on it. The infrared emissivity of the ferrites based coating by HVOF was over 0.74 in 3–20 μm waveband at 800 °C, which was obviously higher than that of the coating by brushing process in the short waveband. The bonding strength was 30.7 MPa between the coating and substrate, which was five times more than that of conventional coatings by brushing process. The combined effect of the superior bonding strength, typical lamellar structure, pre-existing microcracks and newly generated pores made the cycle times reach 27 when the coating samples were quenched from 1000 °C using water. Lastly, the infrared radiation coatings were applied on the underside of household kettle, and the energy-saving efficiency could reach 30.5%. The ferrites based infrared radiation coatings obtained in this work are good candidates for saving energy in the field of cookware and industrial high temperature furnace

  20. An extraordinary directive radiation based on optical antimatter at near infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocella, Vito; Dardano, Principia; Rendina, Ivo; Cabrini, Stefano

    2010-11-22

    In this paper we discuss and experimentally demonstrate that in a quasi- zero-average-refractive-index (QZAI) metamaterial, in correspondence of a divergent source in near infrared (λ = 1.55 μm) the light scattered out is extremely directive (Δθ(out) = 0.06°), coupling with diffraction order of the alternating complementary media grating. With a high degree of accuracy the measurements prove also the excellent vertical confinement of the beam even in the air region of the metamaterial, in absence of any simple vertical confinement mechanism. This extremely sensitive device works on a large contact area and open news perspective to integrated spectroscopy.

  1. Mechanistic insights into nanotoxicity determined by synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared imaging and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T; Martin, Francis L

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to identify the mechanisms by which carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) exert toxicity in cells is constrained by the lack of standardized methodologies to assay endpoint effects. Herein we describe a method of mechanistically identifying the effects of various CBN types in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using multi-beam synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared imaging (SR-FTIRI) at diffraction-limited resolution. This technique overcomes many of the inherent difficulties of assaying nanotoxicity and demonstrates exceptional sensitivity in identifying the effects of CBNs in cells at environmentally-relevant concentrations. We identify key mechanisms of nanotoxicity as the alteration of Amide and lipid biomolecules, but propose more specific bioactivity of CBNs occurs as a result of specific interactions between CBN structural conformation and cellular characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wavenumber dependent investigation of the terrestrial infrared radiation budget with two versions of the LOWTRAN5 band model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Two versions of the LOWTRAN5 radiance code are used in a study of the earth's clear sky infrared radiation budget in the interval 30 per cm (333.3 microns) to 3530 per cm (2.8 microns). One version uses 5 per cm resolution and temperature dependent molecular absorption coefficients, and the second uses 20 per cm resolution and temperature independent molecular absorption coefficients. Both versions compare well with Nimbus 3 IRIS spectra, with some discrepancies at particular wavenumber intervals. Up and downgoing fluxes, calculated as functions of latitude, are displayed for wavenumbers at which the principle absorbers are active. Most of the variation of the fluxes with latitude is found in the higher wavenumber intervals for both clear and cloudy skies. The main features of the wavenumber integrated cooling rates are explained with reference to calculations in more restricted wavenumber intervals. A tropical lower tropospheric cooling maximum is produced by water vapor continuum effects in the 760-1240 per cm window. A secondary upper tropospheric cooling maximum, with wide meridional extent, is produced by water vapor rotational lines between 30-430 per cm. Water vapor lines throughout the terrestrial infrared spectrum prevent the upflux maximum from coinciding with the surface temperature maximum.

  3. A study on radiation-resistance of PIC (polymer-impregnated concrete) for container of conditioning and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Sudoh, Giichi; Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation-resistance of PIC with test piece was evaluated by irradiation of gamma-rays. All the test pieces had JIS mortar size of 4 x 4 x 16 cm. JIS mortar and concrete were used as specimens. The maximum aggregate size of concrete was 10 mm. The specimens impregnated by MMA (methylmethacrylate) monomer and solution of 10% of PSt (polystyrene) in MMA monomer (MMA .PSt) were polymerized by irradiating for 5 hr at the dose rate of 1 MR (1 x 10 6 Roentgen)/hr. PIC specimens were exposed up to maximum 1000 MR to 60 Co gamma-rays in air and under water which simulate shallow land disposal and deep sea dumping conditions, respectively. The lowering of strength of the PIC exposed to gamma-rays under water was larger than that of the PIC in air. The improving effect of the added PSt on the radiation-resistance was observed. It was observed that the 50 MR-irradiated MMA.PSt-PIC under water, which had the residual compressive strength of 85%, was resistant to gamma-rays. When this residual strength was regarded as a limit of radiation-resistance in air, the limit of MMA and MMA.PSt-PIC were approximately 25 MR and 150 MR, respectively. The lowering of strength was mainly due to the deterioration of MMA polymer in PIC. The total exposure dose for PIC-container was estimated by assuming the conditions about the packaged radioactive wastes, dose rate, container and so on. The total exposure dose on PIC-container for 100 years became roughly 1.25 MR. Therefore, it is estimated that the PIC-containers for conditioning and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes have a sufficient resistance to radiation arising from wastes. (author)

  4. Effects of intermittent CO2 convection under far-infrared radiation on vacuum drying of pre-osmodehydrated watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajat; Mondal, Pijus

    2017-08-01

    Watermelon, a tropical seasonal fruit with high nutrient content, requires preservation through drying due to its perishable nature. Nevertheless, drying of watermelon through conventional processes has a negative impact either on the drying time or on the final product quality. In this work, osmotic dehydration of watermelon followed by far-infrared radiation-assisted vacuum drying (FIRRAVD) was optimized to develop dehydrated watermelon with minimum moisture content. Significantly, during FIRRAVD, an attempt was made to further intensify the drying rate by forced convection through intermittent CO 2 injection. Drying kinetics of each operation and physicochemical qualities of dried products were evaluated. FIRRAVD was a viable method of watermelon drying with appreciably high moisture diffusivity (D eff,m ) of 4.97 × 10 -10 to 1.49 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1 compared to conventional tray drying. Moreover, intermittent CO 2 convection during FIRRAVD (ICFIRRAVD) resulted in appreciable intensification of drying rate, with enhanced D eff,m (9.93 × 10 -10 to 1.99 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1 ). Significantly, ICFIRRAVD required less energy and approximately 16% less time compared to FIRRAVD. The quality of the final dehydrated watermelon was superior compared to conventional drying protocols. The novel CO 2 convective drying of watermelon in the presence of far-infrared radiation demonstrated an energy-efficient and time-saving operation rendering a dehydrated watermelon with acceptable quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [Comparative study of effect of infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter electromagnetic radiation on wing somatic mutations in Drosophila melanogaster induced by gamma-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I; Pogodin, A S; Dubatolova, T D; Varlamov, A V; Leont'ev, K V; Khamoian, A G

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that the number of spontaneous and gamma-radiation-induced somatic mutations in wing cells of fruit flies (third instar larvae) exposed to laser irradiation of submillimeter range (lambda = 81.5 microns) was significantly lower than in control. Laser irradiation did not affect the number of recombinations. Exposure to laser radiation in the infrared range and electromagnetic waves of the millimeter range (lambda = 3.8 mm) enhanced the effect of gamma-irradiation.

  6. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt-Nielsen Lars

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p 2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation.

  7. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.

  8. Efficacy of routine pre-radiation dental screening and dental follow-up in head and neck oncology patients on intermediate and late radiation effects. A retrospective evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M.; Stokman, Monique A.; Roodenburg, Johannes L. N.; Reintsema, Harry; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Head-neck radiotherapy is accompanied by a life-long risk of developing severe oral problems. This study retrospectively assessed oral foci detected during pre-radiation dental screening and follow-up in order to assess risk factors for developing oral problems after

  9. Design of a Solar Greenhouse with Energy Delivery by the Conversion of Near Infrared Radiation - Part 1 Optics and PV-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gert-Jan Swinkels; Piet Sonneveld; G.P.A. Bot

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for reflecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system is described. Especially the optical parts as the spectral selective film, the properties of the circular reflector and the

  10. Design of a Solar Greenhouse with energy Delivery by the Conversion of Near Infrared Radiation. Part 1. Optics and PV-Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for reflecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system is described. Especially the optical parts as the spectral selective film, the properties of the circular reflector and the

  11. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  12. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  13. Effects of mode coupling between low-mode radiation flux asymmetry and intermediate-mode ablator roughness on ignition capsule implosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfa Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-mode shell asymmetry and high-mode hot spot mixing appear to be the main reasons for the performance degradation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF implosion experiments. The effects of the mode coupling between low-mode P2 radiation flux asymmetry and intermediate-mode L = 24 capsule roughness on the implosion performance of ignition capsule are investigated by two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. It is shown that the amplitudes of new modes generated by the mode coupling are in good agreement with the second-order mode coupling equation during the acceleration phase. The later flow field not only shows large areal density P2 asymmetry in the main fuel, but also generates large-amplitude spikes and bubbles. In the deceleration phase, the increasing mode coupling generates more new modes, and the perturbation spectrum on the hot spot boundary is mainly from the strong mode interactions rather than the initial perturbation conditions. The combination of the low-mode and high-mode perturbations breaks up the capsule shell, resulting in a significant reduction of the hot spot temperature and implosion performance.

  14. Optimal duration of androgen deprivation therapy following radiation therapy in intermediate- or high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Frederico; Figueiredo, Maximiliano Augusto Novis de; Sasse, Andre Deeke, E-mail: sasse@cevon.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Objectives: to investigate current evidence on the optimal duration of adjuvant hormone deprivation for prostate cancer treated with radiation therapy with curative intent. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases. Data from randomized trials comparing different durations of hormone blockade was collected for pooled analysis. Overall survival, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival and toxicity were the outcomes of interest. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects model. Results: Six studies met the eligibility criteria. For overall survival, the pooled data from the studies demonstrated a statistically significant benefit for longer hormone deprivation (Hazard Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 - 0.96). A statistically significant benefit was also found for disease-free survival (Hazard Ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.62 - 0.89), and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.62 - 0.85). Studies with longer blockade duration arm demonstrated greater benefit. Toxicity was low, with no increase in cardiovascular events. Conclusions: Longer duration of androgen deprivation combined to radiotherapy prolongs OS, DFS and DSS in patients with intermediate and high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer. However, this evidence is based on trials using older radiation techniques, and further research of combination of androgen deprivation and new RT technologies may be warranted. (author)

  15. Near-infrared radiation absorption properties of covellite (CuS using first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory was used to investigate the electronic structure, optical properties and the origin of the near-infrared (NIR absorption of covellite (CuS. The calculated lattice constant and optical properties are found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical findings. The electronic structure reveals that the valence and conduction bands of covellite are determined by the Cu 3d and S 3p states. By analyzing its optical properties, we can fully understand the potential of covellite (CuS as a NIR absorbing material. Our results show that covellite (CuS exhibits NIR absorption due to its metal-like plasma oscillation in the NIR range.

  16. Visible and near-infrared radiative properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X J; Zhang, Z M; Flicker, J D; Ready, W J; Lee, B J

    2009-01-01

    This work investigates the reflection and scattering from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, fabricated on silicon substrate using thermally enhanced chemical vapor deposition with both tip-growth and base-growth mechanisms. The directional-hemispherical reflectance in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths was measured with an integrating sphere. The polarization-dependent bidirectional reflectance distribution function was characterized with a laser scatterometer at the wavelength of 635 nm. The effective medium theory was used to elucidate the mechanism of high absorptance (greater than 0.97 in the spectral region from 400 to 1800 nm) of the multi-walled carbon nanotube samples. It is observed that scattering by impurities on the top of the nanotubes, by the nanotube tips, and by defects and misalignment can significantly increase the reflectance and introduce retroreflection. This study may facilitate application of carbon nanotubes in pyroelectric detectors as well as thermophotovoltaic emitters and absorbers.

  17. CO2 induced climatic change and spectral variations in the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlock, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    The published temperature changes produced in general circulation model simulations of CO2 induced climate modification are used to compute the top of the atmosphere, clear sky outgoing infrared radiance changes expected for doubled CO2. A significant wavenumber shift is produced, with less radiance emerging in the 500-800 per cm (20.0-12.5 micron) CO2 band and with more emerging in the 800-1200 per cm (12.5-8.3 micron) window. The effect varies greatly with latitude. The radiance shift in the 2300 per cm (4.3 micron) region is of the order of 10-30 percent for doubled CO2. It is suggested that the 2300 per cm region be carefully monitored as an aid in detecting the climatic effects of increasing CO2. The change in the wavenumber-integrated radiant exitance is at most a few percent.

  18. The effects of electron and proton radiation on GaSb infrared solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Avery, J. E.; Fraas, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) infrared solar cells were exposed to 1 MeV electrons and protons up to fluences of 1 times 10(exp 15) cm (-2) and 1 times 10(exp 12) cm (-2) respectively. In between exposures, current voltage and spectral response curves were taken. The GaSb cells were found to degrade slightly less than typical GaAs cells under electron irradiation, and calculations from spectral response curves showed that the damage coefficient for the minority carrier diffusion length was 3.5 times 10(exp 8). The cells degraded faster than GaAs cells under proton irradiation. However, researchers expect the top cell and coverglass to protect the GaSb cell from most damaging protons. Some annealing of proton damage was observed at low temperatures (80 to 160 C).

  19. Emitted short wavelength infrared radiation for detection and monitoring of volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thematic Mapper images from LANDSAT were used to monitor volcanoes. Achievements include: (1) the discovery of a magmatic precursor to the 16 Sept. 1986 eruption of Lascar, northern Chile, on images from Mar. and July 1985 and of continuing fumarolic activity after the eruption; (2) the detection of unreported major changes in the distribution of lava lakes on Erta'Ale, Ethiopia; and (3) the mapping of a halo of still-hot spatter surrounding a vent on Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on an image acquired 5 min after a minor eruption otherwise known only from seismic records. A spaceborne short wavelength infrared sensor for observing hot phenomena of volcanoes is proposed. A polar orbit is suggested.

  20. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p 0.90, p < 0.001). Of the 16 subjects tested; eight subjects reported pricking pain in the hairy skin following a stimulus of 0.6 J/cm2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm) only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin) was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation. PMID:21059226

  1. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on bone using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Pedro Arthur Augusto de; Dias, Derly Augusto; Zezell, Denise Maria, E-mail: zezell@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used as an important treatment and diagnostic method for several diseases. Optical techniques provides an efficient clinical diagnostic to support an accurate evaluation of the interaction of radiation with molecules. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) is a label-free and nondestructive optical technique that can recognize functional groups in biological samples. In this work, 30 fragments of bone were collected from bovine femur diaphysis. Samples were cut and polished until 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 mm, which were then stored properly in the refrigerated environment. Samples irradiation was performed with a Cobalt-60 Gammacell Irradiator source at doses of 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, whereas the fragments exposed to dose of 15 kGy was irradiated in a multipurpose irradiator of Cobalt-60. Spectral data was submitted to principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with Principal component analysis(PCA) followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) using MATLAB R2015a software (The Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA, USA). We demonstrated the feasibility of using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy associated with PCA-LDA multivariate technique to evaluate the molecular changes in bone matrix caused by different doses: 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy and 15 kGy. These alterations between the groups are mainly reported in phosphate region. Our results open up new possibilities for protein monitoring relating to dose responses. (author)

  2. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects on bone using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and multivariate analysis of spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Pedro Arthur Augusto de; Dias, Derly Augusto; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used as an important treatment and diagnostic method for several diseases. Optical techniques provides an efficient clinical diagnostic to support an accurate evaluation of the interaction of radiation with molecules. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) is a label-free and nondestructive optical technique that can recognize functional groups in biological samples. In this work, 30 fragments of bone were collected from bovine femur diaphysis. Samples were cut and polished until 1 cm x 1 cm x 1 mm, which were then stored properly in the refrigerated environment. Samples irradiation was performed with a Cobalt-60 Gammacell Irradiator source at doses of 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, whereas the fragments exposed to dose of 15 kGy was irradiated in a multipurpose irradiator of Cobalt-60. Spectral data was submitted to principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed with Principal component analysis(PCA) followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis(LDA) using MATLAB R2015a software (The Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA, USA). We demonstrated the feasibility of using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy associated with PCA-LDA multivariate technique to evaluate the molecular changes in bone matrix caused by different doses: 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy and 15 kGy. These alterations between the groups are mainly reported in phosphate region. Our results open up new possibilities for protein monitoring relating to dose responses. (author)

  3. Spoiling of radiation zeros at the one-loop level and infrared finiteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, M.L.; Samuel, M.A.; Sen, A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the amplitude for the radiative decay W - →phi 1 phi 2 #betta# (scalar quarks) including one-loop gluon corrections. We study this process to see if the amplitude (radiation) zeros found in lowest order survive at the one-loop level. The subset of diagrams containing self-mass insertions preserves the zero. Seagull types are shown to have a violation which is similar to kappanot =1. Triangle and box diagrams spoil the zeros as they do in the case of a scalar W. However, the amplitude is completely free of any mass singularities in the classical null zone. We conjecture that this will remain true for spin-(1/2) quarks

  4. Infrared emission in Seyfert 2 galaxies - Reprocessed radiation from a dusty torus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Mulchaey, John S.; Wilson, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    New and existing data for a sample of nine Seyfert 2 galaxies with known 'ionization cones' are combined in order to test whether collimation results from shadowing of radiation from a small isotropic nuclear source by a thick dusty torus. The number of ionizing photons emitted by the compact nucleus is calculated from the emission-line ratios measured for gas within the cones. On the assumption that this compact nuclear source radiates isotropically, the optical-UV power incident on the torus, which is expected to be reradiated in the IR, is determined. It is found that the observed IRAS luminosities are consistent with the torus model in eight of the nine objects with sufficient data to perform the calculation. It is concluded that the data are generally consistent with collimation and reradiation by a dusty torus.

  5. [The efficacy of polychromatic visible and infrared radiation used for the postoperative immunological rehabilitation of patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhevago, N A; Samoĭlova, K A; Davydova, N I; Bychkova, N V; Glazanova, T V; Chubukina, Zh V; Buĭniakova, A I; Zimin, A A

    2012-01-01

    The immunological rehabilitation of the patients with oncological problems after the completion of standard anti-tumour therapy remains a topical problem in modern medicine. The up-to-date phototherapeutic methods find the increasingly wider application for the treatment of such patients including the use of monochromatic visible (VIS) and near infrared (nIR) radiation emitted from lasers and photodiodes. The objective of the present study was to substantiate the expediency of postoperative immune rehabilitation of the patients with breast cancer (BC) by means of irradiation of the body surface with polychromatic visible (pVIS) in combination with polychromatic infrared (pIR) light similar to the natural solar radiation without its minor UV component. The study included 19 patients with stage I--II BC at the mean age of 54.0 +/- 4.28 years having the infiltrative-ductal form of the tumour who had undergone mastectomy. These patients were randomly allocated to two groups, one given the standard course of postoperative rehabilitation (control), the other (study group) additionally treated with pVIS + pIR radiation applied to the lumbar-sacral region from days 1 to 7 after surgery. A Bioptron-2 phototherapeutic device, Switzerland, was used for the purpose (480-3400 nm, 40 mW/cm2, 12 J/cm2, with the light spot diameter of 15 cm). The modern standard immunological methods were employed. It was found that mastectomy induced changes of many characteristics of cellular and humoral immunity; many of them in different patients were oppositely directed. These changes were apparent within the first 7 days postoperatively. The course of phototherapy (PT) was shown to prevent the postoperative decrease in the counts of monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, the total amount of CD3+ -T-lymphocytes (LPC), CD4+ -T-helpers, activated T-lymphocytes (CD3+ HLA-DR+ cells) and IgA levels as well as intracellular digestion rate of neutrophil-phagocyted bacteria. Moreover PT promoted

  6. Using decision analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Feigenberg, Steven; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kulkarni, Sachin M.S.; Beck, J. Robert; Horwitz, Eric M.; Pollack, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The specific aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of a 70-year-old with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods: A Markov model was designed with the following states; posttreatment, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and death. Transition probabilities from one state to another were calculated from rates derived from the literature for IMRT and 3D-CRT. Utility values for each health state were obtained from preliminary studies of preferences conducted at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The analysis took a payer's perspective. Expected mean costs, cost-effectiveness scatterplots, and cost acceptability curves were calculated with commercially available software. Results: The expected mean cost of patients undergoing IMRT was $47,931 with a survival of 6.27 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The expected mean cost of patients having 3D-CRT was $21,865 with a survival of 5.62 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness comparing IMRT with CRT was $40,101/QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis revealed a 55.1% probability of IMRT being cost-effective at a $50,000/QALY willingness to pay. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was found to be cost-effective, however, at the upper limits of acceptability. The results, however, are dependent on the assumptions of improved biochemical disease-free survival with fewer patients undergoing subsequent salvage therapy and improved quality of life after the treatment. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, decision analysis can help inform physicians and health policy experts on the cost-effectiveness of emerging technologies

  7. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C; Wallis, B; Reimers, W

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 mu m and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth tau to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented.

  8. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, Ch.; Stock, C.; Wallis, B.; Reimers, W.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 μm and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth τ to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented

  9. Validation of Vegetation Index Time Series from Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Using Tower Radiation Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T.; Kato, A.; Wang, J.; Vargas, M.; Lindquist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite vegetation index (VI) time series data serve as an important means to monitor and characterize seasonal changes of terrestrial vegetation and their interannual variability. It is, therefore, critical to ensure quality of such VI products and one method of validating VI product quality is cross-comparison with in situ flux tower measurements. In this study, we evaluated the quality of VI time series derived from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft by cross-comparison with in situ radiation flux measurements at select flux tower sites over North America and Europe. VIIRS is a new polar-orbiting satellite sensor series, slated to replace National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer in the afternoon overpass and to continue the highly-calibrated data streams initiated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Observing System. The selected sites covered a wide range of biomes, including croplands, grasslands, evergreen needle forest, woody savanna, and open shrublands. The two VIIRS indices of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the atmospherically-corrected, Top-of-Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) (daily, 375 m spatial resolution) were compared against the TOC NDVI and a two-band version of EVI (EVI2) calculated from tower radiation flux measurements, respectively. VIIRS and Tower VI time series showed comparable seasonal profiles across biomes with statistically significant correlations (> 0.60; p-value 0.95), with mean differences of 2.3 days and 5.0 days for the NDVI and the EVI, respectively. These results indicate that VIIRS VI time series can capture seasonal evolution of vegetated land surface as good as in situ radiometric measurements. Future studies that address biophysical or physiological interpretations

  10. Single-Fraction High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Hypofractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer - Long Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cury, Fabio L., E-mail: fabio.cury@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Duclos, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Aprikian, Armen [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Patrocinio, Horacio [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. Results: The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. Conclusion: The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients.

  11. White light emission from Er2O3 nano-powder excited by infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanli, Sevcan; Eryurek, Gonul; Di Bartolo, Baldassare

    2017-07-01

    Phosphors of Er2O3 nano-crystalline powders were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. The structural properties of the nano-powders were investigated with XRD and HRTEM measurements. The cubic phase with a = 10.540 Å was the only phase observed. The average crystalline sizes and the widths of the grain size distribution curves were determined to be 27.2, 18.7 and 9.7 nm, respectively. The spectroscopic properties of the Er2O3 nano-powder were studied by measuring the luminescence, decay and rise patterns under 808 and 975 nm diode laser excitations. A peculiar effect of the pressure was observed since an optically active ion (Er) is part of the complex and not a dopant. A broad band of the white light emission combined with blue, green and red up-conversion emission bands of Er3+ ions were observed at 0.03 mbar pressure under both excitation wavelengths. Only, an intense broad band white light emission was observed from these nanocrystals at atmospheric pressure. Rising patterns show that the white light intensity reaches its maximum value more rapidly under 975 nm excitation although it decays slower than that of 808 nm excitation. The color quality parameters such as the color coordinate (CRI), correlated color temperature and the color rendering index were found to vary with both the excitation wavelength and the ambient pressure indicating that these nanocrystals could be considered good white light emitting source under the infrared excitations.

  12. Novel radiation sources using relativistic electrons from infrared to x-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Rullhusen, P; Dhez, P

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to give a description of the state of the art in theoretical and experimental work achieved in radiation source development. It summarizes clearly and comprehensibly, the basic physical aspects needed to understand the phenomena, and also provides the interested reader with sufficient literature to be able to follow the development in more detail. In addition, it contains a unified view of most theoretical effects and their common properties. The most recent developments as well as references to further work can be found in this volume. In many cases, review article

  13. STRAY - An interactive program for the computation of stray radiation in infrared telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1987-01-01

    The STRAY program to model the amount of stray radiation reaching the focal plane of a well-baffled telescope is described. The STRAY telescope model is addressed, including the aperture shade, barrel baffle, optics, mirror sectioning and chopping, and off-axis points in focal plane. The possible illumination paths are shown, and calculation options using STRAY are discussed. The stored data and computational aspects of STRAY are addressed. STRAY is compared to the MINI-APART model, and applications of STRAY are described.

  14. Characteristics of radiation temperature and radiosity coefficient by means of infrared radiometer. Sekigai hoshakei ni yoru zairyo hyomen no hosha tokusei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Y; Kaminaga, F [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ishii, T; Sato, K [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Kurokawa, T [NEC San-ei Instrumentsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-12-25

    A radiation thermometer was applied to the measurement and analysis of radiation temperature of the material surface. In this paper, the characteristics of the radiation temperature and the radiosity coefficient of gray body materials are investigatied. An infrared radiometer was used, which detects radiation energy in the region between 8 and 13{mu}m of wavelength. This infared radiometer has a Hg-Cd-Te photon radiation sensor. The variation of emissivity was measured for the four kinds of non-metalic materials, i.e., graphite, carbon fiber composite, Si-SiC ceramic, and black paint spread on an aluminum plate. As a result, the relationship between material temperature and radiation energy was made clear. Furthermore, the space-dependent variation of the radiation temperature and the radiosity coefficient was derived from the two-dimensional CRT image of the infrared radiometer. Consequently, the emmisivity variation gave a maximum for the carbon fiber composite surface rich in irregularity, and decreased in the order of graphite, Si-SiC, and black paint. 7 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarmann, T. von; Hoepfner, M.; Funke, B.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dudhia, A.; Jay, V.; Schreier, F.; Ridolfi, M.; Ceccherini, S.; Kerridge, B.J.; Reburn, J.; Siddans, R.

    2003-01-01

    When retrieving atmospheric parameters from radiance spectra, the forward modelling of radiative transfer through the Earth's atmosphere plays a key role, since inappropriate modelling directly maps on to the retrieved state parameters. In the context of pre-launch activities of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) experiment, which is a high resolution limb emission sounder for measurement of atmospheric composition and temperature, five scientific groups intercompared their forward models within the framework of the Advanced MIPAS Level 2 Data Analysis (AMIL2DA) project. These forward models have been developed, or, in certain respects, adapted in order to be used as part of the groups' MIPAS data processing. The following functionalities have been assessed: the calculation of line strengths including non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, the evaluation of the spectral line shape, application of chi-factors and semi-empirical continua, the interpolation of pre-tabulated absorption cross sections in pressure and temperature, line coupling, atmospheric ray tracing, the integration of the radiative transfer equation through an inhomogeneous atmosphere, the convolution of monochromatic spectra with an instrument line shape function, and the integration of the incoming radiances over the instrument field of view

  16. Effect of infrared radiation on the threshold behavior of scattering (and decay) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, A.K.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis is given of the effect of radiative corrections on the threshold behavior of the cross section for the inelastic scattering of a light charged particle by a neutral composite system. Explicit results are obtained for a model problem where the target consists of a proton and antiproton bound under their mutual Coulomb interaction and excited to a 2p state from its 1s ground state by electron impact, but the conclusions drawn are applicable, qualitatively, to a wide range of problems. It is found that when the energy resolution Δepsilon-c of the electron detector is small compared with the kinetic energy K' of the electron in the final state, the more careful treatment given here, which properly accounts for the rapid variation of the cross section for scattering energies near threshold, leads to only small modifications in the standard form of the radiative correction factor δ. For sufficiently high resolution in energy of a (high-energy) incident beam, the modification could be significant if Δepsilon-c is comparable with K'. The above considerations are applicable not only to scattering cross sections but to endpoints of the energy spectrum of the charged particle in a decay process in which only one charged particle is emitted

  17. Efficacy of routine pre-radiation dental screening and dental follow-up in head and neck oncology patients on intermediate and late radiation effects. A retrospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M.; Stokman, Monique A.; Roodenburg, Johannes L.N.; Reintsema, Harry; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Head–neck radiotherapy is accompanied by a life-long risk of developing severe oral problems. This study retrospectively assessed oral foci detected during pre-radiation dental screening and follow-up in order to assess risk factors for developing oral problems after radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Charts of 185 consecutive head–neck cancer patients, subjected to a pre-radiation dental screening in University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 2004 and December 2008 were reviewed. Eighty (partially) dentulous patients scheduled for curative head–neck radiotherapy met the inclusion criteria. Results: Oral foci were found in 76% of patients, predominantly periodontal disease. Osteoradionecrosis had developed in 9 out of 80 patients (11%). Overall, patients presenting with periodontal pockets ⩾6 mm at dental screening had an increased risk (19%) of developing osteoradionecrosis compared to the total group of patients. Patients in whom periodontal disease treatment was composed of initial periodontal in stead of removal of the affected teeth, the risk of developing osteoradionecrosis was even higher, viz. 33%. Conclusions: A worse periodontal condition at dental screening and initial periodontal therapy to safeguard these patients to develop severe oral sequelae after radiotherapy were shown to be major risk factors of developing osteoradionecrosis.

  18. Efficacy of routine pre-radiation dental screening and dental follow-up in head and neck oncology patients on intermediate and late radiation effects. A retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurhuis, Jennifer M; Stokman, Monique A; Roodenburg, Johannes L N; Reintsema, Harry; Langendijk, Johannes A; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K L

    2011-12-01

    Head-neck radiotherapy is accompanied by a life-long risk of developing severe oral problems. This study retrospectively assessed oral foci detected during pre-radiation dental screening and follow-up in order to assess risk factors for developing oral problems after radiotherapy. Charts of 185 consecutive head-neck cancer patients, subjected to a pre-radiation dental screening in the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 2004 and December 2008 were reviewed. Eighty (partially) dentulous patients scheduled for curative head-neck radiotherapy met the inclusion criteria. Oral foci were found in 76% of patients, predominantly periodontal disease. Osteoradionecrosis had developed in 9 out of 80 patients (11%). Overall, patients presenting with periodontal pockets ≥ 6mm at dental screening had an increased risk (19%) of developing osteoradionecrosis compared to the total group of patients. Patients in whom periodontal disease treatment was composed of initial periodontal in stead of removal of the affected teeth, the risk of developing osteoradionecrosis was even higher, viz. 33%. A worse periodontal condition at dental screening and initial periodontal therapy to safeguard these patients to develop severe oral sequelae after radiotherapy were shown to be major risk factors of developing osteoradionecrosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supra-threshold epidermis injury from near-infrared laser radiation prior to ablation onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Peterson, Amanda M.; Lile, Lily A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Stolarski, David J.; Zohner, Justin J.; Kumru, Semih S.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    With continued advancement of solid-state laser technology, high-energy lasers operating in the near-infrared (NIR) band are being applied in an increasing number of manufacturing techniques and medical treatments. Safety-related investigations of potentially harmful laser interaction with skin are commonplace, consisting of establishing the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) thresholds under various conditions, often utilizing the minimally-visible lesion (MVL) metric as an indication of damage. Likewise, characterization of ablation onset and velocity is of interest for therapeutic and surgical use, and concerns exceptionally high irradiance levels. However, skin injury response between these two exposure ranges is not well understood. This study utilized a 1070-nm Yb-doped, diode-pumped fiber laser to explore the response of excised porcine skin tissue to high-energy exposures within the supra-threshold injury region without inducing ablation. Concurrent high-speed videography was employed to assess the effect on the epidermis, with a dichotomous response determination given for three progressive damage event categories: observable permanent distortion on the surface, formation of an epidermal bubble due to bounded intra-cutaneous water vaporization, and rupture of said bubble during laser exposure. ED50 values were calculated for these categories under various pulse configurations and beam diameters, and logistic regression models predicted injury events with approximately 90% accuracy. The distinction of skin response into categories of increasing degrees of damage expands the current understanding of high-energy laser safety while also underlining the unique biophysical effects during induced water phase change in tissue. These observations could prove useful in augmenting biothermomechanical models of laser exposure in the supra-threshold region.

  20. Improved mid infrared detector for high spectral or spatial resolution and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, Mbaye; Bordessoule, Michel; Kanouté, Brahim; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manceron, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire MONARIS, CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 8233, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    When using bright, small effective size sources, such as synchrotron radiation light beam, for broadband spectroscopy at spectral or spatial high resolution for mid-IR FTIR measurements, a marked detectivity improvement can be achieved by setting up a device matching the detector optical étendue to that of the source. Further improvement can be achieved by reducing the background unmodulated flux and other intrinsic noise sources using a lower temperature cryogen, such as liquid helium. By the combined use of cooled apertures, cold reimaging optics, filters and adapted detector polarization, and preamplification electronics, the sensitivity of a HgCdTe photoconductive IR detector can be improved by a significant factor with respect to standard commercial devices (more than one order of magnitude on average over 6–20 μm region) and the usable spectral range extended to longer wavelengths. The performances of such an optimized detector developed on the AILES Beamline at SOLEIL are presented here.

  1. Accounting for particle non-sphericity in modeling of mineral dust radiative properties in the thermal infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, M.; Dubovik, O.; Lapyonok, T.; Derimian, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral radiative parameters (extinction optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor) of spheroids of mineral dust composed of quartz and clays have been simulated at wavelengths between 7.0 and 10.2 µm using a T-matrix code. In spectral intervals with high values of complex index of refraction and for large particles, the parameters cannot be fully calculated with the code. Practically, the calculations are stopped at a truncation radius over which the particles contribution cannot thus be taken into account. To deal with this issue, we have developed and applied an accurate corrective technique of T-matrix Size Truncation Compensation (TSTC). For a mineral dust described by its AERONET standard aspect ratio (AR) distribution, the full error margin when applying the TSTC is within 0.3% (or ±0.15%), whatever the radiative parameter and the wavelength considered, for quartz (the most difficult case). Large AR values limit also the possibilities of calculation with the code. The TSTC has been able to complete the calculations of the T-matrix code for a modified AERONET AR distribution with a maximum AR of 4.7 instead of 3 for the standard distribution. Comparison between the simulated properties of spheroids and of spheres of same volume confirms, in agreement with the literature, that significant differences are observed in the vicinity of the mineral resonant peaks (λ ca. 8.3–8.7 µm for quartz, ca. 9.3–9.5 µm for clays) and that they are due to absorption by the small particles. This is a favorable circumstance for the TSTC, which is concerned with the contribution of the largest particles. This technique of numerical calculation improves the accuracy of the simulated radiative parameters of mineral dust, which must lead to a progress in view of applications such as remote sensing or determination of energy balance of dust in the thermal infrared (TIR), incompletely investigated so far. - Highlights: • Completion of computation of mineral

  2. A fast radiative transfer model for visible through shortwave infrared spectral reflectances in clear and cloudy atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenxi; Yang, Ping; Nasiri, Shaima L.; Platnick, Steven; Baum, Bryan A.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A computationally efficient radiative transfer model (RTM) for calculating visible (VIS) through shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectances is developed for use in satellite and airborne cloud property retrievals. The full radiative transfer equation (RTE) for combinations of cloud, aerosol, and molecular layers is solved approximately by using six independent RTEs that assume the plane-parallel approximation along with a single-scattering approximation for Rayleigh scattering. Each of the six RTEs can be solved analytically if the bidirectional reflectance/transmittance distribution functions (BRDF/BTDF) of the cloud/aerosol layers are known. The adding/doubling (AD) algorithm is employed to account for overlapped cloud/aerosol layers and non-Lambertian surfaces. Two approaches are used to mitigate the significant computational burden of the AD algorithm. First, the BRDF and BTDF of single cloud/aerosol layers are pre-computed using the discrete ordinates radiative transfer program (DISORT) implemented with 128 streams, and second, the required integral in the AD algorithm is numerically implemented on a twisted icosahedral mesh. A concise surface BRDF simulator associated with the MODIS land surface product (MCD43) is merged into a fast RTM to accurately account for non-isotropic surface reflectance. The resulting fast RTM is evaluated with respect to its computational accuracy and efficiency. The simulation bias between DISORT and the fast RTM is large (e.g., relative error >5%) only when both the solar zenith angle (SZA) and the viewing zenith angle (VZA) are large (i.e., SZA>45° and VZA>70°). For general situations, i.e., cloud/aerosol layers above a non-Lambertian surface, the fast RTM calculation rate is faster than that of the 128-stream DISORT by approximately two orders of magnitude. -- Highlights: ► An efficient radiative transfer model is developed for cloud remote sensing. ► Multi-layered clouds and a non-Lambertian surface can be fully considered.

  3. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.ca [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Oberije, Cary [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tsujino, Kayoko [Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Wiersma, Terry [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Moreno-Jimenez, Marta [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gy eonggi (Korea, Republic of); Marks, Lawrence B. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); De Petris, Luigi [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramella, Sara [Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); DeRuyck, Kim [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Dios, Núria Rodriguez [Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Warner, Andrew [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Palma, David A. [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  4. Probing reionization with the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm and near-infrared radiation backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xiao-Chun, E-mail: xcmao@bao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-08-01

    The cross-correlation between the 21 cm emission from the high-redshift intergalactic medium and the near-infrared (NIR) background light from high-redshift galaxies promises to be a powerful probe of cosmic reionization. In this paper, we investigate the cross-power spectrum during the epoch of reionization. We employ an improved halo approach to derive the distribution of the density field and consider two stellar populations in the star formation model: metal-free stars and metal-poor stars. The reionization history is further generated to be consistent with the electron-scattering optical depth from cosmic microwave background measurements. Then, the intensity of the NIR background is estimated by collecting emission from stars in first-light galaxies. On large scales, we find that the 21 cm and NIR radiation backgrounds are positively correlated during the very early stages of reionization. However, these two radiation backgrounds quickly become anti-correlated as reionization proceeds. The maximum absolute value of the cross-power spectrum is |Δ{sub 21,NIR}{sup 2}|∼10{sup −4} mK nW m{sup –2} sr{sup –1}, reached at ℓ ∼ 1000 when the mean fraction of ionized hydrogen is x-bar{sub i}∼0.9. We find that Square Kilometer Array can measure the 21 cm-NIR cross-power spectrum in conjunction with mild extensions to the existing CIBER survey, provided that the integration time independently adds up to 1000 and 1 hr for 21 cm and NIR observations, and that the sky coverage fraction of the CIBER survey is extended from 4 × 10{sup –4} to 0.1. Measuring the cross-correlation signal as a function of redshift provides valuable information on reionization and helps confirm the origin of the 'missing' NIR background.

  5. Effects of Combined Far-Infrared Radiation and Acupuncture at ST36 on Peripheral Blood Perfusion and Autonomic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using four-channel photoplethysmography (PPG for acquiring peripheral arterial waveforms, this study investigated vascular and autonomic impacts of combined acupuncture-far infrared radiation (FIR in improving peripheral circulation. Twenty healthy young adults aged 25.5±4.6 were enrolled for 30-minute measurement. Each subject underwent four treatment strategies, including acupuncture at ST36 (Zusanli, pseudoacupuncture, FIR, and combined acupuncture-FIR at different time points. Response was assessed at 5-minute intervals. Area under arterial waveform at baseline was defined as AreaBaseline, whereas AreaStim referred to area at each 5-minute substage during and after treatment. AreaStim/AreaBaseline was compared at different stages and among different strategies. Autonomic activity at different stages was assessed using low-to-high frequency power ratio (LHR. The results demonstrated increased perfusion for each therapeutic strategy from stage 1 to stage 2 (all p<0.02. Elevated perfusion was noted for all treatment strategies at stage 3 compared to stage 1 except pseudoacupuncture. Increased LHR was noted only in subjects undergoing pseudoacupuncture at stage 3 compared to stage 1 (p=0.045. Reduced LHR at stage 2 compared to stage 1 was found only in combined treatment group (p=0.041. In conclusion, the results support clinical benefits of combined acupuncture-FIR treatment in enhancing peripheral perfusion and parasympathetic activity.

  6. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  7. A fast infrared radiative transfer model based on the adding-doubling method for hyperspectral remote-sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhibo; Yang Ping; Kattawar, George; Huang, H.-L.; Greenwald, Thomas; Li Jun; Baum, Bryan A.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Hu Yongxiang

    2007-01-01

    A fast infrared radiative transfer (RT) model is developed on the basis of the adding-doubling principle, hereafter referred to as FIRTM-AD, to facilitate the forward RT simulations involved in hyperspectral remote-sensing applications under cloudy-sky conditions. A pre-computed look-up table (LUT) of the bidirectional reflection and transmission functions and emissivities of ice clouds in conjunction with efficient interpolation schemes is used in FIRTM-AD to alleviate the computational burden of the doubling process. FIRTM-AD is applicable to a variety of cloud conditions, including vertically inhomogeneous or multilayered clouds. In particular, this RT model is suitable for the computation of high-spectral-resolution radiance and brightness temperature (BT) spectra at both the top-of-atmosphere and surface, and thus is useful for satellite and ground-based hyperspectral sensors. In terms of computer CPU time, FIRTM-AD is approximately 100-250 times faster than the well-known discrete-ordinate (DISORT) RT model for the same conditions. The errors of FIRTM-AD, specified as root-mean-square (RMS) BT differences with respect to their DISORT counterparts, are generally smaller than 0.1 K

  8. 1090 nm infrared radiation at close to threshold dose induces cataract with a time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether infrared radiation (IRR)-induced cataract is instant or is associated with a time delay between the exposure and the onset of lens light scattering after an exposure to just above threshold dose. Six-weeks-old albino Sprague-Dawley female rats were unilaterally exposed to 197 W/cm2 IRR at 1090 nm within the dilated pupil. In the first experiment, the animals were exposed with four exposure times of 5, 8, 13 and 20 second, respectively. At 24 hr after exposure, the light scattering in both exposed and contralateral not exposed lenses was measured. Based on the first experiment, four postexposure time groups were exposed unilaterally to 1090 nm IRR of 197 W/cm2 for 8 second. At 6, 18, 55 and 168 hr after exposure, the light scattering in both lenses was measured. A 197 W/cm2 IRR-induced light scattering in the lens with exposures of at least 8 second. Further, after exposure to IRR of 197 W/cm2 for 8 second, the light-scattering increase in the lens was delayed approximately 16 hr after the exposure. There is a time delay between the exposure and the onset of cataract after exposure to close to threshold dose implicating that either near IRR cataract is photochemical or there is a time delay in the biological expression of thermally induced damage. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of infrared-C radiation on skin temperature, electrodermal conductance and pain in hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chih; Chiang, Yong-Shun; Lung, Chia-Chi

    2015-01-01

    A novel application of infrared-C (IR-C) radiation (3-1000 μm) on hemiparetic stroke patients was evaluated. Hot compresses (HC) were used on the paretic shoulders of patients in this placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of IR-C on skin temperature, electrodermal conductance (EC) and pain relief. Skin temperature at the center of the middle deltoid (CMD), Quchi (LI11), and the center of the third metacarpal bone on dorsum of hand (COT) of the subjects at Brunnstrom stage 3-5 before and after IR-C HC, were examined. Meanwhile, EC was measured on Hegu (LI4), Quchi and Juanyu (LI15). Pain intensity was evaluated before and after treatment. Skin temperature increased significantly at the CMD and COT on the paretic side in males. In females after treatment, similar skin temperatures were found in each measured region on both the paretic and non-paretic sides. The EC on the paretic side tended to be higher than the non-paretic side before treatment. After treatment, the EC on paretic side declined in both sexes and became even lower than the non-paretic side in females. Pain intensity was lessened after treatment especially in males, which appeared to correspond with an increase in skin temperature and a decrease in EC. IR-C hot compress is a promising method for stroke patients in rehabilitation. Physiological mechanisms of this treatment were proposed and summarized from this research.

  10. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  11. The far infrared radiation characteristics for Li2O.Al2O3.4SiO2(LAS) glass-ceramics and transition-metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Jung; Yang, Joong Sik

    1991-01-01

    The far infrared radiation characteristic for Li 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 (LAS) glass, the LAS glass-ceramic and sintered transition metal oxides such as CuO, Fe 2 O 3 and Co 3 O 4 , were investigated. LAS glass and LAS glass-ceramic was higher than that of the LAS glass. Heat-treated CuO and Co 3 o 4 had radiation characteristic of high efficiency infrared radiant, and heat-treated Fe 2 O 3 had radiation characteristic that infrared emissivity decreased in higher was length above 15μm. (Author)

  12. Dose-Escalated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Initial Dosimetry Analysis and Patient Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Thousand, Richard A.; Vassil, Andrew; Stovsky, Mark; Berglund, Ryan K.; Klein, Eric A.; Stephans, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the short-term clinical outcomes and acute and late treatment-related genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2011 and 2014, 24 patients with prostate cancer were treated with SBRT to the prostate gland and proximal seminal vesicles. A high-dose avoidance zone (HDAZ) was created by a 3-mm expansion around the rectum, urethra, and bladder. Patients were treated to a minimum dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, with a simultaneous dose escalation to a dose of 50 Gy to the target volume away from the HDAZ. Acute and late GU and GI toxicity outcomes were measured according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity scale, version 4. Results: The median follow-up was 25 months (range, 18-45 months). Nine patients (38%) experienced an acute grade 2 GU toxicity, which was medically managed, and no patients experienced an acute grade 2 GI toxicity. Two patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GU toxicity, and 2 patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GI toxicity. No acute or late grade ≥3 GU or GI toxicities were observed. The 24-month prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival outcome for all patients was 95.8% (95% confidence interval 75.6%-99.4%), and both biochemical failures occurred in patients with high-risk disease. All patients are currently alive at the time of this analysis and continue to be followed. Conclusions: A heterogeneous prostate SBRT planning technique with differential treatment volumes (low dose: 36.25 Gy; and high dose: 50 Gy) with an HDAZ provides a safe method of dose escalation. Favorable rates of biochemical control and acceptably low rates of acute and long-term GU and GI toxicity can be achieved in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT.

  13. Dose-Escalated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Initial Dosimetry Analysis and Patient Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Djemil, Toufik; Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Thousand, Richard A.; Vassil, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stovsky, Mark; Berglund, Ryan K.; Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stephans, Kevin L., E-mail: stephak@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To report the short-term clinical outcomes and acute and late treatment-related genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2011 and 2014, 24 patients with prostate cancer were treated with SBRT to the prostate gland and proximal seminal vesicles. A high-dose avoidance zone (HDAZ) was created by a 3-mm expansion around the rectum, urethra, and bladder. Patients were treated to a minimum dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, with a simultaneous dose escalation to a dose of 50 Gy to the target volume away from the HDAZ. Acute and late GU and GI toxicity outcomes were measured according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity scale, version 4. Results: The median follow-up was 25 months (range, 18-45 months). Nine patients (38%) experienced an acute grade 2 GU toxicity, which was medically managed, and no patients experienced an acute grade 2 GI toxicity. Two patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GU toxicity, and 2 patients (8%) experienced late grade 2 GI toxicity. No acute or late grade ≥3 GU or GI toxicities were observed. The 24-month prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival outcome for all patients was 95.8% (95% confidence interval 75.6%-99.4%), and both biochemical failures occurred in patients with high-risk disease. All patients are currently alive at the time of this analysis and continue to be followed. Conclusions: A heterogeneous prostate SBRT planning technique with differential treatment volumes (low dose: 36.25 Gy; and high dose: 50 Gy) with an HDAZ provides a safe method of dose escalation. Favorable rates of biochemical control and acceptably low rates of acute and long-term GU and GI toxicity can be achieved in patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with SBRT.

  14. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Larrabee Strow, L.; Tangborn, Andrew; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR) satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2-4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA). The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds). From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT) which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO) cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NWP thermodynamic and cloud

  15. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  16. Analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) of the gamma radiation effect on epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Riella, H.G.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on Epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes, were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The spectra showed no significant modifications on Epoxy resin functional groups (irradiated with dose from 0 to 1 MGy). Up to 1 MGy Epoxy resin did not oxidize, confirming the Epoxy good radiation strength. The presence of aromatic chain and amine group, mainly tertiary amine, give good radiolytic stability to the Epoxy, increasing the interest to use this material in nuclear facilities. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs

  17. Atmospheric lifetimes, infrared absorption spectra, radiative forcings and global warming potentials of NF3 and CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Totterdill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated compounds such as NF3 and C2F5Cl (CFC-115 are characterised by very large global warming potentials (GWPs, which result from extremely long atmospheric lifetimes and strong infrared absorptions in the atmospheric window. In this study we have experimentally determined the infrared absorption cross sections of NF3 and CFC-115, calculated the radiative forcing and efficiency using two radiative transfer models and identified the effect of clouds and stratospheric adjustment. The infrared cross sections are within 10 % of previous measurements for CFC-115 but are found to be somewhat larger than previous estimates for NF3, leading to a radiative efficiency for NF3 that is 25 % larger than that quoted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. A whole atmosphere chemistry–climate model was used to determine the atmospheric lifetimes of NF3 and CFC-115 to be (509 ± 21 years and (492 ± 22 years, respectively. The GWPs for NF3 are estimated to be 15 600, 19 700 and 19 700 over 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively. Similarly, the GWPs for CFC-115 are 6030, 7570 and 7480 over 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively.

  18. Intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate uveitis (IU is described as inflammation in the anterior vitreous, ciliary body and the peripheral retina. In the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN working group′s international workshop for reporting clinical data the consensus reached was that the term IU should be used for that subset of uveitis where the vitreous is the major site of the inflammation and if there is an associated infection (for example, Lyme disease or systemic disease (for example, sarcoidosis. The diagnostic term pars planitis should be used only for that subset of IU where there is snow bank or snowball formation occurring in the absence of an associated infection or systemic disease (that is, "idiopathic". This article discusses the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, investigations and treatment of IU.

  19. Evaluation of ionizing radiation effects on recycled polyamide-6 by infrared spectroscopy and measures of fluidity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, Maria Cecilia; Goncalez, Odair Lelis

    2000-01-01

    In this work are presented partial results from a set of experiments and analyses performed at CTA and IPEN laboratories for the characterization of the polyamide-6, recycled and irradiated with a 1.5 MeV electron beam with a 500 kGy dose. The experimental determinations were carried out using infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR), in the medium infrared region (MIR) and in the far infrared region (FAR), to evaluate if exist significant changes in the infrared absorption region of the amide groups due to the polyamide irradiation. Characteristics relative to the measured fluidity index were used to evaluate the irradiated material crosslinking. (author)

  20. Relationship of in-coming radiation with photosynthetically active, infra-red and net radiations in Brassica species and rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwal, A.S.; Kuhad, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Marked variation was observed among genotypes when the data for in-coming solar radiation were monitored horizontally. The regression equation for in-coming solar radiation versus photosynthetically active radiation and incoming solar radiation versus in-coming infra red radiation indicated linear relationship

  1. Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoghosyan, Anna V; Rauch, Geraldine; Münter, Marc W; Jensen, Alexandra D; Combs, Stephanie E; Kieser, Meinhard; Debus, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Low and intermediate grade chondrosarcomas are relative rare bone tumours. About 5-12% of all chondrosarcomas are localized in base of skull region. Low grade chondrosarcoma has a low incidence of distant metastasis but is potentially lethal disease. Therefore, local therapy is of crucial importance in the treatment of skull base chondrosarcomas. Surgical resection is the primary treatment standard. Unfortunately the late diagnosis and diagnosis at the extensive stage are common due to the slow and asymptomatic growth of the lesions. Consequently, complete resection is hindered due to close proximity to critical and hence dose limiting organs such as optic nerves, chiasm and brainstem. Adjuvant or additional radiation therapy is very important for the improvement of local control rates in the primary treatment. Proton therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of skull base chondrosarcomas. However, high-LET (linear energy transfer) beams such as carbon ions theoretically offer advantages by enhanced biologic effectiveness in slow-growing tumours. The study is a prospective randomised active-controlled clinical phase III trial. The trial will be carried out at Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie (HIT) centre as monocentric trial. Patients with skull base chondrosarcomas will be randomised to either proton or carbon ion radiation therapy. As a standard, patients will undergo non-invasive, rigid immobilization and target volume definition will be carried out based on CT and MRI data. The biologically isoeffective target dose to the PTV (planning target volume) in carbon ion treatment will be 60 Gy E ± 5% and 70 Gy E ± 5% (standard dose) in proton therapy respectively. The 5 year local-progression free survival (LPFS) rate will be analysed as primary end point. Overall survival, progression free and metastasis free survival, patterns of recurrence, local control rate and morbidity are the secondary end points. Up to now it was impossible to compare two different

  2. The use of ultrasound and infrared radiation to reduce microbiological contamination of raw materials in the production of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharova, N.Yu.; Kamen'kova, N.V.

    2012-01-01

    The microflora of the main raw materials for producing citric acid (beet molasses and grain) is capable of greatly reducing the yield of target metabolite or changing the focus of biosynthesis. Rye, oats and barley grain with humidity of 16% and its grinds (a particle size 1 mm) was treated ultrasound having a capacity of 1.5 kW, frequency 15 and 22 kHz. Infrared radiation treatment was carried out at t 120 to 180 degrees C for 2-30 min and the exposure power W/sq. cm. In molasses there were found spore-forming heat-resistant bacteria with Bacillus subtilis and B. mesentericus being predominated, gaseous, nitrite-forming, acid-forming bacteria, yeast of gen. Candida, Leuconostoc mesenteroides that consume sugar, nitric and mineral substances reducing the biosynthetic activity of Aspergillus niger producer. For molasses treated with ultrasound 1.5 kW and frequency 22 kHz, the total viable count reduces by the order compared to the control. Increasing the exposure time up to 30 min results in slightly reducing the achieved level. Under influence of ultrasound the contamination with bacteria and mold fungi of rye, oats and barley grain grinds reduces by 2-3 orders compared to the control and much more at frequency 22 kHz. The great increase in the parameter of the total viable count is achieved by IR-treatment of grain and grinds. The microflora practically entirely dies by increasing the temperature up to 160-180 degrees C even in case of 2 minute exposure. IR treatment providing t 120 degrees C for 2-6 min resulted in reducing the number of cells of microorganisms by 3-4 orders compared to the untreated control

  3. Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Grundy, W.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Christensen, P.R.; Graff, T.; Guinness, E.A.; Kinch, K.; Morris, Robert; Shepard, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of Mars Exploration Rover Pancam calibration target materials coated with different thicknesses of Mars spectral analog dust were acquired under variable illumination geometries using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. The data were fit with a two-layer radiative transfer model that combines a Hapke formulation for the dust with measured values of the substrate interpolated using a He-Torrance approach. We first determined the single-scattering albedo, phase function, opposition effect width, and amplitude for the dust using the entire data set (six coating thicknesses, three substrates, four wavelengths, and phase angles 3??-117??). The dust exhibited single-scattering albedo values similar to other Mars analog soils and to Mars Pathfinder dust and a dominantly forward scattering behavior whose scattering lobe became narrower at longer wavelengths. Opacity values for each dust thickness corresponded well to those predicted from the particles sizes of the Mars analog dust. We then restricted the number of substrates, dust thicknesses, and incidence angles input to the model. The results suggest that the dust properties are best characterized when using substrates whose reflectances are brighter and darker than those of the deposited dust and data that span a wide range of dust thicknesses. The model also determined the dust photometric properties relatively well despite limitations placed on the range of incidence angles. The model presented here will help determine the photometric properties of dust deposited on the MER rovers and to track the multiple episodes of dust deposition and erosion that have occurred at both landing sites. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Infrared observation of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The rocket observation of the near-infrared extragalactic background radiation and its influence on the cosmology are described. The furute plans to observe the near-infrared and far-infrared backgrounds are also presented. (author)

  5. Ultraviolet and infrared spectral analysis of poly(vinyl)butyral films: correlation and possible application for high-dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.; El-Kelany, M.; Beshir, W.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study was performed to develop the dosimetric characteristics of poly(vinyl)butyral film (PVB), to be used as a film dosimeter for high-dose gamma radiation dosimetry. The useful dose range of this polymeric film extends up to 350 kGy. Correlations were established between the absorbed dose of gamma radiation and the radiation-induced changes in PVB measured by means of ultraviolet (UV) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The results showed a significant dependence of the response on the selected readout tool of measurements whether FTIR (at 1738 and 3400 cm -1 ) or UV (at 275 and 230 nm), as well as on the quantity used for calculation. The effect of relative humidity during irradiation on dosimeter performance as well as the post-irradiation stability at different storage conditions are also discussed. (author)

  6. [Expressiona of c-Jun and collagens I and III in cultured human skin fibroblasts are affected by infrared ray radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Yang, Rong-Li; Su, Hui; Li, Lin-Li; Song, Jian-Wen; Lu, Ning; Liu, Yu-Ze

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of solar infrared ray (IR) radiation on the expressions of c-Jun and collagens I and III in cultured human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) and explore the molecular mechanism by which IR radiation causes aging of the skin. Primarily cultured HSFs exposed to IR radiation were examined for changes of the cell viability with MTT assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of c-Jun and collagens I and III was detected with real-time quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry. MTT assay showed that IR irradiation caused inhibition of cell proliferation compared with the control cells. The mRNA and protein expression of collagen I was decreased significantly by IR irradiation with the increase of the irradiation dose (Pradiation to initiate and promote skin photoaging.

  7. Acquisition of reproducible transmission near-infrared (NIR) spectra of solid samples with inconsistent shapes by irradiation with isotropically diffused radiation using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinah; Duy, Pham Khac; Yoon, Jihye; Chung, Hoeil

    2014-06-21

    A bead-incorporated transmission scheme (BITS) has been demonstrated for collecting reproducible transmission near-infrared (NIR) spectra of samples with inconsistent shapes. Isotropically diffused NIR radiation was applied around a sample and the surrounding radiation was allowed to interact homogeneously with the sample for transmission measurement. Samples were packed in 1.40 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) beads, ideal diffusers without NIR absorption, and then transmission spectra were collected by illuminating the sample-containing beads using NIR radiation. When collimated radiation was directly applied, a small portion of the non-fully diffused radiation (NFDR) propagated through the void space of the packing and eventually degraded the reproducibility. Pre-diffused radiation was introduced by placing an additional PTFE disk in front of the packing to diminish NFDR, which produced more reproducible spectral features. The proposed scheme was evaluated by analyzing two different solid samples: density determination for individual polyethylene (PE) pellets and identification of mining locality for tourmalines. Because spectral collection was reproducible, the use of the spectrum acquired from one PE pellet was sufficient to accurately determine the density of nine other pellets with different shapes. The differentiation of tourmalines, which are even more dissimilar in appearance, according to their mining locality was also feasible with the help of the scheme.

  8. In vitro effects of infrared A radiation on the synthesis of MMP-1, catalase, superoxide dismutase and GADD45 alpha protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Adilson; Eberlin, Samara; Clerici, Stefano P; Abdalla, Beatrice M Z

    2015-01-01

    Harmful influences in the process of photoaging and skin damage are associated with infrared A (IRA) radiation, such as, disturbance of dermal extracellular matrix by up regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). Furthermore, DNA damage, induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by decreasing natural antioxidant ability has been reported after acute exposure to IRA. The present study provides additional evidence that IRA radiation response in human skin fibroblasts produces deleterious effects to the cell, such as accelerating aging and weakening of their antioxidant defense mechanism. Human skin fibroblasts were exposed to a non-cytotoxic dose of IRA radiation and cultured for different periods for further collection of cell-free supernatants and lysates, and quantification of MMP-1, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and GADD45a. Our results corroborate previous published data and strongly indicate a negative impact of IRA radiation on the skin physiological by mechanisms involving reduced endogenous antioxidant enzymatic defense, increased MMP-1 and decreased repair process of DNA by reducing GADD45a protein, in cultured human fibroblasts. From a clinical perspective, IRA radiation acts by mechanisms distinct from those observed in ultraviolet radiation indicating the need for developing and making available cosmetics for skin care with properties beyond protection exerted by traditional sunscreens.

  9. Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. An electron storage ring as primary standard for the realization of radiation optical units from the infrared to the soft X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riehle, F.; Wende, B.

    1987-01-01

    The electron storage ring BESSY optimized for radiometry is shown to be a primary standard of spectral photon flux with a relative uncertainty increasing from 0.3% in the infrared (photon energy ≅ 1 eV) to 2% in the soft X-ray region (photon energy ≅ 5 keV). The small uncertainties at high photon energies were achieved by measuring the spatial and angular distributions of the electrons around the mean electron orbit and by calculating the corresponding distributions of the emitted synchrotron radiation. Results of various intercomparisons with other standards in the near infrared, visible, and soft X-ray region support the low uncertainties of this new primary standard. (orig.)

  11. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiment (A0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gary J.; Seeley, John S.; Hunneman, Roger

    1992-01-01

    Infrared optical multilayer filters and materials were exposed to the space environment of low Earth orbit on LDEF. The effects are summarized of that environment on the physical and optical properties of the filters and materials flown.

  12. Infrared Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  13. Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sahu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced and significantly accelerated biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow by infrared radiation. • In situ water removal by adsorbent profoundly promotes achieving high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. • Process optimization and parametric interaction-effects assessment by response surface method. • Artificial Neural Network Modeling for prediction of triglycerides and FFA conversion. • At optimal conditions, product biodiesel contains 98.5 wt.% FAME. - Abstract: For the first time, an efficient simultaneous trans/esterification process for biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow with considerable free fatty acids (FFAs) content has been explored employing an infrared radiation assisted reactor (IRAR). The impacts of methanol to tallow molar ratio, IRAR temperature and H 2 SO 4 concentration on goat tallow conversion were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, 96.7% FFA conversion was achieved within 2.5 h at 59.93 wt.% H 2 SO 4 , 69.97 °C IRAR temperature and 31.88:1 methanol to tallow molar ratio. The experimental results were also modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) and marginal improvement in modeling efficiency was observed in comparison with RSM. The infrared radiation strategy could significantly accelerate the conversion process as demonstrated through a substantial reduction in reaction time compared to conventionally heated reactor while providing appreciably high biodiesel yield. Moreover, the in situ water removal using silica-gel adsorbent could also facilitate achieving higher FFA conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Owing to the occurrence of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides present in goat tallow, overall 98.5 wt.% FAME content was determined at optimal conditions in the product biodiesel which conformed to ASTM and EN biodiesel specifications

  14. Identification of copper-based green pigments in Jaume Huguet's Gothic altarpieces by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, N; Pradell, T; Pantos, E; Papiz, M Z; Molera, J; Seco, M; Vendrell-Saz, M

    2002-07-01

    The scientific investigation of ancient paintings gives a unique insight into ancient painting techniques and their evolution through time and geographic location. This study deals with the identification of the green pigments used by one of the most important Catalan masters in Gothic times, Jaume Huguet. Other pigments and materials have also been characterized by means of conventional techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction has been used to produce maps of phases at a spatial resolution of 100 microm across chromatic layers.

  15. Tattoos and human identification: investigation into the use of X-ray and infrared radiation in the visualization of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Helen; Birch, Wendy

    2013-09-01

    Any person with a tattoo known to their family or friends could potentially be identified from the presence of such personal identifying markers. Problems in identification utilizing tattoos may arise when these markers are removed or defaced in some way. This paper uses infrared wavelengths at 760, 850, and 950 nm to improve the visualization of laser-removed or covered up tattoos and also to establish whether the ink pigments used can be observed on radiographs from any metal that may be present. The results obtained indicate that some older inks have a high enough metallic content to allow them to be viewed on a radiograph, while infrared light can demonstrate latent ink still present in the skin after laser removal and can also be utilized to distinguish an original tattoo through a secondary "cover-up" tattoo. Infrared photography and radiography have been shown to improve tattoo visualization in a forensic context. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters and materials technology experiments (A0056)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hunneman, R.; Whatley, A.; Lipscombe, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared multilayer interface filter which were used in satellite radiometers were examined. The ability of the filters to withstand the space environment in these applications is critical. An experiment on the LDEF subjects the filters to authoritative spectral measurements following space exposure to ascertain their suitability for spacecraft use and to permit an understanding of degradation mechanisms. The understanding of the effects of prolonged space exposure on spacecraft materials, surface finishes, and adhesive systems is important to the spacecraft designer. Materials technology experiments and experiment on infrared multilayer filters are discussed.

  17. Recent advances in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    A background survey is given of developments in infrared astronomy during the last decade. Advantages obtained in using infrared wavelengths to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and the detectors used for this work are considered. Infrared studies of, among other subjects, the stars, dust clouds, the centre of our galaxy and the 3k cosmic background radiation, are discussed. (UK)

  18. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  19. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  20. Generation and characterization of ultra-short electron beams for single spike infrared FEL radiation at SPARC_LAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F.; Anania, M. P.; Artioli, M.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bisesto, F. G.; Biagioni, A.; Carpanese, M.; Cardelli, F.; Castorina, G.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Dattoli, G.; Gallo, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Palma, E.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Giannessi, L.; Giribono, A.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Mostacci, A.; Petralia, A.; Petrarca, M.; Petrillo, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pioli, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Rossi, A. R.; Scifo, J.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2017-09-01

    The technique for producing and measuring few tens of femtosecond electron beams, and the consequent generation of few tens femtoseconds single spike FEL radiation pulses at SPARC_LAB is presented. The undulator has been used in the double role of radiation source and diagnostic tool for the characterization of the electron beam. The connection between the electron bunch length and the radiation bandwidth is analyzed.

  1. Relationship between ice water path and downward longwave radiation for clouds optically thin in the infrared: Observations and model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Kropfli, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    A vertically pointing 3.2-cm radar is used to observe altostratus and cirrus clouds as they pass overhead. Radar reflectivities are used in combination with an empirical Z(sub i)-IWC (ice water content) relationship developed by Sassen (1987) to parameterize IWC, which is then integrated to obtain estimates of ice water path (IWP). The observed dataset is segregated into all-ice and mixed-phase periods using measurements of integrated liquid water paths (LWP) detected by a collocated, dual-channel microwave radiometer. The IWP values for the all ice periods are compared to measurements of infrared (IR) downward fluxes measured by a collocated narrowband (9.95-11.43 microns) IR radiometer, which results in scattergrams representing the observed dependence of IR fluxes on IWP. A two-stream model is used to calculate the infrared fluxes expected from ice clouds with boundary conditions specified by the actual clouds, and similar curves relating IWP and infrared fluxes are obtained. The model and observational results suggest that IWP is one of the primary controls on infrared thermal fluxes for ice clouds.

  2. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  3. Measurements of downwelling far-infrared radiance during the RHUBC-II campaign at Cerro Toco, Chile and comparisons with line-by-line radiative transfer calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Jeffrey C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.; Turner, David D.; Mlawer, Eli J.

    2017-09-01

    Downwelling radiances at the Earth's surface measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water (IPW) as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. FIRST (a Fourier transform spectrometer) was deployed from August through October 2009 at 5.38 km MSL on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2 (RHUBC-II), the goal of which is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy. Radiosonde water vapor and temperature vertical profiles are input into the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute modeled radiances. The LBLRTM minus FIRST residual spectrum is calculated to assess agreement. Uncertainties (1-σ) in both the measured and modeled radiances are also determined. Measured and modeled radiances nearly all agree to within combined (total) uncertainties. Features exceeding uncertainties can be corrected into the combined uncertainty by increasing water vapor and model continuum absorption, however this may not be necessary due to 1-σ uncertainties (68% confidence). Furthermore, the uncertainty in the measurement-model residual is very large and no additional information on the adequacy of current water vapor spectral line or continuum absorption parameters may be derived. Similar future experiments in similarly cold and dry environments will require absolute accuracy of 0.1% of a 273 K blackbody in radiance and water vapor accuracy of ∼3% in the profile layers contributing to downwelling radiance at the surface.

  4. [The influence of pulsed low-intensity laser radiation of the red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra on the human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, S V; Kliuchnikov, D Iu; Antipov, E V; Volchkov, S E; Kiseleva, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have for a long time been an object of investigation with a view to elucidating the prospects for their application in clinical medicine and cosmetology. One of the approaches to the non-specific regulation of the activity of these cells at the stage of preliminary in vitro combination is the treatment with low-intensity laser radiation (LILR). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using pulsed LILR of the infrared and red spectra for this purpose. We used the 4th passage adhesive MSC cultures based at the umbilical tissue of a donor who gave the informed consent to participate in the study. The source of illumination was a Lazmik-VLOK laser therapeutic apparatus (RU No RZN 2014/1410 dated 06.02.2014) with the matrix laser infrared radiation heads (wavelength 904 nm, light pulse length 108 ns, frequency 1500 Hz). The apparatus was operated either in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.05 and 0.14 mW/cm2 and the red spectrum (wavelength 635 nm, light pulse length 144 ns, frequency 1500 Hz) or in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime [Moskvin S.V., 2014] with mean power density 0.03 and 0.12. The exposition was 5 min in both regimes. The study has demonstrated that neither the morphological structure nor the viability of mesenchymal stem cells changed under the influence of energy and time parameters used in experiments. The number of cells was shown to slightly increase in comparison with control. The most pronounced effect was documented after illumination with pulse infrared (904 nm) LILR in the multi-frequency Lazmik regime. The maximum effect was observed during a period between days 1 and 3 of cultivation.

  5. Evaluation of an infrared camera and X-ray system using implanted fiducials in patients with lung tumors for gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willoughby, Twyla R.; Forbes, Alan R.; Buchholz, Daniel; Langen, Katja M.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the initial clinical use of a commercially available system to deliver gated treatment using implanted fiducials, in-room kV X-rays, and an infrared camera tracking system. Methods and Materials: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating from BrainLab is a localization system using infrared cameras and X-rays. Gating signals are the patient's breathing pattern obtained from infrared reflectors on the patient. kV X-rays of an implanted fiducial are synchronized to the breathing pattern. After localization and shift of the patient to isocenter, the breathing pattern is used to gate Radiation. Feasibility tests included localization accuracy, radiation output constancy, and dose distributions with gating. Clinical experience is reported on treatment of patients with small lung lesions. Results: Localization accuracy of a moving target with gating was 1.7 mm. Dose constancy measurements showed insignificant change in output with gating. Improvements of dose distributions on moving targets improved with gating. Eleven patients with lung lesions were implanted with 20 mm x 0.7 mm gold coil (Visicoil). The implanted fiducial was used to localize and treat the patients with gating. Treatment planning and repeat computed tomographic scans showed that the change in center of gross target volume (GTV) to implanted marker averaged 2.47 mm due in part to asymmetric tumor shrinkage. Conclusion: ExacTrac Adaptive Gating has been used to treat lung lesions. Initial system evaluation verified its accuracy and usability. Implanted fiducials are visible in X-rays and did not migrate

  6. Isotope-selective dissociation of the OsO4 molecule by two pulses of infrared radiation at different frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambartzumian, R.V.; Furzikov, N.P.; Gorokhov, Y.A.; Letokhov, V.S.; Makarov, G.N.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The dissociation of the OsO 4 molecule in a two-frequency infrared laser field has been investigated. A twentyfold increase in the dissociation rate was obtained when the dissociation frequency was shifted to the ''red'' side of the linear absorption spectrum of OsO 4 . Osmium isotope separation was carried out by this two-frequency method. Optimal conditions for a scalable isotope separation process have been formulated

  7. EQUATIONS OF RADIATION TRANSFER IN INFRARED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE CASE OF ACTIVE-PASSIVE DIAGNOSIS AND SWEEPING SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Makarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping scanning scheme of a hot gas in the task of infrared tomography is formulated. Two diagnosis regimes are used: the active one (ON – with included source and the passive one (OFF – without it. Two integral equations are deduced concerning the absorption coefficient k and the Planck function B of a medium (by which it is possible to calculate the temperature profile of a medium T.

  8. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  9. Developing a framework to model the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process based on infrared radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.

    2018-01-01

    . These results assist in the selection of proper materials which could serve as IR window in the continuous freeze-drying prototype. The modelling framework presented in this paper fits the model-based design approach used for the development of this prototype and shows the potential benefits of this design...... requires the fundamental mechanistic modelling of each individual process step. Therefore, a framework is presented for the modelling and control of the continuous primary drying step based on non-contact IR radiation. The IR radiation emitted by the radiator filaments passes through various materials...

  10. Infrared Line Intensities for Formaldehyde from Simultaneous Measurements in the Infrared and Far Infrared Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissiaux, L.; Földes, T.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Daumont, L.; Lepère, M.; Vander Auwera, J.

    2011-06-01

    Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including methane, in the terrestrial troposphere. Its observation using optical remote sensing in the infrared range relies on the 3.6 and 5.7 μm absorption bands. Band and individual line intensities have been reported in both ranges. With the present work, we aim to also derive infrared line intensities for formaldehyde, however relying on pure rotation line intensities and the known electric dipole moment to determine the particle density. Indeed, because formaldehyde polymerizes or degrades easily, the gas phase may contain polymerization or degradation products. Spectra of H_2CO diluted in 10 hPa of N_2 were therefore simultaneously recorded in the 20-60 Cm-1 and 3.6 μm ranges, respectively using a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer and a tunable diode laser. see A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia Tchana, N. Lacome, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110 (2009) 700-716, and references therein

  11. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-15

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 {mu}m) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 {mu}m). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  12. A multi-channel THz and infrared spectrometer for femtosecond electron bunch diagnostics by single-shot spectroscopy of coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, Stephan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Behrens, Christopher; Delsim-Hashemi, Hossein; Schmueser, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The high peak current required in free-electron lasers (FELs) is realized by longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to sub-picosecond length. In this paper, a frequency-domain diagnostic method is described that is capable of resolving structures in the femtosecond regime. A novel in-vacuum spectrometer has been developed for spectroscopy of coherent radiation in the THz and infrared range. The spectrometer is equipped with five consecutive dispersion gratings and 120 parallel readout channels; it can be operated either in short wavelength mode (5-44 μm) or in long wavelength mode (45-430 μm). Fast parallel readout permits the spectroscopy of coherent radiation from single electron bunches. Test measurements at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH, using coherent transition radiation, demonstrate excellent performance of the spectrometer. The high sensitivity down to a few micrometers allows study of short bunch features caused for example by microbunching e ects in magnetic chicanes. The device is planned for use as an online bunch profile monitor during regular FEL operation. (orig.)

  13. Engineering absorption and blackbody radiation in the far-infrared with surface phonon polaritons on gallium phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streyer, W.; Law, S.; Rosenberg, A.; Wasserman, D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Roberts, C.; Podolskiy, V. A. [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Hoffman, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    We demonstrate excitation of surface phonon polaritons on patterned gallium phosphide surfaces. Control over the light-polariton coupling frequencies is demonstrated by changing the pattern periodicity and used to experimentally determine the gallium phosphide surface phonon polariton dispersion curve. Selective emission via out-coupling of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons is experimentally demonstrated. Samples are characterized experimentally by Fourier transform infrared reflection and emission spectroscopy, and modeled using finite element techniques and rigorous coupled wave analysis. The use of phonon resonances for control of emissivity and excitation of bound surface waves offers a potential tool for the exploration of long-wavelength Reststrahlen band frequencies.

  14. The influence of insulation of walls of industrial objects on thermal regime at the heating system of gas infrared radiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagornova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a numerical study of the process of heat transfer from the gas infrared emitters in the heated accommodation are represented. Simulation was conducted taking into account the heat withdrawal in the enclosing constructions and of heat exchange with the environment. The estimation of the average values of temperatures of air indoors in the dependence on the different intensity of heat withdrawal into the vertical walls is carried out (when the layer of insulation is present, and without it.

  15. Theoretical and experimental drying of a cylindrical sample by applying hot air and infrared radiation in an inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of a cylindrical sample in a fluidized bed dryer containing inert particles was studied. For this purpose, a pilot-scaled fluidized bed dryer was constructed in which two different heat sources, hot air and infrared radiation were applied, and pieces of carrot were chosen as test samples. The heat transfer coefficient for cylindrical objects in a fluidized bed was also measured. The heat absorption coefficient for carrot was studied. The absorption coefficient can be computed by dividing the absorbed heat by the carrot to the heat absorbed for the water and black ink. In this regard, absorbed heat values by the carrot, water and black ink were used A mathematical model was proposed based on the mass and heat transfer phenomena within the drying sample. The results obtained by the proposed model were in favorable agreement with the experimental data.

  16. HIRS-AMTS satellite sounding system test - Theoretical and empirical vertical resolving power. [High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder - Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the vertical resolving power of satellite-borne temperature sounding instruments. Information is presented on the capabilities of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) and a proposed sounding instrument called the Advanced Moisture and Temperature Sounder (AMTS). Two quite different methods for assessing the vertical resolving power of satellite sounders are discussed. The first is the theoretical method of Conrath (1972) which was patterned after the work of Backus and Gilbert (1968) The Backus-Gilbert-Conrath (BGC) approach includes a formalism for deriving a retrieval algorithm for optimizing the vertical resolving power. However, a retrieval algorithm constructed in the BGC optimal fashion is not necessarily optimal as far as actual temperature retrievals are concerned. Thus, an independent criterion for vertical resolving power is discussed. The criterion is based on actual retrievals of signal structure in the temperature field.

  17. Infrared emission from protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Shu, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The emergent spectral energy distribution at infrared to radio wavelengths is calculated for the simplest theoretical construct of a low-mass protostar. It is shown that the emergent spectrum in the infrared is insensitive to the details assumed for the temperature profile as long as allowance is made for a transition from optically thick to optically thin conditions and luminosity conservation isenforced at the inner and outer shells. The radiation in the far infrared and submillimeter wavelengths depends on the exact assumptions made for grain opacities at low frequencies. An atlas of emergent spectral energy distributions is presented for a grid of values of the instantaneous mass of the protostar and the mass infall rate. The attenuated contribution of the accretion shock to the near-infrared radiation is considered. 50 references

  18. Upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor expression following near-infrared irradiation simulating solar radiation in a three-dimensional reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue culture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yohei Tanaka,1,2 Jun Nakayama2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Clinica Tanaka Plastic, Reconstructive Surgery and Anti-aging Center, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan Background and objective: Humans are increasingly exposed to near-infrared (NIR radiation from both natural (eg, solar and artificial (eg, electrical appliances sources. Although the biological effects of sun and ultraviolet (UV exposure have been extensively investigated, the biological effect of NIR radiation is still unclear. We previously reported that NIR as well as UV induces photoaging and standard UV-blocking materials, such as sunglasses, do not sufficiently block NIR. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression in three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial tissue culture exposed to broad-spectrum NIR irradiation to simulate solar NIR radiation that reaches human tissues.Materials and methods: DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess gene expression levels in a three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial model composed of normal human corneal epithelial cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum NIR irradiation with a contact cooling (20°C. The water-filter allowed 1,000–1,800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1,400–1,500 nm wavelengths.Results: A DNA microarray with >62,000 different probes showed 25 and 150 genes that were up- or downregulated by at least fourfold and twofold, respectively, after NIR irradiation. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was upregulated by 19.4-fold relative to control cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that two variants of EGFR in human corneal epithelial tissue were also significantly upregulated after five rounds of 10 J/cm2 irradiation (P<0.05.Conclusion: We found that NIR irradiation induced the

  19. Intermediate Results Of The Program On Realization Of High-Power Soft X-ray Radiation Source Powered From Magneto-Cumulative Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selemir, V.D.; Demidov, V.A.; Ermolovich, V.F.; Spirov, G.M.; Repin, P.B.; Pikulin, I.V.; Volkov, A.A.; Orlov, A.P.; Boriskin, A.S.; Tatsenko, O.M.; Markevtsev, I.M.; Moiseenko, A.N.; Kazakov, S.A.; Selyavsky, V.T.; Shapovalov, E.V.; Giterman, B.P.; Vlasov, Yu.V.; Dydykin, P.S.; Ryaslov, E.A.; Kotelnikov, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper we discuss experiments on wire liner systems powering from helical and disk magneto-cumulative generators with a current from 2...3 MA up to 20 MA at current rise time from 0.3 μs to 1 μs, respectively. At currents level up to 4 MA maximum yield of soft x-ray radiation was more than 100 kJ at plasma pinch temperature of 55 eV. At currents up to 20 MA an expected yield of soft x-ray radiation exceeds 1 MJ

  20. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy for characterization of the protein/peptide distribution in single microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microsphere using synchrotron radiation–based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR. The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide and excipient (PLGA were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres.

  1. Upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor expression following near-infrared irradiation simulating solar radiation in a three-dimensional reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Humans are increasingly exposed to near-infrared (NIR) radiation from both natural (eg, solar) and artificial (eg, electrical appliances) sources. Although the biological effects of sun and ultraviolet (UV) exposure have been extensively investigated, the biological effect of NIR radiation is still unclear. We previously reported that NIR as well as UV induces photoaging and standard UV-blocking materials, such as sunglasses, do not sufficiently block NIR. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression in three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial tissue culture exposed to broad-spectrum NIR irradiation to simulate solar NIR radiation that reaches human tissues. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess gene expression levels in a three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial model composed of normal human corneal epithelial cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum NIR irradiation with a contact cooling (20°C). The water-filter allowed 1,000-1,800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1,400-1,500 nm wavelengths. A DNA microarray with >62,000 different probes showed 25 and 150 genes that were up- or downregulated by at least fourfold and twofold, respectively, after NIR irradiation. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was upregulated by 19.4-fold relative to control cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that two variants of EGFR in human corneal epithelial tissue were also significantly upregulated after five rounds of 10 J/cm(2) irradiation (Psolar energy reaching the Earth is in the NIR region, which cannot be adequately blocked by eyewear and thus can induce eye damage with intensive or long-term exposure, protection from both UV and NIR radiation may prevent changes in gene expression and in turn eye damage.

  2. LIME - a flexible, non-LTE line excitation and radiation transfer method for millimeter and far-infrared wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Hogerheijde, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    We present a new code for solving the molecular and atomic excitation and radiation transfer problem in a molecular gas and predicting emergent spectra. This code works in arbitrary three dimensional geometry using unstructured Delaunay latices for the transport of photons. Various physical model...

  3. Phase modulation of mid-infrared radiation in double-quantum-well structures under a lateral electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagula, R. M.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya.; Makhov, I. S.; Sofronov, A. N., E-mail: sofronov@rphf.spbstu.ru; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The modulation of polarized radiation by GaAs/AlGaAs structures with tunnel-coupled double quantum wells in a strong lateral electric field is studied. The spectra of the variation in the refractive index under a lateral electric field in the vicinity of the intersubband resonance are experimentally investigated.

  4. Novel High Temperature and Radiation Resistant Infrared Glasses and Optical Fibers for Sensing in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballato, John [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2018-01-22

    One binary and three series of ternary non-oxide pure sulfide glasses compositions were investigated with the goal of synthesizing new glasses that exhibit high glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures, infrared transparency, and reliable glass formability. The binary glass series consisted of Ges2 and La2S3 and the three glass series in the x(nBaS + mLa2S3) + (1-2x)GeS2 ternary system have BaS:La2S3 modifier ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with . With these glasses, new insights were realized as to how ionic glasses form and how glass modifiers affect both structure and glass formability. All synthesized compositions were characterized by Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to better understand the fundamental structure, optical, and thermal characteristics of the glasses. After a range of these glasses were synthesized, optimal compositions were formed into glass disks and subjected to gamma irradiation. Glass disks were characterized both before and after irradiation by microscope imaging, measuring the refractive index, density, and UV-VIS-IR transmission spectra. The final total dose the samples were subjected to was ~2.5 MGy. Ternary samples showed a less than 0.4% change in density and refractive index and minimal change in transmission window. The glasses also resisted cracking as seen in microscope images. Overall, many glass compositions were developed that possess operating temperatures above 500 °C, where conventional chalcogenide glasses such as As2S3 and have Tgs from ~200-300 °C, and these glasses have a greater than Tc – Tg values larger than 100 °C and this shows that these glasses have good thermal stability of Tg such that they can be fabricated into optical fibers and as such can be considered candidates for high temperature infrared fiber optics. Initial fiber fabrication efforts showed that selected glasses could be drawn but larger

  5. Technical report series on global modeling and data assimilation. Volume 3: An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarex, Max J. (Editor); Chou, Ming-Dah

    1994-01-01

    A detailed description of a parameterization for thermal infrared radiative transfer designed specifically for use in global climate models is presented. The parameterization includes the effects of the main absorbers of terrestrial radiation: water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. While being computationally efficient, the schemes compute very accurately the clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates from the Earth's surface to 0.01 mb. This combination of accuracy and speed makes the parameterization suitable for both tropospheric and middle atmospheric modeling applications. Since no transmittances are precomputed the atmospheric layers and the vertical distribution of the absorbers may be freely specified. The scheme can also account for any vertical distribution of fractional cloudiness with arbitrary optical thickness. These features make the parameterization very flexible and extremely well suited for use in climate modeling studies. In addition, the numerics and the FORTRAN implementation have been carefully designed to conserve both memory and computer time. This code should be particularly attractive to those contemplating long-term climate simulations, wishing to model the middle atmosphere, or planning to use a large number of levels in the vertical.

  6. Infrared observations of eclipses of Io, its thermophysical parameters, and the thermal radiation of the Loki volcano and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, William M.; Kaminski, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Io during eclipses by Jupiter in 1981-1984 are reported. Data obtained at 3.45-30 microns using bolometer system No. 1 on the 3-m IRTF telescope at Mauna Kea are presented in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed by means of least-squares fitting of thermophysical models to the eclipse cooling and heating curves, thermal-radiation calculations for the Io volcanoes, and comparison with Voyager data. Best fits are obtained for a model comprising (1) a bright region with a vertically inhomogeneous surface and (2) a dark vertically homogeneous region with thermal inertia only about 0.1 times that of (1). Little evidence of volcanic-flux variability during the period is found, and the majority (but not all) of the excess thermal IR radiation in the sub-Jovian hemisphere is attributed to the Loki volcano and its lava lake.

  7. Simulations of cloudy hyperspectral infrared radiances using the HT-FRTC, a fast PC-based multipurpose radiative transfer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, S.; Aumann, H. H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The HT-FRTC uses principal components which cover the spectrum at a very high spectral resolution allowing very fast line-by-line-like, hyperspectral and broadband simulations for satellite-based, airborne and ground-based sensors. Using data from IASI and from the Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES) on board the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft, variational retrievals in principal component space with HT-FRTC as forward model have demonstrated that valuable information on temperature and humidity profiles and on the cirrus cloud properties can be obtained simultaneously. The NASA/JPL/UMBC cloudy RTM inter-comparison project has been working on a global dataset consisting of 7377 AIRS spectra. Initial simulations with HT-FRTC for this dataset have been promising. A next step taken here is to investigate how sensitive the results are with respect to different assumptions in the cloud modelling. One aspect of this is to study how assumptions about the microphysical and related optical properties of liquid/ice clouds impact the statistics of the agreement between model and observations. The other aspect is about the cloud overlap scheme. Different schemes have been tested (maximum, random, maximum random). As the computational cost increases linearly with the number of cloud columns, it will be investigated if there is an optimal number of columns beyond which there is little additional benefit to be gained. During daytime the high wave number channels of AIRS are affected by solar radiation. With full scattering calculations using a monochromatic version of the Edwards-Slingo radiation code the HT-FRTC can model solar radiation reasonably well, but full scattering calculations are relatively expensive. Pure Chou scaling on the other hand can not properly describe scattering of solar radiation by clouds and requires additional refinements.

  8. A method for ultra-short pulse-shape measurements using far infrared coherent radiation from an undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a method for non-destructive measurements of the longitudinal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches for X-ray free electron lasers. The method is based on the detection of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) produced by a bunch passing through an undulator. Coherent radiation energy within a central cone turns out to be proportional, per pulse, to the square modulus of the bunch form-factor at the resonant frequency of the fundamental harmonic. An attractive feature of the proposed technique is the absence of any apparent limitation which would distort measurements. Indeed, the radiation process takes place in vacuum and is described by analytical formulae. CSR propagates to the detector placed in vacuum. Since CSR energy is in the range up to a fraction of mJ, a simple bolometer is used to measure the energy with a high accuracy. The proposed technique is very sensitive and it is capable of probing the electron bunches with a resolution down to a few microns

  9. Effect of Standard vs Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: The NRG Oncology RTOG 0126 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Jeff M; Moughan, Jennifer; Purdy, James; Bosch, Walter; Bruner, Deborah W; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Lau, Harold; Duclos, Marie; Parliament, Matthew; Morton, Gerard; Hamstra, Daniel; Seider, Michael; Lock, Michael I; Patel, Malti; Gay, Hiram; Vigneault, Eric; Winter, Kathryn; Sandler, Howard

    2018-03-15

    Optimizing radiation therapy techniques for localized prostate cancer can affect patient outcomes. Dose escalation improves biochemical control, but no prior trials were powered to detect overall survival (OS) differences. To determine whether radiation dose escalation to 79.2 Gy compared with 70.2 Gy would improve OS and other outcomes in prostate cancer. The NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 randomized clinical trial randomized 1532 patients from 104 North American Radiation Therapy Oncology Group institutions March 2002 through August 2008. Men with stage cT1b to T2b, Gleason score 2 to 6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 10 or greater and less than 20 or Gleason score of 7 and PSA less than 15 received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions or 70.2 Gy in 39 fractions. Time to OS measured from randomization to death due to any cause. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO)/Phoenix definitions were used for biochemical failure. Acute (≤90 days of treatment start) and late radiation therapy toxic effects (>90 days) were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and the RTOG/European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme, respectively. With a median follow-up of 8.4 (range, 0.02-13.0) years in 1499 patients (median [range] age, 71 [33-87] years; 70% had PSA <10 ng/mL, 84% Gleason score of 7, 57% T1 disease), there was no difference in OS between the 751 men in the 79.2-Gy arm and the 748 men in the 70.2-Gy arm. The 8-year rates of OS were 76% with 79.2 Gy and 75% with 70.2 Gy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.20; P = .98). The 8-year cumulative rates of distant metastases were 4% for the 79.2-Gy arm and 6% for the 70.2-Gy arm (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42-1.01; P = .05). The ASTRO and Phoenix biochemical failure rates at 5 and 8 years were 31% and 20% with 79.2 Gy

  10. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, A Vila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Fenske Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ramos, M M D [Department of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Stoneham, A M [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-21

    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO{sub 2} at 10.6 {mu}m and Er:YAG at 2.94 {mu}m). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO{sub 2} and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of {approx}10 {mu}s are used, the CO{sub 2} laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 {mu}s duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking.

  11. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, A.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO2 at 10.6 µm and Er:YAG at 2.94 µm). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of ap10 µs are used, the CO2 laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 µs duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking.

  12. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, A Vila; Ramos, M M D; Stoneham, A M

    2007-01-01

    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO 2 at 10.6 μm and Er:YAG at 2.94 μm). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of ∼10 μs are used, the CO 2 laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 μs duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking

  13. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  14. Research directed at developing a classical theory to describe isotope separation of polyatomic molecules illuminated by intense infrared radiation. Final report, May 7-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, W.E. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories

  15. Detectable end of radiation prostate specific antigen assists in identifying men with unfavorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer at high risk of distant recurrence and cancer-specific mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Jonathan; Phillips, Ryan; Chen, Di; Perin, Jamie; Narang, Amol K; Trieu, Janson; Radwan, Noura; Greco, Stephen; Deville, Curtiland; McNutt, Todd; Song, Daniel Y; DeWeese, Theodore L; Tran, Phuoc T

    2018-06-01

    Undetectable End of Radiation PSA (EOR-PSA) has been shown to predict improved survival in prostate cancer (PCa). While validating the unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) and favorable intermediate-risk (FIR) stratifications among Johns Hopkins PCa patients treated with radiotherapy, we examined whether EOR-PSA could further risk stratify UIR men for survival. A total of 302 IR patients were identified in the Johns Hopkins PCa database (178 UIR, 124 FIR). Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable analysis was performed via Cox regression for biochemical recurrence free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS), while a competing risks model was used for PCa specific survival (PCSS). Among the 235 patients with known EOR-PSA values, we then stratified by EOR-PSA and performed the aforementioned analysis. The median follow-up time was 11.5 years (138 months). UIR was predictive of worse DMFS and PCSS (P = 0.008 and P = 0.023) on multivariable analysis (MVA). Increased radiation dose was significant for improved DMFS (P = 0.016) on MVA. EOR-PSA was excluded from the models because it did not trend towards significance as a continuous or binary variable due to interaction with UIR, and we were unable to converge a multivariable model with a variable to control for this interaction. However, when stratifying by detectable versus undetectable EOR-PSA, UIR had worse DMFS and PCSS among detectable EOR-PSA patients, but not undetectable patients. UIR was significant on MVA among detectable EOR-PSA patients for DMFS (P = 0.021) and PCSS (P = 0.033), while RT dose also predicted PCSS (P = 0.013). EOR-PSA can assist in predicting DMFS and PCSS among UIR patients, suggesting a clinically meaningful time point for considering intensification of treatment in clinical trials of intermediate-risk men. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nano scale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Miskovsky, N.M.; Cutler, P.H.; Lerne, P.B.; Mayer, A.; Weiss, B.L.; Willis, B.; Sullivan, T.E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal) or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp tip or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction) acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nano fabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, junctions of 1?nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nano antenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  17. Nanoscale Devices for Rectification of High Frequency Radiation from the Infrared through the Visible: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Miskovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new and viable method for optical rectification. This approach has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally and is the basis fot the development of devices to rectify radiation through the visible. This technique for rectification is based not on conventional material or temperature asymmetry as used in MIM (metal/insulator/metal or Schottky diodes, but on a purely sharp geometric property of the antenna. This sharp “tip” or edge with a collector anode constitutes a tunnel junction. In these devices the rectenna (consisting of the antenna and the tunnel junction acts as the absorber of the incident radiation and the rectifier. Using current nanofabrication techniques and the selective atomic layer deposition (ALD process, junctions of 1 nm can be fabricated, which allow for rectification of frequencies up to the blue portion of the spectrum. To assess the viability of our approach, we review the development of nanoantenna structures and tunnel junctions capable of operating in the visible region. In addition, we review the detailed process of rectification and present methodologies for analysis of diode data. Finally, we present operational designs for an optical rectenna and its fabrication and discuss outstanding problems and future work.

  18. Patient set-up verification by infrared optical localization and body surface sensing in breast radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Baroni, Guido; Riboldi, Marco; Orecchia, Roberto; Pedotti, Antonio; Tagaste, Barbara; Garibaldi, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical application of a technique for patient set-up verification in breast cancer radiotherapy, based on the 3D localization of a hybrid configuration of surface control points. Materials and methods: An infrared optical tracker provided the 3D position of two passive markers and 10 laser spots placed around and within the irradiation field on nine patients. A fast iterative constrained minimization procedure was applied to detect and compensate patient set-up errors, through the control points registration with reference data coming from treatment plan (markers reference position, CT-based surface model). Results: The application of the corrective spatial transformation estimated by the registration procedure led to significant improvement of patient set-up. Median value of 3D errors affecting three additional verification markers within the irradiation field decreased from 5.7 to 3.5 mm. Errors variability (25-75%) decreased from 3.2 to 2.1 mm. Laser spots registration on the reference surface model was documented to contribute substantially to set-up errors compensation. Conclusions: Patient set-up verification through a hybrid set of control points and constrained surface minimization algorithm was confirmed to be feasible in clinical practice and to provide valuable information for the improvement of the quality of patient set-up, with minimal requirement of operator-dependant procedures. The technique combines conveniently the advantages of passive markers based methods and surface registration techniques, by featuring immediate and robust estimation of the set-up accuracy from a redundant dataset

  19. Properties of the generation of radiation in the near infrared part of the spectrum with a sapphire crystal laser having radiation-induced color centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitovich, A.P.; Grinkevich, V.E.; Kononov, V.A.; Kromskii, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper investigates the spectral stability of the color centers in sapphire and the energy of lasers in which the active elements were colored with various techniques. Color centers were produced by neutron irradiation. The absorption spectra of the color centers are shown. The transformation of the spectra shows that the mutual conversions of color centers takes place during the thermal annealing of the sapphire; most of the color centers formed have luminescence. Generation or radiation with a tunable frequency was obtained in the case of transverse or quasi-longitudinal excitation by a ruby laser. The results show that ways for increasing the stability of the energy generated by a sapphire laser with color centers can be found

  20. Intermediality and media change

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book is about intermediality as an approach to analysing and understanding media change. Intermediality and Media Change is critical of technological determinism that characterises 'new media discourse' about the ongoing digitalization, framed as a revolution and creating sharp contrasts between old and new media. Intermediality instead emphasises paying attention to continuities between media of all types and privileges a comparative perspective on technological changes in media over ti...

  1. Diffuse Scattering of the Conduction Electrons of a Metallic Substrate by an Adsorbate: an Experimental Study Using Synchrotron Infrared Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, M.; Otto, A.; Dumas, P.; Williams, G. P.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its intrinsic high brightness, high stability, and proportionality to the stored electron beam current, synchrotrons IR spectroscopy has revealed itself as an unique tool to experimentally test a physical phenomenon occurring at metallic interfaces, the theory for which was motivated by previous observations. Any adsorbate induces inelastic scattering of the conduction electrons, which causes a broadband IR reflectance change, and was predicted to induce a concomitant DC resistivity change. By choosing a well ordered single crystal thin film of Cu(111), we have checked that the DC resistivity change, and the asymptotic limit of the IR reflectance change are linearly dependent, but independent of the nature of the adsorbate. Coadsorption experiments which have been used to modify the induced density of states at the Fermi level, have further demonstrated that the friction coefficient, which is responsible for the elastic scattering phenomenon, is chemically specific. This article describes the use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source and its application to the study of dynamics of adsorbates on surfaces

  2. Changes induced in a ZnS:Cr-based electroluminescent waveguide structure by intrinsic near-infrared laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenko, N. A.; Oleksenko, P. F.; Mukhlyo, M. A.; Veligura, L. I.

    2013-01-01

    The causes of changes that occur in a thin-film electroluminescent metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal waveguide structure based on ZnS:Cr (Cr concentration of ∼4 × 10 20 cm −3 ) upon lasing (λ ≈ 2.6 μm) and that induce lasing cessation are studied. It is established that lasing ceases because of light-scattering inhomogeneities formed in the structure and, hence, optical losses enhance. The origin of the inhomogeneities and the causes of their formation are clarified by studying the surface topology and the crystal structure of constituent layers of the samples before and after lasing. The studies are performed by means of atomic force microscopy and X-ray radiography. It is shown that a substantial increase in the sizes of grains on the surface of the structure is the manifestation of changes induced in the ZnS:Cr film by recrystallization. Recrystallization is initiated by local heating by absorbed laser radiation in existing Cr clusters and quickened by a strong electric field (>1 MV cm −1 ). The changes observed in the ZnS:Cr film are as follows: the textured growth of ZnS crystallites, an increase in the content of Cr clusters, and the appearance of some CrS and a rather high ZnO content. Some ways for improving the stability of lasing in the ZnS:Cr-based waveguide structures are proposed

  3. Behaviour of glutathione in the cornea epithelium of cattle and rabbits under the influence of infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharsich, G.

    1978-01-01

    After creating a keratitis photoelectrica by means of a mercury/quartz analysis lamp, the concentration of GSH (glutathion, reduced) and GSSG (glutathion, oxidised) in the cornea epithelium of cattle and of rabbits at different times after irradiation was determined. The question of whether ultraviolet radiation considerably influences the GSH/GSSG quotient before the keratitis photoelectrica is fully formed morphologically, could be answered as follows: There is no considerable change in the GSH/GSSG quotient during the first 7-10 hours after the irradiation. Then, when there is, also morphologically, a keratitis photoelectrica, the GSH/GSSG quotient is doubled. The linkage of the GSH/GSSG system and hexosephosphatshunt via the NADP/NADPH system leads us to the conclusion that irradiation does not cause any direct changes in the GSH/GSSG system. Only when the cornea epithelium visably disintegrates an increased reduction of the glutathion occurs, like in several other damaging influences. Thus the found increase of the GSH/GSSG quotient 7-10 hours after ultraviolet irradiation might be unspecific. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Submillimeter and far-infrared line observations of M17 SW - A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Stacey, G. J.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far-IR spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are reported. Strong forbidden C II 158 micron and CO J = 7 - 6 line emission arises in an H II region/molecular cloud interface of several pc thickness. Weaker forbidden C II emission appears to be extended over 15 pc throughout the molecular cloud. CO J = 14 - 13 and forbidden O I 145 micron spectra indicate high temperatures and densities for both molecular and atomic gas in the interface. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. The extended forbidden C II emission throughout the molecular cloud has a level around 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. The high gas temperature of molecular material in the UV-illuminated interface region suggests that CO self-shielding and heating of CO by photoelectrons are important.

  5. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

  6. Detection of tumor-like inclusions embedded within human liver tissue using a short-pulsed near-infrared laser beam: Parallel simulations with radiative transfer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Addoum, Ahmad; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    An efficient solution to detect tumor-like inclusions embedded within a human liver tissue model is presented, using illumination by a short-pulsed laser beam. Light propagation was accurately solved using the time-dependent radiative transfer equation, with multithreaded parallel computing. A modified finite volume method based on unstructured grids and the fourth-order Runge–Kutta approach was employed to solve the equation in the (2-D/3-D) spatial and time domains. The normalization technique applied to the Henyey–Greenstein phase function was adopted to ensure numerical stability for values of the anisotropy factor that were close to unity. The presence of one or two circular/spherical inclusions was analyzed from the time and spatially resolved reflectance on the medium bounding surface. The results allowed a minimal size and a maximum distance for the detection of the inclusion to be highlighted. - Highlights: • We detect tumor-like inclusions embedded within a (2D/3D) human liver tissue model. • The technique is based on a short-pulsed near-infrared laser beam. • We solve the (2D/3D) time-dependent RTE, with multithreaded parallel computing. • The presence of one or two circular/spherical inclusions is analyzed. • The results allows a minimal size and a maximum distance for the detection

  7. Far-infrared radiation protects viability in a cell model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia by preventing polyQ protein accumulation and improving mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-Chih; Wu, Shey-Lin; Hoel, Fredrik; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Liu, Ko-Hung; Hsieh, Mingli; Hoel, August; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Yan, Kuo-Chia; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Wei-Yong; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Su, Shih-Li; Liu, Chin-San

    2016-07-29

    Far infrared radiation (FIR) is currently investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy in various diseases though the mechanism is unknown. Presently, we tested if FIR mediates beneficial effects in a cell model of the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). SCA3 is caused by a mutation leading to an abnormal polyglutamine expansion (PolyQ) in ataxin-3 protein. The consequent aggregation of mutant ataxin-3 results in disruption of vital cell functions. In this study, neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-SH) was transduced to express either non-pathogenic ataxin-3-26Q or pathogenic ataxin-3-78Q proteins. The cells expressing ataxin-3-78Q demonstrated decreased viability, and increased sensitivity to metabolic stress in the presence rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration. FIR exposure was found to protect against these effects. Moreover, FIR improved mitochondrial respiratory function, which was significantly compromised in ataxin-3-78Q and ataxin-3-26Q expressing cells. This was accompanied by decreased levels of mitochondrial fragmentation in FIR treated cells, as observed by fluorescence microscopy and protein expression analysis. Finally, the expression profile LC3-II, Beclin-1 and p62 suggested that FIR prevent the autophagy inhibiting effects observed in ataxin-3-78Q expressing cells. In summary, our results suggest that FIR have rescuing effects in cells expressing mutated pathogenic ataxin-3, through recovery of mitochondrial function and autophagy.

  8. Inactivation of Lipase and Lipoxygenase of Wheat Germ with Temperature-Controlled Short Wave Infrared Radiation and Its Effect on Storage Stability and Quality of Wheat Germ Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Hongjian; Sun, Dewei; Deng, Boxin; Li, Jinwei; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Wheat germ (WG) is quite susceptible to deterioration due to the presence of lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Therefore it is indispensable to adopt a stabilization step to decrease the activity of LA and LOX while retaining a maximum level of nutrients. But over-drying can make foodstuffs more susceptible to autoxidation. So a stabilization protocol for inactivating LA and LOX of WG with a temperature- controlled short wave infrared (SIR) radiation system was adopted to retard its rancidity and retain a maximum level of fat-soluble nutrients. Meanwhile, the critical storage water activity (Aw) of WG for inhibiting both hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity was appraised. Results indicate that WG irradiated at 90°C for 20 min acquired the optimal stabilization effect, and its residual LA and LOX activity were 18.02% and 19.21%, respectively. At this condition, the free fatty acids (FFA) content and peroxide value (PV) increment of WG oil at 40°C remained below 5% and 2.24 meq O2/kg for 60 days, respectively. The residual Aw of this WG sample was 0.13, and it is near the Aw corresponding to its monolayer. No significant decrease of fatty acids was observed during SIR processing, while about 96.42% of its original tocopherols still retained in WG treated at 90°C for 20 min.

  9. Near infrared radiation protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neurotoxicity by down-regulating neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhanyang; Li, Zhaoyu; Liu, Ning; Jizhang, Yunneng; McCarthy, Thomas J; Tedford, Clark E; Lo, Eng H; Wang, Xiaoying

    2015-06-01

    Near infrared radiation (NIR) has been shown to be neuroprotective against neurological diseases including stroke and brain trauma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study we aimed to investigate the hypothesis that NIR may protect neurons by attenuating oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and modulating cell survival/death signaling. Primary mouse cortical neurons were subjected to 4 h OGD and NIR was applied at 2 h reoxygenation. OGD significantly increased NO level in primary neurons compared to normal control, which was significantly ameliorated by NIR at 5 and 30 min post-NIR. Neither OGD nor NIR significantly changed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA or total protein levels compared to control groups. However, OGD significantly increased nNOS activity compared to normal control, and this effect was significantly diminished by NIR. Moreover, NIR significantly ameliorated the neuronal death induced by S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor. Finally, NIR significantly rescued OGD-induced suppression of p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression, and attenuated OGD-induced upregulation of Bax, BAD and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest NIR may protect against OGD at least partially through reducing NO production by down-regulating nNOS activity, and modulating cell survival/death signaling.

  10. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  11. Feasibility Study on S-Band Microwave Radiation and 3D-Thermal Infrared Imaging Sensor-Aided Recognition of Polymer Materials from End-of-Life Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increase the worldwide consumption of vehicles, end-of-life vehicles (ELVs have kept rapidly increasing in the last two decades. Metallic parts and materials of ELVs can be easily reused and recycled, but the automobile shredder residues (ASRs, of which elastomer and plastic materials make up the vast majority, are difficult to recycle. ASRs are classified as hazardous materials in the main industrial countries, and are required to be materially recycled up to 85–95% by mass until 2020. However, there is neither sufficient theoretical nor practical experience for sorting ASR polymers. In this research, we provide a novel method by using S-Band microwave irradiation together with 3D scanning as well as infrared thermal imaging sensors for the recognition and sorting of typical plastics and elastomers from the ASR mixture. In this study, an industrial magnetron array with 2.45 GHz irradiation was utilized as the microwave source. Seven kinds of ELV polymer (PVC, ABS, PP, EPDM, NBR, CR, and SBR crushed scrap residues were tested. After specific power microwave irradiation for a certain time, the tested polymer materials were heated up to different extents corresponding to their respective sensitivities to microwave irradiation. Due to the variations in polymer chemical structure and additive agents, polymers have different sensitivities to microwave radiation, which leads to differences in temperature rises. The differences of temperature increase were obtained by a thermal infrared sensor, and the position and geometrical features of the tested scraps were acquired by a 3D imaging sensor. With this information, the scrap material could be recognized and then sorted. The results showed that this method was effective when the tested polymer materials were heated up to more than 30 °C. For full recognition of the tested polymer scraps, the minimum temperature variations of 5 °C and 10.5 °C for plastics and elastomers were needed

  12. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  13. Powerful infrared emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan L. M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Powerful infrared LEDs with emission wavelength 805 ± 10, 870 ± 20 and 940 ± 10 nm developed at SPC OED "OPTEL" are presented in the article. The radiant intensity of beam diode is under 4 W/sr in the continuous mode and under 100 W/sr in the pulse mode. The radiation power of wide-angle LEDs reaches 1 W in continuous mode. The external quantum efficiency of emission IR diodes runs up to 30%. There also has been created infrared diode modules with a block of flat Fresnel lenses with radiant intensity under 70 W/sr.

  14. The prognostic value of expression of HIF1α, EGFR and VEGF-A, in localized prostate cancer for intermediate- and high-risk patients treated with radiation therapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Damien C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Androgens stimulate the production of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1α and ultimately vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A. Additionally, epithelial growth factor (EGF mediates HIF1α production. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX expression is associated with tumor cell hypoxia in a variety of malignancies. This study assesses the prognostic relation between HIF1α, VEGF-A, EGF Receptor and CAIX expression by immunochemistry in diagnostic samples of patients with intermediate- and high-risk localized prostate cancer treated with radiation therapy, with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Materials and methods Between 1994 and 2004, 103 prostate cancer patients (mean age, 68.7 ± 6.2, with prostate cancer (mean PSA, 13.3 ± 3.7, were treated with radiation therapy (RT, median dose, 74 Gy. Fifty seven (55.3% patients received ADT (median duration, 6 months; range, 0 – 24. Median follow-up was 97.6 months (range, 5.9 – 206.8. Results Higher EGFR expression was significantly (p = 0.04 correlated with higher Gleason scores. On univariate analysis, HIF1α nuclear expression was a significant (p = 0.02 prognostic factor for biological progression-free survival (bPFS. A trend towards significance (p = 0.05 was observed with EGFR expression and bPFS. On multivariate analysis, low HIF1α nuclear (p = 0.01 and high EGFR (p = 0.04 expression remained significant adverse prognostic factors. Conclusions Our study suggests that high nuclear expression of HIF1α and low EGFR expression in diagnostic biopsies of prostate cancer patients treated with RT ± ADT is associated with a good prognosis.

  15. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  16. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  17. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende

  18. Global Distribution and Variations of NO Infrared Radiative Flux and Its Responses to Solar Activity and Geomagnetic Activity in the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoli; Wei, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dong; Luo, Tao; Dai, Congming; Wei, Heli

    2017-12-01

    The global distribution and variations of NO infrared radiative flux (NO-IRF) are presented during 2002-2016 in the thermosphere covering 100-280 km altitude based on Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) data set. For investigating the spatial variations of the mutual relationship between NO-IRF and solar activity, the altitude ranges from 100 km to 280 km are divided into 90 altitude bins, and the latitude regions of 83°S-83°N are divided into 16 latitude bins. By processing about 1.8E9 NO-IRF observation values from about 5E6 vertical nighttime profiles recorded in SABER data set, we obtained more than 4.1E8 samples of NO-IRF. The annual-mean values of NO-IRF are then calculated by all available NO-IRF samples within each latitude and altitude bin. Local latitudinal maxima in NO-IRF are found between 120 and 145 km altitude, and the maximum NO-IRF located at polar regions are 3 times more than that of the minimum at equatorial region. The influences of solar and geomagnetic activity on the spatial variations of NO-IRF are investigated. Both the NO-IRF and its response to solar and geomagnetic activity show nearly symmetric distribution between the two hemispheres. It is demonstrated that the observed changes in NO-IRF at altitudes between 100 and 225 km correlate well with the changes in solar activity. The NO-IRF at solar maximum is about 4 times than that at solar minimum, and the current maximum of NO-IRF in 2014 is less than 70% of the prior maximum in 2001. For the first time, the response ranges of the NO-IRF to solar and geomagnetic activity at different altitudes and latitudes are reported.

  19. Combining Lactic Acid Spray with Near-Infrared Radiation Heating To Inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis on Almond and Pine Nut Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of near-infrared radiation (NIR) heating combined with lactic acid (LA) sprays for inactivating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on almond and pine nut kernels and to elucidate the mechanisms of the lethal effect of the NIR-LA combined treatment. Also, the effect of the combination treatment on product quality was determined. Separately prepared S. Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 and non-PT 30 S. Enteritidis cocktails were inoculated onto almond and pine nut kernels, respectively, followed by treatments with NIR or 2% LA spray alone, NIR with distilled water spray (NIR-DW), and NIR with 2% LA spray (NIR-LA). Although surface temperatures of nuts treated with NIR were higher than those subjected to NIR-DW or NIR-LA treatment, more S. Enteritidis survived after NIR treatment alone. The effectiveness of NIR-DW and NIR-LA was similar, but significantly more sublethally injured cells were recovered from NIR-DW-treated samples. We confirmed that the enhanced bactericidal effect of the NIR-LA combination may not be attributable to cell membrane damage per se. NIR heat treatment might allow S. Enteritidis cells to become permeable to applied LA solution. The NIR-LA treatment (5 min) did not significantly (P > 0.05) cause changes in the lipid peroxidation parameters, total phenolic contents, color values, moisture contents, and sensory attributes of nut kernels. Given the results of the present study, NIR-LA treatment may be a potential intervention for controlling food-borne pathogens on nut kernel products. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p =0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p =0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy.