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Sample records for intermediate hosts electronic

  1. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a ...

  2. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  3. Two different strategies of host manipulation allow parasites to persist in intermediate-definitive host systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de L.J.; Langevelde, van F.

    2018-01-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites start their development in an intermediate host, before they finish the development in their definitive host when the definitive host preys on the intermediate host. In intermediate-definitive host systems, two strategies of host manipulation have been evolved:

  4. Data from: Two different strategies of host manipulation allow parasites to persist in intermediate-definitive host systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Lana; Langevelde, van F.

    2017-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites start their development in an intermediate host, before they finish the development in their definitive host when the definitive host preys on the intermediate host. In intermediate-definitive host systems, two strategies of host manipulation have been evolved:

  5. Species associations among larval helminths in an amphipod intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, B S; Giari, L; Poulin, R

    2000-10-01

    Larval helminths that share the same intermediate host may or may not also share the same definitive hosts. If one or more of these helminth species can manipulate the phenotype of the intermediate host, there can be great advantages or severe costs for other helminths resulting from co-occurring with a manipulator, depending on whether they have the same definitive host or not. Among 2372 specimens of the amphipod Echinogammarus stammeri collected from the river Brenta, northern Italy, there was a positive association between two acanthocephalan species with the same fish definitive hosts, the relatively common Pomphorhynchus laevis and the much less prevalent Acanthocephalus clavula. The number of cystacanths of P. laevis per infected amphipod, which ranged from one to five, did not influence the likelihood that the amphipod would also host A. clavula. A third acanthocephalan species, Polymorphus minutus,which matures in birds, showed no association with either of the two other species. These results show that associations among helminth species in intermediate hosts are not random, and are instead the product of selection favouring certain pathways of transmission.

  6. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Valdivia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence) and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts' exposure to the parasite's dispersive stages. Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm) than large molecrabs (analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation-a characteristic of indirect host-parasite interactions-and subsequent increasing mortality rates over ontogeny underpin size-dependent host-parasite dynamics.

  7. Mesoscale spatiotemporal variability in a complex host-parasite system influenced by intermediate host body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Rodríguez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasites are essential components of natural communities, but the factors that generate skewed distributions of parasite occurrences and abundances across host populations are not well understood. Methods Here, we analyse at a seascape scale the spatiotemporal relationships of parasite exposure and host body-size with the proportion of infected hosts (i.e., prevalence and aggregation of parasite burden across ca. 150 km of the coast and over 22 months. We predicted that the effects of parasite exposure on prevalence and aggregation are dependent on host body-sizes. We used an indirect host-parasite interaction in which migratory seagulls, sandy-shore molecrabs, and an acanthocephalan worm constitute the definitive hosts, intermediate hosts, and endoparasite, respectively. In such complex systems, increments in the abundance of definitive hosts imply increments in intermediate hosts’ exposure to the parasite’s dispersive stages. Results Linear mixed-effects models showed a significant, albeit highly variable, positive relationship between seagull density and prevalence. This relationship was stronger for small (cephalothorax length >15 mm than large molecrabs (<15 mm. Independently of seagull density, large molecrabs carried significantly more parasites than small molecrabs. The analysis of the variance-to-mean ratio of per capita parasite burden showed no relationship between seagull density and mean parasite aggregation across host populations. However, the amount of unexplained variability in aggregation was strikingly higher in larger than smaller intermediate hosts. This unexplained variability was driven by a decrease in the mean-variance scaling in heavily infected large molecrabs. Conclusions These results show complex interdependencies between extrinsic and intrinsic population attributes on the structure of host-parasite interactions. We suggest that parasite accumulation—a characteristic of indirect host

  8. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  9. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  10. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  11. Echinococcus multilocularis and Its Intermediate Host: A Model of Parasite-Host Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Angèle Vuitton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in the E. multilocularis-intermediate host model depend on a subtle balance between cellular immunity, which is responsible for host's resistance towards the metacestode, the larval stage of the parasite, and tolerance induction and maintenance. The pathological features of alveolar echinococcosis. the disease caused by E. multilocularis, are related both to parasitic growth and to host's immune response, leading to fibrosis and necrosis, The disease spectrum is clearly dependent on the genetic background of the host as well as on acquired disturbances of Th1-related immunity. The laminated layer of the metacestode, and especially its carbohydrate components, plays a major role in tolerance induction. Th2-type and anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, as well as nitric oxide, are involved in the maintenance of tolerance and partial inhibition of cytotoxic mechanisms. Results of studies in the experimental mouse model and in patients suggest that immune modulation with cytokines, such as interferon-α, or with specific antigens could be used in the future to treat patients with alveolar echinococcosis and/or to prevent this very severe parasitic disease.

  12. Evidence to support horses as natural intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Thomas; Murphy, Alice J; Kiupel, Matti; Bell, Julia A; Rossano, Mary G; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-10-10

    Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the definitive host for the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Opossums shed sporocysts in feces that can be ingested by true intermediate hosts (cats, raccoons, skunks, armadillos and sea otters). Horses acquire the parasite by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by opossum feces. However, horses have been classified as aberrant intermediate hosts because the terminal asexual sarcocyst stage that is required for transmission to the definitive host has not been found in their tissues despite extensive efforts to search for them [Dubey, J.P., Lindsay, D.S., Saville, W.J., Reed, S.M., Granstrom, D.E., Speer, C.A., 2001b. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet. Parasitol. 95, 89-131]. In a 4-month-old filly with neurological disease consistent with EPM, we demonstrate schizonts in the brain and spinal cord and mature sarcocysts in the tongue and skeletal muscle, both with genetic and morphological characteristics of S. neurona. The histological and electron microscopic morphology of the schizonts and sarcocysts were identical to published features of S. neurona [Stanek, J.F., Dubey, J.P., Oglesbee, M.J., Reed, S.M., Lindsay, D.S., Capitini, L.A., Njoku, C.J., Vittitow, K.L., Saville, W.J., 2002. Life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona in its natural intermediate host, the raccoon, Procyon lotor. J. Parasitol. 88, 1151-1158]. DNA from schizonts and sarcocysts from this horse produced Sarcocystis specific 334bp PCR products [Tanhauser, S.M., Yowell, C.A., Cutler, T.J., Greiner, E.C., MacKay, R.J., Dame, J.B., 1999. Multiple DNA markers differentiate Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula. J. Parasitol. 85, 221-228]. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these PCR products showed banding patterns characteristic of S. neurona. Sequencing, alignment and comparison of both schizont and sarcocyst DNA

  13. Second intermediate host land snails and definitive host animals of Brachylaima cribbi in southern Australia

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    Butcher A.R.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study of infection of southern Australian land snails with Brachylaima cribbi metacercariae has shown that all commonly encountered native and introduced snails are susceptible second intermediate hosts. The range of infected snails is extensive with metacercariae-infected snails being present in all districts across southern Australia. C. virgata has the highest average natural metacercarial infection intensity of 6.1 metacercariae per infected snail. The susceptibility of birds, mammals and reptiles to B. cribbi infection was studied in South Australia by capturing, dissecting and examining the intestinal tract contents of animals which commonly eat land snails as a food source. Indigenous Australian little ravens (Corvus mellori, which are a common scavenger bird, and two other passeriform birds, the black bird (Turdus merula and the starling (Sturnus vulgaris, which are both introduced European birds, were found to have the highest infection rates of all animals examined. Other birds found infected with B. cribbi were an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae, chickens (Gallus gallus and a pigeon (Columba livia. Natural infections were also detected in field mice (Mus domesticus and shingleback lizards (Tiliqua rugosa although the intensity of infection was lower than that observed in birds. Susceptibility studies of laboratory mice, rats and ducks showed that mice developed patent infections which persisted for several weeks, rats developed a short-lived infection of three weeks’ duration and ducks did not support infection. This study has shown for the first time that a brachylaimid can infect a wide host range of birds, mammals and reptiles in nature.

  14. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, J. M.; Carnero, A.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies, where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SN (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova) survey at intermediate redshift by measuring their emission-line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR versus oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186 ± 0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ) in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  15. Has Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Sporozoa: Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) cospeciated with its intermediate hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M

    2009-08-26

    The question of how Sarcocystis neurona is able to overcome species barrier and adapt to new hosts is central to the understanding of both the evolutionary origin of S. neurona and the prediction of its field host range. Therefore, it is worth reviewing current knowledge on S. neurona host specificity. The available host range data for S. neurona are discussed in relation to a subject of evolutionary importance-specialist or generalist and its implications to understand the strategies of host adaptation. Current evidences demonstrate that a wide range of hosts exists for S. neurona. This parasite tends to be highly specific for its definitive host but much less so for its intermediate host (I.H.). The unique specificity of S. neurona for its definitive host may be mediated by a probable long coevolutionary relationship of the parasite and carnivores in a restricted ecological niche 'New World'. This might be taken as evidence that carnivores are the 'original' host group for S. neurona. Rather, the capacity of S. neurona to exploit an unusually large number of I.H. species probably indicates that S. neurona maintains non-specificity to its I.H. as an adaptive response to insure the survival of the parasite in areas in which the 'preferred' host is not available. This review concludes with the view that adaptation of S. neurona to a new host is a complex interplay that involves a large number of determinants.

  16. Wearable electronics formed on intermediate layer on textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-07-27

    One manner of producing more desirable clothing with electronic capabilities is to manufacture electronics, such as the charging wires or devices themselves, directly onto the textile materials. Textile materials generally do not support the manufacturing of electronic devices, in part because the surface of the textile is too rough for electronic devices or the processes used to manufacturing electronic devices. An intermediate layer (204) may be placed on the textile material (202) to reduce the roughness of the surface of the textile material and provide other beneficial characteristics for the placement of electronic devices (206) directly on the textile material.

  17. Wild Rodents as Experimental Intermediate Hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Machado Paçô

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig, 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti, and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1 wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2 in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3 despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4 in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.

  18. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  19. Olfactory host finding, intermediate memory and its potential ecological adaptation in Nasonia vitripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Daria; Collatz, Jana; Hagenbucher, Steffen; Ruther, Joachim; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2009-03-01

    Associative learning of host-associated chemical cues was studied in Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitoid of fly pupae in nests of hole-nesting birds. When females encountered a fly pupa and performed one sequence of host recognition behaviour including drilling the ovipositor into the host in the presence of the artificial odour furfurylheptanoate (FFH), they were afterwards arrested by FFH in olfactometer experiments. The response vanished after 4 days and could be blocked after 3 days by feeding wasps with ethacrynic acid prior and after the training. This indicates the formation of an intermediate form of memory by one host experience in N. vitripennis. Interestingly, the trained wasps avoided odours that were not present during the host encounter, although naive wasps did not react to these odours. This unique behaviour probably causes wasps to focus during host searching on those chemical cues they have experienced in the host environment. Studies in nests of hole-nesting birds revealed that about 30% of all nests contained only one fly pupa, and laboratory studies showed that N. vitripennis females are able to parasitise around 100 fly pupae in their life. It is discussed that under these conditions, the formation of a non-permanent intermediate memory for host-associated odours after one host encounter is adaptive to avoid costs involved with formation and maintenance of memory for misleading cues. The demonstration of associative olfactory learning in N. vitripennis, the first parasitoid species with sequenced genome, opens the gate to study molecular mechanisms of memory formation and its ecological adaptation in parasitoids.

  20. Large-scale determinants of intestinal schistosomiasis and intermediate host snail distribution across Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    The geographical ranges of most species, including many infectious disease agents and their vectors and intermediate hosts, are assumed to be constrained by climatic tolerances, mainly temperature. It has been suggested that global warming will cause an expansion of the areas potentially suitable...... impacts of climatic changes. Snail species distribution models included several combinations of climatic and habitat-related predictors; the latter divided into "natural" and "human-impacted" habitat variables to measure anthropogenic influence. The predictive performance of the combined snail...... are more likely to contract and/or move into cooler areas in the south and east. Importantly, we also note that even though climate per se matters, the impact of humans on habitat play a crucial role in determining the distribution of the intermediate host snails in Africa. Thus, a future contraction...

  1. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  2. Biology and Control of Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in The People's Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Z.J.; Ge, J; Dai, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a severe parasitic disease in The People's Republic of China and imposed considerable burden on human and domestic animal health and socioeconomic development. The significant achievement in schistosomiasis control has been made in last 60years. ....... Oncomelania hupensis as the only intermediate host of S. japonicum plays a key role in disease transmission. The habitat complexity of the snails challenges to effective control. In this review we share the experiences in control and research of O. hupensis....

  3. The suitability of several aquatic snails as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, F; Lämmler, G

    1975-10-16

    Sixteen species of aquatic snails of four families were tested by quantitative technique under standardized conditions for their suitability as intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus cantonensis. These species were the planorbid snails Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis intermixtus, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus contortus, Bulinus africanus, Bulinus tropicus and Helisoma sp.; the lymnaeid snails Lymnaea natalensis, Lymnaea tomentosa, Lymnaea stagnalis, and Stagnicola elodes; the physid snail Physa acuta (an Egyptian and a German strain) and the ampullariid snails Marisa cornuarietis and Lanistes carinatus. All these snail species proved to be susceptible to infection with A. cantonensis, and first stage larvae reached the infective third stage in all of them. However, the rate and intensity of infection varied with different species. B. glabrata was the most susceptible snail species with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 26.1. This was followed by S. elodes and B. africanus, with a 100% infection rate and an average percentage recovery of third stage larvae of 15.6 and 14.6 respectively. The rest of snail species proved to be less susceptible. For comparative evaluation of the suitability of the various snail species as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis a "Capacity Index" was determined. This index should provide a useful method for the evaluation of the suitability of various snails as intermediate hosts of nematode parasites under standardized conditions in the laboratory.

  4. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F.; McDonald, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy

  5. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F. [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); McDonald, Sarah M., E-mail: mcdonaldsa@vtc.vt.edu [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia—Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy.

  6. Female biased sex-ratio in Schistosoma mansoni after exposure to an allopatric intermediate host strain of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepesant, Julie M J; Boissier, Jérôme; Climent, Déborah; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    For parasites that require multiple hosts to complete their development, the interaction with the intermediate host may have an impact on parasite transmission and development in the definitive host. The human parasite Schistosoma mansoni needs two different hosts to complete its life cycle: the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata (in South America) as intermediate host and a human or rodents as final host. To investigate the influence of the host environment on life history traits in the absence of selection, we performed experimental infections of two B. glabrata strains of different geographic origin with the same clonal population of S. mansoni. One B. glabrata strain is the sympatric host and the other one the allopatric host. We measured prevalence in the snail, the cercarial infectivity, sex-ratio, immunopathology in the final host and microsatellite frequencies of individual larvae in three successive generations. We show that, even if the parasite population is clonal based on neutral markers, S. mansoni keeps the capacity of generating phenotypic plasticity and/or variability for different life history traits when confront to an unusual environment, in this study the intermediate host. The most dramatic change was observed in sex-ratio: in average 1.7 times more female cercariae were produced when the parasite developed in an allopatric intermediate host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Miller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%, 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6% Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6% Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3% Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%. The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance.

  8. Hippobosca longipennis - a potential intermediate host of a species of Acanthocheilonema in dogs in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippobosca longipennis (the 'dog louse fly' is a blood sucking ectoparasite found on wild carnivores such as cheetahs and lions and domesticated and feral dogs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, including China. Known as an intermediate host for Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and a transport host for Cheyletiella yasguri, it has also been suggested that H. longipennis may be a vector for other pathogens, including Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov., which was recently reported to infect up to 48% of dogs in northern India where this species of fly is known to commonly infest dogs. To test this hypothesis, hippoboscid flies feeding on dogs in Ladakh in northern India were collected and subjected to microscopic dissection. Results A total of 12 infective larvae were found in 10 out of 65 flies dissected; 9 from the head, 2 from the thorax and 1 from the abdomen. The larvae averaged 2, 900 (± 60 μm in length and 34 (± 5 μm in width and possessed morphological features characteristic of the family Onchocercidae. Genetic analysis and comparison of the 18S, ITS-2, 12S and cox-1 genes confirmed the identity of the larvae as the Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. reported in dogs in Ladakh. Conclusion This study provides evidence for a potential intermediate host-parasite relationship between H. longipennis and the canine Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. in northern India.

  9. The Role of Evolutionary Intermediates in the Host Adaptation of Canine Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Karla M.; Pagan, Israel; Cifuente, Javier O.; Kaelber, Jason T.; Lillie, Tyler D.; Hafenstein, Susan; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of viruses to new hosts is a poorly understood process likely involving a variety of viral structures and functions that allow efficient replication and spread. Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged in the late 1970s as a host-range variant of a virus related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). Within a few years of its emergence in dogs, there was a worldwide replacement of the initial virus strain (CPV type 2) by a variant (CPV type 2a) characterized by four amino acid differences in the capsid protein. However, the evolutionary processes that underlie the acquisition of these four mutations, as well as their effects on viral fitness, both singly and in combination, are still uncertain. Using a comprehensive experimental analysis of multiple intermediate mutational combinations, we show that these four capsid mutations act in concert to alter antigenicity, cell receptor binding, and relative in vitro growth in feline cells. Hence, host adaptation involved complex interactions among both surface-exposed and buried capsid mutations that together altered cell infection and immune escape properties of the viruses. Notably, most intermediate viral genotypes containing different combinations of the four key amino acids possessed markedly lower fitness than the wild-type viruses. PMID:22114336

  10. Sarcocystis pantherophis, n. sp. from eastern rat snakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) definitive hosts and interferongamma gene knockout mice as experimental intermediate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report a new species, Sarcocystis pantherophisi with the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) as natural definitive host and the interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mouse as the experimental intermediate host. Sporocysts (n=15) from intestinal contents of the snake were 17.3 x 10....

  11. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona and act as intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, L S; Mehler, S; Nelson, K; Elsheikha, H M; Murphy, A J; Knust, B; Tanhauser, S M; Gearhart, P M; Rossano, M G; Bowman, D D; Schott, H C; Patterson, J S

    2008-05-06

    We tested the hypothesis that brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), and act as intermediate hosts for this parasite. In summer 1999, wild caught brown-headed cowbirds were collected and necropsied to determine infection rate with Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic inspection. Seven of 381 (1.8%) birds had grossly visible sarcocysts in leg muscles with none in breast muscles. Histopathology revealed two classes of sarcocysts in leg muscles, thin-walled and thick-walled suggesting two species. Electron microscopy showed that thick-walled cysts had characteristics of S. falcatula and thin-walled cysts had characteristics of S. neurona. Thereafter, several experiments were conducted to confirm that cowbirds had viable S. neurona that could be transmitted to an intermediate host and cause disease. Specific-pathogen-free opossums fed cowbird leg muscle that was enriched for muscle either with or without visible sarcocysts all shed high numbers of sporocysts by 4 weeks after infection, while the control opossum fed cowbird breast muscle was negative. These sporocysts were apparently of two size classes, 11.4+/-0.7 microm by 7.6+/-0.4 microm (n=25) and 12.6+/-0.6 microm by 8.0+/-0 microm (n=25). When these sporocysts were excysted and introduced into equine dermal cell tissue culture, schizogony occurred, most merozoites survived and replicated long term and merozoites sampled from the cultures with long-term growth were indistinguishable from known S. neurona isolates. A cowbird Sarcocystis isolate, Michigan Cowbird 1 (MICB1), derived from thin-walled sarcocysts from cowbirds that was passaged in SPF opossums and tissue culture went on to produce neurological disease in IFNgamma knockout mice indistinguishable from that of the positive control inoculated with S. neurona. This, together with the knowledge that S. falcatula does not cause lesions in IFNgamma knockout mice, showed that cowbird

  12. Prevalence of Fasciola in cattle and of its intermediate host Lymnaea snails in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam Thi; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Van Nguyen, Thoai; Huynh, Vu Vy; Le, Duc Quyet; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of natural Fasciola infections in both the definitive hosts (cattle) and the intermediate hosts (Lymnaea snails) in central Vietnam. A total of 1,075 fecal samples, randomly collected from cattle in Binh Dinh, Khanh Hoa, and Phu Yen provinces, were examined for Fasciola eggs by a sedimentation method. The overall prevalence of Fasciola was 45.3 %. A subset of the animals (235) was also screened for antibodies against Fasciola by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 46.3 % of these animals were shedding Fasciola eggs while 87.2 % were Fasciola seropositive. A lower prevalence of Fasciola was observed in calves ≤ 2 years of age (37.6 %) compared to that in cattle >2 years of age (53.7 %) (p Fasciola. This appears to be the first epidemiological survey of the prevalence of Fasciola in cattle and snails in these three provinces in central Vietnam.

  13. Echinostoma revolutum: freshwater snails as the second intermediate hosts in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantima, Kittichai; Chai, Jong-Yil; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2013-04-01

    The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province.

  14. On selection rules and inelastic electron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuroh, K.

    1986-12-01

    Correlation effects are included in the Bethe-Born theory for the generalized oscillator strength of inelastic scattering of electrons on atoms. The formulation is such as to allow for the calculation of relative line strengths of multiplets. It is used to analyze line strengths of the 4d → 4f transition in La 3+ and Ce 4+ within LS-coupling. The analysis indicates that only singlet states of the intermediate 4d 9 4f configuration are allowed. Calculated line strengths are compared with a recent core electron energy loss spectra of metallic La and tetravalent CeO 2 and there is an overall qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) as a natural intermediate host of Taenia omissa (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Yucra, Dora; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2017-11-15

    Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T. omissa (95.7-98.1% in cox1 and 94.6-95.1% in nad1). Our report is the first to detect T. omissa metacestodes in alpacas and to reveal that alpacas are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  17. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  18. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  19. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the

  20. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

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    Jürgen Krücken

    Full Text Available Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1 and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element in brain and ascarids (ITS-2 in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8, Toxocara cati (4 and Parascaris sp. (1 were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to

  1. Molecular confirmation of trematodes in the snail intermediate hosts from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

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    Sothorn Anucherngchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the

  2. Small rodents as paratenic or intermediate hosts of carnivore parasites in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, Jürgen; Blümke, Julia; Maaz, Denny; Demeler, Janina; Ramünke, Sabrina; Antolová, Daniela; Schaper, Roland; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are important intermediate and paratenic hosts for carnivore parasites, including the important zoonotic agents Toxoplasma, Echinococcus and Toxocara. Monitoring of such parasites in rodents can be used to detect increasing risks for human and veterinary public health. Rodents were trapped at four sites in Berlin, two near the city center, two at the periphery. PCRs were conducted to detect Coccidia (target ITS-1) and specifically Toxoplasma gondii (repetitive element) in brain and ascarids (ITS-2) in muscle or brain tissue. During necropsies, metacestodes were collected and identified using ITS-2 and 12S rRNA PCRs. An ELISA to detect antibodies against Toxocara canis ES antigens was performed. Within the 257 examined rodents, the most frequently observed parasite was Frenkelia glareoli predominantly found in Myodes glareolus. T. gondii was only detected in 12 rodents and Microtus spp. (although strongly underrepresented) had a significantly increased chance of being positive. Neither Echinococcus nor typical Taenia parasites of dogs and cats were found but Mesocestoides litteratus and Taenia martis metacestodes were identified which can cause severe peritoneal or ocular cysticercosis in dogs, primates and humans. Using PCR, the ascarids T. canis (n = 8), Toxocara cati (4) and Parascaris sp. (1) were detected predominantly in muscles. Seroprevalence of T. canis was 14.2% and ELISA was thus more sensitive than PCR to detect infection with this parasite. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis revealed that parasite communities could be grouped into an urban and a peri-urban cluster with high frequency of ascarid-positive rodents in urban and high frequency of F. glareoli in peri-urban sites. Prevalence rates of parasites in rodents with potential impact for human or veterinary public health are considerable and the monitoring of transmission cycles of carnivore parasites in intermediate rodent hosts is recommended to estimate the health

  3. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A; Grigg, Michael E; Crosbie, Paul R; Conrad, Patricia A

    2010-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Souza Cecília Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B. The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7°C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A and (B, respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory

  5. Genetic variability and identification of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on shell or reproductive organ morphology and genetic considerations suggest extensive intraspecific variation in Biomphalaria snails. The high variability at the morphological and genetic levels, as well as the small size of some specimens and similarities between species complicate the correct identification of these snails. Here we review our work using methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification for analysis of genetic variation and identification of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Arbitrarily primed-PCR revealed that the genome of B. glabrata exihibits a remarkable degree of intraespecific polymorphism. Low stringency-PCR using primers for 18S rRNA permited the identification of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis. The study of individuals obtained from geographically distinct populations exhibits significant intraspecific DNA polymorphism, however specimens from the same species, exhibit some species specific LSPs. We also showed that PCR-restriction fragment of length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of Biomphalaria rDNA, using DdeI permits the differentiation of the three intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The molecular biological techniques used in our studies are very useful for the generation of new knowledge concerning the systematics and population genetics of Biomphalaria snails.

  6. Altered dopamine levels induced by the parasite Profilicollis antarcticus on its intermediate host, the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus

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    JOSÉ MIGUEL ROJAS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A serotonergic pathway is apparently involved in parasite-host interactions. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed increased rates in oxygen consumption and alterations in body posture in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus parasitized by the acanthocephalan, Profilicollis antarcticus. Such changes may be related to the functions described for biogenic amines in crustaceans. During the infective stage the acanthocephalans live freely in the hemocelomic cavity, suggesting that the possible alteration induced by biogenic amines may be related to their neurohormonal function in crustaceans. To test whether the presence of P. antarcticus produced neurohormonal changes in its intermediate host, H. crenulatus, we analyzed serotonin and dopamine levels in the host using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two groups of 11 female crabs were studied; one group was artificially inoculated with two cystacanths while the other was used as the control. Our results show a dramatic increase in hemolymph dopamine, but not serotonin in H. crenulatus parasitized by the acanthocephalan P. antarcticus. Our results, along with those reported by Maynard (1996, suggest a parasite-specific strategy involved in the behavior alteration caused by the acanthocephalans on their intermediate host. The use of a biogenic amine as a mechanism of interaction by the parasites gives them an endless number of alternative potential actions on their intermediate hosts

  7. Altered dopamine levels induced by the parasite Profilicollis antarcticus on its intermediate host, the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, José Miguel; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2005-01-01

    A serotonergic pathway is apparently involved in parasite-host interactions. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed increased rates in oxygen consumption and alterations in body posture in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus parasitized by the acanthocephalan, Profilicollis antarcticus. Such changes may be related to the functions described for biogenic amines in crustaceans. During the infective stage the acanthocephalans live freely in the hemocelomic cavity, suggesting that the possible alteration induced by biogenic amines may be related to their neurohormonal function in crustaceans. To test whether the presence of P. antarcticus produced neurohormonal changes in its intermediate host, H. crenulatus, we analyzed serotonin and dopamine levels in the host using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Two groups of 11 female crabs were studied; one group was artificially inoculated with two cystacanths while the other was used as the control. Our results show a dramatic increase in hemolymph dopamine, but not serotonin in H. crenulatus parasitized by the acanthocephalan P. antarcticus. Our results, along with those reported by Maynard (1996), suggest a parasite-specific strategy involved in the behavior alteration caused by the acanthocephalans on their intermediate host. The use of a biogenic amine as a mechanism of interaction by the parasites gives them an endless number of alternative potential actions on their intermediate hosts.

  8. Sarcocystis jamaicensis n. sp., from Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) Definitive Host and IFN-γ Gene Knockout Mice as Experimental Intermediate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; von Dohlen, A Rosypal; Mowery, J D; Scott, D; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH, Buteo jamaicensis) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 × 9.9-μm sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW, Mus musculus) and also to KO mice. The sporocysts were infective for KO mice but not for SW mice. All SW mice remained asymptomatic, and neither schizonts nor sarcocysts were found in any SW mice euthanized on days 54, 77, 103 (n = 2) or 137 post-inoculation (PI). The KO mice developed neurological signs and were necropsied between 52 to 68 days PI. Schizonts/merozoites were found in all KO mice euthanized on days 52, 55 (n = 3), 59, 61 (n = 2), 66, and 68 PI and they were confined to the brain. The predominant lesion was meningoencephalitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, granulomas, and necrosis of the neural tissue. The schizonts/merozoites were located in neural tissue and were apparently extravascular. Brain homogenates from infected KO mice were infective to KO mice by subcutaneous inoculation and when seeded on to CV-1 cells. Microscopic sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles of 5 of 8 KO mice euthanized between 55-61 days PI. Only a few sarcocysts were detected. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 3.5 mm long. When viewed with light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall appeared thin (<1 μm thick) and smooth. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall classified as "type 1j" (new designation). Molecular characterization using 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 genes revealed a close relationship with Sarcocystis microti and Sarcocystis glareoli; both species infect birds as definitive hosts

  9. Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Digenea: Diplostomatidae) in intermediate fish hosts: factors contributing to the parasite infection and prey selection by the definitive bird host

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Šimková, A.; Gelnar, M.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 6 (2004), s. 761-770 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/0924; GA ČR GP524/03/P108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish assemblages * intermediate host * complex life-cycle Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2004

  10. Distribution, habitats and role as intermediate host of the freshwater snail, Bulinus forskalii, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. De Kock

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of Bulinus forskalii, the snail intermediate host of the conical fluke of equids, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus as reflected by the 1 209 samples in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection of South Africa. The 362 different loci on record represent an extensive distribution in KwaZulu-Natal Province, the Limpopo Province, the coastal areas of the Eastern Cape Province and the south-eastern part of the North West Province. Although it was recorded from all types of water-body represented in the database, the highest percentages of samples were recovered from dams (30.4 % and brooks (28.2 %. The majority of samples came from perennial habitats (59.1%, 60.7% from habitats with standing water, 54.0 % from habitats with clear water and 71.8 % from habitats of which the water was described as fresh. The majority of samples (39.5 % were collected in habitats of which the substratum was recorded as muddy. The highest percentage of samples, by far (81.5 %, was collected in habitats that fell within the mean yearly temperature interval ranging from 15-20 °C. An integrated decision tree constructed from the data in the database indicated that temperature and type of water-body played a decisive role in determining the presence of B. forskalii in a given area. The results of experimental exposure to miracidia of a local strain of both Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mattheei in the laboratory indicated that a local strain of B. forskalii was incompatible with both these strains of parasite. Research to clarify the role of B. forskalii in the transmission of both Calicophoron microbothrium and G. aegyptiacus in South Africa, is recommended.

  11. Large-scale determinants of intestinal schistosomiasis and intermediate host snail distribution across Africa: does climate matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Saarnak, Christopher F L; Simoonga, Christopher; Mubita, Patricia; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Rahbek, Carsten; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    The geographical ranges of most species, including many infectious disease agents and their vectors and intermediate hosts, are assumed to be constrained by climatic tolerances, mainly temperature. It has been suggested that global warming will cause an expansion of the areas potentially suitable for infectious disease transmission. However, the transmission of infectious diseases is governed by a myriad of ecological, economic, evolutionary and social factors. Hence, a deeper understanding of the total disease system (pathogens, vectors and hosts) and its drivers is important for predicting responses to climate change. Here, we combine a growing degree day model for Schistosoma mansoni with species distribution models for the intermediate host snail (Biomphalaria spp.) to investigate large-scale environmental determinants of the distribution of the African S. mansoni-Biomphalaria system and potential impacts of climatic changes. Snail species distribution models included several combinations of climatic and habitat-related predictors; the latter divided into "natural" and "human-impacted" habitat variables to measure anthropogenic influence. The predictive performance of the combined snail-parasite model was evaluated against a comprehensive compilation of historical S. mansoni parasitological survey records, and then examined for two climate change scenarios of increasing severity for 2080. Future projections indicate that while the potential S. mansoni transmission area expands, the snail ranges are more likely to contract and/or move into cooler areas in the south and east. Importantly, we also note that even though climate per se matters, the impact of humans on habitat play a crucial role in determining the distribution of the intermediate host snails in Africa. Thus, a future contraction in the geographical range size of the intermediate host snails caused by climatic changes does not necessarily translate into a decrease or zero-sum change in human

  12. Wearable electronics formed on intermediate layer on textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    One manner of producing more desirable clothing with electronic capabilities is to manufacture electronics, such as the charging wires or devices themselves, directly onto the textile materials. Textile materials generally do not support

  13. Electron scattering from nucleons and deuterons at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1985-04-01

    Recent results from electron scattering of nucleons and deuterons are discussed. A tentative physics program for ELSA employing the polarized electron beams as well as the polarized nucleon and deuteron target facilities is outlined. (orig.)

  14. On FEL integral equation and electron energy loss in intermediate gain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    1994-03-01

    The FEL pendulum equation in a intermediate gain small signal regime is investigated. By calculating the energy loss of the electron beam in terms of the solution of the pendulum equation, we confirm the consistency of the FEL equation in intermediate gain regime. (author)

  15. Genetic Evidence of Contemporary Dispersal of the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum: Movement of an NTD Host Is Facilitated by Land Use and Landscape Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jennifer R; Chang, Howard; Li, Qunna; Hoover, Christopher M; Wilke, Thomas; Clewing, Catharina; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Liang, Song; Lu, Ding; Zhong, Bo; Remais, Justin V

    2016-12-01

    While the dispersal of hosts and vectors-through active or passive movement-is known to facilitate the spread and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, little is known about the movement ecology of Oncomelania spp., intermediate snail host of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum, and its consequences for the spread of schistosomiasis in East and Southeast Asia. In China, despite intense control programs aimed at preventing schistosomiasis transmission, there is evidence in recent years of re-emergence and persistence of infection in some areas, as well as an increase in the spatial extent of the snail host. A quantitative understanding of the dispersal characteristics of the intermediate host can provide new insights into the spatial dynamics of transmission, and can assist public health officials in limiting the geographic spread of infection. Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni snails (n = 833) were sampled from 29 sites in Sichuan, China, genotyped, and analyzed using Bayesian assignment to estimate the rate of recent snail migration across sites. Landscape connectivity between each site pair was estimated using the geographic distance distributions derived from nine environmental models: Euclidean, topography, incline, wetness, land use, watershed, stream use, streams and channels, and stream velocity. Among sites, 14.4% to 32.8% of sampled snails were identified as recent migrants, with 20 sites comprising >20% migrants. Migration rates were generally low between sites, but at 8 sites, over 10% of the overall host population originated from one proximal site. Greater landscape connectivity was significantly associated with increased odds of migration, with the minimum path distance (as opposed to median or first quartile) emerging as the strongest predictor across all environmental models. Models accounting for land use explained the largest proportion of the variance in migration rates between sites. A greater number of irrigation channels leading into a

  16. Genetic Evidence of Contemporary Dispersal of the Intermediate Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum: Movement of an NTD Host Is Facilitated by Land Use and Landscape Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Head

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the dispersal of hosts and vectors-through active or passive movement-is known to facilitate the spread and re-emergence of certain infectious diseases, little is known about the movement ecology of Oncomelania spp., intermediate snail host of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum, and its consequences for the spread of schistosomiasis in East and Southeast Asia. In China, despite intense control programs aimed at preventing schistosomiasis transmission, there is evidence in recent years of re-emergence and persistence of infection in some areas, as well as an increase in the spatial extent of the snail host. A quantitative understanding of the dispersal characteristics of the intermediate host can provide new insights into the spatial dynamics of transmission, and can assist public health officials in limiting the geographic spread of infection.Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni snails (n = 833 were sampled from 29 sites in Sichuan, China, genotyped, and analyzed using Bayesian assignment to estimate the rate of recent snail migration across sites. Landscape connectivity between each site pair was estimated using the geographic distance distributions derived from nine environmental models: Euclidean, topography, incline, wetness, land use, watershed, stream use, streams and channels, and stream velocity. Among sites, 14.4% to 32.8% of sampled snails were identified as recent migrants, with 20 sites comprising >20% migrants. Migration rates were generally low between sites, but at 8 sites, over 10% of the overall host population originated from one proximal site. Greater landscape connectivity was significantly associated with increased odds of migration, with the minimum path distance (as opposed to median or first quartile emerging as the strongest predictor across all environmental models. Models accounting for land use explained the largest proportion of the variance in migration rates between sites. A greater number of irrigation channels

  17. Fasciola hepatica in Cuba: compatibility of different isolates with two intermediate snail hosts, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Sánchez, J; Pointier, J-P; Théron, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2014-12-01

    In Cuba, only two lymnaeid snails, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, with different ecology and distribution patterns, are intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica. The compatibility of these two species as hosts was analysed through their rates of infection, the production of rediae and survivorship when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Ten populations of G. cubensis, eight of P. columella collected from various habitats and six isolates of F. hepatica sampled in slaughterhouses from different localities were tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that G. cubensis is a more compatible host for F. hepatica in Cuba when compared with P. columella. However, the role that P. columella may have in fascioliasis transmission under certain conditions should not be disregarded. Variation in infectivity among isolates of F. hepatica were also observed and may explain why some regions in Cuba are more commonly subjected to fascioliasis outbreaks.

  18. Electron capture in ion-molecule collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress of theoretical charge transfer study in ion-molecule collisions at the intermediate energy is reviewed. Concept of close and distant collisions obtained from extensive ion-atom collision studies is identified so that it can be utilized to model two distinct collision processes. For a close collision, explicit representation of the whole collision complex is necessary to describe collision dynamics correctly, while a model potential approach for molecule is appropriate for a distant collision. It is shown that these two distinct models are indeed capable of reproducing experimental charge transfer cross sections. Some remarks for further theoretical study of ion-molecule collisions are also given. 21 refs., 8 figs

  19. The electron-electron instability in a spherical plasma structure with an intermediate double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapuerta, V.; Ahedo, E.

    2003-01-01

    A linear dynamic model of a spherical plasma structure with an intermediate double layer is analyzed in the high-frequency range. The two ion populations tend to stay frozen in their stationary response and this prevents the displacement of the double layer. Different electron modes dominate the plasma dynamics in each quasineutral region. The electrostatic potential and the electron current are the magnitudes most perturbed. The structure develops a reactive electron-electron instability, which is made up of a countable family of eigenmodes. Space-charge effects must be included in the quasineutral regions to determine the eigenmode carrying the maximum growth rate. Except for very small Debye lengths, the fundamental eigenmode governs the instability. The growth rate for the higher harmonics approaches that of an infinite plasma. The instability modes develop mainly on the plasma at the high-potential side of the double layer. The influence of the parameters defining the stationary solution on the instability growth rate is investigated, and the parametric regions of stability are found. The comparison with a couple of experiments on plasma contactors is satisfactory

  20. Aspergillus fumigatus Copper Export Machinery and Reactive Oxygen Intermediate Defense Counter Host Copper-Mediated Oxidative Antimicrobial Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Wiemann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fenton-chemistry-generating properties of copper ions are considered a potent phagolysosome defense against pathogenic microbes, yet our understanding of underlying host/microbe dynamics remains unclear. We address this issue in invasive aspergillosis and demonstrate that host and fungal responses inextricably connect copper and reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI mechanisms. Loss of the copper-binding transcription factor AceA yields an Aspergillus fumigatus strain displaying increased sensitivity to copper and ROI in vitro, increased intracellular copper concentrations, decreased survival in challenge with murine alveolar macrophages (AMΦs, and reduced virulence in a non-neutropenic murine model. ΔaceA survival is remediated by dampening of host ROI (chemically or genetically or enhancement of copper-exporting activity (CrpA in A. fumigatus. Our study exposes a complex host/microbe multifactorial interplay that highlights the importance of host immune status and reveals key targetable A. fumigatus counter-defenses.

  1. Intermediate energy electron scattering from sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.

    1979-06-01

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the interaction of fast electrons with alkali metal atoms. Several of the theoretical models which have been applied to atomic collision processes including the first Born approximation, the Glauber approximation, the optical model and the distorted wave polarized orbital approximation are discussed. The theory of electron-photon coincidence experiments is outlined and the effects of fine and hyperfine structure on the polarization state of photons emitted from an excited atom are calculated for Sodium. The results of elastic scattering measurements on Sodium and Potassium are presented and used to test several theoretical models in their description of the differential cross section at incident energies between 50 and 200eV. Absolute differential and integrated total cross sections for the Potassium resonance lines and Sodium D-lines are presented. Results of the first electron-polarized photon coincidence experiment on the Sodium D-lines are presented and compared with available theoretical calculations

  2. Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin and intermediate quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, A.R. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). H.C. Oersted Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    The paper deals with the theory of electron spin. The Stern-Gerlach experiment, the anticommutation relations and the properties of spin operators are discussed. The Pauli theory, Dirac transformation theory, the double Stern-Gerlach experiment, the EPR paradox and Bell's inequality are also covered.

  3. Observation of intermediate bands in Eu3+ doped YPO4 host: Li+ ion effect and blue to pink light emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem Parchur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the tuning of blue to pink colour generation from Li+ ion co-doped YPO4:5Eu nanoparticles prepared by polyol method at ∼100-120 °C with ethylene glycol (EG as a capping agent. Interaction of EG molecules capped on the surface of the nanoparticles and/or created oxygen vacancies induces formation of intermediate/mid gap bands in the host structure, which is supported by UV-Visible absorption data. Strong blue and pink colors can be observed in the cases of as-prepared and 500 °C annealed samples, respectively. Co-doping of Li+ enhances the emission intensities of intermediate band as well as Eu3+. On annealing as-prepared sample to 500 °C, the intermediate band emission intensity decreases, whereas Eu3+ emission intensity increases suggesting increase of extent of energy transfer from the intermediate band to Eu3+ on annealing. Emission intensity ratio of electric to magnetic dipole transitions of Eu3+ can be varied by changing excitation wavelength. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study of as-prepared samples confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies and Eu3+ but absence of Eu2+. Dispersed particles in ethanol and polymer film show the strong blue color, suggesting that these materials will be useful as probes in life science and also in light emitting device applications.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of the cercariae of Lecithodendrium linstowi (Dollfus, 1931), a trematode of bats, and incrimination of the first intermediate snail host, Radix balthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enabulele, Egie E; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J; Kirk, Ruth S

    2018-03-01

    Lecithodendrium linstowi is one of the most prevalent and abundant trematodes of bats, but the larval stages and intermediate hosts have not been identified. We present the first molecular and morphological characterization of the cercariae of L. linstowi based on a phylogenetic analysis of partial fragments of LSU and ITS2 rDNA. The first intermediate host was incriminated as Radix balthica by DNA barcoding using cox1 and ITS2 sequences, although the snail morphologically resembled Radix peregra, emphasizing the requirement for molecular identification of lymnaeids as important intermediate hosts of medical and veterinary impact. The application of molecular data in this study has enabled linkage of life cycle stages and accurate incrimination of the first intermediate host.

  5. Automotive Electrical and Electronic System II; Automotive Mechanics-Intermediate: 9045.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive electrical and electronic system course is an intermediate course designed for the student who has completed automotive Electrical and Electronic System I. The theory and principles of operation of the components of the starting and charging systems and other electrical accessory systems in the automobile will be learned by the…

  6. The giant African snail Achatina fulica as natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Mota, E M; Torres, E J L; Caldeira, R; Carvalho, O S; Oliveira, A P M; Simões, R O; Fernandez, M A; Lanfredi, R M

    2010-09-01

    The human cases of eosinophilic meningitis recently reported from Brazil have focused the attention of the public health agencies on the role the introduced snail Achatina fulica plays as hosts of the metastrongylid nematodes. Determining the potential of this snail to host and develop infective larval stages of metastrongylids in the wild and identify the species harbored by them is crucial for designing effective control measures. Here we assess if A. fulica may act as intermediate host of A. cantonensis at the peridomiciliary areas of a patient's house from state of Pernambuco (PE), who was diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis and a history of ingesting raw molluscs. Larvae obtained from naturally infected A. fulica were orally administered to Rattus norvegicus. The worms were collected from the pulmonary artery and brain, and were morphologically characterized and compared to the Japan isolate of A. cantonensis. Adult worms and infective L(3) larvae (PE isolate) recovered from A. fulica specimens were also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS2 region from rDNA and compared to A. cantonensis (ES isolate), A. vasorum (MG isolate) and A. costaricensis (RS isolate). The large size of the spicules (greater than those observed in other species of Angiostrongylus) and the pattern of the bursal rays agree with the original species description by Chen (1935). Furthermore, the morphology of the PE isolate was similar to that of Japan isolate. The PCR-RFLP profiles obtained were distinctive among species and no variation in patterns was detected among adult individuals from A. cantonensis isolates from PE and ES. The importance of A. fulica as an intermediate host of eosinophilic menigoencepahlitis in Brazil is emphasized. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The new frontiers of electron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1984-08-01

    Recent advances in experimental techniques have produced a new generation of electron scattering data. This paper explores the frontiers of this field and shows how our prospects for the future may be modified. Nuclear structure has been determined with an unprecedented accuracy defining clearly the limits of the most advanced theoretical descriptions. Large meson exchange currents are measured quantitatively with precision. Recent data on the electrodisintegration of deuterium at threshold and on the magnetic form factor of 3 He and tritium show that the pionic exchange current is well understood. There is no satisfactory theoretical description of shorter range processes

  8. Seasonal and Spatial Environmental Influence on Opisthorchis viverrini Intermediate Hosts, Abundance, and Distribution: Insights on Transmission Dynamics and Sustainable Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sunyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia. Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical. The objectives of this study were 1 to document water parameters, intermediate hosts abundance and infection spatio-temporal variation, 2 to assess their causal relationships and identify windows of transmission risk.Fish and snails were collected monthly for one year at 12 sites in Lawa Lake, an Ov-endemic region of Khon Kaen Province in Northeast Thailand. Physicochemical water parameters [pH, temperature (Tp, dissolved oxygen (DO, Salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, lead (Pb, total coliform bacteria (TCB and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB] were measured. Multivariate analyses, linear models and kriging were used to characterize water parameter variation and its influence on host abundance and infection prevalence. We found that sampling sites could be grouped in three clusters and discriminated along a nitrogen-salinity gradient where higher levels in the lake's southern region predicted higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05 and lower snail and fish species diversity (P<0.05. Highest Bithynia abundance occurred during rainy season (P<0.001, independently of site influence. Cyprinids were the most abundant fish family and higher cyprinid relative abundance was found in areas with higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05. Ov infection in snails was anecdotal while Ov infection in fish was higher in the southern region (P<0.001 at sites showing high FCB.Our results indicate that water contamination

  9. The OPG/Kincardine hosting agreement for a deep geologic repository for OPG's low- and intermediate-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellan, A.G.; Barker, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    A Hosting Agreement has been reached between Ontario Power Generation and the Municipality of Kincardine for the purpose of siting a long-term management facility for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at the Western Waste Management Facility. Following an independent review of the feasibility of three options for a long-term facility at the site, including a review of the safety, geotechnical feasibility, social and economic effects and potential environmental effects, Kincardine passed a resolution indicating their preference for a Deep Geologic Repository. A Host Community Agreement has been negotiated based on this preference, and on information that had been gathered from municipal authorities at other locations that have hosted similar facilities. The Hosting Agreement includes financial compensation, totalling $35.7 million (Canadian 2004) to the Municipality of Kincardine and to four surrounding municipalities. The financial aspects include lump sum payments based on achieving specific project milestones as well as annual payments to each of the municipalities. The payments are indexed to inflation, and are also contingent on the municipalities acting reasonably and in good faith during the licencing process of the proposed facility. In addition to the fees, the Agreement includes provision for a Property Value Protection Plan that would provide residents with compensation in the event that there is depreciation in property value shown to directly result from a release from the proposed facility. New permanent OPG jobs supporting the project would be located at the site. OPG and Kincardine will support a centre of nuclear excellence. (author)

  10. Distribution and habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, snail intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and the habitats of Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, as reflected by the collection sites of its 4 552 samples currently on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC of South Africa. Although this species was represented in a variety of waterbodies, the majority of samples(±70%came from rivers, brooks and dams and in 70.8% of the cases the water was described as permanent and in 71.8% as slow flowing or standing. The results of life-table studies conducted by various authors indicated that temperature should be a relatively unimportant factor in determining its geographical distribution, but that the availability of permanent water should be decisive for its presence in a given habitat. These results are in agreement with the finding that only 7.5% of the samples of this species in the NFSC were collected in habitats which were described as seasonal. Furthermore, it gives a logical explanation for the sporadic occurrence, or total absence of this species in the more arid regions of South Africa. Water impoundments and irrigation networks contribute to a large extent towards creating perennial habitats which would be suitable for L. natalensis. As intermediate host for one of the liver fluke species which already is an economic factor in South Africa, this certainly is an aspect which ought to be reckoned within the planning and construction of new irrigation schemes.

  11. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California

    OpenAIRE

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A.; Grigg, Michael E.; Crosbie, Paul R.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was an...

  12. Small-sized euryhaline fish as intermediate hosts of the digenetic trematode Cryptocotyle concavum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. D.; Kollra, H.-G.; Antholz, B.; Meyer, W.; Westphal, D.

    1984-03-01

    Cercariae of the trematode Cryptocotyle concavum, which encyst in skin and/or kidney of sticklebacks and gobies, were studied in the Schlei Fjord (western Baltic Sea). Mean incidence of dermal cysts was 48 % in Gasterosteus aculeatus and 37 % in Pungitius pungitius. No cysts were found in the kidneys of sticklebacks. While 97 % of Pomatoschistus microps had encysted metacercariae in the kidneys, only 2 % had cysts in the skin. Pomatoschistus minutus, however, showed hardly any cyst infestation of either skin or kidney. In P. microps the intensity of infestation by metacercariae was frequently more than 50 cysts; in contrast, sticklebacks rarely exhibited more than 5 dermal cysts. Infested fish were larger than 10 mm in total length, the incidence rate increasing with growth. Parasitic infestation depends on ambient salinity: C. concavum was not found at salinities below 4 ‰. In contrast to the high incidence in fish, the first hosts — the snails Hydrobia stagnalis and H. neglecta — showed remarkably low infection rates (3 to 5 %). The findings reported are related to the distribution of C. concavum, the mode of life of infested fish, the feeding habits of the final hosts and the infestation of P. microps by other parasites. Evidently, P. microps represents an optimal second host for C. concavum.

  13. Abandoning the ship: spontaneous mass exodus of Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1814) progenetic metecercariae from the dying intermediate host Trichogaster fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Asim; Alam, Md Maroof; Parveen, Saltanat; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2012-04-01

    The dramatic and spontaneous exodus of live Clinostomum complanatum progenetic metacercaria from the gill slits of the dying intermediate host, Trichogaster fasciatus is reported. Basic water parameter tests for dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature revealed slightly lower level of dissolved oxygen in tank water used for water change. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of a digenean metacercariae, en mass leaving their intermediate host, upon its death in search of an alternative host to support their survival and help in continuing their life cycle.

  14. Excretory/secretory products in the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode: is the intermediate host complacent with infection caused by the larval form of the parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme B Dos; Monteiro, Karina M; da Silva, Edileuza Danieli; Battistella, Maria Eduarda; Ferreira, Henrique B; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2016-12-01

    The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus. The aims of this work were the identification and quantitative comparison of proteins found in hydatid fluid from fertile and infertile cysts from E. granulosus, in order to highlight possible mechanisms involved in cyst fertility or infertility. Hydatid fluid samples containing proteins from both E. granulosus and Bos taurus were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our proteomic analysis of fertile and infertile cysts allowed identification of a total of 498 proteins, of which 153 proteins were exclusively identified in the fertile cyst, 271 in the infertile cyst, and 74 in both. Functional in silico analysis allowed us to highlight some important aspects: (i) clues about the possible existence of an "arms race" involving parasite and host responses in fertile and infertile cysts; (ii) a number of proteins in hydatid fluid without functional annotation or with possible alternative functions; (iii) the presence of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The South-American distribution and southernmost record of Biomphalaria peregrina—a potential intermediate host of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major parasitic disease, endemic in large parts of South America. Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. In this study, we report the southernmost record for the species at the Pinturas River, in southern Patagonia, which finding implies a southward reassessment of the limit for the known species of this genus. The identities of the individuals from this population were confirmed through morphological examination, and by means of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S-rRNA. With both markers, phylogenetic analyses were conducted in order to compare the genetic background of individuals from the Pinturas River with previously genetically characterized strains of B. peregrina from various South-American locations. In addition, we produced a potential distribution model of B. peregrina in South America and identified the environmental variables that best predict that distribution. The model was estimated through a maximum entropy algorithm and run with occurrence points obtained from several sources, including the scientific literature and international databases, along with climatic and hydrographic variables. Different phylogenetic analyses with either the COI or 16S-rRNA sequences did not conflict, but rather gave very similar topological organizations. Two major groups were identified, with sequences from the Pinturas River grouping together with haplotypes from subtropical and temperate regions. The model developed had a satisfactory performance for the study area. We observed that the areas

  16. Differential cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran at intermediate impact energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.

  17. 40 keV Shaped electron beam lithography for LIGA intermediate mask fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, R.; Adam, D.; Burkhardt, F.; Hoke, F.; Schacke, H.; Schmidt, M.; Wolf, H.; Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    High precision LIGA masks require a soft X-ray pattern transfer from intermediate masks by means of electron beam lithography. Such a process has been realized using an upgraded Leica ZBA 23 machine with an acceleration voltage of 40 kV. Three process variations of the developer system, so called GG

  18. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  19. A tidal disruption event in a nearby galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, D.; Troja, E. [CRESST and Astroparticle Physics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Fox, O. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/GSFC, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Covino, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Kutyrev, A. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771-2400 (United States); Campana, S.; Fugazza, D. [Joint Space Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Landt, H. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Butler, N. R., E-mail: davide.donato-1@nasa.gov [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 keV flux declined by a factor of ∼2300 over a time span of 6 yr, following a power-law decay with index ∼2.44 ± 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of ∼20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kT ∼ 0.09 keV (∼10{sup 6} K). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1σ level with the cluster (z = 0.062476). We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log (M {sub BH}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 5.5 ± 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  20. A tidal disruption event in a nearby galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donato, D.; Troja, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Fox, O.; Covino, S.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Landt, H.; Butler, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 keV flux declined by a factor of ∼2300 over a time span of 6 yr, following a power-law decay with index ∼2.44 ± 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of ∼20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kT ∼ 0.09 keV (∼10 6 K). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1σ level with the cluster (z = 0.062476). We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log (M BH /M ☉ ) ∼ 5.5 ± 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  1. [Epidemiological investigation of second intermediate hosts of Clonorchis sinensis in Pizhou and Xinyi cities of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-lin; Liu, Jian-feng; Shen, Ming-xue; Dai, Yang; Xu, Xiang-zhen

    2015-12-01

    To understand the endemic situation of Clonorchis sinensis in its second intermediate hosts in Pizhou and Xinyi cities of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for the further control and treatment. Pseudorasbora parva and Abbottina rivularis were caught from the natural water body of Pizhou and Xinyi cities, and the tabletting microscopy method was applied to test the metacercaria of C. sinensis. Totally 1 117 fishes were caught and dissected, including 792 P. parva (70.90%) and 325 A. rivularis (29.10%). The metacercaria of C. sinensis infection rates of P. parva and A. rivularis were 29.80% (236/792) and 4.62% (15/325) respectively, and the difference between the two kinds of fishes was significant (χ² = 83.88, P sinensis infection rate of freshwater fishes in Pizhou and Xinyi cities is high, and the local residents are facing the higher risk of clonorchiasis sinensis.

  2. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Phylogenetic Studies on Schistosoma japonicum and Its Snail Intermediate Host Oncomelania hupensis: Origins, Dispersal and Coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum causes major public health problems in China and the Philippines; this parasite, which is transmitted by freshwater snails of the species Oncomelania hupensis, causes the disease intestinal schistosomiasis in humans and cattle. Researchers working on Schistosoma in Africa have described the relationship between the parasites and their snail intermediate hosts as coevolved or even as an evolutionary arms race. In the present study this hypothesis of coevolution is evaluated for S. japonicum and O. hupensis. The origins and radiation of the snails and the parasite across China, and the taxonomic validity of the sub-species of O. hupensis, are also assessed.The findings provide no evidence for coevolution between S. japonicum and O. hupensis, and the phylogeographical analysis suggests a heterochronous radiation of the parasites and snails in response to different palaeogeographical and climatic triggers. The results are consistent with a hypothesis of East to West colonisation of China by Oncomelania with a re-invasion of Japan by O. hupensis from China. The Taiwan population of S. japonicum appears to be recently established in comparison with mainland Chinese populations.The snail and parasite populations of the western mountain region of China (Yunnan and Sichuan appear to have been isolated from Southeast Asian populations since the Pleistocene; this has implications for road and rail links being constructed in the region, which will breach biogeographical barriers between China and Southeast Asia. The results also have implications for the spread of S. japonicum. In the absence of coevolution, the parasite may more readily colonise new snail populations to which it is not locally adapted, or even new intermediate host species; this can facilitate its dispersal into new areas. Additional work is required to assess further the risk of spread of S. japonicum.

  4. Interferometric diameters of five evolved intermediate-mass planet-hosting stars measured with PAVO at the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Mann, A. W.; Casagrande, L.; Grunblatt, S. K.; Justesen, A. B.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Ireland, M. J.; Schaefer, G. H.; Tuthill, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Debate over the planet occurrence rates around intermediate-mass stars has hinged on the accurate determination of masses of evolved stars, and has been exacerbated by a paucity of reliable, directly-measured fundamental properties for these stars. We present long-baseline optical interferometry of five evolved intermediate-mass (˜ 1.5 M⊙) planet-hosting stars using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array, which we combine with bolometric flux measurements and parallaxes to determine their radii and effective temperatures. We measured the radii and effective temperatures of 6 Lyncis (5.12±0.16 R⊙, 4949±58 K), 24 Sextantis (5.49±0.18 R⊙, 4908±65 K), κ Coronae Borealis (4.77±0.07 R⊙, 4870±47 K), HR 6817 (4.45±0.08 R⊙, 5013±59 K), and HR 8641 (4.91±0.12 R⊙, 4950±68 K). We find disagreements of typically 15 % in angular diameter and ˜ 200 K in temperature compared to interferometric measurements in the literature, yet good agreement with spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, concluding that the previous interferometric measurements may have been affected by systematic errors exceeding their formal uncertainties. Modelling based on BaSTI isochrones using various sets of asteroseismic, spectroscopic, and interferometric constraints tends to favour slightly (˜ 15 %) lower masses than generally reported in the literature.

  5. Hydrology and density feedbacks control the ecology of intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis across habitats in seasonal climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Saez, Javier; Mande, Theophile; Ceperley, Natalie; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-06-07

    We report about field and theoretical studies on the ecology of the aquatic snails (Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) that serve as obligate intermediate hosts in the complex life cycle of the parasites causing human schistosomiasis. Snail abundance fosters disease transmission, and thus the dynamics of snail populations are critically important for schistosomiasis modeling and control. Here, we single out hydrological drivers and density dependence (or lack of it) of ecological growth rates of local snail populations by contrasting novel ecological and environmental data with various models of host demography. Specifically, we study various natural and man-made habitats across Burkina Faso's highly seasonal climatic zones. Demographic models are ranked through formal model comparison and structural risk minimization. The latter allows us to evaluate the suitability of population models while clarifying the relevant covariates that explain empirical observations of snail abundance under the actual climatic forcings experienced by the various field sites. Our results link quantitatively hydrological drivers to distinct population dynamics through specific density feedbacks, and show that statistical methods based on model averaging provide reliable snail abundance projections. The consistency of our ranking results suggests the use of ad hoc models of snail demography depending on habitat type (e.g., natural vs. man-made) and hydrological characteristics (e.g., ephemeral vs. permanent). Implications for risk mapping and space-time allocation of control measures in schistosomiasis-endemic contexts are discussed.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  7. High Prevalence of Porocephalus crotali Infection on a Barrier Island (Cumberland Island) off the Coast of Georgia, with Identification of Novel Intermediate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Cleveland, Christopher A; Ruckdeschel, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Porocephalus crotali is a pentastomid parasite that uses crotaline snakes as definitive hosts and a variety of rodents as intermediate hosts. A study of definitive and intermediate pentastome hosts on Cumberland Island, Georgia, revealed high prevalence of P. crotali infection in crotalid snakes as well as several mammalian species. Despite the presence of numerous nymphs in some animals, clinical signs of disease were not observed. In intermediate hosts, the liver, mesentery, and reproductive organs were most commonly infected. No gross evidence of tissue damage was noted in association with the numerous encysted nymphal pentastomes, and histopathology demonstrated minimal reaction to the encysted nymphs. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the parasites were P. crotali. In contrast to many previous reports in rodents, the prevalence on this barrier island was high, and this is the first report of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and any insectivore species as intermediate hosts. Although generally not considered pathogenic, the long-term consequences of high nymph intensities on individuals deserve attention.

  8. Personal, Electronic, Secure National Library of Medicine Hosts Health Records Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Personal, Electronic, Secure: National Library of Medicine Hosts Health Records ... One suggestion for saving money is to implement electronic personal health records. With this in mind, the ...

  9. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O. conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O. youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O. mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector, this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos

  10. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    described as permanent, standing, fresh and clear. Although the highest percentage of samples of all three species was reported from loci that fell within the interval ranging from 16-20°C, a significant number of samples of L. truncatula came from loci falling with in the 11-15°C interval. In view of the fact that Lymnaea species are well known as intermediate hosts for liver fluke in South Africa and elsewhere in the world, the widespread occurrence of these snails could have considerable health and economic consequences. Lymnaea natalenis is the most important and probably the only intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica, the most common liver fluke in Africa but F. gigantica has been reliably reported only from Lesotho where its traditional intermediate host, L. truncatula is widespread. However, the epidemiology of fasciolosis in South Africa has been complicated by the invasion of many water-bodies by L. columella because this species has proved to be a successful host for F. hepatica where it had been introduced elsewhere in the world. To our knowledge its role in South Africa in this respect has not yet been evaluated. Due to the fact that no statistics are available in print, the results of positive serological tests on cattle herds all over South Africa were used to compile a map depicting the possible occurrence of Fasciola species in livestock in this country. Although human infections with Fasciola in Africa was considered as very rare in 1975 the situation has changed. It is considered an underrated and underreported disease in humans in Ethiopia and in Egypt an increase in cases of fasciolosis and prevalence’s as high as 12.8% in humans have also recently been reported. To our knowledge the only cases of human fasciolosis reported in literature for South Africa were from northern KwaZulu-Natal where F. hepatica infections were found in 22 out of 7 569 school children examined in 1981. Efforts to obtain recent statisticson human infections from various

  11. Interactions in 2D electron and hole systems in the intermediate and ballistic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, Y Y; Savchenko, A K; Safonov, S S; Li, L; Pepper, M; Simmons, M Y; Ritchie, D A; Linfield, E H; Kvon, Z D

    2003-01-01

    In different 2D semiconductor systems we study the interaction correction to the Drude conductivity in the intermediate and ballistic regimes, where the parameter k B Tτ/ h-bar changes from 0.1 to 10 (τ is momentum relaxation time). The temperature dependence of the resistance and magnetoresistance in parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields is analysed in terms of the recent theories of electron-electron interactions in systems with different degree of disorder and different character of the fluctuation potential. Generally, good agreement is found between the experiments and the theories

  12. Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering of electrons on Kr and Xe atoms at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation of the larger- number noble-gas atoms is a way of understanding excitation mechanisms in atomic collisional processes. Krypton and xenon have the largest atomic number of all the stable noble gases. Therefore, effects dependent on the size of a target atom, such as alignment and orientation of the atomic outer shell charge cloud after collisional excitation, are best observed by studying these atoms. Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) for the lowest electronic states of Kr and Xe atoms, at intermediate energies, are the subject of this report

  13. Distribution and habitats of the snail Lymnaea truncatula, intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. de Kock

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of Lymnaea truncatula, the intermediate, snail host of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, as reflected by the 723 samples in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection, Potchefstroom, South Africa. The 221 different loci (1/16-degree squares on record reflect an extensive but discontinuous distribution, except in Lesotho and in parts of the Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa. Although recorded from 12 different types of waterbody, it was mostly (42.0 % recovered from swamps. Most samples (45.8 % were collected in habitats with slow-flowing water. A muddy substratum was recorded for 62.5 % of the samples. Most samples (86.3 % were collected in habitats with a mean annual air temperature of 10-20 o C, and more than 69 % came from localities with a mean annual rainfall of 600-900mm. An integrated decision tree constructed from the data indicated that temperature and types of waterbody play a decisive role in determining the presence of L. truncatula in a given area. A temperature index calculated for all mollusc species ranked L. truncatula second in a total of 53 species according to its association with low temperatures. It remains to be established whether its distribution is indeed discontinuous, and whether its preference for a particular habitat, amphibious habits and ability to aestivate could have resulted in some populations having been overlooked during surveys.

  14. Implications of Changing Temperatures on the Growth, Fecundity and Survival of Intermediate Host Snails of Schistosomiasis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Kalinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs. This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost and PubMed databases using predefined medical subject heading terms, Boolean operators and truncation symbols in combinations with direct key words. The final synthesis included nineteen published articles. The studies reviewed indicated that temperature rise may alter the distribution, optimal conditions for breeding, growth and survival of IH snails which may eventually increase the spread and/or transmission of schistosomiasis. The literature also confirmed that the life history traits of IH snails and their interaction with the schistosome parasites are affected by temperature and hence a change in climate may have profound outcomes on the population size of snails, parasite density and disease epidemiology. We concluded that understanding the impact of temperature on the growth, fecundity and survival of IH snails may broaden the knowledge on the possible effects of climate change and hence inform schistosomiasis control programmes.

  15. Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liang

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs, a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B. glabrata, ultimately revealing two types, the iGluR and IR. Sequence alignment showed that three ligand-binding residues are conserved in most Biomphalaria iGluR sequences, while the IRs did exhibit a variable pattern, lacking some or all known glutamate-interactingresidues, supporting their distinct classification from the iGluRs. We show that B. glabrata contains 7 putative IRs, some of which are expressed within its chemosensory organs. To further investigate a role for the more ancient IR25a type in chemoreception, we tested its spatial distribution pattern within the snail cephalic tentacle by in situ hybridization. The presence of IR25a within presumptive sensory neurons supports a role for this receptor in olfactory processing, contributing to our understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in Biomphalaria olfactory processing.

  16. Hypolobocera guayaquilensis (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae): A New Crab Intermediate Host of Paragonimus mexicanus in Manabí Province, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Rendon, Melina; Takagi, Hidekazu; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2018-01-01

    To determine that Paragonimus sp. is actively transmitted in a tropical area of the Pacific region of Ecuador where human cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis have recently been documented, a total of 75 freshwater crabs were collected from 2 different streams in the Pedernales area of Manabí Province, Ecuador. All collected crabs were identified as Hypolobocera guayaquilensis based on morphological characteristics of the male gonopods. The hepatopancreas of each crab was examined by compressing it between 2 glass plates followed by observation under a stereomicroscope. Excysted Paragonimus metacercariae were detected in 39 (52.0%) crabs and their densities varied from 1 to 32 per infected crab. There was a positive relationship between crab size and metacercarial density. Sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of the Paragonimus metacercariae obtained in this study were identical to those of Paragonimus mexicanus deposited in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank database. Thus, the present study is the first to confirm that the crab species H. guayaquilensis is the second intermediate host of P. mexicanus in Manabí Province, Ecuador. Because this crab might be the possible source of human infections in this area, residents should pay attention to improper crab-eating habits related with a neglected parasitic disease, i.e., paragonimiasis. PMID:29742874

  17. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  18. Reconstruction of the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gorbunov et al. have developed a kinetic theory of the electron current drawn by a probe, which substantially extends the region of applicability of the probe method for determining the electron energy distribution function, enabling probes to be used for intermediate and high pressures (up to p ≤ 0.5 atm for monatomic gases). They showed that for λ var-epsilon >> a + d (where a is the probe radius, d is the sheath thickness, and λ var-epsilon is the electron energy relaxation length) the current density j e (V) drawn by the probe is related to the unperturbed distribution function by an integral equation involving the distribution function. The kernal of the integral equation can be written as a function of the diffusion parameter. In the present paper the method of quadrature sums is employed in order to obtain the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures. This technique enables them to recover the distribution function from the integral equation when the diffusion parameter has an arbitrary energy dependence ψ 0 (var-epsilon) in any given energy range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by application to both model problems and experimental data

  19. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.; Blanco, F.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°-90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  20. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, 09210-580 São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-14

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  1. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule

  2. Distinct genetic diversity of Oncomelania hupensis, intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in mainland China as revealed by ITS sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ping Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the unique intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis endemic in the Far East, and especially in mainland China. O. hupensis largely determines the parasite's geographical range. How O. hupensis's genetic diversity is distributed geographically in mainland China has never been well examined with DNA sequence data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigate the genetic variation among O. hupensis from different geographical origins using the combined complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. 165 O. hupensis isolates were obtained in 29 localities from 7 provinces across mainland China: lake/marshland and hill regions in Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Jiangsu provinces, located along the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, and mountainous regions in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses showed distinct genetic diversity and no shared haplotypes between populations from lake/marshland regions of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and populations from mountainous regions of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The genetic distance between these two groups is up to 0.81 based on Fst, and branch time was estimated as 2-6 Ma. As revealed in the phylogenetic tree, snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces were also clustered separately. Geographical separation appears to be an important factor accounting for the diversification of the two groups of O. hupensis in mainland China, and probably for the separate clades between snails from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. In lake/marshland and hill regions along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, three clades were identified in the phylogenetic tree, but without any obvious clustering of snails from different provinces. CONCLUSIONS: O. hupensis in mainland China may have considerable genetic diversity, and a more

  3. Single electron capture differential cross section in H+ + He collisions at intermediate and high collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; Fainstein, P D; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D

    2005-01-01

    The generalized continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS II) approximation is employed to study differential cross sections (DCS) for single electron capture in H + + He collisions at intermediate and high energies. Present results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained using the previous CDW-EIS formulation in order to show the importance of the description of the bound and continuum target states in the entrance and exit channels, respectively. Both DCS are also shown together with other theoretical results and with experimental data

  4. Antibonding intermediate state in the theory of vibrational excitation of diatomic molecules by slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskii, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    An exactly solvable model is constructed for the description of the processes that take place when a slow electron collides with a diatomic molecule (vibrational excitation, associative detachment, and dissociative attachment). As a particular model of the variant, the case of an antibonding (virtual) state of an intermediate state is considered, and a term of this state is parametrized in a very simple manner. The vibrational excitation and dissociative attachment are calculated for a system corresponding to the HCl molecule. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experiment

  5. Plantas de cobertura de solo como hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola Cover crops as intermediate hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mileo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cobertura de solo usadas para suprimir o crescimento de plantas daninhas podem hospedar fungos fitopatogênicos. Para testar essa hipótese, elaborou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de nove espécies de plantas como possíveis hospedeiras do fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Cada vaso com três plantas da mesma espécie representou uma unidade experimental. As espécies que constituíram os tratamentos foram: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Crotalaria striata, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta, Mucuna aterrima, Pueraria phaseoloides e Tephrosia candida. Quarenta dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram inoculadas com suspensão de esporos de C. guaranicola na concentração de 10(5 conídios mL¹, enquanto as plantas testemunhas receberam somente água. As plantas foram mantidas em câmara úmida por 48 horas. Diariamente, foram feitas observações por 15 dias após a inoculação, para visualizar sintomas da doença. As espécies que não apresentaram sintomas de C. guaranicola foram Arachis pintoi, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Desmodium ovalifolium, Flemingia congesta e Tephrosia candida, e as que manifestaram sintomas após a inoculação foram Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria striata, Mucuna aterrima e Pueraria phaseoloides, que podem ser fontes de inóculo do patógeno da antracnose para o guaranazeiro.Cover crops used to suppress weed growth can be intermediate hosts to phytopathogenic fungi. To test this hypothesis, nine species of cover crops were evaluated as hosts to Colletotrichum guaranicola. The experiment was arranged in a randomized design, with four replicates, and conducted under greenhouse conditions. Each vase with three plants of one species constituted one plot. The species treated were: Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium

  6. Optical model theory of elastic electron- and positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachain, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the basic idea of the optical model theory is to enable analysis of the elastic scattering of a particle from a complex target by replacing the complicated interactions between the beam and the target by an optical potential, or pseudopotential, in which the incident particle moves. Once the optical potential is determined the original many-body elastic scattering problem reduces to a one-body situation. The resulting optical potential is, however, a very complicated operator, and the formal expressions obtained from first principles for the optical potential can only be evaluated approximately in a few simple cases, such as high energy elastic hadron-nucleus scattering, for the the optical potential can be expressed in terms of two-body hadron-nucleon amplitudes, and the non-relativistic elastic scattering of fast charged particles by atoms. The elastic scattering of an electron or positron by a neutral atom at intermediate energies is here considered. Exchange effects between the projectile and the atomic electrons are considered; also absorption and polarisation effects. Applications of the full-wave optical model have so far only been made to the elastic scattering of fast electrons and positrons by atomic H, He, Ne, and Ar. Agreements of the optical model results with absolute measurements of differential cross sections for electron scattering are very good, an agreement that improves as the energy increases, but deteriorates quickly as the incident energy becomes lower than 50 eV for atomic H or 100 eV for He. For more complex atoms the optical model calculations also appear very encouraging. With regard to positron-atom elastic scattering the optical model results for positron-He scattering differ markedly at small angles from the corresponding electron-He values. It would be interesting to have experimental angular distributions of positron-atom elastic scattering in order to check predictions of the optical model theory. (U.K.)

  7. Electron microscopy of intermediate filaments: teaming up with atomic force and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplak, Laurent; Richter, Karsten; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) were originally discovered and defined by electron microscopy in myoblasts. In the following it was demonstrated and confirmed that they constitute, in addition to microtubules and microfilaments, a third independent, general filament system in the cytoplasm of most metazoan cells. In contrast to the other two systems, IFs are present in cells in two principally distinct cytoskeletal forms: (i) extended and free-running filament arrays in the cytoplasm that are integrated into the cytoskeleton by associated proteins of the plakin type; and (ii) a membrane- and chromatin-bound thin 'lamina' of a more or less regular network of interconnected filaments made from nuclear IF proteins, the lamins, which differ in several important structural aspects from cytoplasmic IF proteins. In man, more than 65 genes code for distinct IF proteins that are expressed during embryogenesis in various routes of differentiation in a tightly controlled manner. IF proteins exhibit rather limited sequence identity implying that the different types of IFs have distinct biochemical properties. Hence, to characterize the structural properties of the various IFs, in vitro assembly regimes have been developed in combination with different visualization methods such as transmission electron microscopy of fixed and negatively stained samples as well as methods that do not use staining such as scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and cryoelectron microscopy as well as atomic force microscopy. Moreover, with the generation of both IF-type specific antibodies and chimeras of fluorescent proteins and IF proteins, it has become possible to investigate the subcellular organization of IFs by correlative fluorescence and electron microscopic methods. The combination of these powerful methods should help to further develop our understanding of nuclear architecture, in particular how nuclear subcompartments are organized and in which way lamins are involved.

  8. Modelling the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails using Maxent in Ndumo area, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Manyangadze

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa transmitted by freshwater snails. The distribution of schistosomiasis coincides with that of the intermediate hosts as determined by climatic and environmental factors. The aim of this paper was to model the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats for Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail species (intermediate hosts for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, respectively in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. Methods Maximum Entropy (Maxent modelling technique was used to predict the distribution of suitable habitats for B. globosus and B. pfeifferi using presence-only datasets with ≥ 5 and ≤ 12 sampling points in different seasons. Precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI, pH, slope and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI were the background variables in the Maxent models. The models were validated using the area under the curve (AUC and omission rate. Results The predicted suitable habitats for intermediate snail hosts varied with seasons. The AUC for models in all seasons ranged from 0.71 to 1 and the prediction rates were between 0.8 and 0.9. Although B. globosus was found at more localities in the Ndumo area, there was also evidence of cohabiting with B. pfiefferi at some of the locations. NDWI had significant contribution to the models in all seasons. Conclusion The Maxent model is robust in snail habitat suitability modelling even with small dataset of presence-only sampling sites. Application of the methods and design used in this study may be useful in developing a control and management programme for schistosomiasis in the Ndumo area.

  9. Distribution of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis in relation to environmental factors during the dry season in the Tchologo region, Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, Stefanie J.; Wandel, Nathalie; Traoré, Seïdinan I.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hattendorf, Jan; Achi, Louise Y.; McNeill, Kristopher; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Snail-borne trematodiases, such as fascioliasis and schistosomiasis, belong to the neglected tropical diseases; yet, millions of people and livestock are affected. The spatial and temporal distribution of intermediate host snails plays an important role in the epidemiology and control of trematodiases. Snail distribution is influenced by numerous environmental and anthropomorphic factors. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and constitution of the snail fauna during the dry season in constructed and natural water bodies in the Tchologo region, northern Côte d'Ivoire, and to relate these findings to environmental factors and human infections. Snails were collected using standard procedures and environmental parameters were assessed from a total of 50 water bodies in and around 30 randomly selected villages. A canonical correspondence analysis was performed to establish the relationship between snail occurrence and environmental factors. Furthermore, a total of 743 people from the same 30 villages and nearby settlements were invited for stool and urine examination for the diagnosis of Fasciola spp., Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Snails of medical importance of the genera Biomphalaria, Bulinus, Lymnaea and Physa were found. Differences in snail occurrence from sites sampled in December 2014 and snails sampled in February 2015, as well as between the northern and southern part of the study area, were revealed. Various environmental factors, such as temperature and human activities, were related to the occurrence of intermediate host snail species in the region. Only 2.3% of human participants tested positive for schistosomiasis, while no Fasciola eggs were found in stool samples. We conclude that intermediate host snails of Fasciola and Schistosoma co-occur in water bodies in the Tchologo region and that the distribution of these snails correlates not only with environmental factors, but also with the presence of humans and animals

  10. The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Peru, morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Pacheco, Joel; Gonzales-Viera, Omar; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2015-09-15

    In the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in Peru. Various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. Molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. Metacestodes were identified as T. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. This constitutes the first molecular detection of T. hydatigena metacestodes in the taruca and the red brocket deer and demonstrates that these animal species are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermediate hosts of the trematode Collyriclum faba (Plagiochiida: Collyriclidae) identified by an integrated morphological and genetic approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heneberg, P.; Faltýnková, Anna; Bizos, J.; Mala, M.; Žiak, J.; Literák, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, FEB 8 2015 (2015), s. 85 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cercariae * DNA analysis * fluke * host -parasite interaction * Hydrobiidae * life cycle * Littorinimorpha Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  12. Electron-positron pair production and bremsstrahlung at intermediate energies in the field of heavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.N.; Milstein, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.; Schwartz, O.Ya.

    2006-01-01

    The Coulomb corrections (CC) to the processes of bremsstrahlung and pair production are investigated. The next-to-leading term in the high-energy asymptotics is found. This term becomes very essential in the region of intermediate energies. The influence of screening for CC is small for differential cross section, spectrum, and the total cross section of pair production. The same is true for the spectrum of bremsstrahlung, but not for the differential cross section, where the influence of screening can be very large. The corresponding screening corrections as well as the modification of the differential cross section of bremsstrahlung are found. A comparison of our results for the total cross section of pair production with the experimental data available is performed. This comparison has justified our analytical results and allowed to elaborate a simple ansatz for the next-to-leading correction. The influence of the electron beam shape on CC for bremsstrahlung is investigated. It turns out that the differential cross section is very sensitive to this shape

  13. Warfarin traps human vitamin K epoxide reductase in an intermediate state during electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guomin; Cui, Weidong; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Fengbo; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qian; Yang, Yihu; Li, Shuang; Bowman, Gregory R.; Sadler, J. Evan; Gross, Michael L.; Li, Weikai

    2017-01-01

    Although warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant worldwide, the mechanism by which warfarin inhibits its target, human vitamin K epoxide reductase (hVKOR), remains unclear. Here we show that warfarin blocks a dynamic electron-transfer process in hVKOR. A major fraction of cellular hVKOR is at an intermediate redox state of this process containing a Cys51-Cys132 disulfide, a characteristic accommodated by a four-transmembrane-helix structure of hVKOR. Warfarin selectively inhibits this major cellular form of hVKOR, whereas disruption of the Cys51-Cys132 disulfide impairs warfarin binding and causes warfarin resistance. Relying on binding interactions identified by cysteine alkylation footprinting and mass spectrometry coupled with mutagenesis analysis, we are able to conduct structure simulations to reveal a closed warfarin-binding pocket stabilized by the Cys51-Cys132 linkage. Understanding the selective warfarin inhibition of a specific redox state of hVKOR should enable the rational design of drugs that exploit the redox chemistry and associated conformational changes in hVKOR. PMID:27918545

  14. Investigation of the open-circuit voltage in wide-bandgap InGaP-host InP quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Taketo; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Nagato, Yuki; Okano, Yoshinobu; Sugaya, Takeyoshi

    2018-04-01

    To analyze the open-circuit voltage (V oc) in intermediate-band solar cells, we investigated the current-voltage characteristics in wide-bandgap InGaP-based InP quantum dot (QD) solar cells. From the temperature dependence of the current-voltage curves, we show that the V oc in InP QD solar cells increases with decreasing temperature. We use a simple diode model to extract V oc at the zero-temperature limit, V 0, and the temperature coefficient C of the solar cells. Our results show that, while the C of InP QD solar cells is slightly larger than that of the reference InGaP solar cells, V 0 significantly decreases and coincides with the bandgap energy of the InP QDs rather than that of the InGaP host. This V 0 indicates that the V oc reduction in the InP QD solar cells is primarily caused by the breaking of the Fermi energy separation between the QDs and the host semiconductor in intermediate-band solar cells, rather than by enhanced carrier recombination.

  15. False colour backscatter electron images and their application during electron microprobe analysis of ores and host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.R.; French, D.H.; Ramsden, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The limited contrast range of conventional black and white imaging does not enable full use to be made of the dynamic range of the video signal obtained from a scanning electron microscope or microprobe. The use of false colour substantially increases the information that can be derived from such images enabling relationships to be displayed that cannot be observed in black and white. This capability is now used extensively in combination with quantitative electron microprobe analysis as a research tool for ore characterization and host rocks studies related to minerals exploration in the CSIRO Div.sion of Exploration Geoscience. Thus the CAMEBAX scanning electron microprobe has been modified to allow digital images acquisition and software (IMAGE) developed which allows false colour backscatter electron (BSE) images to be obtained during the course of routine electron microprobe analysis. 1 fig

  16. The energy-deposition model. Electron loss of heavy ions in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelko, V.P.; Litsarev, M.S.; Kato, D.; Tawara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Single- and multiple-electron loss processes in collisions of heavy many-electron ions (positive and negative) in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies are considered using the energy-deposition model. The DEPOSIT computer code, created earlier to calculate electron-loss cross sections at high projectile energies, is extended for low and intermediate energies. A description of a new version of DEPOSIT code is given, and the limits of validity for collision velocity in the model are discussed. Calculated electron-loss cross sections for heavy ions and atoms (N + , Ar + , Xe + , U + , U 28+ , W, W + , Ge - , Au - ), colliding with neutral atoms (He, Ne, Ar, W) are compared with available experimental and theoretical data at energies E > 10 keV/u. It is found that in most cases the agreement between experimental data and the present model is within a factor of 2. Combining results obtained by the DEPOSIT code at low and intermediate energies with those by the LOSS-R code at high energies (relativistic Born approximation), recommended electron-loss cross sections in a wide range of collision energy are presented. (author)

  17. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae in Brazil Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae como hospedeiro intermediário de Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil.Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca emergidas de Melanoides tuberculata naturalmente infectados coletados na represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram utilizadas para a infecção experimental de Poecilia reticulata criados em laboratório. Metacercárias maduras foram obtidas nas brânquias dos peixes e administradas por via oral a Mus musculus. Parasitos adultos recuperados no intestino delgado dos camundongos foram identificados como Centrocestus formosanus. Este é o primeiro relato de M. tuberculata como hospedeiro intermediário deste parasito no Brasil.

  18. A survey of cats and dogs for fleas: with particular reference to their role as intermediate hosts of Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R F

    1984-05-01

    Three species of fleas, viz. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, and Pulex irritans were found in an examination of 81 cats and 48 dogs in Wellington. C. felis was the most prevalent flea in cats, and C. canis predominated in dogs. It is speculated that C. felis, and its primary host the cat, may assume greater medical and veterinary significance than C. canis. In an examination of 1578 fleas for cysticercoids of the dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum, all were found negative. These results do not necessarily reflect the availability of cysticercoids in the environment, and the reasons for this are discussed.

  19. A low stringency polymerase chain reaction approach to the identification of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila, intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The low stringency-polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR with a pair of specific primers for the amplification of the 18S rRNA gene was evaluated as a means of differentiating between the two Schistosoma mansoni intermediate host species in Brazil: Biomphalaria glabrata and B. tenagophila. Individual snails obtained from different states of Brazil were used and the amplification patterns obtained showed a high degree of genetic variability in these species. Nevertheless, 4 and 3 clearly defined specific diagnostic bands was observed in individuals from B. glabrata and B. tenagophila respectively. The detection of snail specific diagnostic bands suggests the possibility of reliable species differentiation at the DNA level using LS-PCR.

  20. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Nguyen M.; Duc, Nguyen V.; Stauffer, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling....... Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10-12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods. Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations....... In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results: The results showed...

  1. Comparison of the intermediate storage periods and areas required for final storage of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in various types of host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Lerch, C.; Jobmann, M.; Filbert, W.

    2005-01-01

    The present new version of the German concept for radioactive waste and spent fuel management is based on the assumption that a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel will not be required until 2030. One reason frequently given for this date is the intermediate storage period of at least forty years to allow the very high initial heat generation to decay. However, calculations performed by the authors have shown that the minimum intermediate storage period for a repository in rock salt is only between four and nineteen years, depending on the final storage concept and the load of the waste package. In clay as a host rock, the minimum intermediate storage times were calculated to be between 31 and 142 years; the same time spans are expected to apply to final storage in magmatic rock, such as granite. The maximum permissible loads of a container holding spent fuel in salt are many times those in clay and granite, respectively. It was also seen that the area requirement for final storage of the same waste structures is roughly a factor of ten higher in clay than in salt. The differences between granite and salt are similar. The reasons for these grave differences, on the one hand, are the better thermal conductivity of salt and, on the other hand, the better heat tolerance of the crushed salt used as backfill material compared to that of bentonite used in the clay and granite concepts. While salt will allow temperatures of up to 200 C, the maximum temperature in bentonite is limited to 100 C. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical treatment of electron capture and excitation in two-electron system ion-atom, atom-atom collisions at low to intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.

    1986-01-01

    A review of various theoretical treatments which have been used to study electron-capture and excitation processes in two-electron-system ion-atom, atom-atom collisions at low to intermediate energy is presented. Advantages as well as limitations associated with these theoretical models in application to practical many-electron ion-atom, atom-atom collisions are specifically pointed out. Although a rigorous theoretical study of many-electron systems has just begun so that reports of theoretical calculations are scarce to date in comparison to flourishing experimental activities, some theoretical results are of great interest and provide important information for understanding collision dynamics of the system which contains many electrons. Selected examples are given for electron capture in a multiply charged ion-He collision, ion-pair formation in an atom-atom collision and alignment and orientation in a Li + + He collision. (Auth.)

  3. Electron capture in low- and intermediate-energy collisions between completely stripped light ions and metastable H(2s) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.A.; Falcon, C.A.; Reinhold, C.O.; Casaubon, J.I.; Piacentini, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron capture from H(2s) targets by He 2+ ions have been computed in the impact velocity range 0.05-0.5 au. Calculations were performed using a molecular close-coupling approach with inclusion of electron translation factors. A ten-state molecular basis set was considered. A comparison is made with Landau-Zener results for the same system. Intermediate projectile energy classical Monte Carlo capture cross sections are also presented for H + , He 2+ , Li 3+ and C 6+ projectiles. (author)

  4. Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sandra M; Earsing, Karen; Strauss, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Lipsett, Pamela A

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether electronic monitoring of hand hygiene and voice prompts can improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infection rates in a surgical intermediate care unit. Three-phase quasi-experimental design. Phase I was electronic monitoring and direct observation; phase II was electronic monitoring and computerized voice prompts for failure to perform hand hygiene on room exit; and phase III was electronic monitoring only. Nine-room, 14-bed intermediate care unit in a university, tertiary-care institution. All patient rooms, utility room, and staff lavatory were monitored electronically. All healthcare personnel including physicians, nurses, nursing support personnel, ancillary staff, all visitors and family members, and any other personnel interacting with patients on the intermediate care unit. All patients with an intermediate care unit length of stay >48 hrs were followed for nosocomial infection. Electronic monitoring during all phases, computerized voice prompts during phase II only. We evaluated a total of 283,488 electronically monitored entries into a patient room with 251,526 exits for 420 days (10,080 hrs and 3,549 patient days). Compared with phase I, hand hygiene compliance in patient rooms improved 37% during phase II (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.83) and 41% in phase III (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.84). When adjusting for patient admissions during each phase, point estimates of nosocomial infections decreased by 22% during phase II and 48% during phase III; when adjusting for patient days, the number of infections decreased by 10% during phase II and 40% during phase III. Although the overall rate of nosocomial infections significantly decreased when combining phases II and III, the association between nosocomial infection and individual phase was not significant. Electronic monitoring provided effective ongoing feedback about hand hygiene compliance. During both the voice prompt phase and post

  5. Temporal variation of Mexiconema cichlasomae (Nematoda: Daniconematidae) in the Mayan cichlid fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus and its intermediate host Argulus yucatanus from a tropical coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Tec, A L; Pech, D; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Lewis, J W; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether temporal variation in environmental factors such as rainfall or temperature influence long-term fluctuations in the prevalence and mean abundance of the nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma uropthalmus and its crustacean intermediate host, Argulus yucatanus. The study was undertaken in a tropical coastal lagoon in the Yucatan Peninsula (south-eastern Mexico) over an 8-year period. Variations in temperature, rainfall and monthly infection levels for both hosts were analysed using time series and cross-correlations to detect possible recurrent patterns. Infections of M. cichlasomae in A. yucatanus showed annual peaks, while in C. urophthalmus peaks were bi-annual. The latter appear to be related to the accumulation of several generations of this nematode in C. urophthalmus. Rainfall and temperature appear to be key environmental factors in influencing temporal variation in the infection of M. cichlasomae over periods longer than a year together with the accumulation of larval stages throughout time.

  6. Fabrication of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode from New Host π Electron Rich Zinc Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Janghouri, Mohammad; Shahedi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    A new π electron rich zinc complex was used as a fluorescent material in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with a structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) (50 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (60 nm)/Zn: %2 porphyrin derivatives (45 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Porphyrin derivatives accounting for 2 wt.% in the π electron rich zinc complex were used as a host. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of porphyrin derivatives indicated a red shift, as π electron rich zinc complex EL spectra. The device (4) has also a luminance of 3420 cd/m2 and maximum efficiency of 1.58 cd/A at 15 V, which are the highest values among four devices. The result of Commission International del'Eclairage (CIE) (X, Y) coordinate and EL spectrum of device (3) indicated that it is more red shifted compared to other devices. Results of this work indicate that π electron rich zinc complex is a promising host material for high efficiency red OLEDs and has a simple structure compared to Alq3-based devices.

  7. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  8. Sputtering of thin and intermediately thick films of solid deuterium by keV electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Sputtering of films of solid deuterium by keV electrons was studied in a cryogenic set-up. The sputtering yield shows a minimum yield of about 4 D2/electron for 1.5 and 2 keV electrons at a thickness slightly larger than the average projected range of the electrons. We suggest that the yield around...... the minimum represents the value closest to a bulk-yield induced by electron bombardment. It may also include contributions from the mechanisms that enhance the yield for thin and very thick films....

  9. Electronic, structural, and optical properties of host materials for inorganic phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemany, Pere; Moreira, Ibério de P.R.; Castillo, Rodrigo; Llanos, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We performed a first-principles DFT study of the electronic structures of several wide band gap insulators (La 2 O 3 , La 2 O 2 S, Y 2 O 3 Y 2 O 2 S, La 2 TeO 6 , and Y 2 TeO 6 ) used as host materials for inorganic phosphors. ► The electronic, structural, and optical properties calculated for these compounds are in good agreement with the available experimental data. ► The electronic structure of the M 2 TeO 6 phases exhibits distinct features that could allow a fine tuning of the optical properties of luminescent materials obtained by doping with rare earth metals. - Abstract: A family of large gap insulators used as host materials for inorganic phosphors (La 2 O 3 , La 2 O 2 S, Y 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 2 S, La 2 TeO 6 , and Y 2 TeO 6 ) have been studied by first-principles DFT based calculations. We have determined electronic, structural, and optical properties for all these compounds both at the LDA and GGA levels obtaining, in general, a good agreement with available experimental data and previous theoretical studies. The electronic structure for the M 2 TeO 6 phases, addressed in this work for the first time, reveals some significant differences with respect to the other compounds, especially in the region of the lower conduction band, where the appearance of a group of four isolated oxygen/tellurium based bands below the main part of the La (Y) centered conduction band is predicted to lead to significant changes in the optical properties of the two tellurium containing compounds with respect to the rest of compounds in the series.

  10. Pathogen–host reorganization during Chlamydia invasion revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nans, Andrea; Saibil, Helen R; Hayward, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of host cells is a key early event during bacterial infection, but the underlying pathogen–host interactions are yet to be fully visualized in three-dimensional detail. We have captured snapshots of the early stages of bacterial-mediated endocytosis in situ by exploiting the small size of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) for whole-cell cryo-electron tomography. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect eukaryotic cells and cause sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness. We demonstrate that Chlamydia trachomatis LGV2 EBs are intrinsically polarized. One pole is characterized by a tubular inner membrane invagination, while the other exhibits asymmetric periplasmic expansion to accommodate an array of type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Strikingly, EBs orient with their T3SS-containing pole facing target cells, enabling the T3SSs to directly contact the cellular plasma membrane. This contact induces enveloping macropinosomes, actin-rich filopodia and phagocytic cups to zipper tightly around the internalizing bacteria. Once encapsulated into tight early vacuoles, EB polarity and the T3SSs are lost. Our findings reveal previously undescribed structural transitions in both pathogen and host during the initial steps of chlamydial invasion. PMID:24809274

  11. Multiplet effects in the electronic structure of intermediate-valence compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, P.; Di Marco, I.; Grechnev, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Hubbard-I approximation based on the exact solution of the atomic many-body problem incorporated in a full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method of density-functional theory. Comparison between calculated and measured x-ray photoemission spectra reveal a g...... a good agreement for intermediate valence systems in open crystal structures such as YbInCu4, SmB6, and YbB12. Spectral features of the unoccupied states of SmB6 are predicted....

  12. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  13. Efficacy of condensed tannins against larval Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) in vitro and in the intermediate host Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Suraj; Meyling, Nicolai V; Williams, Andrew R; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Fryganas, Christos; Kapel, Christian M O; Fredensborg, Brian L

    2015-01-15

    Natural anti-parasitic compounds in plants such as condensed tannins (CT) have anthelmintic properties against a range of gastrointestinal nematodes, but for other helminths such effects are unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of CT from three different plant extracts in a model system employing the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, in its intermediate host, Tenebrio molitor. An in vitro study examined infectivity of H. diminuta cysticercoids (excystation success) isolated from infected beetles exposed to different concentrations of CT extracts from pine bark (PB) (Pinus sps), hazelnut pericarp (HN) (Corylus avellana) or white clover flowers (WC) (Trifolium repens), in comparison with the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (positive control). In the in vitro study, praziquantel and CT from all three plant extracts had dose-dependent inhibitory effects on cysticercoid excystation. The HN extract was most effective at inhibiting excystation, followed by PB and WC. An in vivo study was carried out on infected beetles (measured as cysticercoid establishment) fed different doses of PB, HN and praziquantel. There was a highly significant inhibitory effect of HN on cysticercoid development (p=0.0002). Overall, CT showed a promising anti-cestodal effect against the metacestode stage of H. diminuta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The population density of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Lymnaeidae) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Caparaó microregion, ES, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, S C G; Freitas, D F; Carneiro, M B; Camargo, P F; Azevedo, J C; Martins, I V F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the population density of Lymnaea columella, an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in various aquatic habitats and in drinking water in the area of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, on Caparaó Microregion, municipality of Alegre, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Monthly samplings were performed at certain points between drainage areas and drinking water in cattle and goat production systems during the years 2010 to 2013. The mean temperature, precipitation and the frequency of samples of L. columella were analysed graphically according the monthly average during the study period. A total of 2,038 molluscs were collected, 1558 of which were L. columella, that predominated in all sampled points. The highest average of specimens observed for L. columella was in the years 2010 and 2013 (51.0), and occurred decreased in 2011 (19.8). The temperature and precipitation averaged is 23.7 °C and 141 mm/year, respectively. Rainfall peak occurred in March (2011, 2013) and November (2012), during these periods the population of L. columella growth. There was no significant difference in the relationship between the specimens observed with seasons (dry-wet), thus the population of L. columella remained stable and can be found throughout the year.

  15. Optimum conditions for growth in liquid medium of Oscillatoria formosa Bory used as the principal food in laboratory culture of intermediate hosts for schistosomosis and fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Filipa M.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The rearing of snails, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium, S. intercalatum, S. bovis and Fasciola hepatica is the first step to maintain the life cycle of these parasites in laboratory in order to have biological material for the different studies, namely on the systematic biology and immunodiagnostic of schistosomosis and fasciolosis. According to the traditional method, the alga Oscillatoria formosa Bory (Cyanobacteria, principal food source for the snails, was cultivated in soil extract (Sampaio Xavier et al., 1968. However, it was sometimes very difficult to find the proper soil extract and the material was also contaminated by protozoa and fungi. In our work, using a new medium having as a base the Mineral Medium II (modified from Hughes et al., 1958 we found that O. formosa had a better growth response than in the soil extract medium. Snails fed on O. formosa reached three times the size of others at the same age, and they also reached sex maturity earlier, having more egg-masses per snail and, in addition, the rate of survival as well as the number of generations per year under laboratory conditions significantly increased. This culture was also easier to perform, and the axenic conditions easier to maintain.

  16. Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin,’ Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.

  17. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  18. Intermediate energy electron cooling for antiproton sources using a Pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Adney, J.; Ferry, J.; Kells, W.; Larson, D.J.; Mills, F.E.; Sundquist, M.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown at FNAL that the electron cooling of protons is a very efficient method for reaching high luminosity in a proton beam. The emittance of the 120 KeV electron beam used at Fermilab corresponds to a cathode temperature of 0.1 eV. In order to apply cooling techniques to GeV proton beams the electron energies required are in the MeV range. In the experiment reported in this paper the emittance of a 3-MeV Pelletron electron accelerator was measured to determine that its emittance scaled to a value appropriate for electron cooling. The machine tested was jointly owned and operated by the University of California at Santa Barbara and National Electrostatics Corporation for research into free-electron lasers which also require low emittance beams for operation. This paper describes the thermal emittance of the beam to be the area in phase space in which 90% of the beam trajectories lie and goes on to describe the emittance-measurement method both in theory and application

  19. Intermediate energy cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ellis-Gibbings, L.; García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY (United Kingdom); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-07

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine, at incident electron energies in the range 15–50 eV. The scattered electron angular range for the DCS measurements was 15°–90°. The measurements at the DCS-level are the first to be reported for vibrational-excitation in pyrimidine via electron impact, while for the ICS we extend the results from the only previous condensed-phase study [P. L. Levesque, M. Michaud, and L. Sanche, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094701 (2005)], for electron energies ⩽12 eV, to higher energies. Interestingly, the trend in the magnitude of the lower energy condensed-phase ICSs is much smaller when compared to the corresponding gas phase results. As there is no evidence for the existence of any shape-resonances, in the available pyrimidine total cross sections [Baek et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032702 (2013); Fuss et al., ibid. 88, 042702 (2013)], between 10 and 20 eV, this mismatch in absolute magnitude between the condensed-phase and gas-phase ICSs might be indicative for collective-behaviour effects in the condensed-phase results.

  20. Thomson scattering on argon surfatron plasmas at intermediate pressures: Axial profiles of the electron temperature and electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, J.M.; Iordanova, E.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, L.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The axial profiles of the electron density n e and electron temperature T e of argon surfatron plasmas in the pressure range of 6-20 mbar and microwave power between 32 and 82 W have been determined using Thomson Scattering of laser irradiation at 532 nm. For the electron density and temperature we found values in the ranges 5 x 10 18 e 19 m -3 and 1.1 e e and T e down to 8% and 3%, respectively. It is found that n e decreases in the direction of the wave propagation with a slope that is nearly constant. The slope depends on the pressure but not on the power. Just as predicted by theories we see that increasing the power leads to longer plasma columns. However, the plasmas are shorter than what is predicted by theories based on the assumption that for the plasma-wave interaction electron-atom collisions are of minor importance (the so-called collisionless regime). The plasma vanishes long before the critical value of the electron density is reached. In contrast to what is predicted by the positive column model it is found that T e does not stay constant along the column, but monotonically increases with the distance from the microwave launcher. Increases of more than 50% over 30 cm were found.

  1. Hydrogen is a preferred intermediate in the energy-conserving electron transport chain of Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gargi; Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Guss, Adam M; Metcalf, William W

    2009-09-15

    Methanogens use an unusual energy-conserving electron transport chain that involves reduction of a limited number of electron acceptors to methane gas. Previous biochemical studies suggested that the proton-pumping F(420)H(2) dehydrogenase (Fpo) plays a crucial role in this process during growth on methanol. However, Methanosarcina barkeri Delta fpo mutants constructed in this study display no measurable phenotype on this substrate, indicating that Fpo plays a minor role, if any. In contrast, Delta frh mutants lacking the cytoplasmic F(420)-reducing hydrogenase (Frh) are severely affected in their ability to grow and make methane from methanol, and double Delta fpo/Delta frh mutants are completely unable to use this substrate. These data suggest that the preferred electron transport chain involves production of hydrogen gas in the cytoplasm, which then diffuses out of the cell, where it is reoxidized with transfer of electrons into the energy-conserving electron transport chain. This hydrogen-cycling metabolism leads directly to production of a proton motive force that can be used by the cell for ATP synthesis. Nevertheless, M. barkeri does have the flexibility to use the Fpo-dependent electron transport chain when needed, as shown by the poor growth of the Delta frh mutant. Our data suggest that the rapid enzymatic turnover of hydrogenases may allow a competitive advantage via faster growth rates in this freshwater organism. The mutant analysis also confirms the proposed role of Frh in growth on hydrogen/carbon dioxide and suggests that either Frh or Fpo is needed for aceticlastic growth of M. barkeri.

  2. Photo- and radiation chemical studies of intermediates involved in excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Excited-state inter- and intramolecular electron-transfer reactions lie at the heart of the most photochemical solar energy conversion schemes. The authors research, which has utilized the techniques of continuous and pulsed photolysis and radiolysis, has focused on three general aspects of these reactions involving transition metal coordination complexes and electron donor-acceptor complexes: i) the effect of solution medium on the properties and quenching of the excited states; ii) the control of the quantum yields of formation of redox products; iii) the mechanism by which reduced species interact with water to yield H 2 homogeneously and heterogeneously. EDTA is among the most popular sacrificial electron donors used in model systems. Its role is to scavenge the oxidized form of the photosensitizer in order to prevent its rapid reaction with the reduced form of the electron relay species that results from the electron-transfer quenching of the excited photosensitizer. In systems involving MV 2+ , the radicals resulting from the oxidation of EDTA can eventually lead to the generation of a second equivalent of MV + ; the reducing agent is believed to be a radical localized on the carbon atom alpha to the carboxylate group. The reaction of radiolytically-generated OH/H with EDTA produces this radical directly via H-abstraction or indirectly via deprotonation of the carbon atom adjacent to the nitrogen radical site in the oxidized amine moiety; it reduces MV 2+ with rate constants of 2.8 x 10 9 , 7.6 x 10 9 , and 8.5 x 10 6 M -1 s -1 at pH 12.5, 8.3, and 4.7, respectively. Degradative decarboxylation of EDTA-radicals and their back electron-transfer reactions are enhanced in acidic solution causing the yield of MV + to be severely diminished

  3. Coulomb correlations in electron and positron impact ionization of hydrogen at intermediate and higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetzke, S.; Faisal, F.H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Investigating the relation between the asymptotic condition and the dynamic Coulomb correlation for single and multiple ionization we discuss a complete set of spatially separable N-electrons final-state wavefunctions, satisfying multiple ionization boundary conditions. We apply these results to electron and positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen in the energy range 54.4 and 250 eV on the basis of a parameter-free model formulated within the scope of the multiple scattering approach. A comparison between our results and available experimental data and alternative theoretical calculations are made and discussed. (Author)

  4. Using Electronic Readers: Action Research in an Intermediate Adult ESL Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Monica; Abbott, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The use of portable electronic reading devices in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom has the potential to positively impact learners' reading engagement and language skill development. However, due to the lack of research, few guidelines are available to inform instructors of the benefits and challenges of using these devices in ESL…

  5. The Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin and intermediate quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper deals with the theory of electron spin. The Stern-Gerlach experiment, the anticommutation relations and the properties of spin operators are discussed. The Pauli theory, Dirac transformation theory, the double Stern-Gerlach experiment, the EPR paradox and Bell's inequality are also covered. (U.K.)

  6. Identifying Intermediates of Sequential Electron and Hydrogen Loss from a Dicarbonylcobalt Hydride Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krafft, M. J.; Bubrin, M.; Paretzki, A.; Lissner, F.; Fiedler, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 26 (2013), s. 6781-6784 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD11086 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cobalt * Electron transfer * ferrocene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.336, year: 2013

  7. Differential cross sections for intermediate-energy electron scattering from α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol: Excitation of electronic-states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Duflot, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR CNRS 8523, Université Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); and others

    2014-07-14

    We report on measurements of differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). The energy range of these experiments was 20–50 eV, while the scattered electron was detected in the 10°–90° angular range. There are currently no other experimental data or theoretical computations against which we can directly compare the present measured results. Nonetheless, we are able to compare our THFA DCSs with earlier cross section measurements for Rydberg-state electronic excitation for tetrahydrofuran, a similar cyclic ether, from Do et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144302 (2011)]. In addition, “rotationally averaged” elastic DCSs, calculated using our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction approach are also reported. Those latter results give integral cross sections consistent with the optical theorem, and supercede those from the only previous study of Milosavljević et al. [Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 107 (2006)].

  8. An investigation of the suitability of the Chalk River site to host a geologic waste management facility for CRL's low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.; Baumgartner, P.; Chan, T.; Kitson, C.; Kozak, E.; Man, A.; Martino, J.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Beaton, D.; Sharp, K.; Thivierge, R.

    2011-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is investigating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site for hosting a Geologic Waste Management Facility (GWMF) as part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) funded through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). The GWMF is envisioned to be an underground engineered-geological repository consisting of shafts, access tunnels and emplacement caverns located at a nominal depth of 500 to 1000 m in the bedrock at the CRL site. A 5-year-long pre-project study was started in 2006 to assess the feasibility of the bedrock at the CRL site to host a GWMF. The pre-project feasibility study began with a review of various previous geological investigations performed in the bedrock at the CRL site. The 2006-2010 pre-project feasibility study involved exploring the geoscience and engineering characteristics of the bedrock to depths of over one kilometre at the CRL site through surface investigations and the drilling and testing of seven new deep characterization boreholes into the CRL bedrock. The collected information and interpretations were used to construct three-dimensional (3D) deterministic computer models of the geology of the bedrock at the CRL site and surrounding area and of the associated groundwater-flow regime. In order to technically assess the suitability of the CRL site, the GWMF feasibility study has conservatively assumed that all of the legacy and forecast Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) at CRL would report to it. The 3D deterministic models were used within a preliminary performance and safety assessment model to assess the long-term safety of a hypothetical GWMF at the CRL site on the basis of future radionuclide and toxic substance releases. Other items important to a preliminary performance and safety assessment include an inventory of CRL's radioactive wastes and other contaminants that could be placed in the GWMF, the creation of the engineered waste emplacement rooms and

  9. Thomson scattering on argon surfatron plasmas at intermediate pressures: Axial profiles of the electron temperature and electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: f02palij@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Iordanova, E.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Baede, L. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gamero, A.; Sola, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der, E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.n [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The axial profiles of the electron density n{sub e} and electron temperature T{sub e} of argon surfatron plasmas in the pressure range of 6-20 mbar and microwave power between 32 and 82 W have been determined using Thomson Scattering of laser irradiation at 532 nm. For the electron density and temperature we found values in the ranges 5 x 10{sup 18} < n{sub e} < 8 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} and 1.1 < T{sub e} < 2.0 eV. Due to several improvements of the setup we could reduce the errors of n{sub e} and T{sub e} down to 8% and 3%, respectively. It is found that n{sub e} decreases in the direction of the wave propagation with a slope that is nearly constant. The slope depends on the pressure but not on the power. Just as predicted by theories we see that increasing the power leads to longer plasma columns. However, the plasmas are shorter than what is predicted by theories based on the assumption that for the plasma-wave interaction electron-atom collisions are of minor importance (the so-called collisionless regime). The plasma vanishes long before the critical value of the electron density is reached. In contrast to what is predicted by the positive column model it is found that T{sub e} does not stay constant along the column, but monotonically increases with the distance from the microwave launcher. Increases of more than 50% over 30 cm were found.

  10. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana, Elías D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  11. A population growth trend analysis for Neotricula aperta, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mekongi, after construction of the Pak-Mun dam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Attwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pak-Mun dam is a controversial hydro-power project on the Mun River in Northeast Thailand. The dam is sited in a habitat of the freshwater snail Neotricula aperta, which is the intermediate host for the parasitic blood-fluke Schistosoma mekongi causing Mekong schistosomiasis in humans in Cambodia and Laos. Few data are available which can be used to assess the effects of water resource development on N. aperta. The aim of this study was to obtain data and to analyze the possible impact of the dam on N. aperta population growth.Estimated population densities were recorded for an N. aperta population in the Mun River 27 km upstream of Pak-Mun, from 1990 to 2011. The Pak-Mul dam began to operate in 1994. Population growth was modeled using a linear mixed model expression of a modified Gompertz stochastic state-space exponential growth model. The N. aperta population was found to be quite stable, with the estimated growth parameter not significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, some marked changes in snail population density were observed which were coincident with changes in dam operation policy.The study found that there has been no marked increase in N. aperta population growth following operation of the Pak-Mun dam. The analysis did indicate a large and statistically significant increase in population density immediately after the dam came into operation; however, this increase was not persistent. The study has provided the first vital baseline data on N. aperta population behavior near to the Pak-Mun dam and suggests that the operation policy of the dam may have an impact on snail population density. Nevertheless, additional studies are required for other N. aperta populations in the Mun River and for an extended time series, to confirm or refine the findings of this work.

  12. Formation of novel reactive intermediate by electron-laser dual beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Akito; Takamuku, Setsuo

    1992-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis system of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, (ISIR) has been progressed to observe a highly reactive species, which is produced by successive irradiation of electron and laser or of CW-UV-light and electron. The dual beam irradiation system, which consists of the beam synchronization system, the optical alignment, and the measurement system, is described in detail. Dual beam irradiation studies on 2-methylbenzophenone and some compounds with a C=N bond have been carried out by use of this system. Pulse radiolysis of 2-methylbenzophenone in benzene induced formation of an unstable photoenol via the triplet state, which was irradiated by a visible laser pulse to give dihydroanthrone. Pulse radiolysis of syn-benzalaniline and a nitrileylide in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, which were produced by steady state photoirradiation at low temperature, enabled us to observe their very unstable radical anions. (author)

  13. Electron capture in collisions of Si3+ ions with atomic hydrogen from low to intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Liu, L.; Wang, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    The electron capture process for the Si3+(3s) + H(1s) collisions is investigated by the quantum-mechanical molecular orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method and by the two-center atomic orbital close-coupling (AOCC) method in the energy range of 10-5-10 keV/u and 0.8-200 keV/u, respectively. Total and state-selective cross sections are presented and compared with the available theoretical and experimental results. The present MOCC and AOCC results agree well with the experimental measurements, but show some discrepancy with the calculations of Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 74, 052709 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevA.74.052709] at E > 40 eV/u because of the inclusion of rotational couplings, which play important roles in the electron capture process. At lower energies, the present results are about three to five times smaller than those of Wang et al. due to the difference in the molecular data at large internuclear distances. The energy behaviors of the electron capture cross sections are discussed on the basis of identified reaction mechanisms.

  14. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  15. Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy electrons from sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubner, P.J.O.; Buckner, S.J.; Noble, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from sodium have been measured with high angular resolution for incident energies of 54.4, 75, 100 and 150 eV and over an angular range of 12 0 to 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with calculations based on the First Born approximation, the Glauber approximation and a close coupling impact parameter calculation. Calculations have been carried out for an optical model using the prescription of Vanderpoorten for localizing the absorptive part of the potential. Of the theoretical calculations the optical model is found to best reproduce the general features of the cross section at all energies. (Author)

  16. Distorted wave models applied to electron emission study in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The electron emission from different atoms induced by impact of multicharged bare ions at intermediate and high energies is studied. To perform these studies, the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model is used. With this distorted wave model, analytical expressions are obtained for the transition amplitudes as a function of the transverse momentum transfer for hydrogen targets in an arbitrary initial state and for every any orbital of a multielectronic target represented as a linear combination of Slater type orbitals. With these expressions, the different cross sections which are compared with the experimental data available are numerically calculated. The results obtained for different targets and projectiles and the comparison with other theoretical models and experimental data allows to explain the electron emission spectra and to predict new effects which have not been measured so far. The results of the present work permit to view the ionization process as the evolution of the active electron in the combined field of the target and projectile nuclei. (Author) [es

  17. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  18. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project: effect of the water diversion pattern on transmission of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, You-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun; Shen, Xue-Hui; Xu, Yong-Liang; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2012-03-20

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is the largest national water conservancy project in China. However, the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of SNWDP will refer to the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of some factors relating to the water diversion pattern on the spread north of O. hupensis and transmission of S. japonicum. Marked snails were attached to the floating debris, and then placed on the water surface, the passage of snails through water pumps was observed. Some marked living adult snails were placed under water in the 5 spots, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days later, their survival and transfer under water were investigated. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 juvenile snails, with a male: female ratio of about 1, were caged, 1 year later, their reproductions were calculated. The snails attached on the floating debris at 100-, 50- and 20-cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the big pump (with a diameter of 80 cm), could be absorbed into the pumps, with passing rates of 2.45%, 3.93% and 43.46%, respectively, compared with 72.07% and 91.00% for the snails at 20 cm and 10 cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the small pump (with a diameter of 20 cm). A total of 36,600 marked living snails were put into 5 ponds and ditches, with the water depths of 1-1.6 m, 15-120 days later, no marked ones were found along the ponds and ditches or in the straw packages. The juvenile snails did not reproduce until their density reached up to 8 snails (ratio of male: female of 1)/0.16 m2. During the construction of ERP of SNWDP, the risk of northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica will be decreased or eliminated as long as long-term reliable interventions for snail control are implemented.

  19. Transition Metal Donor-Peptide-Acceptor Complexes: From Intramolecular Electron Transfer Reactions to the Study of Reactive Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isied, Stephan S.

    2003-03-11

    The trans-polyproline (PII) oligomers (Figure 1) are unusually rigid peptide structures which have been extensively studied by our group for peptide mediated intramolecular electron transfer (ET) at long distances. We have previously studied ET across a series of metal ion donor (D) acceptor (A) oligoproline peptides with different distances, driving forces and reorganizational energies. The majority of these experiments involve generating the ET intermediate using pulse radiolysis methods, although more recently photochemical methods are also used. Results of these studies showed that ET across peptides can vary by more than twelve orders of magnitude. Using ruthenium bipyridine donors, ET reaction rate constants across several proline residues (n = 4 - 9) occurred in the millisecond (ms) to {micro}s timescale, thus limiting the proline peptide conformational motions to only minor changes (far smaller than the large changes that occur on the ms to sec timescale, such as trans to cis proline isomerization). The present report describes our large data base of experimental results for D-peptide-A complexes in terms of a model where the involvement of both superexchange and hopping (hole and electron) mechanisms account for the long range ET rate constants observed. Our data shows that the change from superexchange to hopping mechanisms occurs at different distances depending on the type of D and A and their interactions with the peptides. Our model is also consistent with generalized models for superexchange and hopping which have been put forward by a number of theoretical groups to account for long range ET phenomena.

  20. Electron-deuteron deep-inelastic scattering with spectator nucleon tagging and final-state interactions at intermediate x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2018-03-01

    We consider electron-deuteron deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) with detection of a proton in the nuclear fragmentation region ("spectator tagging") as a method for extracting the free neutron structure functions and studying their nuclear modifications. Such measurements could be performed at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with suitable forward detectors. The measured proton recoil momentum (≲100 MeV in the deuteron rest frame) specifies the deuteron configuration during the high-energy process and permits a controlled theoretical treatment of nuclear effects. Nuclear and nucleonic structure are separated using methods of light-front quantum mechanics. The impulse approximation to the tagged DIS cross section contains the free neutron pole, which can be reached by on-shell extrapolation in the recoil momentum. Final-state interactions (FSIs) distort the recoil momentum distribution away from the pole. In the intermediate-x region 0.1 rest frame momenta ≲1 GeV , target fragmentation region). We construct a schematic model describing this effect, using final-state hadron distributions measured in nucleon DIS experiments and low-energy hadron scattering amplitudes. We investigate the magnitude of FSIs, their dependence on the recoil momentum (angular dependence, forward/backward regions), their analytic properties, and their effect on the on-shell extrapolation. We comment on the prospects for neutron structure extraction in tagged DIS with an EIC. We discuss possible extensions of the FSI model to other kinematic regions (large/small x ). In tagged DIS at x ≪0.1 FSIs resulting from diffractive scattering on the nucleons become important and require separate treatment.

  1. The use of intermediate electron acceptors to enhance MTT bioreduction in a microculture tetrazolium assay for human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C J; Holt, S J; Downes, S; Marshall, N J

    1996-01-01

    We contrast the effects of three intermediate electron acceptors (IEAs) on the highly quantitative ESTA bioassay for human growth hormone. This is a microculture tetrazolium assay based upon the in vitro reduction of the tetrazolium salt MTT, by Nb2 cells which have been activated with hGH. Each of the IEAs influenced MTT-formazan production in a distinctive manner. The two quinonoids, namely menadione and co-enzyme Q0 markedly increased the MTT-formazan produced by hormone activated Nb2 cells and thereby amplified the response of our bioassay for human growth hormone (hGH). The exceptionally low bioassay baseline which is characteristic of the unstimulated Nb2 cells when only MTT is added was retained in the presence of CoQ0, but was greatly increased by menadione. Phenazine methosulphate, which is the most widely used redox intermediary in microculture tetrazolium assays, also increased the baseline, but had only a minimal additional effect on MTT reduction by activated Nb2 cells. We conclude that CoQ0 is the preferred IEA for this ESTA bioassay for hGH.

  2. Electronic Structure of the Ferryl Intermediate in the α-Ketoglutarate Dependent Non-Heme Iron Halogenase SyrB2: Contributions to H Atom Abstraction Reactivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srnec, Martin; Wong, S. D.; Matthews, M. L.; Krebs, C.; Bollinger, J. M.; Solomon, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 15 (2016), s. 5110-5122 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-10279Y Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Ferryl intermediate * syringomycin halogenase * electronic structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.858, year: 2016

  3. Limitations of superfluid helium droplets as host system revealed by electronic spectroscopy of embedded molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premke, Tobias

    2016-02-19

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets serve a unique cryogenic host system ideal to prepare cold molecules and clusters. Structures as well as dynamic processes can be examined by means of high resolution spectroscopy. Dopant spectra are accompanied by helium-induced spectroscopic features which reveal information on the dopant to helium interaction. For this reason the experimental research focuses on the investigation of such helium-induced effects in order to provide new information on the microsolvation inside the droplets. Since the quantitative understanding of helium-induced spectral features is essential to interpret molecular spectra recorded in helium droplets, this study contributes further experimental details on microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets. For this purpose two contrary systems were examined by means of high resolution electronic spectroscopy. The first one, phthalocyanine (Pc), is a planar organic molecule offering a huge and planar surface to the helium atoms and thus, the non-superfluid helium solvation layer can form different structures. The second system is iodine and in contrast to Pc it is of simple molecular shape. That means that in this case different complex structures of the non-superfluid helium solvation layer and the dopant can be expected to be avoided. Thus, both molecules should show clear differences in their microsolvation behavior. In this work a detailed examination of different spectroscopic properties of phthalocyanine is given by means of fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectroscopy. It raises legitimate doubts about the assignment of experimentally observed signals to features predicted by the model of the microsolvation. Even though there are no experimental observations which disprove the empirical model for the solvation in helium droplets, an unambiguous assignment of the helium-induced spectroscopic structures is often not possible. In the second part of this work, the investigation of the

  4. The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P

    1993-06-01

    A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia.

  5. Ocorrência no Brasil de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Muller, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes Occurrence of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mullher, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia in Brazil, first intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Faria Vaz

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a introdução em nosso meio de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata possivelmente anterior a 1967, quando pela primeira vez foi coletada em Santos. Essa espécie pode comportar-se como primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Paragonimus westermani e de Clonorchis sinensis. Somente o último trematódeo tem alguma possibilidade de vir a parasitar o homem, em nosso meio.Introduction of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata in Brazil, is reported. This introduction may go back prior to 1967 when some specimens were collected at Santos, S.Paulo (Brazil. T. (M. tuberculata is an intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis, both pathogenic for man. Only this last trematode has some potential for human infection in Brazil.

  6. I. Exchange currents in electron scattering from light nuclei. II. Heavy-ion scattering at intermediate and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubach, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a formalism that will allow one to search the wide variety of transitions presented by nuclei in order to locate situations in which the exchange-current effects are important or dominant and thus allow one to study the contributions of the meson exchanges to the electromagnetic densities within the nucleus. The nuclei studied are assumed to be described in a shell model using harmonic oscillator wave functions. The formalism needed to allow one to do a multipole analysis of these exchange currents within 1s and 1p nuclei is developed. This formalism is then applied to an examination of electron scattering from a series of light nuclei: 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, and 10 B. Three significant effects due to the inclusion of exchange currents are seen: (1) The exchange currents can often introduce new structure into the form factors. (2) At larger momentum transfer (700 to 1000 MeV/c) the exchange current contributions to the form factor dominate the simpler one-body form factor by a few orders of magnitude. (3) The exchange currents can excite E4 and M5 multipoles in the p shell which are forbidden to the simpler one-body currents. The elastic scattering of two heavy ions at intermediate and high energies (compared to the Coulomb barrier) is examined in the formalism of the WKB and ''Glauber theory'' approximations. As a concrete example, the scattering of 16 O from 60 Ni is studied assuming an optical-model potential that fits elastic scattering data at low energies. One immediate result is that the WKB approximation agrees quite well with ''exact'' numerical calculations at energies as low as 60 MeV. The Glauber theory fails below about 1 GeV but correction terms are developed that can extend the usefulness of the Glauber theory to much lower energies. The model problem of scattering from a black-sphere model of the nucleus is briefly examined

  7. Efficient blue and green phosphorescent OLEDs with host material containing electronically isolated carbazolyl fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalevicius, Saulius; Tavgeniene, Daiva; Krucaite, Gintare; Blazevicius, Dovydas; Griniene, Raimonda; Lai, Yi-Ning; Chiu, Hao-Hsuan; Chang, Chih-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Dry process-able host materials are well suited to realize high performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) with precise deposition of organic layers. We demonstrate in this study high efficiency green and blue phosphorescent OLED devices by employing 3-[bis(9-ethylcarbazol-3-yl)methyl]-9-hexylcarbazole based host material. By doping a typical green emitter of fac tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (Ir (ppy)3) in the compound the resultant dry-processed green device exhibited superior performance with low turn on voltage of 3.0 V and with peak efficiencies of 11.4%, 39.9 cd/A and 41.8 lm/W. When blue emitter of bis [2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-C2,N](picolinato)iridium (III) was used, the resultant blue device showed turn on voltage of 2.9 V and peak efficiencies of 9.4%, 21.4 cd/A and 21.7 lm/W. The high efficiencies may be attributed to the host possessing high triplet energy level, effective host-to-guest energy transfer and effective carrier injection balance.

  8. Host-agent-vector-environment measures for electronic cigarette research used in NIH grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Mandal, Rachel J; Grana, Rachel; Wanke, Kay L; Meissner, Helen I

    2018-01-13

    The purpose of this study is to describe the focus and comprehensiveness of domains measured in e-cigarette research. A portfolio analysis of National Institutes of Health grants focusing on e-cigarette research and funded between the fiscal years 2007 and 2015 was conducted. Grant proposals were retrieved using a government database and coded using the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment (HAVE) model as a framework to characterise the measures proposed. Eighty-one projects met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis. The primary HAVE focus most commonly found was Host (73%), followed by Agent (21%), Vector (6%) and Environment (0%). Intrapersonal measures and use trajectories were the most common measures in studies that include Host measures (n=59 and n=51, respectively). Product composition was the most common area of measurement in Agent studies (n=24), whereas Marketing (n=21) was the most common (n=21) area of Vector measurement. When Environment measures were examined as secondary measures in studies, they primarily focused on measuring Peer, Occupation and Social Networks (n=18). Although all studies mentioned research on e-cigarettes, most (n=52; 64%) did not specify the type of e-cigarette device or liquid solution under study. This analysis revealed a heavy focus on Host measures (73%) and a lack of focus on Environment measures. The predominant focus on Host measures may have the unintended effect of limiting the evidence base for tobacco control and regulatory science. Further, a lack of specificity about the e-cigarette product under study will make comparing results across studies and using the outcomes to inform tobacco policy difficult. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Energies of rare-earth ion states relative to host bands in optical materials from electron photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Charles Warren

    There are a vast number of applications for rare-earth-activated materials and much of today's cutting-edge optical technology and emerging innovations are enabled by their unique properties. In many of these applications, interactions between the rare-earth ion and the host material's electronic states can enhance or inhibit performance and provide mechanisms for manipulating the optical properties. Continued advances in these technologies require knowledge of the relative energies of rare-earth and crystal band states so that properties of available materials may be fully understood and new materials may be logically developed. Conventional and resonant electron photoemission techniques were used to measure 4f electron and valence band binding energies in important optical materials, including YAG, YAlO3, and LiYF4. The photoemission spectra were theoretically modeled and analyzed to accurately determine relative energies. By combining these energies with ultraviolet spectroscopy, binding energies of excited 4fN-15d and 4fN+1 states were determined. While the 4fN ground-state energies vary considerably between different trivalent ions and lie near or below the top of the valence band in optical materials, the lowest 4f N-15d states have similar energies and are near the bottom of the conduction band. As an example for YAG, the Tb3+ 4f N ground state is in the band gap at 0.7 eV above the valence band while the Lu3+ ground state is 4.7 eV below the valence band maximum; however, the lowest 4fN-15d states are 2.2 eV below the conduction band for both ions. We found that a simple model accurately describes the binding energies of the 4fN, 4fN-1 5d, and 4fN+1 states. The model's success across the entire rare-earth series indicates that measurements on two different ions in a host are sufficient to predict the energies of all rare-earth ions in that host. This information provides new insight into electron transfer transitions, luminescence quenching, and valence

  10. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  11. Measurement of ejected electrons from collisions of He+ ions with He, Ne, and Ar at the intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, Nobuhiro; Oda, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    The doubly differential cross sections for electron production, differential in angle and energy of the electrons, for 5-25 keV He + impact on helium, neon and argon have been measured in the electron energy range of 2-200 eV at the ejection angles from 30 0 to 150 0 with respect to the incident ion beam. The characteristic features of continnum parts of ejected electron spectra are described for each collision system. (author)

  12. Characterization of the host response to the myxosporean parasite, Ceratomyxa shasta (Noble), by histology, scanning electron microscopy, and immunological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Smith, C.E.; Rohovec, J.S.; Fryer, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The tissue response of Salmo gairdneri Richardson, against the myxosporean parasite. Ceratomyxa shasta (Noble), was investigated using histological techniques, scanning electron microscopy and immunological methods. The progress of infection in C. shasta-susceptible and resistant steelhead and rainbow trout was examined by standard histological techniques and by indirect fluorescent antibody methods using monoclonal antibodies directed against C. shasta antigens. Trophozoite stages were first observed in the posterior intestine and there was indication that resistance was due to the inability of the parasite to penetrate this tissue rather than to an inflammatory response. Examination of a severely infected intestine by scanning electron microscopy showed extensive destruction of the mucosal folds of the posterior intestine. Western blotting and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques were used to investigate the immunological component of the host response. No antibodies specific for C. shasta were detected by either method.

  13. Hemiuroid trematode sporocysts are undetected by hemocytes of their intermediate host, the ark cockle Anadara trapezia: potential role of surface carbohydrates in successful parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Minami; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome; Dang, Cecile; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    In order to establish a successful relationship with their hosts, parasites must subvert or evade immune defences. Cockle Anadara trapezia and Sydney Rock oyster (SRO) Saccostrea glomerata live in the same location but only ark cockles are infected by sporocysts of hemiuroid trematode. This provides an opportunity to explore differing interactions between the parasite and the immune system of susceptible and refractive hosts. Rapid migration and encapsulation of sporocysts was observed by SRO hemocytes but not by cockle hemocytes. This migration/encapsulation was inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine but not by the other sugars, implicating specific surface carbohydrates in immune detection. Effector responses of hemocytes were investigated in vitro in terms of production of reactive oxygen production (ROS). Hemocytes of both species strongly reacted to Zymosan, but only SRO hemocytes responded to live sporocysts. Neither species' hemocytes produced ROS in the presence of dead/fixed sporocysts, and there was no suppression of Zymosan-induced respiratory burst by sporocysts. This suggests that immune escape is mediated by avoiding encapsulation, perhaps through molecular mimicry. Membrane-shaving with proteases indicated that sporocyst surface proteins are not a key factors in hemocytic detection. Surface carbohydrates of SRO and cockle hemocytes and of sporocysts were profiled with a panel of biotinylated lectins. This revealed substantial differences between cockle and SRO hemocytes, but greater similarity between cockle hemocytes and sporocysts. Results suggest that surface carbohydrates play an integral role in hemocyte immunorecognition and that surface carbohydrate molecular mimicry is a potential strategy for immune evasion in cockles by hemiuroid trematode sporocysts. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of the cestode Ligula intestinalis and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus on levels of heat shock proteins (HSP70) and metallothioneins in their fish and crustacean intermediate hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Godehardt, Saskia; Nachev, Milen; Trubiroha, Achim; Kloas, Werner; Sures, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    It is a common method to analyse physiological mechanisms of organisms – commonly referred to as biomarkers – to indicate the presence of environmental pollutants. However, as biomarkers respond to a wide range of stressors we want to direct the attention on natural stressors, i.e. on parasites. After two years maintenance under controlled conditions, roach (Rutilus rutilus) revealed no influence on levels of metallothionein by the parasite Ligula intestinalis. The same was found for Gammarus fossarum infected with Polymorphus minutus. However, the heat shock protein (HSP70) response was affected in both host-parasite systems. While the infection of roach resulted in reduced levels of HSP70 compared to uninfected roach, the infection in G. fossarum led to higher levels of HSP70. We also analysed the effect of a 14 days Cd exposure (4 μg/L) on the uninfected and infected gammarids. The exposure resulted in induced levels for both, metallothionein and HSP70 whereas the combination of stressors, parasite and exposure, revealed a decrease for levels of HSP70 in comparison to the metal exposure only. Accordingly, parasites as natural parts of aquatic ecosystems have to be considered in ecotoxicological research. -- Highlights: •We show how parasites and pollutant affect biomarkers. •Metallothioneins were not influenced by parasites. •Heat shock proteins are modulated by parasites. •Biomarker levels of organisms are dependent on infection status. •Infection with parasites has to be considered in ecotoxicology. -- Parasites are capable of affecting host physiology and therefore modulate biomarker responses

  15. Molecular analysis of echinostome metacercariae from their second intermediate host found in a localised geographic region reveals genetic heterogeneity and possible cryptic speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Noikong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinostome metacercariae are the infective stage for humans and animals. The identification of echinostomes has been based until recently on morphology but molecular techniques using sequences of ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial DNA have indicated major clades within the group. In this study we have used the ITS2 region of ribosomal RNA and the ND1 region of mitochondrial DNA to identify metacercariae from snails collected from eight well-separated sites from an area of 4000 km2 in Lamphun Province, Thailand. The derived sequences have been compared to those collected from elsewhere and have been deposited in the nucleotide databases. There were two aims of this study; firstly, to determine the species of echinostome present in an endemic area, and secondly, to assess the intra-specific genetic diversity, as this may be informative with regard to the potential for the development of anthelmintic resistance and with regard to the spread of infection by the definitive hosts. Our results indicate that the most prevalent species are most closely related to E. revolutum, E. trivolvis, E. robustum, E. malayanum and Euparyphium albuferensis. Some sites harbour several species and within a site there could be considerable intra-species genetic diversity. There is no significant geographical structuring within this area. Although the molecular techniques used in this study allowed the assignment of the samples to clades within defined species, however, within these groupings there were significant differences indicating that cryptic speciation may have occurred. The degree of genetic diversity present would suggest the use of targeted regimes designed to minimise the selection of anthelmintic resistance. The apparent lack of geographic structuring is consistent with the transmission of the parasites by the avian hosts.

  16. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the dissociation mechanism of the C-N bond between carbazole and dibenzothiophene in carbazole-dibenzothiophene (Cz-DBT) positional isomers, selected as representative systems for blue host materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion can have low dissociation energies (∼1.6 eV) with respect to blue emission energy. These low values are attributed to the large electron affinity of the carbazole radical, a feature that importantly can be modulated via substitution. Substitution also impacts the energies of the first excited electronic states of the Cz-DBT molecules since these states have an intramolecular charge-transfer nature due to the spatially localized character of the frontier molecular orbitals within the carbazole moiety (for the HOMO) and the dibenzothiophene moiety (for the LUMO). The implications of these results must be considered when designing blue OLED hosts since these materials must combine chemical stability and high triplet energy. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae.

  18. Influence of host matrices on krypton electron binding energies and KLL Auger transition energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Inoyatov, A. K.; Perevoshchikov, L. L.; Kovalík, Alojz; Filosofov, D. V.; Yushkevich, Yu. V.; Ryšavý, Miloš; Lee, B. Q.; Kibédi, T.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Zhdanov, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 197, DEC (2014), s. 64-71 ISSN 0368-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Kr-83 * Rb-83 * Sr-83 * electron binding energy * KLL transitions * natural atomic level width * multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2014

  19. Improved calculations of the electronic and nuclear energy losses for light ions penetrating H and He targets at intermediate velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, P.L. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Schiwietz, G. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Dept. FD

    1994-06-01

    A review is given on the use of the coupled-channel method to calculate the electronic and nuclear energy loss of ions penetrating the matter. This first principle calculation based on an expansion of the time dependent electronic wavefunction in terms of atomic orbitals has been applied to evaluate the impact parameter dependence of the electronic energy loss, the stopping cross-section and the fluctuation is energy loss of ions colliding with H and He atoms at energies of 10 keV/amu to 500 keV/amu. The results have been compared to experimental data as well as to others existing models, local density approximation in an electron gas target, harmonic oscillator target treatment and first order plane-wave-Born approximation. (author). 63 refs, 11 figs.

  20. Electron microscopic study on macrogametogenesis of Eimeria labbeana infecting the Egyptian wild doves and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtar, A R; Abdel-Ghaffar, F A; Ahmed, A K

    1991-04-01

    The development of macrogametes of Eimeria labbeana was studied by electron microscopy in the epithelial cells of the villi at 96 hrs. post-infection. Appearance of young macrogamonts was characterized by the loss of the architecture of the apicomplexa (polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, subpellicular microtubules), while the pellicle became only one unit membrane. This was associated by the formation of wall forming bodies II then I. Moreover, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi were increased in the cytoplasm. Amylopectin granules as well as lipid globules were greatly increased in mature macrogametes. Host cell reaction due to infection included enlargement and deformation of infected cells, hypertrophy of their nuclei, swollen and degeneration of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolation of ground cytoplasm. These changes occur in both cells with and without parasite.

  1. Matrix elements of intraband transitions in quantum dot intermediate band solar cells: the influence of quantum dot presence on the extended-state electron wave-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The intraband transitions which are essential for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells (QD IBSCs) are theoretically investigated by estimating the matrix elements from a ground bound state, which is often regarded as an intermediate band (IB), to conduction band (CB) states for a structure with a quantum dot (QD) embedded in a matrix (a QD/matrix structure). We have found that the QD pushes away the electron envelope functions (probability densities) from the QD region in almost all quantum states above the matrix CB minimum. As a result, the matrix elements of the intraband transitions in the QD/matrix structure are largely reduced, compared to those calculated assuming the envelope functions of free electrons (i.e., plane-wave envelope functions) in a matrix structure as the final states of the intraband transitions. The result indicates the strong influence of the QD itself on the intraband transitions from the IB to the CB states in QD IBSC devices. This work will help in better understanding the problem of the intraband transitions and give new insight, that is, engineering of quantum states is indispensable for the realization of QD IBSCs with high solar energy conversion efficiencies. (paper)

  2. Thin-film intermediate band chalcopyrite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Marron, D.; Marti, A.; Luque, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cells currently lead the efficiency tables of thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Further improvements are foreseen upon implementation of an intermediate band in the absorber layers. We present a theoretical analysis of the efficiency limit for this type of device as a function of factors such as the gap of the host, the relative position of the intermediate band with respect to the band edge and the level of light concentration used as illumination. We have also considered the impact of non-idealities on the performance of the device, particularly the effect of electronic losses related to non-radiative recombination

  3. Electron scattering by Ne, Ar and Kr at intermediate and high energies, 0.5-10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.; Roteta, M.; Manero, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Departamento de Fusion y Particulas Elementales, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Williart, A. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-04-28

    Semi-empirical total cross sections for electron scattering of noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been obtained by combining transmission-beam measurements for impact energies up to 6 keV with an asymptotic behaviour at higher energies according to the Born-Bethe approximation. The influence of the forward electron scattering on the experimental system has been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo electron transport simulation. Theoretical values have also been obtained by applying the Born approximation in the case of inelastic processes and by means of an atomic scattering potential for the elastic part. The results of these calculations show an excellent agreement with the semi-empirical values in the above-mentioned energy range. (author)

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.508 - Electronic data processing (EDP) tape and instrumentation tape (wide and intermediate band).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic data...

  5. The molecular electron density distribution meeting place of X-ray diffraction and quantum chemistry intermediate - between theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, D.; Feil, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    Quantum chemistry and the concepts used daily in chemistry are increasingly growing apart. Among the concepts that are able to bridge the gap between theory and experimental practice, electron density distribution has an important place. The study of this distribution has led to new developments in

  6. ALMA Images of the Host Cloud of the Intermediate-mass Black Hole Candidate CO‑0.40–0.22*: No Evidence for Cloud–Black Hole Interaction, but Evidence for a Cloud–Cloud Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports a reanalysis of archival ALMA data of the high velocity(-width) compact cloud CO‑0.40–0.22, which has recently been hypothesized to host an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). If beam-smearing effects, difference in beam sizes among frequency bands, and Doppler shift due to the motion of the Earth are considered accurately, none of the features reported as evidence for an IMBH in previous studies are confirmed in the reanalyzed ALMA images. Instead, through analysis of the position–velocity structure of the HCN J = 3–2 data cube, we have found kinematics typical of a cloud–cloud collision (CCC), namely, two distinct velocity components bridged by broad emission features with elevated temperatures and/or densities. One velocity component has a straight filamentary shape with approximately constant centroid velocities along its length but with a steep, V-shaped velocity gradient across its width. This contradicts the IMBH scenario but is consistent with a collision between two dissimilar-sized clouds. From a non-LTE analysis of the multitransition methanol lines, the volume density of the post-shock gas has been measured to be ≳106 cm‑3, indicating that the CCC shock can compress gas in a short timescale to densities typical of star-forming regions. Evidence for star formation has not been found, possibly because the cloud is in an early phase of CCC-triggered star formation or because the collision is nonproductive.

  7. Radical intermediates involved in the bleaching of the carotenoid crocin. Hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bors, W.; Saran, M.; Michel, C.

    1982-01-01

    The participation of the primary radicals in the bleaching of aqueous solutions of the carotenoid crocin by ionizing radiation was investigated, employing both X-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis. The pulse-radiolytic data demonstrated a very rapid diffusion-controlled attack by both hydroxyl radicals (radicalsOH) and hydrated electrons (e - sub(aq)), while superoxide anions (O 2 - ) did not react at all. The site of the initial reaction of these radicals was not limited to the polyene chromophore. Slower secondary reactions involving crocin alkyl or peroxy radicals contribute mainly to the overall bleaching, in particular during steady-state irradiation. (author)

  8. Indirect contributions to electron-impact ionization of Li+ (1 s 2 s S31 ) ions: Role of intermediate double-K -vacancy states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Borovik, A.; Huber, K.; Schippers, S.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2018-02-01

    Fine details of the cross section for electron-impact ionization of metastable two-electron Li+(1 s 2 s S31) ions are scrutinized by both experiment and theory. Beyond direct knockoff ionization, indirect ionization mechanisms proceeding via formation of intermediate double-K-vacancy (hollow) states either in a Li+ ion or in a neutral lithium atom and subsequent emission of one or two electrons, respectively, can contribute to the net production of Li2 + ions. The partial cross sections for such contributions are less than 4% of the total single-ionization cross section. The characteristic steps, resonances, and interference phenomena in the indirect ionization contribution are measured with an experimental energy spread of less than 0.9 eV and with a statistical relative uncertainty of the order of 1.7%, requiring a level of statistical uncertainty in the total single-ionization cross section of better than 0.05%. The measurements are accompanied by convergent-close-coupling calculations performed on a fine energy grid. Theory and experiment are in remarkable agreement concerning the fine details of the ionization cross section. Comparison with previous R-matrix results is less favorable.

  9. Structural, dynamic, electronic, and vibrational properties of flexible, intermediate, and stressed rigid As-Se glasses and liquids from first principles molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchy, M.; Kachmar, A.; Micoulaut, M.

    2014-01-01

    The structural, vibrational, electronic, and dynamic properties of amorphous and liquid As x Se 1-x (0.10 intermediate phase in these glassy networks, observed at 0.27

  10. Structural, dynamic, electronic, and vibrational properties of flexible, intermediate, and stressed rigid As-Se glasses and liquids from first principles molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauchy, M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1593 (United States); Kachmar, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Micoulaut, M., E-mail: mmi@lptl.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Matière Condensée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-11-21

    The structural, vibrational, electronic, and dynamic properties of amorphous and liquid As{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} (0.10 intermediate phase in these glassy networks, observed at 0.27

  11. Melanoides tuberculata as intermediate host of Centrocestus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Melanoides tuberculata that naturally harbored trematode larvae were collected at the irrigation system in Ain Soltan's oasis (southwest of Tunisia), during malacological surveys conducted from January to. December 2013. From 2160 specimens of M. tuberculata collected, 31 (1.4%) were infected by the.

  12. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  13. Photoproduction of One-Electron Reducing Intermediates by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM): Relation to O2- and H2O2 Photoproduction and CDOM Photooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Blough, Neil V

    2016-10-06

    A molecular probe, 3-amino-2,2,5,5,-tetramethy-1-pyrrolydinyloxy (3ap), was employed to determine the formation rates of one-electron reducing intermediates generated photochemically from both untreated and borohydride-reduced Suwanee River fulvic and humic acids (SRFA and SRHA, respectively). This stable nitroxyl radical reacts rapidly with reducing radicals and other one-electron reductants to produce a relatively stable product, the hydroxylamine, which can be derivatized with fluorescamine, separated by HPLC and quantified fluorimetrically. We provide evidence that O 2 and 3ap compete for the same pool(s) of photoproduced reducing intermediates, and that under appropriate experimental conditions, the initial rate of hydroxylamine formation (R H ) can provide an estimate of the initial rate of superoxide (O 2 - ) formation. However, comparison of the initial rates of H 2 O 2 formation (R H2O2 ) to that of R H show far larger ratios of R H /R H2O2 (∼6-13) than be accounted for by simple O 2 - dismutation (R H /R H2O2 = 2), implying a significant oxidative sink of O 2 - (∼67-85%). Because of their high reactivity with O 2 - and their likely importance in the photochemistry of CDOM, we suggest that coproduced phenoxy radicals could represent a viable oxidative sink. Because O 2 - /phenoxy radical reactions can lead to more highly oxidized products, O 2 - could be playing a far more significant role in the photooxidation of CDOM than has been previously recognized.

  14. Inclusion of electron correlation for the target wave function in low- to intermediate-energy e-N2 scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherford, C. A.; Brown, F. B.; Temkin, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a recent calculation, an exact exchange method was developed for use in the partial-differential-equation approach to electron-molecule scattering and was applied to e-N2 scattering in the fixed-nuclei approximation with an adiabatic polarization potential at low energies (0-10 eV). Integrated elastic cross sections were calculated and found to be lower than experiment at energies both below and above the Pi(g) resonance. It was speculated at that time that improved experimental agreement could be obtained if a correlated target representation were used in place of the uncorrelated one. The present paper implements this suggestion and demonstrates the improved agreement. These calculations are also extended to higher energies (0-30 eV) so asd to include the Sigma(u) resonance. Some discrepancies among the experiments and between experiment and the various calculations at very low energy are noted.

  15. Hydride, hydrogen, proton, and electron affinities of imines and their reaction intermediates in acetonitrile and construction of thermodynamic characteristic graphs (TCGs) of imines as a "molecule ID card".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Qiao-Yun; Chen, Qiang; Mei, Lian-Rui

    2010-02-05

    A series of 61 imines with various typical structures were synthesized, and the thermodynamic affinities (defined as enthalpy changes or redox potentials in this work) of the imines to abstract hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the imines to abstract hydrogen atoms and protons, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the imines to abstract electrons in acetonitrile were determined by using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the C=N pi-bond in the imines were estimated. The polarity of the C=N double bond in the imines was examined using a linear free-energy relationship. The idea of a thermodynamic characteristic graph (TCG) of imines as an efficient "Molecule ID Card" was introduced. The TCG can be used to quantitatively diagnose and predict the characteristic chemical properties of imines and their various reaction intermediates as well as the reduction mechanism of the imines. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of thermodynamics for the chemistry of imines but also strongly promote the fast development of the applications of imines.

  16. Dispersão de Biomphalaria straminea, hospedeira intermediária do Schistosoma mansoni, através da distribuição de peixes The spreading of Biomphalaria straminea, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni through the distribution of fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de R. Corrêa

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi focalizado, pela primeira vez o encontro de B. straminea no Estado de São Paulo. Esta espécie vem juntar-se aos planorbídeos já assinalados em nosso Estado. Foram descritos os criadouros, onde a B. straminea foi coletada, localizados em tanques de criação de peixes nas Estações de Piscicultura de Barra Bonita e Americana, Estado de São Paulo, e em um aquário particular na capital dêsse Estado. Fêz-se referência ao transporte de peixes oriundos de zonas do país onde ocorre aquela espécie, Amazonas e Ceará, como responsável pela introdução daquele molusco no Estado. Destacou-se êsse achado pelo perigo que representa a distribuição de peixes da maneira como vem sendo feita atualmente em nosso país, tendo sido julgado necessário o estabelecimento de quarentena para aquêles vindos de zonas infestadas por espécies hospedeiras intermediárias do S. mansoni. Foram relatadas as medidas de combate aos caramujos efetuadas imediatamente após aquela descoberta e os resultados obtidos. Conclui-se que a dispersão passiva da B. straminea pelo transporte de peixes, deve ampliar a distribuição geográfica dêsse planorbídeo, já assinalado na Venezuela, Guianas e no Brasil, sendo que neste último ocorre em tôdas as Unidades Federativas, exceto, no Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro e Territórios.Up the present, the works of collecting planorbids done in 226 municipalities for the elaboration of the geographical distribution chart in the State of São Paulo (Brazil, showed the presence of two intermediate host species of Schistosoma mansoni: Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biompralaria glabrata. Although the technicians from the Psiculture Stations, have not found snails in the water inside the containers used for the transportation of fishes, the ecological conditions of B. straminea in the latest researches are such as to indicate that they have been introduced, in our State through fish transportation imported

  17. Intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate uveitis (IU is described as inflammation in the anterior vitreous, ciliary body and the peripheral retina. In the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN working group′s international workshop for reporting clinical data the consensus reached was that the term IU should be used for that subset of uveitis where the vitreous is the major site of the inflammation and if there is an associated infection (for example, Lyme disease or systemic disease (for example, sarcoidosis. The diagnostic term pars planitis should be used only for that subset of IU where there is snow bank or snowball formation occurring in the absence of an associated infection or systemic disease (that is, "idiopathic". This article discusses the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, investigations and treatment of IU.

  18. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  19. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    .6% of all infections followed by echinostome cercariae (35.0%) and xiphidiocercariae (17.3%). Bithynia fuschiana and M. tuberculata had the most diverse trematode fauna. C. sinensis was not recorded in this study. The VAC pond system in this area, is very important for transmission of minute intestinal trematodes while they play little role in transmission of C. sinensis as its intermediate hosts, bithynid snails, rarely occur in these ponds. From a public health perspective this is positive as the effects of infections with intestinal trematodes are considered mild. On the other hand it is possible that even such subtle effects could have importance in public health as transmission is very intense in the area. And this in combination with the aquaculture importance, reduced marketability of fishes with high metacercariae loads, warrants that control efforts against these trematodes are initiated to reduce transmission in this production system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The morphology of Ichthyophonus sp. in their mugilid hosts (Pisces: Teleostei) and following cultivation in vitro. A light and electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Sierra, A; Alvarez-Pellitero, P

    1999-07-01

    The morphology of Ichthyophonus sp., a parasite of Mugil capito and Liza saliens, was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. The most frequent stage found in the fish hosts was the multinucleate spore, though germinating stages, hyphae, and endospores were also found. Different development patterns were observed in the media assayed for in vitro culture. Optimal growth and development were obtained in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at pH 7. Ultrastructural features of multinucleate spores, both in the fish host and in culture, were a fibrillar thick wall and an electron-lucent matrix, with large glycogen granules, some electron-dense bodies, large vacuoles, lipid inclusions, and endoplasmic reticulum mainly appearing among the nuclei. Mitochondria with scarce tubulovesicular cristae were observed in the different stages, mainly near the wall and the germinating sites. Condensed heterochromatin was rarely seen. A nucleus-associated organelle (NAO) was frequently observed, and dictyosome cisternae and vesicles appeared in its vicinity.

  1. Colligative thermoelectric transport properties in n-type filled CoSb{sub 3} determined by guest electrons in a host lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Soo, E-mail: yslim@pknu.ac.kr, E-mail: wsseo@kicet.re.kr, E-mail: pmoka@lgchem.com [Department of Materials System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48547 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan-Ho; Tak, Jang Yeul; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon, E-mail: yslim@pknu.ac.kr, E-mail: wsseo@kicet.re.kr, E-mail: pmoka@lgchem.com [Energy and Environmental Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology (KICET), Jinju 52851 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol-Hee, E-mail: yslim@pknu.ac.kr, E-mail: wsseo@kicet.re.kr, E-mail: pmoka@lgchem.com; Kim, Tae Hoon; Park, PumSuk [LG Chem/Research Park, Daejeon 34122 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 27909 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jihui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Among many kinds of thermoelectric materials, CoSb{sub 3} has received exceptional attention for automotive waste heat recovery. Its cage structure provides an ideal framework for the realization of phonon-glass electron-crystal strategy, and there have been numerous reports on the enhanced thermoelectric performance through the independent control of the thermal and electrical conductivity by introducing fillers into its cage sites. Herein, we report colligative thermoelectric transport properties in n-type CoSb{sub 3} from the viewpoint of “guest electrons in a host lattice.” Both the Seebeck coefficient and the charge transport properties are fundamentally determined by the concentration of the guest electrons, which are mostly donated by the fillers, in the conduction band of the host CoSb{sub 3}. Comparing this observation to our previous results, colligative relations for both the Seebeck coefficient and the mobility were deduced as functions of the carrier concentration, and thermoelectric transport constants were defined to predict the power factor in filled CoSb{sub 3}. This discovery not only increases the degree of freedom for choosing a filler but also provides the predictability of power factor in designing and engineering the n-type filled CoSb{sub 3} materials.

  2. Colligative thermoelectric transport properties in n-type filled CoSb3 determined by guest electrons in a host lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Soo; Park, Kwan-Ho; Tak, Jang Yeul; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon; Park, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Park, PumSuk; Kim, Il-Ho; Yang, Jihui

    2016-01-01

    Among many kinds of thermoelectric materials, CoSb 3 has received exceptional attention for automotive waste heat recovery. Its cage structure provides an ideal framework for the realization of phonon-glass electron-crystal strategy, and there have been numerous reports on the enhanced thermoelectric performance through the independent control of the thermal and electrical conductivity by introducing fillers into its cage sites. Herein, we report colligative thermoelectric transport properties in n-type CoSb 3 from the viewpoint of “guest electrons in a host lattice.” Both the Seebeck coefficient and the charge transport properties are fundamentally determined by the concentration of the guest electrons, which are mostly donated by the fillers, in the conduction band of the host CoSb 3 . Comparing this observation to our previous results, colligative relations for both the Seebeck coefficient and the mobility were deduced as functions of the carrier concentration, and thermoelectric transport constants were defined to predict the power factor in filled CoSb 3 . This discovery not only increases the degree of freedom for choosing a filler but also provides the predictability of power factor in designing and engineering the n-type filled CoSb 3 materials.

  3. Enhanced Electron Affinity and Exciton Confinement in Exciplex-Type Host: Power Efficient Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs with Low Turn-on Voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Xinxin; Sun, Kaiyong; Sun, Yueming; Huang, Bin; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-27

    A benzimidazole/phosphine oxide hybrid 1,3,5-tris(1-(4-(diphenylphosphoryl)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPOB) was newly designed and synthesized as the electron-transporting component to form an exciplex-type host with the conventional hole-transporting material tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA). Because of the enhanced triplet energy and electron affinity of TPOB, the energy leakage from exciplex-state to the constituting molecule was eliminated. Using energy transfer from exciplex-state, solution-processed blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) achieved an extremely low turn-on voltage of 2.8 V and impressively high power efficiency of 22 lm W(-1). In addition, the efficiency roll-off was very small even at luminance up to 10 000 cd m(-2), which suggested the balanced charge transfer in the emission layer. This study demonstrated that molecular modulation was an effective way to develop efficient exciplex-type host for high performanced PHOLEDs.

  4. Formation of a Parasitophorous Vacuole in a Nonadequate Experimental Host: Electron Microscopical and X-Ray Microanalytical Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižka, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2005), 05-12 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : electron microscopical * x-ray Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  5. Electron-Rich 4-Substituted Spirobifluorenes: Toward a New Family of High Triplet Energy Host Materials for High-Efficiency Green and Sky Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Cassandre; Thiery, Sébastien; Jeannin, Olivier; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jacques, Emmanuel; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Poriel, Cyril

    2017-02-22

    We report herein a detailed structure-properties relationship study of the first examples of electron-rich 4-substituted spirobifluorenes for organic electronic applications, namely, 4-phenyl-N-carbazole-spirobifluorene (4-PhCz-SBF) and 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-spirobifluorene (4-Ph(OMe) 3 -SBF). The incorporation of the electron-rich moieties in the ortho position of the biphenyl linkage (position C4) induces unique properties, very different from those previously described in the literature for this family of semiconductors. Both dyes can be readily synthesized, possess high triplet energies and excellent thermal stability, and their HOMO energy levels are highly increased compared to those of other 4-substituted SBFs. We also provide in this work the first rationalization of the peculiar fluorescence of 4-substituted SBFs. Finally, the present dyes have been successfully incorporated as host in green and blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with high performance either for the green (EQE of 20.2%) or the blue color (EQE of 9.6%). These performances are, to the best of our knowledge, among the highest reported to date for 4-substituted SBF derivatives.

  6. Quantum corrections to conductivity observed at intermediate magnetic fields in a high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboryski, R.; Veje, E.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetoresistance with the field perpendicular to the 2-dimensional electron gas in a high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure at low temperatures is studied. At the lowest magnetic field we observe the weak localization. At magnetic fields, where the product of the mobility and the magnetic field is of the order of unity, the quantum correction to conductivity due to the electron-electron interaction is as a source of magnetoresistance. A consistent analysis of experiments in this regime is for the first time performed. In addition to the well known electron-electron term with the expected temperature dependence, we find a new type of temperature independent quantum correction, which varies logarithmically with mobility. (orig.)

  7. Host diversity begets parasite diversity: bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    It is postulated that disease is a product of adverse habitats. Overpopulation causes overutilization of food supplies, which results in malnutrition and a decrease in resistance to diseases. Examples of such ecological relationships in populations of Canada geese, California quail, red grouse, deer, rabbits, voles, mice and lemmings are presented.

  8. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Hongrong [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zheng, Congyi, E-mail: cctcc202@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Zhu, Ping, E-mail: zhup@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process.

  9. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin; Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hongrong; Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei; Zheng, Congyi; Zhu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process

  10. Elastic electron differential cross sections for argon atom in the intermediate energy range from 40 eV to 300 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Miloš Lj.; Maljković, Jelena B.; Tökési, Károly; Marinković, Bratislav P.

    2018-02-01

    Measurements and calculations for electron elastic differential cross sections (DCS) of argon atom in the energy range from 40 to 300 eV are presented. DCS have been measured in the crossed beam arrangement of the electron spectrometer with an energy resolution of 0.5 eV and angular resolution of 1.5∘ in the range of scattering angles from 20∘ to 126∘. Both angular behaviour and energy dependence of DCS are obtained in a separate sets of experiments, while the absolute scale is achieved via relative flow method, using helium as a reference gas. All data is corrected for the energy transmission function, changes of primary electron beam current and target pressure, and effective path length (volume correction). DCSs are calculated in relativistic framework by expressing the Mott's cross sections in partial wave expansion. Our results are compared with other available data.

  11. Electron scattering cross sections for SF6 and SF5CF3 at intermediate and high energies (100-10000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limao-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; Oller, J.C.; Munoz, A.; Perez, J.M.; Vinodkumar, M.; Garcia, G.; Mason, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    A modified experimental apparatus with improved angular resolution and stability has been used to measure the total electron scattering cross sections for SF 6 and SF 5 CF 3 in the energy range of 100-5000 eV. A detailed analysis of the experimental error sources is provided. The experimental results are compared with integral elastic and inelastic cross sections calculated using the independent atom model approximation and a modified single-center additivity rule for electron energies ranging from 1 to 10,000 eV. The accuracy of these approximations method is discussed through a comparison with the experimental results. Previous cross-sectional data for SF 6 are compared with the present theoretical and experimental results. For SF 5 CF 3 , we present the first electron scattering cross-sectional data for the 100-10,000 eV energy range, as well as the first empirical determination of the molecular polarizability

  12. Application of x-ray nano-particulate markers for the visualization of intermediate layers and interfaces using scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Zakharevich, Andrey M.

    2012-03-01

    In this study the methodology of biological sample preparation for dental research using SEM/EDX has been elaborated. (1)The original cutting equipment supplied with 3D user-controlled sample fixation and an adjustable cooling system has been designed and evaluated. (2) A new approach to the root dentine drying procedure has been developed to preserve structure peculiarities of root dentine. (3) A novel adhesive system with embedded X-Ray nanoparticulate markers has been designed. (4)The technique allowing for visualization of bonding resins, interfaces and intermediate layers between tooth hard tissues and restorative materials of endodontically treated teeth using the X-ray nano-particulate markers has been developed and approved. These methods and approaches were used to compare the objective depth of penetration of adhesive systems of different generations in root dentine. It has been shown that the depth of penetration in dentine is less for adhesive systems of generation VI in comparison with bonding resins of generation V, which is in agreement with theoretical evidence. The depth of penetration depends on the correlation between the direction of dentinal tubules, bonding resin delivery and gravity.

  13. Spectral studies of intermediate species formed in one-electron reactions of bovine liver catalase at room and low temperatures. A comparison with peroxidase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metodiewa, D.; Dunford, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The reactions of native bovine catalase with superoxide and solvated electrons have been investigated using three different methods for generating these reducing substrates: γ-radiolysis of oxygenated or deaerated buffer solutions in the presence of an OH radical scavenger; either xanthine or acetaldehyde with xanthine oxidase; and low-temperature (77 K) γ-radiolysis of buffered ethylene glycol/water solutions with subsequent annealing of samples at 183 K. (Author)

  14. Comparison of hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with porphyry Cu deposits hosted by granitoids and intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks, Kerman Magmatic Arc, Iran: Application of geological, mineralogical and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Seyyed Jabber; Ranjbar, Hojjatollah; Alirezaei, Saeed; Dargahi, Sara; Lentz, David R.

    2018-06-01

    The southern section of the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA) of Iran, known as Kerman Magmatic Arc (KMA) or Kerman copper belt, is a major host to porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits, collectively known as PCDs. In this study, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral angle mapper (SAM) method, combined with field data, mineralogical studies, and spectral analysis are used to determine hydrothermal alteration patterns related to PCDs in the KMA. Gossans developed over some of these porphyry type deposits were mapped using Landsat 8 data. In the NKMA gossans are more developed than in the SKMA due to comparatively lower rate of erosion. The hydrothermal alteration pattern mapped by ASTER data were evaluated using mineralogical and spectral data. ASTER data proved to be useful for mapping the hydrothermal alteration in this semi-arid type of climate. Also Landsat 8 was useful for mapping the iron oxide minerals in the gossans that are associated with the porphyry copper deposits. Our multidisciplinary approach indicates that unlike the PCDs in the northern KMA that are associated with distinct and widespread propylitic alteration, those in the granitoid country rocks lack propylitic alteration or the alteration is only weakly and irregularly developed. The porphyry systems in southern KMA are further distinguished by development of quartz-rich phyllic alteration zones in the outer parts of the PCDs that could be mapped using remote sensing data. Consideration of variations in alteration patterns and specific alteration assemblages are critical in regional exploration for PCDs.

  15. Neutron and photon measurements through concrete from a 15 GeV electron beam on a target-comparison with models and calculations. [Intermediate energy source term, Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, T M [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1979-02-15

    Measurements of neutron and photon dose equivalents from a 15 GeV electron beam striking an iron target inside a scale model of a PEP IR hall are described, and compared with analytic-empirical calculations and with the Monte Carlo code, MORSE. The MORSE code is able to predict both absolute neutron and photon dose equivalents for geometries where the shield is relatively thin, but fails as the shield thickness is increased. An intermediate energy source term is postulated for analytic-empirical neutron shielding calculations to go along with the giant resonance and high energy terms, and a new source term due to neutron capture is postulated for analytic-empirical photon shielding calculations. The source strengths for each energy source term, and each type, are given from analysis of the measurements.

  16. A NEXAFS and mass spectrometry study of cysteine, cystine and insulin irradiated with intermediate energy (0.8 keV) electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, G., E-mail: simoes.grazieli@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rodrigues, F.N. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã, 20270-021 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bernini, R.B. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Duque de Caxias, 25050-100 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castro, C.S.C. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia – Inmetro, 25250-020 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de, E-mail: gerson@iq.ufrj.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Structural modifications in sulfur containing biomolecules were investigated. • Significant modifications were observed in insulin irradiated NEXAFS spectra. • Degradation of insulin can be observed even at low temperature. • Alterations in insulin spectrum were characterized according to the state of sulfur. - Abstract: We have performed a NEXAFS (S 1s) and mass spectrometry study of solid samples of cysteine, cystine and insulin irradiated with 0.8 keV electrons. The measured mass spectra point out to processes of desulfurization, deamination, decarbonylation and decarboxylation in the irradiated biomolecules. Electron beam irradiation was also conducted at low temperatures in order to evaluate the possible contribution from thermal degradation processes. The NEXAFS spectra of irradiated cysteine and cystine did not show substantial changes when compared to the same spectra obtained using non-irradiated samples. The sulfur K-edge photoabsorption spectrum of irradiated insulin, however, showed clear modifications when compared to the spectrum of the non-irradiated protein, even when the irradiation was conducted at low temperature. Using an empirical combination of the photoabsorption spectra of cysteine and cystine (which are associated respectively with reduced and oxidized forms of sulfur) we have been able to reproduce the absorption spectrum of irradiated insulin.

  17. Intermediality and media change

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book is about intermediality as an approach to analysing and understanding media change. Intermediality and Media Change is critical of technological determinism that characterises 'new media discourse' about the ongoing digitalization, framed as a revolution and creating sharp contrasts between old and new media. Intermediality instead emphasises paying attention to continuities between media of all types and privileges a comparative perspective on technological changes in media over ti...

  18. Pulse radiolysis studies on the formation and transformation of the one-electron reduced intermediate of Kalafungin and an analogue solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Packer, J.E.; Brimble, A.; Nairn, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Kalafungin 1 is a member of the pyranonaphthoquinone family of antibiotics which are produced various species of Streptomyces and have in common the benzoisochromanquinone skeleton. Apart from their already documented activity against Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and mycoplasmas, it has been suggested that in vivo reduction causes a transformation to an active hydroquinone form which functions as a bis-alkylating agent. 2 Moore 2 , 3 has suggested that these pyranonaphthoquinones may exhibit antitumour activity since the proposed mechanism of action resembles that of the anticancer agent mitomycin C 3. 2 . Rapid one-electron reduction of kalafungin 1 and a closely related analogue 2 has been carried out using The University of Auckland's pulse radiolysis facility. Pulsed electrons (4 Gy in 200 ns from a 4 MeV linear accelerator) were delivered to de-aerated aqueous solutions (10 mmol.L -1 phosphate, pH 7.0) containing 0.1 mol.L -1 sodium formate and 50 - 200 μmol.L -1 kalafungin 1 or lactol 2. Radical formation and transformations were followed by time-resolved uv/visible spectrophotometry. The transformations observed are independent of both the concentration of the parent compound and radiation doses (i.e. semiquinone concentration). The accompanying changes in absorption are consistent with the radical centre of the semiquinone species undergoing intramolecular rearrangement onto the fused non-aromatic ring structure of the compound. Possible ring opening mechanisms and the position of radical relocalisation will be discussed, as well as the involvement of radical transformation and redox chemistry in the biological activity of kalafungin1

  19. Effects of the impurity-host interactions on the nonradiative processes in ZnS:Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablero, C.

    2010-11-01

    There is a great deal of controversy about whether the behavior of an intermediate band in the gap of semiconductors is similar or not to the deep-gap levels. It can have significant consequences, for example, on the nonradiative recombination. In order to analyze the behavior of an intermediate band, we have considered the effect of the inward and outward displacements corresponding to breathing and longitudinal modes of Cr-doped ZnS and on the charge density for different processes involved in the nonradiative recombination using first-principles. This metal-doped zinc chalcogenide has a partially filled band within the host semiconductor gap. In contrast to the properties exhibited by deep-gap levels in other systems, we find small variations in the equilibrium configurations, forces, and electronic density around the Cr when the nonradiative recombination mechanisms modify the intermediate band charge. The charge density around the impurity is equilibrated in response to the perturbations in the equilibrium nuclear configuration and the charge of the intermediate band. The equilibration follows a Le Chatelier principle through the modification of the contribution from the impurity to the intermediate band and to the valence band. The intermediate band introduced by Cr in ZnS for the concentrations analyzed makes the electronic capture difficult and later multiphonon emission in the charge-transfer processes, in accordance with experimental results.

  20. Measurements of differential cross sections with electrons of intermediate energy (300-1000 eV) scattered by atom and molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    Differential Elastic Cross Sections for electrons scattered by osub(2) and Ar in the angular range 5 sup(0)- 140 sup(0) were measured in the energy range between 300 and 1000 eV. The Relative Flow Technique proposed by SRIVASTAVA et alii (1975) was used. Absolute Differential Elastic Cross Section data from DuBOIS and RUDD (1976) for Nsub(2) were stablished as a secondary standard. Our obtained results for Ar at 400, 800 and 1000 eV were compared against experimental and theoretical results available in the literature. For molecular Oxygen at 300, 400, 800 and 1000 eV our experimental data were compared with values from other authors and also theoretical values from Independent Atom Model including Multiple Intramolecular Scattering. Results for Ar at 1000 eV in the angular range between 60 sup(0) and 140 sup(0) and for osub(2) at 800 and 100 eV, between 5 sup(0) and 120 sup(0), were reported for the first time. (author)

  1. Electrochemical behavior of two and one electron redox systems adsorbed on to micro- and mesoporous silicate materials: Influence of the channels and the cationic environment of the host materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Kumar, K.; Natarajan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of two electron redox system, phenosafranine (PS + ) adsorbed on to micro- and mesoporous materials is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry using modified micro- and mesoporous host electrodes. Two redox peaks were observed when phenosafranine is adsorbed on the surface of microporous materials zeolite-Y and ZSM-5. However, only a single redox peak was observed in the modified electrode with phenosafranine encapsulated into the mesoporous material MCM-41 and when adsorbed on the external surface of silica. The observed redox peaks for the modified electrodes with zeolite-Y and ZSM-5 host are suggested to be primarily due to consecutive two electron processes. The peak separation ΔE and peak potential of phenosafranine adsorbed on zeolite-Y and ZSM-5 were found to be influenced by the pH of the electrolyte solution. The variation of the peak current in the cyclic voltammogram and differential pulse voltammetry with scan rate shows that electrodic processes are controlled by the nature of the surface of the host material. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants for phenosafranine adsorbed on to micro- and mesoporous materials were calculated using the Laviron model. Higher rate constant observed for the dye encapsulated into the MCM-41 indicates that the one-dimensional channel of the mesoporous material provides a more facile micro-environment for phenosafranine for the electron transfer reaction as compared to the microporous silicate materials. The stability of the modified electrode surface was investigated by multisweep cyclic voltammetry.

  2. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  3. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  4. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  5. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende

  6. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  7. Nuclear physics with intermediate energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear physics is the study of strongly interacting matter and of the forces which govern its structure and dynamics. The goal of this paper is to give an understanding of nuclei as quantal many-body systems and of the nature of the strong force, ultimately in terms of the presumed underlying theory of quantum chromodynamics. The latter task will require a deeper understanding of hadron structure and of color confinement and, in turn, will provide the basis for exploring the structure of matter under extreme conditions, such as very high density or temperature. This program covers a very broad range of phenomena, theoretical concepts, and experimental tools and is reflected in the diverse degrees of freedom invoked in various contexts. This is indicated where degrees of freedom loosely identified with successively smaller distance scales are indicated. Very importantly, theoretical bridges have been built between the phenomenological descriptions associated with each set of degress of freedom. The mean field, determined self-consistently from the interactions of nucleons in quantum orbits, provides the basis for much of the authors microscopic understanding of nuclear structure and of our characterization of nuclear scattering processes. However, the authors are only beginning to address quantitatively the physics associated with short-range correlations, physics which takes us beyond the mean field description. The nuclear force has a very successful semi-phenomenological description in terms of hadronic degrees of freedom, both mesons and nucleon isobars. More problematic, of course, is our understanding of hadron structure and dynamics in terms of QCD

  8. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  9. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Unionicola tetrafurcatus (Acari: Unionicolidae) infecting four freshwater bivalve species with referring to histopathological effect on its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Fol, Mona; Al Quraishy, Saleh

    2018-05-08

    Water mites of the genus Unionicola are the most common symbionts of freshwater bivalves. During the current investigation, a total of 120 live freshwater mussels [Corbicula fluminea (Veneroida), Coelatura aegyptiaca (Unionoidea) Mutela rostrata and Chambardia rubens (Mutelidae)], were collected from 2 localities in Tura (Helwan Governorate) and El Kanater (Qaluobiya Governorate), Egypt. Only 3 of the 4 bivalve species listed are considered freshwater bivalves (members of Unionoidea). While, C. fluminea belong to the family Cyrenidae within Veneroida. The collected mussels were dissected and examined for the presence of unionicolid mites. It was found that 30.83% (37/120) were infected with a single mite species Unionicola tetrafurcatus (Unionicolidae). The highest prevalence was observed during the summer with 83.33% (25/30), whereas the least was observed in autumn, i.e. 33.33% (10/30). Mites were recovered from the gills, gonads, and visceral mass of mussel hosts. gills of host mussels were the primary site of oviposition for unionicola mites. Smaller bivalves in size had significantly greater numbers of mites than larger ones in size. Numbers of mites per host species was variable and the highest prevalence level of 83.33% (25/30) was recorded in C. fluminea, while, the lowest one of 16.66% (5/30) was found in C. rubens. Morphological and morphometric characterizations of mites revealed some differences between the present species and other related Unionicola. Histopathological responses of host mussels to the eggs, larvae, and cuticular remnants of U. tetrafurcatus were also studied. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that freshwater bivalves have a new host and locality records for infection with U. tetrafurcatus. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these mites.

  10. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  11. Money distribution with intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago

    2013-01-01

    This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...

  12. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): Importance of steric and electronic effects on the unusual cyclization of the sulfenic acid intermediate to a sulfenyl amide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bani Kanta

    2013-09-01

    The redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) via the unusual transformation of its sulfenic acid (PTP1B-SOH) to a cyclic sulfenyl amide intermediate is studied by using small molecule chemical models. These studies suggest that the sulfenic acids derived from the H2O2-mediated reactions o-amido thiophenols do not efficiently cyclize to sulfenyl amides and the sulfenic acids produced in situ can be trapped by using methyl iodide. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most stable conformer of such sulfenic acids are stabilized by nO → σ*S-OH orbital interactions, which force the -OH group to adopt a position trans to the S⋯O interaction, leading to an almost linear arrangement of the O⋯S-O moiety and this may be the reason for the slow cyclization of such sulfenic acids to their corresponding sulfenyl amides. On the other hand, additional substituents at the 6-position of o-amido phenylsulfenic acids that can induce steric environment and alter the electronic properties around the sulfenic acid moiety by S⋯N or S⋯O nonbonded interactions destabilize the sulfenic acids by inducing strain in the molecule. This may lead to efficient the cyclization of such sulfenic acids. This model study suggests that the amino acid residues in the close proximity of the sulfenic acid moiety in PTP1B may play an important role in the cyclization of PTP1B-SOH to produce the corresponding sulfenyl amide.

  13. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  14. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  15. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  16. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  17. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  18. Structural stability at high pressure, electronic, and magnetic properties of BaFZnAs: A new candidate of host material of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bi-Juan; Deng Zheng; Wang Xian-Cheng; Feng Shao-Min; Yuan Zhen; Zhang Si-Jia; Liu Qing-Qing; Jin Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The layered semiconductor BaFZnAs with the tetragonal ZrCuSiAs-type structure has been successfully synthesized. Both the in-situ high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and the high-pressure Raman scattering measurements demonstrate that the structure of BaFZnAs is stable under pressure up to 17.5 GPa at room temperature. The resistivity and the magnetic susceptibility data show that BaFZnAs is a non-magnetic semiconductor. BaFZnAs is recommended as a candidate of the host material of diluted magnetic semiconductor. (special topic)

  19. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  20. Exploring the potential of host-environment relationship in the control of schistosomiasis in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of human disease prevalences are supported by host-parasite-environment interactions. One such disease is schistosomiasis. Schistosoma parasites are transmitted between the snail intermediate hosts and mammalian definitive hosts in an aquatic environment. This host-environment link

  1. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Jesus had assumed. (concerning the 'intermediate state') as existing, anything which does not exist. Three basic things about the intermediate state emerge from the parable: (a) Jesus recognizes that at the moment of death, in ipso articulo.

  2. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  3. Host sharing and host manipulation by larval helminths in shore crabs: cooperation or conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Nichol, Katherine; Latham, A David M

    2003-04-01

    Larval helminths of different species that share the same intermediate host and are transmitted by predation to the same definitive host may cooperate in their attempts to manipulate the behaviour of the intermediate host, while at the same time having conflicts of interests over the use of host resources. A few studies have indicated that intermediate hosts harbouring larval helminths have altered concentrations of neurotransmitters in their nervous system, and thus measuring levels of neurotransmitters in host brains could serve to assess the respective and combined effect of different helminth species on host behaviour. Here, we investigate potential cooperation and conflict among three helminths in two species of crab intermediate hosts. The acanthocephalan Profilicollis spp., the trematode Maritrema sp. and an acuariid nematode, all use Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Ocypodidae) as intermediate host, whereas Profilicollis and Maritrema also use Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Grapsidae). All three helminths mature inside gulls or other shore birds. There was a significant decrease in the mean volume of Profilicollis cystacanths as the intensity of infection by this parasite increased in H. crenulatus, the only host in which this was investigated; however, there was no measurable effect of other helminth species on the size of acanthocephalans, suggesting no interspecific conflict over resource use within crabs. There was, in contrast, evidence of a positive interspecific association between the two most common helminth species: numbers of Profilicollis and Maritrema were positively correlated among crabs, independently of crab size, in M. hirtipes but not H. crenulatus. More importantly, we found that the total number of larval helminths per crab correlated significantly, and negatively, with concentrations of serotonin in crab brains, again only in M. hirtipes; numbers of each parasite species separately did not covary in either crab species with serotonin or dopamine, the

  4. Genesis of diamond inclusions: An integrated cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) study on eclogitic and peridotitic inclusions and their diamond host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Quint; Matveev, Sergei; Drury, Martyn; Gress, Michael; Chinn, Ingrid; Davies, Gareth

    2017-04-01

    Diamond inclusions are potentially fundamental to understanding the formation conditions of diamond and the volatile cycles in the deep mantle. In order to fully understand the implications of the compositional information recorded by inclusions it is vital to know whether the inclusions are proto-, syn-, or epigenetic and the extent to which they have equilibrated with diamond forming fluids. In previous studies, the widespread assumption was made that the majority of diamond inclusions are syngenetic, based upon observation of cubo-octahedral morphology imposed on the inclusions. Recent work has reported the crystallographic relationship between inclusions and the host diamond to be highly complex and the lack of crystallographic relationships between inclusions and diamonds has led some to question the significance of imposed cubo-octahedral morphology. This study presents an integrated EBSD and CL study of 9 diamonds containing 20 pyropes, 2 diopsides, 1 forsterite and 1 rutile from the Jwaneng and Letlhakane kimberlite clusters, Botswana. A new method was developed to analyze the crystallographic orientation of the host diamond and the inclusions with EBSD. Diamonds plates were sequentially polished to expose inclusions at different levels in the diamond. CL imaging at different depths was performed in order to produce a 3D view of diamond growth zones around the inclusions. Standard diamond polishing techniques proved too aggressive for silicate inclusions as they were damaged to such a degree that EBSD measurements on the inclusions were impossible. The inclusions were milled with a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) at a 12° angle to clean the surface for EBSD measurements. Of the 24 inclusions, 9 have an imposed cubo-octahedral morphology. Of these inclusions, 6 have faces orientated parallel to diamond growth zones and/or appear to have nucleated on a diamond growth surface, implying syngenesis. In contrast, other diamonds record resorption events such that

  5. Far from the intermediate nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.; Wagner, G.J.; Gregoire, C.; Campi, X.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Platchkov, S.; Mayer, B.; Abgrall, Y.; Bohigas, O.; Grange, P.; Signarbieux, C.

    1988-01-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclear physics; the BCS state and quasi-particles; the layer model; collision effects on nuclear dynamics; the theory of cluster formation (application to nucleus fragmentation); short range correlations (few-particle systems); deuterium electron scattering; dibaryonic resonances; traditional and exotic hadron probes of nuclear structure; spectral fluctuations and chaotic motion; corrections to the intermediate nuclear field (nonrelativistic and other effects); and heavy nuclei splitting and nuclear superfluidity are introduced [fr

  6. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  7. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  8. Ab initio and density functional theoretical design and screening of model crown ether based ligand (host) for extraction of lithium metal ion (guest): effect of donor and electronic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Anil; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Rao, Hanmanth; Ghosh, Sandip K

    2012-08-01

    The structures, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of model crown ethers with different donor, cavity and electron donating/ withdrawing functional group have been determined with ab initio MP2 and density functional theory in gas and solvent phase. The calculated values of binding energy/ enthalpy for lithium ion complexation are marginally higher for hard donor based aza and oxa crown compared to soft donor based thia and phospha crown. The calculated values of binding enthalpy for lithium metal ion with 12C4 at MP2 level of theory is in good agreement with the available experimental result. The binding energy is altered due to the inductive effect imparted by the electron donating/ withdrawing group in crown ether, which is well correlated with the values of electron transfer. The role of entropy for extraction of hydrated lithium metal ion by different donor and functional group based ligand has been demonstrated. The HOMO-LUMO gap is decreased and dipole moment of the ligand is increased from gas phase to organic phase because of the dielectric constant of the solvent. The gas phase binding energy is reduced in solvent phase as the solvent molecules weaken the metal-ligand binding. The theoretical values of extraction energy for LiCl salt from aqueous solution in different organic solvent is validated by the experimental trend. The study presented here should contribute to the design of model host ligand and screening of solvent for metal ion recognition and thus can contribute in planning the experiments.

  9. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  10. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers

  11. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  12. Discourses and Models of Intermediality

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Discourses and Models of Intermediality" Jens Schröter discusses the question as to what relations do different discourses pose between different "media." Schröter identifies four models of discourse: 1) synthetic intermediality: a "fusion" of different media to super-media, a model with roots in the Wagnerian concept of Gesamtkunstwerk with political connotations, 2) formal (or transmedial) intermediality: a concept based on formal structures not "specific" to one medium but ...

  13. Information acquisition and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchenko, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...

  14. Multi-host model-based identification of Armillifer agkistrodontis (Pentastomida), a new zoonotic parasite from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Hong; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yong-Nian; Chen, Jia-Xu; Li, Hao; Chen, Ying; Steinmann, Peter; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-04-06

    Pentastomiasis is a rare parasitic infection of humans. Pentastomids are dioecious obligate parasites requiring multiple hosts to complete their lifecycle. Despite their worm-like appearance, they are commonly placed into a separate sub-class of the subphylum Crustacea, phylum Arthropoda. However, their systematic position is not uncontested and historically, they have been considered as a separate phylum. An appraisal of Armillifer agkistrodontis was performed in terms of morphology and genetic identification after its lifecycle had been established in a multi-host model, i.e., mice and rats as intermediate hosts, and snakes (Agkistrodon acutus and Python molurus) as definitive hosts. Different stages of the parasite, including eggs, larvae and adults, were isolated and examined morphologically using light and electron microscopes. Phylogenetic and cluster analysis were also undertaken, focusing on the 18S rRNA and the Cox1 gene. The time for lifecycle completion was about 14 months, including 4 months for the development of eggs to infectious larvae in the intermediate host and 10 months for infectious larvae to mature in the final host. The main morphological difference between A. armillatus and Linguatula serrata is the number of abdominal annuli. Based on the 18S rRNA sequence, the shortest hereditary distance was found between A. agkistrodontis and Raillietiella spp. The highest degree of homology in the Cox 1 nucleic acid sequences and predicted amino acid sequences was found between A. agkistrodontis and A. armillatus. This is the first time that a multi-host model of the entire lifecycle of A. agkistrodontis has been established. Morphologic and genetic analyses supported the notion that pentastomids should be placed into the phylum Arthropoda.

  15. Multi-host model-based identification of Armillifer agkistrodontis (Pentastomida, a new zoonotic parasite from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pentastomiasis is a rare parasitic infection of humans. Pentastomids are dioecious obligate parasites requiring multiple hosts to complete their lifecycle. Despite their worm-like appearance, they are commonly placed into a separate sub-class of the subphylum Crustacea, phylum Arthropoda. However, their systematic position is not uncontested and historically, they have been considered as a separate phylum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An appraisal of Armillifer agkistrodontis was performed in terms of morphology and genetic identification after its lifecycle had been established in a multi-host model, i.e., mice and rats as intermediate hosts, and snakes (Agkistrodon acutus and Python molurus as definitive hosts. Different stages of the parasite, including eggs, larvae and adults, were isolated and examined morphologically using light and electron microscopes. Phylogenetic and cluster analysis were also undertaken, focusing on the 18S rRNA and the Cox1 gene. The time for lifecycle completion was about 14 months, including 4 months for the development of eggs to infectious larvae in the intermediate host and 10 months for infectious larvae to mature in the final host. The main morphological difference between A. armillatus and Linguatula serrata is the number of abdominal annuli. Based on the 18S rRNA sequence, the shortest hereditary distance was found between A. agkistrodontis and Raillietiella spp. The highest degree of homology in the Cox 1 nucleic acid sequences and predicted amino acid sequences was found between A. agkistrodontis and A. armillatus. CONCLUSION: This is the first time that a multi-host model of the entire lifecycle of A. agkistrodontis has been established. Morphologic and genetic analyses supported the notion that pentastomids should be placed into the phylum Arthropoda.

  16. The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models

  17. Soft electronic structure modulation of surface (thin-film) and bulk (ceramics) morphologies of TiO{sub 2}-host by Pb-implantation: XPS-and-DFT characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatsepin, D.A. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Boukhvalov, D.W., E-mail: danil@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics Department, Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, N.V. [Institute of Electrophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Zatsepin, A.F. [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Shur, V.Ya.; Esin, A.A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave, 620000 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kim, S.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kurmaev, E.Z. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and theory demonstrate significant difference between patterns of Pb-ion implantation in TiO{sub 2}. • In bulk TiO{sub 2} Pb-impurities leads formation of PbO phase. • On the surface of TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur formation of PbxOy configurations. • In both bulk and surface TiO{sub 2}:Pb occur decreasing of the bandgap by shift of valence band about 1 eV up. - Abstract: The results of combined experimental and theoretical study of substitutional and clustering effects in the structure of Pb-doped TiO{sub 2}-hosts (bulk ceramics and thin-film morphologies) are presented. Pb-doping of the bulk and thin-film titanium dioxide was made with the help of pulsed ion-implantation without posterior tempering (Electronic Structure Modulation Mode). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) qualification of core-levels and valence bands and Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were employed in order to study the yielded electronic structure of Pb-ion modulated TiO{sub 2} host-matrices. The combined XPS-and-DFT analysis has agreed definitely with the scenario of the implantation stimulated appearance of PbO-like structures in the bulk morphology of TiO{sub 2}:Pb, whereas in thin-film morphology the PbO{sub 2}-like structure becomes dominating, essentially contributing weak O/Pb bonding (Pb{sub x}O{sub y} defect clusters). The crucial role of the oxygen hollow-type vacancies for the process of Pb-impurity “insertion” into the structure of bulk TiO{sub 2} was pointed out employing DFT-based theoretical background. Both experiment and theory established clearly the final electronic structure re-arrangement of the bulk and thin-film morphologies of TiO{sub 2} because of the Pb-modulated deformation and shift of the initial Valence Base-Band Width about 1 eV up.

  18. Peroxynitrite efficiently mediates the interconversion of redox intermediates of myeloperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtmueller, Paul Georg; Jantschko, Walter; Zederbauer, Martina; Schwanninger, Manfred; Jakopitsch, Christa; Herold, Susanna; Koppenol, Willem H.; Obinger, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide-derived oxidants (e.g., peroxynitrite) are believed to participate in antimicrobial activities as part of normal host defenses but also in oxidative tissue injury in inflammatory disorders. A similar role is ascribed to the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), the most abundant protein of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which are the terminal phagocytosing effector cells of the innate immune system. Concomitant production of peroxynitrite and release of millimolar MPO are characteristic events during phagocytosis. In order to understand the mode of interaction between MPO and peroxynitrite, we have performed a comprehensive stopped-flow investigation of the reaction between all physiological relevant redox intermediates of MPO and peroxynitrite. Both iron(III) MPO and iron(II) MPO are rapidly converted to compound II by peroxynitrite in monophasic reactions with calculated rate constants of (6.8 ± 0.1) x 10 6 M -1 s -1 and (1.3 ± 0.2) x 10 6 M -1 s -1 , respectively (pH 7.0 and 25 deg C). Besides these one- and two-electron reduction reactions of peroxynitrite, which produce nitrogen dioxide and nitrite, a one-electron oxidation to the oxoperoxonitrogen radical must occur in the fast monophasic transition of compound I to compound II mediated by peroxynitrite at pH 7.0 [(7.6 ± 0.1) x 10 6 M -1 s -1 ]. In addition, peroxynitrite induced a steady-state transition from compound III to compound II with a rate of (1.0 ± 0.3) x 10 4 M -1 s -1 . Thus, the interconversion among the various oxidation states of MPO that is prompted by peroxynitrite is remarkable. Reaction mechanisms are proposed and the physiological relevance is discussed

  19. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  20. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  1. Shifts in diversification rates and host jump frequencies shaped the diversity of host range among Sclerotiniaceae fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaud, Olivier; Barbacci, Adelin; Taylor, Andrew; Clarkson, John P; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    The range of hosts that a parasite can infect in nature is a trait determined by its own evolutionary history and that of its potential hosts. However, knowledge on host range diversity and evolution at the family level is often lacking. Here, we investigate host range variation and diversification trends within the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of Ascomycete fungi. Using a phylogenetic framework, we associate diversification rates, the frequency of host jump events and host range variation during the evolution of this family. Variations in diversification rate during the evolution of the Sclerotiniaceae define three major macro-evolutionary regimes with contrasted proportions of species infecting a broad range of hosts. Host-parasite cophylogenetic analyses pointed towards parasite radiation on distant hosts long after host speciation (host jump or duplication events) as the dominant mode of association with plants in the Sclerotiniaceae. The intermediate macro-evolutionary regime showed a low diversification rate, high frequency of duplication events and the highest proportion of broad host range species. Our findings suggest that the emergence of broad host range fungal pathogens results largely from host jumps, as previously reported for oomycete parasites, probably combined with low speciation rates. These results have important implications for our understanding of fungal parasites evolution and are of particular relevance for the durable management of disease epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Glycoconjugates in host-helminth interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Salinger Prasanphanich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Helminths are multicellular parasitic worms that comprise a major class of human pathogens and cause an immense amount of suffering worldwide. Helminths possess an abundance of complex and unique glycoconjugates that interact with both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity in definitive and intermediate hosts. These glycoconjugates represent a major untapped reservoir of immunomodulatory compounds, which have the potential to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, and antigenic glycans, which could be exploited as vaccines and diagnostics. This review will survey current knowledge of the interactions between helminth glycans and host immunity and highlight the gaps in our understanding which are relevant to advancing therapeutics, vaccine development and diagnostics.

  3. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  4. Intermediate neutron spectrum problems and the intermediate neutron spectrum experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Criticality benchmark data for intermediate energy spectrum systems does not exist. These systems are dominated by scattering and fission events induced by neutrons with energies between 1 eV and 1 MeV. Nuclear data uncertainties have been reported for such systems which can not be resolved without benchmark critical experiments. Intermediate energy spectrum systems have been proposed for the geological disposition of surplus fissile materials. Without the proper benchmarking of the nuclear data in the intermediate energy spectrum, adequate criticality safety margins can not be guaranteed. The Zeus critical experiment now under construction will provide this necessary benchmark data

  5. Associate host in single-layer co-host polymer electrophosphorescent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanmin; Teng Feng; Feng Bin; Wang Yongsheng; Xu Xurong

    2006-01-01

    The definition and role of 'host' in polymer LED materials are studied in the present work. 'Primary host' and 'associate host' have been proposed and the rules of how to select an associate host are reported. Based on our experiments and the analysis of the energy scheme of the devices, we suggest that the values of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) are critical determinant in selecting a suitable associate host. On one hand, the associate host should be a hole-blocking material. This can confine the excitons in the active layer. On the other hand, the associate host should have a suitable LUMO that is convenient for electrons to transport

  6. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges: Measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Hübner, S.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der, E-mail: jjamvandermullen@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG–Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon statistics while the low energy per pulse avoids intrusive plasma laser interactions. An analysis shows that, despite the low energy per pulse, saturation can still be achieved even when the geometrical overlap and spectral overlap are optimal. Out of the various studies that can be performed with this setup we confine the current paper to the study of the direct responses to the laser pump action of three 4p and one 5p levels of the Ar system. By changing the plasma in a controlled way one gets for these levels the rates of electron and atom quenching and therewith the total destruction rates of electron and atom collisions. Comparison with literature shows that the classical hard sphere collision rate derived for hydrogen gives a good description for the observed electron quenching (e-quenching) in Ar whereas for heavy particle quenching (a-quenching) this agreement was only found for the 5p level. An important parameter in the study of electron excitation kinetics is the location of the boundary in the atomic system for which the number of electron collisions per radiative life time equals unity. It is observed that for the Ar system this boundary is positioned lower than what is expected on grounds of H-like formulas. - Highlights: • Time resolved laser induced fluorescence at high repetition rate • Decay times as function of pressure, electron density and temperature • Measurement of total electron atom depopulation rates • Reasonable agreement of electron total rates with hard sphere approximations.

  7. Intermediate Levels of Visual Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakayama, Ken

    1998-01-01

    ...) surface representation, here we have shown that there is an intermediate level of visual processing, between the analysis of the image and higher order representations related to specific objects; (2...

  8. Comparative analysis of lipopolysaccharides of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kailash P; Choudhury, Biswa; Matthias, Michael M; Baga, Sheyenne; Bandyopadhya, Keya; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2015-10-30

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are complex, amphipathic biomolecules that constitute the major surface component of Gram-negative bacteria. Leptospira, unlike other human-pathogenic spirochetes, produce LPS, which is fundamental to the taxonomy of the genus, involved in host-adaption and also the target of diagnostic antibodies. Despite its significance, little is known of Leptospira LPS composition and carbohydrate structure among different serovars. LPS from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain L1-130, a pathogenic species, and L. licerasiae serovar Varillal strain VAR 010, an intermediately pathogenic species, were studied. LPS prepared from aqueous and phenol phases were analyzed separately. L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni has additional sugars not found in L. licerasiae serovar Varillal, including fucose (2.7%), a high amount of GlcNAc (12.3%), and two different types of dideoxy HexNAc. SDS-PAGE indicated that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni LPS had a far higher molecular weight and complexity than that of L. licerasiae serovar Varillal. Chemical composition showed that L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni LPS has an extended O-antigenic polysaccharide consisting of sugars, not present in L. licerasiae serovar Varillal. Arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and L-glycero-D-mannoheptose were detected in both the species. Fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of hydroxypalmitate (3-OH-C16:0) only in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni. Negative staining electron microscopic examination of LPS showed different filamentous morphologies in L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni vs. L. licerasiae serovar Varillal. This comparative biochemical analysis of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira LPS reveals important carbohydrate and lipid differences that underlie future work in understanding the mechanisms of host-adaptation, pathogenicity and vaccine development in leptospirosis.

  9. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges: Measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, J. M.; Graef, W. A. A. D.; Hübner, S.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG-Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon statistics while the low energy per pulse avoids intrusive plasma laser interactions. An analysis shows that, despite the low energy per pulse, saturation can still be achieved even when the geometrical overlap and spectral overlap are optimal. Out of the various studies that can be performed with this setup we confine the current paper to the study of the direct responses to the laser pump action of three 4p and one 5p levels of the Ar system. By changing the plasma in a controlled way one gets for these levels the rates of electron and atom quenching and therewith the total destruction rates of electron and atom collisions. Comparison with literature shows that the classical hard sphere collision rate derived for hydrogen gives a good description for the observed electron quenching (e-quenching) in Ar whereas for heavy particle quenching (a-quenching) this agreement was only found for the 5p level. An important parameter in the study of electron excitation kinetics is the location of the boundary in the atomic system for which the number of electron collisions per radiative life time equals unity. It is observed that for the Ar system this boundary is positioned lower than what is expected on grounds of H-like formulas.

  10. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  11. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Rubbia, C.; van der Meer, S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 15 years a new class of unified theories has been developed to describe the forces acting between elementary particles. The most successful of the new theories establishes a link between electromagnetism and the weak force. A crucial prediction of this unified electroweak theory is the existence of three massive particles called intermediate vector bosons. If these intermediate vector bosons exist and if they have properties attributed to them by electroweak theory, they should soon be detected, as the world's first particle accelerator with enough energy to create such particles has recently been completed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The accelerator has been converted to a colliding beam machine in which protons and antiprotons collide head on. According to electroweak theory, intermediate vector bosons can be created in proton-antiproton collisions. (SC)

  12. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajn, D.B.; Rubbia, K.; Meer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Problem of registration and search for intermediate vector bosons is discussed. According to weak-current theory there are three intermediate vector bosons with +1(W + )-1(W - ) and zero (Z 0 ) electric charges. It was suggested to conduct the investigation into particles in 1976 by cline, Rubbia and Makintair using proton-antiproton beams. Major difficulties of the experiment are related to the necessity of formation of sufficient amount of antiparticles and the method of antiproton beam ''cooling'' for the purpose of reduction of its random movements. The stochastic method was suggested by van der Meer in 1968 as one of possible cooling methods. Several large detectors were designed for searching intermediate vector bosons

  13. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  14. Host partitioning by parasites in an intertidal crustacean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Anson V; Poulin, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of host use by parasites throughout a guild community of intermediate hosts can depend on several biological and ecological factors, including physiology, morphology, immunology, and behavior. We looked at parasite transmission in the intertidal crustacean community of Lower Portobello Bay, Dunedin, New Zealand, with the intent of: (1) mapping the flow of parasites throughout the major crustacean species, (2) identifying hosts that play the most important transmission role for each parasite, and (3) assessing the impact of parasitism on host populations. The most prevalent parasites found in 14 species of crustaceans (635 specimens) examined were the trematodes Maritrema novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp., the acanthocephalans Profilicollis spp., the nematode Ascarophis sp., and an acuariid nematode. Decapods were compatible hosts for M. novaezealandensis, while other crustaceans demonstrated lower host suitability as shown by high levels of melanized and immature parasite stages. Carapace thickness, gill morphology, and breathing style may contribute to the differential infection success of M. novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp. in the decapod species. Parasite-induced host mortality appears likely with M. novaezealandensis in the crabs Austrohelice crassa, Halicarcinus varius, Hemigrapsus sexdentatus, and Macrophthalmus hirtipes, and also with Microphallus sp. in A. crassa. Overall, the different parasite species make different use of available crustacean intermediate hosts and possibly contribute to intertidal community structure.

  15. Polarization phenomena in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies are discussed. Prospects of polarization experiments at the new CW electron accelerators, as well as on upgraded older machines are outlined. It is concluded that polarization experiments will play a very important role in the study of the structure of the nucleon and of light nuclei. 72 refs

  16. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  17. Experimental investigation of the triple differential cross section for electron impact ionization of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} molecules at intermediate impact energy and large ion recoil momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahmam-Bennani, A; Staicu Casagrande, E M; Naja, A, E-mail: azzedine.bennani@u-psud.f [Universite Paris-Sud 11, Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (LCAM), Bat. 351, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2009-12-14

    The (e,2e) triple differential cross sections (TDCS) are measured for the ionization of nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules in a coplanar asymmetric geometry for a wide range of ejected electron energies and at an incident energy about 500-700 eV. This kinematics corresponds to a large momentum imparted to the ion, and is meant to enhance the recoil scattering. The experimental binary and recoil angular distributions of the TDCS are characterized both by a shift towards larger angles with respect to the momentum transfer direction and by a large intensity in the recoil region, in particular for the ionization of the 'inner' N{sub 2}(2{sigma}{sub g}) molecular orbital. The data are compared with the results of calculations using the first Born approximation-two centre continuum (FBA-TCC) theoretical model for treating differential electron impact ionization. The experimentally observed shifts and recoil intensity enhancement are not predicted by the model calculations, which rather yield a TDCS symmetrically distributed around the momentum transfer direction, and completely fail in describing the recoil distribution. It is hoped that these new results will stimulate the development of more refined theories for correctly modelling single ionization of molecules.

  18. The Destructive Action of IL-1α and IL-1β in IDDM is a Multistage Process: Evidence and Confirmation by Apoptotic Studies, Induction of Intermediates and Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vassiliadis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the rat β-cell RIN-5AH insulinoma line as a means for studying insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, it is shown that interleukin-1 (IL-1 induces β-cell damage initiated by early apoptotic signals. This action is demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, as assessed by specific BrdU labeling, surface expression of Fas and nitric oxide (NO production. In addition, the interplay between NO and Fas is shown, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM confirms apoptosis by revealing the degree and type of cellular damage which, in the case of IL-1α, can be reversed by an inhibitor to NO synthesis. Apoptosis is also reconfirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM by observing condensed nuclear chromatin after IL-1 exposure. Thus, treatment of insulinoma cells with IL-1α and IL-1β seems to initiate a number of signals, including PKC activation as published previously, that ultimately lead to β-cell destruction. Each IL-1 isoform, however, definitely follows a different pathway of action.

  19. Intermediate statistics in quantum maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, Olivier [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Marklof, Jens [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, Stephen [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-16

    We present a one-parameter family of quantum maps whose spectral statistics are of the same intermediate type as observed in polygonal quantum billiards. Our central result is the evaluation of the spectral two-point correlation form factor at small argument, which in turn yields the asymptotic level compressibility for macroscopic correlation lengths. (letter to the editor)

  20. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  1. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  2. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniadakis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials η κκ' . We show that, besides the FD-BE intermediate statistics extensively studied from the quantum point of view, we can also study the MB-FD and MB-BE ones. Moreover, our model allows us to treat the three-state mixing FD-MB-BE intermediate statistics. For boson and fermion mixing in a D-dimensional space, we obtain a family of FD-BE intermediate statistics by varying the transmutational potential η BF . This family contains, as a particular case when η BF =0, the quantum statistics recently proposed by L. Wu, Z. Wu, and J. Sun [Phys. Lett. A 170, 280 (1992)]. When we consider the two-dimensional FD-BE statistics, we derive an analytic expression of the fraction of fermions. When the temperature T→∞, the system is composed by an equal number of bosons and fermions, regardless of the value of η BF . On the contrary, when T=0, η BF becomes important and, according to its value, the system can be completely bosonic or fermionic, or composed both by bosons and fermions

  3. Sparse maps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. I. An efficient and simple linear scaling local MP2 method that uses an intermediate basis of pair natural orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinski, Peter; Riplinger, Christoph; Neese, Frank, E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Valeev, Edward F., E-mail: evaleev@vt.edu, E-mail: frank.neese@cec.mpg.de [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    In this work, a systematic infrastructure is described that formalizes concepts implicit in previous work and greatly simplifies computer implementation of reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. The key concept is sparse representation of tensors using chains of sparse maps between two index sets. Sparse map representation can be viewed as a generalization of compressed sparse row, a common representation of a sparse matrix, to tensor data. By combining few elementary operations on sparse maps (inversion, chaining, intersection, etc.), complex algorithms can be developed, illustrated here by a linear-scaling transformation of three-center Coulomb integrals based on our compact code library that implements sparse maps and operations on them. The sparsity of the three-center integrals arises from spatial locality of the basis functions and domain density fitting approximation. A novel feature of our approach is the use of differential overlap integrals computed in linear-scaling fashion for screening products of basis functions. Finally, a robust linear scaling domain based local pair natural orbital second-order Möller-Plesset (DLPNO-MP2) method is described based on the sparse map infrastructure that only depends on a minimal number of cutoff parameters that can be systematically tightened to approach 100% of the canonical MP2 correlation energy. With default truncation thresholds, DLPNO-MP2 recovers more than 99.9% of the canonical resolution of the identity MP2 (RI-MP2) energy while still showing a very early crossover with respect to the computational effort. Based on extensive benchmark calculations, relative energies are reproduced with an error of typically <0.2 kcal/mol. The efficiency of the local MP2 (LMP2) method can be drastically improved by carrying out the LMP2 iterations in a basis of pair natural orbitals. While the present work focuses on local electron correlation, it is of much broader applicability to computation with sparse tensors in

  4. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  5. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  6. Host-bacterial interplay in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrakshi Chickanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (PubMed and other electronic basis from 1991 to 2014. Search included books and journals based on the systematic and critical reviews, in vitro and in vivo clinical studies on molecular basis of host microbial interactions. Clearly, an understanding of the host susceptibility factor in addition to microbial factors by elucidating the molecular basis offers opportunity for therapeutic manipulation of advancing periodontal destruction. One of the hallmarks of pathogenesis is the ability of pathogenic organisms to invade surrounding tissues and to evade the host defence. This paper focuses the general overview of molecular mechanisms involved in the microbiota and host response to bacterial inimical behavior in periodontics.

  7. Correlated Default and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Financial intermediation naturally arises when knowledge about the aggregate state is valuable for managing investments and lenders cannot easily observe the aggregate state. I show this using a costly enforcement model in which lenders need ex-post incentives to enforce payments from defaulted loans and borrowers' payoffs are correlated. When projects have correlated outcomes, learning the state of one project (via enforcement) provides information about the states of other projects. A large...

  8. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, M.J.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dubach, J.; Beise, E.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed

  9. Crossed-beam experiment for the scattering of low- and intermediate-energy electrons from BF{sub 3}: A comparative study with XF{sub 3} (X = C, N, and CH) molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M., E-mail: masami-h@sophia.ac.jp; Suga, A.; Kato, H.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira da Silva, F. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-14

    Absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interaction with BF{sub 3} molecules have been measured in the impact energy range of 1.5–200 eV and recorded over a scattering angle range of 15°–150°. These angular distributions have been normalized by reference to the elastic DCSs of the He atom and integrated by employing a modified phase shift analysis procedure to generate integral cross sections (ICSs) and momentum transfer cross sections (MTCSs). The calculations of DCSs and ICSs have been carried out using an independent atom model under the screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculation above 20 eV, and also with a recent Schwinger multichannel calculation below 30 eV. Furthermore, in the comparison with the XF{sub 3} (X = B, C, N, and CH) molecules, the elastic DCSs reveal a similar angular distribution which are approximately equal in magnitude from 30 to 200 eV. This feature suggests that the elastic scattering is dominated virtually by the 3-outer fluorine atoms surrounding the XF{sub 3} molecules. The vibrational DCSs have also been obtained in the energy range of 1.5–15 eV and vibrational analysis based on the angular correlation theory has been carried out to explain the nature of the shape resonances. Limited experiments on vibrational inelastic scattering confirmed the existence of a shape resonance with a peak at 3.8 eV, which is also observed in the vibrational ICS. Finally, the estimated elastic ICSs, MTCSs, as well as total cross sections are compared with the previous cross section data available.

  10. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  11. Radiolysis studies on reactive intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, L.

    1977-11-01

    A more quantitative characterization of the structure and reaction mechanism of solvated electrons produced by high energy chemistry was developed. Neutral atoms may undergo solvation in polar media to cause significant geometrical rearrangement. The geometrical arrangement of six OH bond oriented water molecules around a localized electron is the preferred geometry in frozen aqueous systems even at low solute ion concentration. The energy level structure of electrons in polar aqueous and alcoholic glasses was systematized from a comparison of photoconductivity and optical spectra. Experimental and theoretical evidence on electron solvation was evaluated to suggest the dominance of first solvation shell orientation in the solvation process. A laser photolysis study as a function of temperature suggests that electron solvation in ethanol glass occurs by a hindered molecular reorientation mechanism. In mixed polar and nonpolar glassy matrices it was shown that the electron is first solvated in the nonpolar matrix and is later transformed to a more stable species surrounded by the polar molecules. It was found that the spin lattice relaxation of solvated electrons is dominated by a new mechanism characteristic of disordered matrices which involves relaxation by tunneling modes in the matrix. The noninteracting spin packet model of electron spin resonance lines was shown to apply to solvated electrons in deuterated matrices but not in protiated matrices. A new type of recombination fluorescence experiment was devised which allows easy distinction between tunnelling and diffusive recombination mechanisms between solvate electrons and cations. Several theoretical studies have helped to delimit the applicability of an electron tunneling mechanism to solvated electron reactions. Electron spin echospectrometry was used to demonstrate that silver atoms undergo dramatic solvation and desolvation changes in frozen aqueous systems

  12. Future possibilities with intermediate-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    Future possibilities for using neutrons of intermediate energies (50 - 200 MeV) as a probe of the nucleus are discussed. Some of the recent thinking concerning a systematic approach for studying elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons and hadrons and the important role of medium- and intermediate-energy neutrons in such a programme is reviewed. The advantages of neutrons in this energy range over neutrons with lower energies and over intermediate-energy pions for determining nuclear-transition and ground state densities, and for distinguishing proton from neutron density (isovector sensitivity), are noted. The important role of (n,p) charge exchange reactions in nuclear excitation studies is also reviewed. Experimental methods for utilizing neutrons as probes in elastic, inelastic, and charge exchange studies at these energies are discussed

  13. About the structure of quantum intermediate state of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, O.P.

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of spatial structure of a quantum intermediate state in Type I superconductors is completed. Theoretical model of thermodynamics of considered state was proposed by Andreev. It is shown, that in a quantum case, the period of structure appears significantly smaller and has different dependence on both the magnetic field and temperature than in the classical intermediate Landau state. The decrease of thickness of normal layers results in increase of characteristic distance between the quantum Andreev levels of electronic excitations, and the transition to the quantum intermediate from classical state is realized at higher temperatures ∼1 K, than it was supposed in previous works. The comparison of calculation data with experimental results, for example using the sample of mono-crystal gallium, is conducted

  14. Host-race formation: promoted by phenology, constrained by heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, A V; Abrahamson, W G; Khamiss, M A; Heinrich, P L; Urian, A G; Northridge, E M

    2009-04-01

    Host-race formation is promoted by genetic trade-offs in the ability of herbivores to use alternate hosts, including trade-offs due to differential timing of host-plant availability. We examined the role of phenology in limiting host-plant use in the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) by determining: (1) whether phenology limits alternate host use, leading to a trade-off that could cause divergent selection on Eurosta emergence time and (2) whether Eurosta has the genetic capacity to respond to such selection in the face of existing environmental variation. Experiments demonstrated that oviposition and gall induction on the alternate host, Solidago canadensis, were the highest on young plants, whereas the highest levels of gall induction on the normal host, Solidago gigantea, occurred on intermediate-age plants. These findings indicate a phenological trade-off for host-plant use that sets up the possibility of divergent selection on emergence time. Heritability, estimated by parent-offspring regression, indicated that host-race formation is impeded by the amount of genetic variation, relative to environmental, for emergence time.

  15. Zernike phase-contrast electron cryotomography applied to marine cyanobacteria infected with cyanophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2014-11-01

    Advances in electron cryotomography have provided new opportunities to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase-contrast optics produces images with markedly increased contrast compared with images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods for obtaining 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three or four tomographic tilt series takes ∼12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. The time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume.

  16. Zernike Phase Contrast Electron Cryo-Tomography Applied to Marine Cyanobacteria Infected with Cyanophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electron cryo-tomography have provided a new opportunity to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics produces images with dramatically increased contrast compared to images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods to obtain 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host, by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three to four tomographic tilt series takes approximately 12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. Time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume. PMID:25321408

  17. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  18. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  19. Trematodes in snails near raccoon latrines suggest a final host role for this mammal in California Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Dunham, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Of the 18 trematode species that use the horn snail, Cerithidea californica, as a first intermediate host, 6 have the potential to use raccoons as a final host. The presence of raccoon latrines in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California, allowed us to investigate associations between raccoons and trematodes in snails. Two trematode species, Probolocoryphe uca and Stictodora hancocki, occurred at higher prevalences in snails near raccoon latrines than in snails away from latrines, suggesting that raccoons may serve as final hosts for these species. Fecal remains indicated that raccoons fed on shore crabs, the second intermediate host for P. uca, and fish, the second intermediate host for S. hancocki. The increase in raccoon populations in the suburban areas surrounding west coast salt marshes could increase their importance as final hosts for trematodes in this system. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2005.

  20. Low temperature intermediate band metallic behavior in Ti implanted Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Javier, E-mail: oleaariza@fis.ucm.es; Pastor, David; Garcia-Hemme, Eric; Garcia-Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Prado, Alvaro del; Martil, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Diaz, German

    2012-08-31

    Si samples implanted with very high Ti doses and subjected to Pulsed-Laser Melting (PLM) have been electrically analyzed in the scope of a two-layer model previously reported based on the Intermediate Band (IB) theory. Conductivity and Hall effect measurements using the van der Pauw technique suggest that the insulator-metal transition takes place for implantation doses in the 10{sup 14}-10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} range. Results of the sample implanted with the 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} dose show a metallic behavior at low temperature that is explained by the formation of a p-type IB out of the Ti deep levels. This suggests that the IB would be semi-filled, which is essential for IB photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fabricated high dose Ti implanted Si samples for intermediate band research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured the electronic transport properties in the 7-300 K range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show an insulator to metallic transition when the intermediate band is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intermediate band is semi-filled and populated by holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We satisfactorily explain the electrical behavior by an intermediate band model.

  1. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  2. Photonuclear reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant feature of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies is the excitation of the δ resonance and one can therefore use such reactions to study the dynamics of δ propagation in a nucleus. Following an introductory section the author comments on photoabsorption on a single nucleon in Section II. A review of the δ-n Greens function and of the photonuclear amplitude is given in Section III. Results for photoabsorption on 4 He are shown in Section IV and compared with the data. Coherent π 0 photoproduction is discussed in Section V and calculations for 12 C are compared to recent measurements. (Auth.)

  3. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  4. A novel electronic algorithm using host biomarker point-of-care tests for the management of febrile illnesses in Tanzanian children (e-POCT: A randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Keitel

    2017-10-01

    ,192 patients between December 2014 and February 2016 into the randomized study; 3,169 patients (e-POCT: 1,586; control [ALMANACH]: 1,583 completed the intervention and day 7 follow-up. Using e-POCT, in the per-protocol population, the absolute proportion of clinical failures was 2.3% (37/1,586, as compared with 4.1% (65/1,583 in the ALMANACH arm (risk difference of clinical failure -1.7, 95% CI -3.0, -0.5, meeting the prespecified criterion for non-inferiority. In a non-prespecified superiority analysis, we observed a 43% reduction in the relative risk of clinical failure when using e-POCT compared to ALMANACH (risk ratio [RR] 0.57, 95% CI 0.38, 0.85, p = 0.005. The proportion of severe adverse events was 0.6% in the e-POCT arm compared with 1.5% in the ALMANACH arm (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20, 0.87, p = 0.02. The proportion of antibiotic prescriptions was substantially lower, 11.5% compared to 29.7% (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.33, 0.45, p < 0.001. Using e-POCT, the most common indication for antibiotic prescription was severe disease (57%, 103/182 prescriptions, while it was non-severe respiratory infections using the control algorithm (ALMANACH (70%, 330/470 prescriptions. The proportion of clinical failures among the 544 children in the routine care cohort was 4.6% (25/544; 94.9% (516/544 of patients received antibiotics on day 0, and 1.1% (6/544 experienced severe adverse events. e-POCT achieved a 49% reduction in the relative risk of clinical failure compared to routine care (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31, 0.84, p = 0.007 and lowered antibiotic prescriptions to 11.5% from 94.9% (p < 0.001. Though this safety study was an important first step to evaluate e-POCT, its true utility should be evaluated through future implementation studies since adherence to the algorithm will be an important factor in making use of e-POCT's advantages in terms of clinical outcome and antibiotic prescription.e-POCT, an innovative electronic algorithm using host biomarker POCTs, including C-reactive protein and

  5. Intermediality: Bridge to Critical Media Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailliotet, Ann Watts; Semali, Ladislaus; Rodenberg, Rita K.; Giles, Jackie K.; Macaul, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Defines "intermediality" as the ability to critically read and write with and across varied symbol systems. Relates it to critical media literacy. Offers rationales for teaching critical media literacy in general, and intermedial instruction in particular. Identifies seven guiding intermedial elements: theory, texts, processes, contexts,…

  6. Application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on host-parasite relationships, with special reference to larval trematodes. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, N.Oe.

    1981-01-01

    The application of radioisotope tracer techniques in studies on various host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and their intermediate and definite hosts is reviewed. Such studies comprise, for example, the reproduction and nutrition of various developmental stages of trematodes in relation to host and environment. The preparation and application of radiolabelled larvae are also discussed with special emphasis on their use in studies on free-living ecology and migration in hosts. (author)

  7. Post-crisis financial intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie MIHAI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that begun in 2007 in the US, which then swept around the world, has left deep scars on the already wrinkled face of the global economy. Some national and regional economies, which had money for expensive makeup, or created money[1], managed to blur or hide the scars left by the crisis, others are still facing difficulties in overcoming the effects of this. The rapacity of banks, their greed and risk ignorance, were the origin of the outbreak of the last major economic and financial crisis but unfortunately those who were responsible or, rather, irresponsible, paid little or nothing at all for the burden of their bad loan portfolio. This cost has been supported by the population, either directly by paying high interest and fees [Mihai I., 2007], or indirectly, through the use of public budgets to cover the losses of banks, most of which had private capital. In this context, we intend to examine the state of financial intermediation in Romania in the post-crisis period, and to primarily follow: (i The structure and evolution of the banking system; (ii Non-government credit situation; (iii The level of savings; (iiii Loan-deposit ratio; (v The degree of financial intermediation and disintegration phenomenon etc., and to articulate some conclusions and suggestions on the matters that have been explored.

  8. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  9. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J C; Hechinger, R F; Wood, A C; Stewart, T E; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2017-08-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk at local scales. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail-density-trematode-prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (California, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective

  10. Nitrate ammonification by Nautilia profundicola AmH: experimental evidence consistent with a free hydroxylamine intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Hanson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of nitrate reduction via nitrite controls the fate and bioavailability of mineral nitrogen within ecosystems; i.e. whether it is retained as ammonium (ammonification or lost as nitrous oxide or dinitrogen (denitrification. Here, we present experimental evidence for a novel pathway of microbial nitrate reduction, the reverse hydroxylamine:ubiquinone reductase module (reverse-HURM pathway. Instead of a classical ammonia-forming nitrite reductase that performs a 6 electron-transfer process, the pathway is thought to employ two catalytic redox modules operating in sequence: the reverse-HURM reducing nitrite to hydroxylamine followed by a hydroxylamine reductase that converts hydroxylamine to ammonium. Experiments were performed on Nautilia profundicola strain AmH, whose genome sequence led to the reverse-HURM pathway proposal. N. profundicola produced ammonium from nitrate, which was assimilated into biomass. Furthermore, genes encoding the catalysts of the reverse-HURM pathway were preferentially expressed during growth of N. profundicola on nitrate as an electron acceptor relative to cultures grown on polysulfide as an electron acceptor. Finally, nitrate-grown cells of N. profundicola were able to rapidly and stoichiometrically convert high concentrations of hydroxylamine to ammonium in resting cell assays. These experiments are consistent with the reverse-HURM pathway and a free hydroxylamine intermediate, but could not definitively exclude direct nitrite reduction to ammonium by the reverse-HURM with hydroxylamine as an off-pathway product. N. profundicola and related organisms are models for a new pathway of nitrate ammonification that may have global impact due to the wide distribution of these organisms in hypoxic environments and symbiotic or pathogenic associations with animal hosts.

  11. Host age modulates within-host parasite competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Routtu, Jarkko; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-05-01

    In many host populations, one of the most striking differences among hosts is their age. While parasite prevalence differences in relation to host age are well known, little is known on how host age impacts ecological and evolutionary dynamics of diseases. Using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we examined how host age at exposure influences within-host parasite competition and virulence. We found that multiply-exposed hosts were more susceptible to infection and suffered higher mortality than singly-exposed hosts. Hosts oldest at exposure were least often infected and vice versa. Furthermore, we found that in young multiply-exposed hosts competition was weak, allowing coexistence and transmission of both parasite clones, whereas in older multiply-exposed hosts competitive exclusion was observed. Thus, age-dependent parasite exposure and host demography (age structure) could together play an important role in mediating parasite evolution. At the individual level, our results demonstrate a previously unnoticed interaction of the host's immune system with host age, suggesting that the specificity of immune function changes as hosts mature. Therefore, evolutionary models of parasite virulence might benefit from incorporating age-dependent epidemiological parameters. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Ideas for Using an Electronic Classroom in Intermediate French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Describes lessons designed around two types of French Web sites: matchmaking sites with personal ads and the official site of the Cannes Film Festival. Goals are to motivate students with authentic material in French and to improve their ability to describe people according to various factors: personality, nationality, professions, and appearance.…

  13. Host phylogeny determines viral persistence and replication in novel hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Longdon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts.

  14. Host Phylogeny Determines Viral Persistence and Replication in Novel Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Webster, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae) to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts. PMID:21966271

  15. Electronic excitation of Na atom by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielschowsky, C.E.; Souza, G.G.B. de; Lucas, C.A.; Nogueira, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Electronic excitation of the 3s-3p transition in the Na atom was studied by intermediate energy electron impact spectroscopy. Differential Cross Sections (DCS) and Generalized Oscillator Strenghts (GOS) were determined experimentally for 1 KeV electrons. Theoretical results within the First Born Approximation as well as Glauber theory, were also performed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  16. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  17. FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium model of financial intermediation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. In this model, the role of financial intermediation is to pool savings and to lend the pooled funds to an entrepreneur, who in turn invests the funds in a new production technology. The adoption of the new production technology improves individual real income. Thus financial intermediation promotes economic growth through affecting individuals’ saving behaviour and enabl...

  18. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  19. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  20. Radiolysis studies on reactive intermediates. Final report, February 1, 1970-August 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, L.

    1980-08-01

    Research highlights are briefly reviewed concerning studies of excess and solvated electrons, development of new electron spin resonance methods for maximizing the geometrical information about the surroundings of paramagnetic species in disordered systems, atom and ion solvation, and studies on other reactive intermediates. Titles of 155 research publications and 182 scientific talks presented on these areas are given

  1. Soft electromagnetic bremsstrahlung in inelastic hadronic collisions at high and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1978-01-01

    Electromagnetic bremsstrahlung in hadronic collisions was studied extensively at low and intermediate energies. It was found that the infrared divergent term of the cross section describes the data well up to surprisingly large photon energies. Using essentially the same soft photon approximation, production of low mass-low energy electron pairs via internal conversion of soft virtual bremsstrahlung accompanying the production of charged hadrons in hadron-hadron collisions at very high and intermediate energies. The resulting electron yields explain, at least in part, the direct electrons with small transverse momenta seen at the ISR, and are in no contradiction to the rates observed at LAMPF

  2. Spin physics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1986-01-01

    In this session a total of 25 contributed papers were presented studying a broad range of spin effects in nucleons and nuclei using electromagnetic (electrons and photons) and hadronic (pions and nucleons) probes. The status of the theory was characterized by its almost total absence. Only one theoretical contribution was presented at this session. Those experiments examining electromagnetic-, electroweak- and weak-strong interactions were emphasized

  3. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  4. Histopathological changes in the kidneys of vertebrate hosts infected naturally and experimentally withParatanaisia bragai (Trematoda, Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barreto Xavier

    Full Text Available Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.

  5. The role of amino acid electron-donor/acceptor atoms in host-cell binding peptides is associated with their 3D structure and HLA-binding capacity in sterile malarial immunity induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Almonacid, Hannia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental residues located in some HABPs are associated with their 3D structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random, distorted {alpha}-helix structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms bound to HLA-DR53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. -- Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues being one of the parasitic diseases causing the highest worldwide mortality due to the parasite's multiple evasion mechanisms, such as immunological silence. Membrane and organelle proteins are used during invasion for interactions mediated by high binding ability peptides (HABPs); these have amino acids which establish hydrogen bonds between them in some of their critical binding residues. Immunisation assays in the Aotus model using HABPs whose critical residues had been modified have revealed a conformational change thereby enabling a protection-inducing response. This has improved fitting within HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules where amino acid electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random or distorted {alpha}-helix structures preferentially bound to HLA-DR53 molecules, whilst HABPs having amino acid electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. This data has great implications for vaccine development.

  6. Guidelines for Hosted Payload Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-06

    reduces risk. Need to consider mass simulator to protect host launch window. Average Payload Power Both BOL and EOL . Host must consider orbit...acceptance testing. Peak Payload Power Both BOL and EOL . Host must consider orbit constraints. Typically driven by Payload operations but must...post-retirement failure might cause damage to the Spacecraft Host or its payloads. Safe conditions at EOL should consider thermal and radiation

  7. Using Peephole Optimization on Intermediate Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Staveren, H.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many portable compilers generate an intermediate code that is subsequently translated into the target machine's assembly language. In this paper a stack-machine-based intermediate code suitable for algebraic languages (e.g., PASCAL, C, FORTRAN) and most byte-addressed mini- and microcomputers is

  8. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  9. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  10. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  11. Pair production of intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    The production of intermediate vector boson pairs W + W - , Z 0 Z 0 , W +- Z 0 and W +- γ in pp and p anti p collisions is discussed. The motivation is to detect the self-interactions among the four intermediate vector bosons

  12. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Villarroel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within reach. Here, we present HostPhinder, a tool aimed at predicting the bacterial host of phages by examining the phage genome sequence. Using a reference database of 2196 phages with known hosts, HostPhinder predicts the host species of a query phage as the host of the most genomically similar reference phages. As a measure of genomic similarity the number of co-occurring k-mers (DNA sequences of length k is used. Using an independent evaluation set, HostPhinder was able to correctly predict host genus and species for 81% and 74% of the phages respectively, giving predictions for more phages than BLAST and significantly outperforming BLAST on phages for which both had predictions. HostPhinder predictions on phage draft genomes from the INTESTI phage cocktail corresponded well with the advertised targets of the cocktail. Our study indicates that for most phages genomic similarity correlates well with related bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2].

  13. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: antiproton nucleus interactions; strangeness production in heavy ion collisions; search for a J PC exotic hybrid meson; the SMC experiment; pion production in rvec np scattering; spin transfer measurements for rvec np elastic scattering; pion production in rvec n rvec p scattering; radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen; radiative decays of low-lying hyperons; photoproduction of jets in nuclei; cylindrical multiplicity detector; MWPC detectors and electronics; lead glass array; cylindrical wire chamber; beam calorimeter; shower counter; and muon veto hodoscope

  14. Agrochemicals increase risk of human schistosomiasis by supporting higher densities of intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Neal T; Hoover, Christopher M; Arakala, Arathi; Civitello, David J; De Leo, Giulio A; Gambhir, Manoj; Johnson, Steve A; Jouanard, Nicolas; Loerns, Kristin A; McMahon, Taegan A; Ndione, Raphael A; Nguyen, Karena; Raffel, Thomas R; Remais, Justin V; Riveau, Gilles; Sokolow, Susanne H; Rohr, Jason R

    2018-02-26

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease that ranks among the most important water-based diseases of humans in developing countries. Increased prevalence and spread of human schistosomiasis to non-endemic areas has been consistently linked with water resource management related to agricultural expansion. However, the role of agrochemical pollution in human schistosome transmission remains unexplored, despite strong evidence of agrochemicals increasing snail-borne diseases of wildlife and a projected 2- to 5-fold increase in global agrochemical use by 2050. Using a field mesocosm experiment, we show that environmentally relevant concentrations of fertilizer, a herbicide, and an insecticide, individually and as mixtures, increase densities of schistosome-infected snails by increasing the algae snails eat and decreasing densities of snail predators. Epidemiological models indicate that these agrochemical effects can increase transmission of schistosomes. Identifying agricultural practices or agrochemicals that minimize disease risk will be critical to meeting growing food demands while improving human wellbeing.

  15. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  16. Biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater ecosystems of Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Sures, B.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2016), s. 283-293 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum * life cycle * cryptic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  17. Predictors of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in definitive and intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2015-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a pathogenic and potentially fatal cestode causing human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). A meta-analysis was conducted using a generalized estimation equation approach (GEE) to assess the effect of taxonomic, environmental and diagnostic variables on EM prevalenc...... there was some indication of publication bias in this dataset. This study also highlights the possible importance of temperature and precipitation to EM transmission. This implies the possibility of a changing climate affecting the future distribution of the parasite.......Echinococcus multilocularis (EM) is a pathogenic and potentially fatal cestode causing human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). A meta-analysis was conducted using a generalized estimation equation approach (GEE) to assess the effect of taxonomic, environmental and diagnostic variables on EM prevalence...

  18. Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis Infection in Intermediate Hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David

    our understanding of parasite epizootiology significantly, they do not provide robust data on comparative parasite development and the baseline susceptibility of individual species. The present Ph.D. project therefore aims to experimentally evaluate differences in susceptibility and parasite...... in the context of parasite establishment growth and fertility. The present Ph.D. project and the four resulting papers demonstrated fundamental differences in susceptibility, growth and fertility in the various wild rodent isolates (and laboratory strains) investigated and provided evidence for potential...... by which these aspects can be investigated further in order to provide highly detailed information on a key aspect of E. multilocularis transmission, enabling better risk assessment and understanding changes in distribution....

  19. Bulinus nyassanus is an intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium in Lake Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Bloch, P.; Phiri, H.

    2001-01-01

    At Cape Maclear on the Nankumba Peninsula, close to the southern end of Lake Malawi, Schistosoma haematobium is highly prevalent in the local people and many tourists become infected with this parasite each year. A 'Bilharzia Control Programme' was initiated in this area in August 1998......, field-collected B. nyassanus. These are remarkable observations since, although there are very few reports of diploid members of this species group being experimentally infected with S. haematobium, B. nyassanus is a diploid member (2n = 36) of the truncatus/tropicus group. Bulinus nyassanus is probably......, schistosome-infected B. nyassanus were discovered in surveys to identify transmission sites on the peninsula. Experimental infections of wild-caught B. nyassanus with S. haematobium proved successful and S. haematobium eggs were found in hamsters experimentally exposed to cercariae retrieved from schistosome-infected...

  20. Second derivative Langmuir probe diagnostics of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (review article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Tsv K; Dimitrova, M; Dias, F M; Tsaneva, V N; Stelmashenko, N A; Blamire, M G; Barber, Z H

    2006-01-01

    The second-derivative Langmuir probe method for precise determination of the plasma potential, the electron energy distribution function (respectively the electron temperature,) and the electron density of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (100-1000 Pa) is reviewed. Results of applying the procedure proposed to different kinds of gas discharges are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the plasma characteristics evaluated are discussed

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  2. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina O. Igboin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  3. The Drosophila melanogaster host model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O; Griffen, Ann L; Leys, Eugene J

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen-host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial-host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  4. Host genetics affect microbial ecosystems via host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Gorochov, Guy; Larsen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself. Moreover, microbes play important roles in the development of host immunity. Here we review associations between specific host genes and variance in microbiota composition and compare with interactions between microbes and host immunity. Recent genome-wide association studies reveal that symbiosis between host and microbiota is the exquisite result of genetic coevolution. Moreover, a subset of microbes from human and mouse microbiota have been identified to interact with humoral and cellular immunity. Interestingly, microbes associated with both host genetics and host immunity are taxonomically related. Most involved are Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia, which are dually associated with both host immunity and host genetics. We conclude that future therapeutics targeting microbiota in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases need to consider both immune and genetic host features associated with microbiota homeostasis.

  5. Temporal and host-related variation in frequencies of genes that enable Phyllotreta nemorum to utilize a novel host plant, Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.K.; Jong, de P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an intermediate specialist feeding on a small number of plants within the family Brassicaceae. The most commonly used host plant is Sinapis arvensis L., whereas the species is found more rarely on Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.,

  6. Host diversity and latitude drive the trematode diversity patterns in the European freshwater fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieltges, David W.; Hof, Christian; Dehling, D. Matthias

    2011-01-01

    biogeographical regions in Europe from the Limnofauna Europaea and used multiple regression analyses to test for correlations between the diversity of definitive (vertebrates) or first intermediate (gastropods) hosts and that of trematodes, and for latitudinal gradients in trematode diversity. In particular, we...... faunas. Results Latitude or first intermediate host richness had no effect on trematode richness, but definitive host richness was a strong predictor of trematode richness, among both allogenic and autogenic parasites. We found that beta diversity of trematode faunas within latitudinal bands decreased...... to the north, with similar values for allogenic and autogenic trematodes. Finally, we observed an increasing proportion of autogenic species toward the north of Europe. Main conclusions The richness of definitive hosts appears to be the driver of trematode diversity at a continental scale. The latitudinal...

  7. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  8. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  9. Tensor polarized deuteron targets for intermediate energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Schilling, E.

    1985-03-01

    At intermediate energies measurements from a tensor polarized deuteron target are being prepared for the following reactions: the photodisintegration of the deuteron, the elastic pion-deuteron scattering and the elastic electron-deuteron scattering. The experimental situation of the polarization experiments for these reactions is briefly discussed in section 2. In section 3 the definitions of the deuteron polarization and the possibilities to determine the vector and tensor polarization are given. Present tensor polarization values and further improvements in this field are reported in section 4. (orig.)

  10. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  11. An Intermediate in the evolution of superfast sonic muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Hin-Kiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fishes, often considered the fastest muscles in vertebrates, has been a mystery because slow bladder movement does not generate sound. Slow muscles that stretch the swimbladder and then produce sound during recoil have recently been discovered in ophidiiform fishes. Here we describe the disturbance call (produced when fish are held and sonic mechanism in an unrelated perciform pearl perch (Glaucosomatidae that represents an intermediate condition in the evolution of super-fast sonic muscles. Results The pearl perch disturbance call is a two-part sound produced by a fast sonic muscle that rapidly stretches the bladder and an antagonistic tendon-smooth muscle combination (part 1 causing the tendon and bladder to snap back (part 2 generating a higher-frequency and greater-amplitude pulse. The smooth muscle is confirmed by electron microscopy and protein analysis. To our knowledge smooth muscle attachment to a tendon is unknown in animals. Conclusion The pearl perch, an advanced perciform teleost unrelated to ophidiiform fishes, uses a slow type mechanism to produce the major portion of the sound pulse during recoil, but the swimbladder is stretched by a fast muscle. Similarities between the two unrelated lineages, suggest independent and convergent evolution of sonic muscles and indicate intermediate forms in the evolution of superfast muscles.

  12. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  13. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  14. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  15. On intermediate structures in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, I.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptions of the nuclear reaction theory are reinvestigated on the basis of the continuum shell model. The correlation of the resonance states via the continuum can lead to intermediate structures in the cross section. (Auth.)

  16. Theoretical modelling of intermediate band solar cell materials based on metal-doped chalcopyrite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, P.; Sanchez, K.; Conesa, J.C.; Fernandez, J.J.; Wahnon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations are carried out for CuGaS 2 partially substituted with Ti, V, Cr or Mn to ascertain if some of these systems could provide an intermediate band material able to give a high efficiency photovoltaic cell. Trends in electronic level positions are analyzed and more accurate advanced theory levels (exact exchange or Hubbard-type methods) are used in some cases. The Ti-substituted system seems more likely to yield an intermediate band material with the desired properties, and furthermore seems realizable from the thermodynamic point of view, while those with Cr and Mn might give half-metal structures with applications in spintronics

  17. Theoretical modelling of intermediate band solar cell materials based on metal-doped chalcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, P [Instituto de Energia Solar and Dpt. de Tecnologias Especiales, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, K [Instituto de Energia Solar and Dpt. de Tecnologias Especiales, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Conesa, J C [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J J [Dpt. de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 28080, Madrid (Spain); Wahnon, P [Instituto de Energia Solar and Dpt. de Tecnologias Especiales, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-31

    Electronic structure calculations are carried out for CuGaS{sub 2} partially substituted with Ti, V, Cr or Mn to ascertain if some of these systems could provide an intermediate band material able to give a high efficiency photovoltaic cell. Trends in electronic level positions are analyzed and more accurate advanced theory levels (exact exchange or Hubbard-type methods) are used in some cases. The Ti-substituted system seems more likely to yield an intermediate band material with the desired properties, and furthermore seems realizable from the thermodynamic point of view, while those with Cr and Mn might give half-metal structures with applications in spintronics.

  18. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  19. Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.

  20. Associations of Systemic Diseases with Intermediate Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.

  1. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters

  2. Results of intermediate-scale hot isostatic press can experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.O.; Vinjamuri, K.

    1995-05-01

    Radioactive high-level waste (HLW) has been managed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for a number of years. Since 1963, liquid HLW has been solidified into a granular solid (calcine). Presently, over 3,800 m 3 of calcine is stored in partially-underground stainless steel bins. Four intermediate- scale HLW can tests (two 6-in OD x 12-in tall and two 4-in OD x 7-in tall) are described and compared to small-scale HIP can tests (1- to 3-in OD x 1- to 4.5-in tall). The intermediate-scale HIP cans were loaded with a 70/30 calcine/frit blend and HIPped at an off-site facility at 1050 degrees C; and 20 ksi. The dimensions of two cans (4-in OD x 7-in tall) were monitored during the HIP cycle with eddy-current sensors. The sensor measurements indicated that can deformation occurs rapidly at 700 degrees C; after which, there is little additional can shrinkage. HIP cans were subjected to a number of analyses including calculation of the overall packing efficiency (56 to 59%), measurement of glass-ceramic (3.0 to 3.2 g/cc), 14-day MCC-1 leach testing (total mass loss rates 2 day), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these analyses, the glass-ceramic material produced in intermediate-scale cans is similar to material produced in small-scale cans. No major scale-up problems were indicated. Based on the packing efficiency observed in intermediate- and small-scale tests, the overall packing efficiency of production-scale (24-in OD x 36- to 190-in tall) cans would be approximately 64% for a pre-HIP right-circular cylinder geometry. An efficiency of 64% would represent a volume reduction factor of 2.5 over a candidate glass waste prepared at 33 wt% waste loading

  3. Host Factors in Ebola Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Angela L

    2016-08-31

    Ebola virus (EBOV) emerged in West Africa in 2014 to devastating effect, and demonstrated that infection can cause a broad range of severe disease manifestations. As the virus itself was genetically similar to other Zaire ebolaviruses, the spectrum of pathology likely resulted from variable responses to infection in a large and genetically diverse population. This review comprehensively summarizes current knowledge of the host response to EBOV infection, including pathways hijacked by the virus to facilitate replication, host processes that contribute directly to pathogenesis, and host-pathogen interactions involved in subverting or antagonizing host antiviral immunity.

  4. HostPhinder: A Phage Host Prediction Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarroel, Julia; Kleinheinz, Kortine Annina; Jurtz, Vanessa Isabell

    2016-01-01

    The current dramatic increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria has revitalised the interest in bacteriophages as alternative antibacterial treatment. Meanwhile, the development of bioinformatics methods for analysing genomic data places high-throughput approaches for phage characterization within...... bacterial hosts. HostPhinder is available as an interactive web service [1] and as a stand alone download from the Docker registry [2]....

  5. Ceramic Hosts for Fission Products Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C Kong

    2010-07-01

    Natural spinel, perovskite and zirconolite rank among the most leach resistant of mineral forms. They also have a strong affinity for a large number of other elements and including actinides. Specimens of natural perovskite and zirconolite were radioisotope dated and found to have survived at least 2 billion years of natural process while still remain their loading of uranium and thorium . Developers of the Synroc waste form recognized and exploited the capability of these minerals to securely immobilize TRU elements in high-level waste . However, the Synroc process requires a relatively uniform input and hot pressing equipment to produce the waste form. It is desirable to develop alternative approaches to fabricate these durable waste forms to immobilize the radioactive elements. One approach is using a high temperature process to synthesize these mineral host phases to incorporate the fission products in their crystalline structures. These mineral assemblages with immobilized fission products are then isolated in a durable high temperature glass for periods measured on a geologic time scale. This is a long term research concept and will begin with the laboratory synthesis of the pure spinel (MgAl2O4), perovskite (CaTiO3) and zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) from their constituent oxides. High temperature furnace and/or thermal plasma will be used for the synthesis of these ceramic host phases. Nonradioactive strontium oxide will be doped into these ceramic phases to investigate the development of substitutional phases such as Mg1-xSrxAl2O4, Ca1-xSrxTiO3 and Ca1-xSrxZrTi2O7. X-ray diffraction will be used to establish the crystalline structures of the pure ceramic hosts and the substitution phases. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) will be performed for product morphology and fission product surrogates distribution in the crystalline hosts. The range of strontium doping is planned to reach the full substitution of the divalent

  6. HOST liner cyclic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  7. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  8. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  9. Host factors in nidovirus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Adriaan Hugo de

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between nidoviruses and the infected host cell was investigated. Arterivirus RNA-synthesising activity was shown to depend on intact membranes and on a cytosolic host protein which does not cosediment with the RTC. Furthermore, the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) blocks

  10. Host Adaptation of Staphylococcal Leukocidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, M

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human and animal pathogen of global importance and has the capacity to cause disease in distinct host populations, using a large arsenal of secreted proteins to evade the host immune response. Amongst the immune evasion proteins of S. aureus, secreted cytotoxins play a

  11. Novel hierarchically porous carbon materials obtained from natural biopolymer as host matrixes for lithium-sulfur battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Xiao, Min; Wang, Shuanjin; Han, Dongmei; Song, Shuqin; Chen, Guohua; Meng, Yuezhong

    2014-08-13

    Novel hierarchically porous carbon materials with very high surface areas, large pore volumes and high electron conductivities were prepared from silk cocoon by carbonization with KOH activation. The prepared novel porous carbon-encapsulated sulfur composites were fabricated by a simple melting process and used as cathodes for lithium sulfur batteries. Because of the large surface area and hierarchically porous structure of the carbon material, soluble polysulfide intermediates can be trapped within the cathode and the volume expansion can be alleviated effectively. Moreover, the electron transport properties of the carbon materials can provide an electron conductive network and promote the utilization rate of sulfur in cathode. The prepared carbon-sulfur composite exhibited a high specific capacity and excellent cycle stability. The results show a high initial discharge capacity of 1443 mAh g(-1) and retain 804 mAh g(-1) after 80 discharge/charge cycles at a rate of 0.5 C. A Coulombic efficiency retained up to 92% after 80 cycles. The prepared hierarchically porous carbon materials were proven to be an effective host matrix for sulfur encapsulation to improve the sulfur utilization rate and restrain the dissolution of polysulfides into lithium-sulfur battery electrolytes.

  12. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  13. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  14. Synchronized sexuality of an algal symbiont and its dinoflagellate host, Peridinium balticum (Levander) Lemmermann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnick, J M; Cox, E R

    1987-01-01

    We report synchronized sexual reproduction between the chlorophyll c-containing algal endosymbiont and its dinoflagellate host in Peridinium balticum (Pyrrhophyta). This organism's importance lies in that it may represent an intermediate between primitive non-photosynthetic and advanced photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Fusion of the endosymbionts and their nuclei occurred concomitantly with syngamy of the host gametes. Significant morphological changes, including condensation of chromatin and crystalline rod formation, occurred in the symbiont nucleus during zygote development. These observations provide evidence that the endosymbiotic nucleus is not passive in sexual processes, as opposed to its reported passive state during mitosis. P. balticum may not only represent an intermediate in the evolution of chloroplast acquisition by dinoflagellates, but also, an intermediate in the evolution of the peridinian dinoflagellate sexual life history.

  15. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  16. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  17. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...... and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  18. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond......This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...

  19. Oxidase catalysis via aerobically generated hypervalent iodine intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Asim; Hyun, Sung-Min; Powers, David C.

    2018-02-01

    The development of sustainable oxidation chemistry demands strategies to harness O2 as a terminal oxidant. Oxidase catalysis, in which O2 serves as a chemical oxidant without necessitating incorporation of oxygen into reaction products, would allow diverse substrate functionalization chemistry to be coupled to O2 reduction. Direct O2 utilization suffers from intrinsic challenges imposed by the triplet ground state of O2 and the disparate electron inventories of four-electron O2 reduction and two-electron substrate oxidation. Here, we generate hypervalent iodine reagents—a broadly useful class of selective two-electron oxidants—from O2. This is achieved by intercepting reactive intermediates of aldehyde autoxidation to aerobically generate hypervalent iodine reagents for a broad array of substrate oxidation reactions. The use of aryl iodides as mediators of aerobic oxidation underpins an oxidase catalysis platform that couples substrate oxidation directly to O2 reduction. We anticipate that aerobically generated hypervalent iodine reagents will expand the scope of aerobic oxidation chemistry in chemical synthesis.

  20. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation for ion-molecule collisions at intermediate velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadhane, U R; Mishra, P M; Rajput, J; Safvan, C P; Vig, S

    2015-01-01

    Electronic energy loss distribution estimation is done under local density distribution using Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to compare the experimental results of proton-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and proton-nucleobase interactions at intermediate velocity collisions. (paper)

  2. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  3. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  4. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  5. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jacquin

    Full Text Available Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host, and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction, we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish. During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus, such a

  6. Nuclear orientation of rare earth impurities in ferromagnetic host metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keus, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments are described investigating the behaviour of the metals Nd and Lu as impurities in a ferromagnetic host metal - iron, cobalt and nickel. The systems have been studied with the aid of nuclear orientation, making use of the interactions between the atom nuclei and the electrons - the so called hyperfine interactions. (C.F.)

  7. Secure Protocol for “Host — NFC Reader” Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Menshenin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a secure protocol for communication between host and NFC reader. The protocol protection scheme uses symmetric cipher with cyclic session key generation and provides confidentiality, integrity, end parties authentication and resistance to replay attacks. Deployment scenario in a typical electronic payment system is also presented.

  8. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  9. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  10. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of

  11. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharge...

  12. Financial intermediation with credit constrained agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2007), s. 741-759 ISSN 0164-0704 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial intermediation * occupational choice * general equilibrium Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2007

  13. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  14. Essays in financial intermediation and political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Mancy

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in financial intermediation and political economy. The first chapter studies how investors’ preference for local stocks affects global mutual funds’ investment behaviors, and shows that mutual funds overweight stocks from their client countries (i.e., where

  15. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  16. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    networks without breaking known necessary or sufficient conditions for persistence, by iteratively removing socalled intermediates and catalysts from the network. The procedures are easy to apply and, in many cases, lead to highly simplified network structures, such as monomolecular networks. For specific...

  17. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  18. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  19. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA,

  20. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper attempts to answer how external environmental factors affect intermediating firms within the maritime industry - the middlemen that plays a very important role in the sector. The category encompasses firms such as liner and port agencies, freight forwarders and shipbrokers, who link sh...

  1. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  2. Digbeth hosts the Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Birminham museum of science and discovery, Thinktank, is hosting 'Building The Universe', a free exhibition about the work undertaken at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, in Geneva (3 paragraphs).

  3. Silver nanoparticle catalysed redox reaction: An electron relay effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Kaushik; Witcomb, Mike; Scurrell, Mike

    2006-01-01

    A silver cluster shows efficient catalytic activity in a redox reaction because the cluster acts as the electron relay centre behaving alternatively as an acceptor and as a donor of electrons. An effective transfer of electrons is possible when the redox potential of the cluster is intermediate between the electron donor and electron acceptor system

  4. Interactions and Supramolecular Organization of Sulfonated Indigo and Thioindigo Dyes in Layered Hydroxide Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana L; Gomes, Ana C; Pereira, Ricardo C; Pillinger, Martyn; Gonçalves, Isabel S; Pineiro, Marta; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio

    2018-01-09

    Supramolecularly organized host-guest systems have been synthesized by intercalating water-soluble forms of indigo (indigo carmine, IC) and thioindigo (thioindigo-5,5'-disulfonate, TIS) in zinc-aluminum-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and zinc-layered hydroxide salts (LHSs) by coprecipitation routes. The colors of the isolated powders were dark blue for hybrids containing only IC, purplish blue or dark lilac for cointercalated samples containing both dyes, and ruby/wine for hybrids containing only TIS. The as-synthesized and thermally treated materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, Fourier transform Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. The basal spacings found for IC-LDH, TIS-LDH, IC-LHS, and TIS-LHS materials were 21.9, 21.05, 18.95, and 21.00 Å, respectively, with intermediate spacings being observed for the cointercalated samples that either decreased (LDHs) or increased (LHSs) with increasing TIS content. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopies (steady-state and time-resolved) were used to probe the molecular distribution of the immobilized dyes. The presence of aggregates together with the monomer units is suggested for IC-LDH, whereas for TIS-LDH, IC-LHS, and TIS-LHS, the dyes are closer to the isolated situation. Accordingly, while emission from the powder H 2 TIS is strongly quenched, an increment in the emission of about 1 order of magnitude was observed for the TIS-LDH/LHS hybrids. Double-exponential fluorescence decays were obtained and associated with two monomer species interacting differently with cointercalated water molecules. The incorporation of both TIS and IC in the LDH and LHS hosts leads to an almost complete quenching of the fluorescence, pointing to a very efficient energy transfer process from (fluorescent) TIS to (nonfluorescent) IC.

  5. Yolk-Shelled C@Fe3 O4 Nanoboxes as Efficient Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Luo, Liu; Chen, Yuanfu; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mA h g -1 ) and low cost, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer advantages for next-generation energy storage. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of sulfur cathodes limit the practical application of Li-S batteries. To address such issues, well-designed yolk-shelled carbon@Fe 3 O 4 (YSC@Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoboxes as highly efficient sulfur hosts for Li-S batteries are reported here. With both physical entrapment by carbon shells and strong chemical interaction with Fe 3 O 4 cores, this unique architecture immobilizes the active material and inhibits diffusion of the polysulfide intermediates. Moreover, due to their high conductivity, the carbon shells and the polar Fe 3 O 4 cores facilitate fast electron/ion transport and promote continuous reactivation of the active material during the charge/discharge process, resulting in improved electrochemical utilization and reversibility. With these merits, the S/YSC@Fe 3 O 4 cathodes support high sulfur content (80 wt%) and loading (5.5 mg cm -2 ) and deliver high specific capacity, excellent rate capacity, and long cycling stability. This work provides a new perspective to design a carbon/metal-oxide-based yolk-shelled framework as a high sulfur-loading host for advanced Li-S batteries with superior electrochemical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Electron interactions with nuclei: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This paper contains information on the following topics: inclusive electron scattering; electroexcitation of Δ in nuclei; longitudinal and transverse response in the quasi-elastic region; electron scattering at MIT-Bates; detector development at LEGS; electron scattering at Saclay; intermediate energy nuclear interactions; research and development at CEBAF; and computing facilities

  7. Formation of intermediate shocks in both two-fluid and hybrid models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.; Hada, T.

    1991-01-01

    Intermediate shocks are shocks with shock frame fluid velocities greater than the Alfven speed ahead and less than the Alfven speed behind, or equivalently, across intermediate shocks the sign of the transverse component of the magnetic field changes. These shocks had been considered extraneous, or nonevolutionary, or unstable, and they had been thought not to correspond to physical reality [Germain, 1960; Jeffrey and Taniuti, 1964; Kantrowitz and Petschek, 1966]. However, it has been shown that intermediate shocks can be formed from continuous waves according to dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) [Wu, 1987, 1988a, b, 1990]. Thus according to the formation argument which requires that physical shocks be formed by the wave steepening process, the intermediate shocks should be considered physical. Here, intermediate shocks are studied in a two-fluid model that includes finite ion inertia dispersion and in a hybrid model in which the full ion dynamics is retained while the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The authors show that in both models intermediate shocks can be formed through wave steepening, meaning that they are stable and possess shock structures

  8. [Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus isolates obtained from different hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Emrah; Özkan, Bora; Mutlu, Fatih; Karaca, Serkan; Şahin, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a parasite that can be seen throughout the world. So far, five species of genus Echinococcus have been identified as parasite in people: E.granulosus, E.multilocularis, E.vogeli, E.oligarthrus, E.shiquicus. Larval (metacestod) form of parasite settles in internal organs of hoofed animals (cattle, goats, pigs, horses, sheep, etc.) and human; the adult form is found in small intestine of final host, canine. Disease caused by parasite called as "Cystic echinococcosis" (CE) is an important health problem and causes economic losses in many countries including our country that livestock is common. Infective eggs cause infections in intermediate hosts by taking oral way and rarely inhalation. Received egg opens in the stomach and intestines of intermediate host and oncosphere is released. Oncosphere quickly reaches the lamina propria of the villus epithelium by its histolytic enzymes and hooks. It usually transported from here to the liver and lungs, less frequently, muscle, brain, spleen, kidney and to other organs through the veins. By molecular studies, five species have been validated taxonomically and 10 different variants or strains of E.granulosus have been identified. Host and developmental differences between strains may negatively affect control studies and fight against the parasite. This study aimed to determinate E.granulosus strains obtained from cyst material of different intermediate hosts from different regions of Turkey by molecular methods. In the study, 25 human, 8 cattle, 6 sheep and 2 goat cysts material has been collected. Total genomic DNA was isolated from protoscoleces in cyst fluid and analyzed by PCR with COX-1 (L) and COX-1 (S) genes specific primers. DNA sequence analysis for each PCR product has been made. DNA sequence analysis results evaluated phylogenetically by MEGA analyze and BLAST software. As a result of this study, all isolates were identified as E.granulosus sensu stricto (G1) by DNA sequence analysis. CE

  9. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  10. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  11. Photodissociation dynamics and spectroscopy of free radical combustion intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, David Lewis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals is studied by the technique of fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Photodetachment of internally cold, mass-selected negative ions produces a clean source of radicals, which are subsequently dissociated and detected. The photofragment yield as a function of photon energy is obtained, mapping out the dissociative and predissociative electronic states of the radical. In addition, the photodissociation dynamics, product branching ratios, and bond energies are probed at fixed photon energies by measuring the translational energy, P(ET), and angular distribution of the recoiling fragments using a time- and position-sensitive detector. Ab initio calculations are combined with dynamical and statistical models to interpret the observed data. The photodissociation of three prototypical hydrocarbon combustion intermediates forms the core of this work.

  12. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: The bK(590) intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terner, J; Hsieh, C L; Burns, A R; El-Sayed, M A

    1979-07-01

    We have combined microbeam and flow techniques with computer subtraction methods to obtain the resonance Raman spectrum of the short lived batho-intermediate (bK(590)) of bacteriorhodopsin. Comparison of the spectra obtained in (1)H(2)O and (2)H(2)O, as well as the fact that the bK(590) intermediate shows large optical red shifts, suggests that the Schiff base linkage of this intermediate is protonated. The fingerprint region of the spectrum of bK(590), sensitive to the isomeric configuration of the retinal chromophore, does not resemble the corresponding region of the parent bR(570) form. The resonance Raman spectrum of bK(590) as well as the spectra of all of the other main intermediates in the photoreaction cycle of bacteriorhodopsin are discussed and compared with resonance Raman spectra of published model compounds.

  13. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  14. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  15. Bioorthogonal Cycloadditions with Sub-Millisecond Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yujia; Pulcu, Gökçe Su; Bell, Nicholas A W; Bayley, Hagan

    2018-01-26

    Tetrazine- and sydnone-based click reactions have emerged as important bioconjugation strategies with fast kinetics and N 2 or CO 2 as the only byproduct. Mechanistic studies of these reactions have focused on the initial rate-determining cycloaddition steps. The subsequent N 2 or CO 2 release from the bicyclic intermediates has been approached mainly through computational studies, which have predicted lifetimes of femtoseconds. In the present study, bioorthogonal cycloadditions involving N 2 or CO 2 extrusion have been examined experimentally at the single-molecule level by using a protein nanoreactor. At the resolution of this approach, the reactions appeared to occur in a single step, which places an upper limit on the lifetimes of the intermediates of about 80 μs, which is consistent with the computational work. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.

  17. Comments on intermediate-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.

    1987-04-23

    Some superstring-inspired models employ intermediate scales m/sub I/ of gauge symmetry breaking. Such scales should exceed 10/sup 16/ GeV in order to avoid prima facie problems with baryon decay through heavy particles and non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings above m/sub I/. However, the intermediate-scale phase transition does not occur until the temperature of the Universe falls below O(m/sub W/), after which an enormous excess of entropy is generated. Moreover, gauge symmetry breaking by renormalization group-improved radiative corrections is inapplicable because the symmetry-breaking field has not renormalizable interactions at scales below m/sub I/. We also comment on the danger of baryon and lepton number violation in the effective low-energy theory.

  18. Comments on intermediate-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.

    1987-01-01

    Some superstring-inspired models employ intermediate scales m I of gauge symmetry breaking. Such scales should exceed 10 16 GeV in order to avoid prima facie problems with baryon decay through heavy particles and non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings above m I . However, the intermediate-scale phase transition does not occur until the temperature of the Universe falls below O(m W ), after which an enormous excess of entropy is generated. Moreover, gauge symmetry breaking by renormalization group-improved radiative corrections is inapplicable because the symmetry-breaking field has not renormalizable interactions at scales below m I . We also comment on the danger of baryon and lepton number violation in the effective low-energy theory. (orig.)

  19. Carbon monosulfide: a useful synthetic intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of carbon monosulfide, CS, are well documented. The molecule has been observed in interstellar space and is found to be a common intermediate in the thermal decomposition of carbon disulfide and other sulfur compounds. Interestingly enough, the chemistry of carbon monosulfide, a molecule that is isovalent with carbon monoxide, has received little attention. The explosive nature of the carbon monosulfide monomer, which hindered previous workers, was overcome by the development of special handling techniques. The ability to produce carbon monosulfide in gram quantities had lead to synthesis of novel compounds and to a more direct synthetic route for certain known compounds. Specifically, the following general reaction demonstrates the capabilities of carbon monosulfide on the synthetic scale. CS + RXY → RXC(S)Y;(X = N,S), (Y = H, Cl). Note: The initial product formed in the reaction can be an unstable intermediate

  20. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patra; Seikh Sahanawaz Alam; Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur; Hridayesh Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp...

  1. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities

  2. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  3. UEP LT Codes with Intermediate Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a class of rateless codes, called Luby transform (LT) codes with unequal error protection (UEP). We show that while these codes successfully provide UEP, there is a significant price in terms of redundancy in the lower prioritized segments. We propose a modification with a single inter...... intermediate feedback message. Our analysis shows a dramatic improvement on the decoding performance of the lower prioritized segment....

  4. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  5. Glycan gimmickry by parasitic helminths: a strategy for modulating the host immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, Irma; Cummings, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic helminths (worms) co-evolved with vertebrate immune systems to enable long-term survival of worms in infected hosts. Among their survival strategies, worms use their glycans within glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are abundant on helminth surfaces and in their excretory/ secretory products, to regulate and suppress host immune responses. Many helminths express unusual and antigenic (nonhost-like) glycans, including those containing polyfucose, tyvelose, terminal GalNAc, phosphorylcholine, methyl groups, and sugars in unusual linkages. In addition, some glycan antigens are expressed that share structural features with those in their intermediate and vertebrate hosts (host-like glycans), including Le(X) (Galbeta1-4[Fucalpha1-3]GlcNAc-), LDNF (GalNAcbeta1-4[Fucalpha1-3]GlcNAc-), LDN (GalNAcbeta1-4GlcNAc-), and Tn (GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr/Ser) antigens. The expression of host-like glycan determinants is remarkable and suggests that helminths may gain advantages by synthesizing such glycans. The expression of host-like glycans by parasites previously led to the concept of "molecular mimicry," in which molecules are either derived from the pathogen or acquired from the host to evade recognition by the host immune system. However, recent discoveries into the potential of host glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), such as C-type lectin receptors and galectins, to functionally interact with various host-like helminth glycans provide new insights. Host GBPs through their interactions with worm-derived glycans participate in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses upon infection. We thus propose an alternative concept termed "glycan gimmickry," which is defined as an active strategy of parasites to use their glycans to target GBPs within the host to promote their survival.

  6. THE HOST GALAXIES OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PROPERTIES OF TEN NEARBY LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURST HOSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Berger, Edo; Bagley, Megan M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first observations from a large-scale survey of nearby (z < 1) long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) host galaxies, which consist of eight rest-frame optical spectra obtained at Keck and Magellan. Along with two host galaxy observations from the literature, we use optical emission-line diagnostics to determine metallicities, ionization parameters, young stellar population ages, and star formation rates. We compare the LGRB host environments to a variety of local and intermediate-redshift galaxy populations, as well as the newest grid of stellar population synthesis and photoionization models generated with the Starburst99/Mappings codes. With these comparisons, we investigate whether the GRB host galaxies are consistent with the properties of the general galaxy population, and therefore whether they may be used as reliable tracers of star formation. Despite the limitations inherent in our small sample, we find strong evidence that LGRB host galaxies generally have low-metallicity interstellar medium (ISM) environments out to z ∼ 1. The ISM properties of our GRB hosts, including metallicity and ionization parameter, are significantly different from the general galaxy population and host galaxies of nearby broad-lined Type Ic supernovae. However, these properties show better agreement with a sample of nearby metal-poor galaxies.

  7. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.; Britt, H.C.; Claesson, G.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the production of intermediate mass fragments (A > 4) in intermediate and high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The mechanism for production of these fragments is not well understood and has been described by models employing a variety of assumptions. Some examples are: disassembly of a system in thermal equilibrium into nucleons and nuclear fragments, liquid-vapor phase transitions in nuclear matter, final state coalescence of nucleons and dynamical correlations between nucleons at breakup. Previous studies of fragment production, with one exception, have been single particle inclusive measurements; the observed fragment mass (or charge) distributions can be described by all of the models above. To gain insight into the fragment production mechanism, the authors used the GSI/LBL Plastic Ball detector system to get full azimuthal coverage for intermediate mass fragments in the forward hemisphere in the center of mass system while measuring all the light particles in each event. The authors studied the systems 200 MeV/nucleon Au + Au and Au + Fe

  8. Reactivity of Criegee Intermediates toward Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiu; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2018-01-04

    Recent theoretical work by Kumar and Francisco suggested that the high reactivity of Criegee intermediates (CIs) could be utilized for designing efficient carbon capture technologies. Because the anti-CH 3 CHOO + CO 2 reaction has the lowest barrier in their study, we chose to investigate it experimentally. We probed anti-CH 3 CHOO with its strong UV absorption at 365 nm and measured the rate coefficient to be ≤2 × 10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 298 K, which is consistent with our theoretical value of 2.1 × 10 -17 cm 3  molecule -1 s -1 at the QCISD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p) level but inconsistent with their results obtained at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level, which tends to underestimate the barrier heights. The experimental result indicates that the reaction of a Criegee intermediate with atmospheric CO 2 (400 ppmv) would be inefficient (k eff < 0.2 s -1 ) and cannot compete with other decay processes of Criegee intermediates like reactions with water vapor (∼10 3 s -1 ) or thermal decomposition (∼10 2 s -1 ).

  9. Disposal Options for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste: Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the status of current disposal options for Low and Intermediate- Level Radioactive Waste (LILRW) generated in different countries and outlines the potential for future disposal option/s of these wastes in Egypt. Since approaches used in other countries may provide useful lessons for managing Egyptian radioactive wastes. This study was based on data for19 countries repositories and we focused on 6 countries, which considered as leaders in the field of disposal of rad waste. Several countries have plans for repositories which are sufficiently advanced that it was based on their own of their extensive experience with nuclear power generation and with constructing and operating LLRW disposal facilities. On the other hand, our programme for site selection and host rock characterization for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal is under study. We are preparing our criteria for selecting a national repository for LIL rad waste.

  10. The evolution of intermediate castration virulence and ant coexistence in a spatially structured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, András; Scheuring, István; Edwards, David P; Orivel, Jerome; Yu, Douglas W

    2009-12-01

    Theory suggests that spatial structuring should select for intermediate levels of virulence in parasites, but empirical tests are rare and have never been conducted with castration (sterilizing) parasites. To test this theory in a natural landscape, we construct a spatially explicit model of the symbiosis between the ant-plant Cordia nodosa and its two, protecting ant symbionts, Allomerus and Azteca. Allomerus is also a castration parasite, preventing fruiting to increase colony fecundity. Limiting the dispersal of Allomerus and host plant selects for intermediate castration virulence. Increasing the frequency of the mutualist, Azteca, selects for higher castration virulence in Allomerus, because seeds from Azteca-inhabited plants are a public good that Allomerus exploits. These results are consistent with field observations and, to our knowledge, provide the first empirical evidence supporting the hypothesis that spatial structure can reduce castration virulence and the first such evidence in a natural landscape for either mortality or castration virulence.

  11. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  12. Host factors influencing viral persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    host were used. Our results reveal that very different outcomes may be observed depending on virus strain and immunocompetence of the host. Thus while CD4+ cells are not critical during the initial phase of virus control, infectious virus reappear in mice lacking CD4+ cells, B cells or CD40 ligand...... replication, mice lacking the ability to produce interferon-gamma may develop either a severe, mostly fatal, T-cell mediated wasting syndrome or a chronic infection characterized by long-term coexistence of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and infectious virus. Mathematical modelling indicates...

  13. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  14. Does light influence the relationship between a native stem hemiparasite and a native or introduced host?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocco, Robert Michael; Facelli, José Maria; Watling, Jennifer Robyn

    2016-03-01

    There have been very few studies investigating the influence of light on the effects of hemiparasitic plants on their hosts, despite the fact that hemiparasites are capable of photosynthesis but also access carbon (C) from their host. In this study we manipulated light availability to limit photosynthesis in an established hemiparasite and its hosts, and determined whether this affected the parasite's impact on growth and performance of two different hosts. We expected that limiting light and reducing autotrophic C gain in the parasite (and possibly increasing its heterotrophic C gain) would lead to an increased impact on host growth and/or host photosynthesis in plants grown in low (LL) relative to high light (HL). The Australian native host Leptospermum myrsinoides and the introduced host Ulex europaeus were either infected or not infected with the native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and grown in either HL or LL. Photosynthetic performance, nitrogen status and growth of hosts and parasite were quantified. Host water potentials were also measured. In situ midday electron transport rates (ETRs) of C. pubescens on both hosts were significantly lower in LL compared with HL, enabling us to investigate the impact of the reduced level of parasite autotrophy on growth of hosts. Despite the lower levels of photosynthesis in the parasite, the relative impact of infection on host biomass was the same in both LL and HL. In fact, biomass of L. myrsinoides was unaffected by infection in either HL or LL, while biomass of U. europaeus was negatively affected by infection in both treatments. This suggests that although photosynthesis of the parasite was lower in LL, there was no additional impact on host biomass in LL. In addition, light did not affect the amount of parasite biomass supported per unit host biomass in either host, although this parameter was slightly lower in LL than HL for U. europaeus (P = 0·073). We also found no significant enhancement of host

  15. Variable mycorrhizal benefits on the reproductive output of Geranium sylvaticum, with special emphasis on the intermediate phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Kytöviita, M-M

    2014-03-01

    In several gynodioecious species, intermediate sex between female and hermaphrodite has been reported, but few studies have investigated fitness parameters of this intermediate phenotype. Here, we examined the interactions between plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species affecting the reproductive output of Geranium sylvaticum, a sexually polymorphic plant species with frequent intermediate sexes between females and hermaphrodites, using a common garden experiment. Flowering phenology, AM colonisation levels and several plant vegetative and reproductive parameters, including seed and pollen production, were measured. Differences among sexes were detected in flowering, fruit set, pollen production and floral size. The two AM species used in the present work had different effects on plant fitness parameters. One AM species increased female fitness through increasing seed number and seed mass, while the other species reduced seed mass in all sexes investigated. AM fungi did not affect intermediate and hermaphrodite pollen content in anthers. The three sexes in G. sylvaticum did not differ in their reproductive output in terms of total seed production, but hermaphrodites had potentially larger fathering ability than intermediates due to higher anther number. The ultimate female function--seed production--did not differ among the sexes, but one of the AM fungi used potentially decreased host plant fitness. In addition, in the intermediate sex, mycorrhizal symbiosis functioned similarly in females as in hermaphrodites. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Apprenticeships at CERN: a host of awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This year again, two CERN apprentices have received awards at the end of their training. CERN’s broad range of technical skills means that it can provide training in a wide variety of trades and professions. Denis Fernier receives congratulations from Pierre-François Unger, Counsel state of the canton of Geneva in charge of the department of economics and health. Denis Fernier and Coralie Husi (right) at the prize-giving ceremony of the Union Industrielle de Genève.Every year, CERN hosts six technical apprentices for a four-year period: three electronics technicians and three physics lab technicians. And every year, at the end of their apprenticeships, one or more of them receives an award for being among the best apprentices in Geneva. On 23 September, two young apprentices were honoured by the Union industrielle genevoise (UIG) on passing their exams: Coralie Husi, a physics lab apprentice...

  17. Copper Mountain, Wyoming, intermediate-grade uranium resource assessment project. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madson, M.E.; Ludlam, J.R.; Fukui, L.M.

    1982-11-01

    Intermediate-grade uranium resources were delineated and estimated for Eocene and Precambrian host rock environments in the 39.64 mi 2 Copper Mountain, Wyoming, assessment area. Geologic reconnaissance and geochemical, geophysical, petrologic, borehole, and structural data were interpreted and used to develop a genetic model for uranium mineralization in these environments. Development of a structural scoring system and application of computer graphics in a high-confidence control area established the basis for estimations of uranium resources in the total assessment area. 8 figures, 5 tables

  18. Optical properties of chalcopyrite-type intermediate transition metal band materials from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, I.; Palacios, P.; Wahnon, P.

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of a novel potential high-efficiency photovoltaic material have been studied. This material is based on a chalcopyrite-type semiconductor (CuGaS 2 ) with some Ga atom substituted by Ti and is characterized by the formation of an isolated transition-metal band between the valence band and the conduction band. We present a study in which ab-initio density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation are carried out to determine the optical reflectivity and absorption coefficient of the materials of interest. Calculations for the host semiconductor are in good agreement with experimental results within the limitations of the approach. We find, as desired, that because of the intermediate band, the new Ti-substituted material would be able to absorb photons of energy lower than the band-gap of the host chalcopyrite. We also analyze the partial contributions to the main peaks of its spectrum

  19. Novel electron gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, G.; Rapisarda, F.; Conti, S.

    1998-01-01

    We review recent progress on the physics of electrons in the bilayered electron gas, relevant to coupled quantum wells in GaAs/AIGaAs heterostructures. First we focus on the phase diagram of a symmetric bilayer at T = B = 0, obtained by diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) simulations. It is found that inter-layer correlations stabilize crystalline structures at intermediate inter-layer separation, while favoring a liquid phase at smaller distance. Also, the available DMC evidence is in contrast with the recently (Hartree-Fock) predicted total charge transfer (TCT), whereby all the electron spontaneously jump in one layer. In fact, one can show that such a TCT state is never stable in the ideal bilayer with no tunneling. We finally comment on ongoing DMC investigations on the electron-hole bilayer, where excitonic condensation is expected to take place. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  20. Cluster Analysis of Time-Dependent Crystallographic Data: Direct Identification of Time-Independent Structural Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Konstantin S.; Moffat, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The initial output of a time-resolved macromolecular crystallography experiment is a time-dependent series of difference electron density maps that displays the time-dependent changes in underlying structure as a reaction progresses. The goal is to interpret such data in terms of a small number of crystallographically refinable, time-independent structures, each associated with a reaction intermediate; to establish the pathways and rate coefficients by which these intermediates interconvert; and thereby to elucidate a chemical kinetic mechanism. One strategy toward achieving this goal is to use cluster analysis, a statistical method that groups objects based on their similarity. If the difference electron density at a particular voxel in the time-dependent difference electron density (TDED) maps is sensitive to the presence of one and only one intermediate, then its temporal evolution will exactly parallel the concentration profile of that intermediate with time. The rationale is therefore to cluster voxels with respect to the shapes of their TDEDs, so that each group or cluster of voxels corresponds to one structural intermediate. Clusters of voxels whose TDEDs reflect the presence of two or more specific intermediates can also be identified. From such groupings one can then infer the number of intermediates, obtain their time-independent difference density characteristics, and refine the structure of each intermediate. We review the principles of cluster analysis and clustering algorithms in a crystallographic context, and describe the application of the method to simulated and experimental time-resolved crystallographic data for the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein. PMID:21244840

  1. Host Defence to Pulmonary Mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H Mody

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms of host defense to pathogenic fungi. This will help physicians understand why some patients are predisposed to fungal infections and update basic scientists on how microbial immunology applies to fungal disease.

  2. Intercultural Competence in Host Students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen; Lyngdorf, Niels Erik; Du, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial work in intercultural education has been done on the intercultural competences of mobile students engaging in international study visits, there is a need to explore intercultural competences in host students. This chapter seeks to answer questions about the challenges...

  3. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  4. A new intermediate for the production of flexible stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Method of incorporating ether linkages into perfluoroalkylene segment of a dianydride intermediate yields intermediate that may be used in synthesis of flexible, stable polyimides for use as high-temperature, solvent-resistant sealants.

  5. ATCA observations of the MACS-Planck Radio Halo Cluster Project. II. Radio observations of an intermediate redshift cluster sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Aviles, G.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Ferrari, C.; Venturi, T.; Democles, J.; Dallacasa, D.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Aghanim, N.; Brown, S.; Douspis, M.; Hurier, J.; Intema, H. T.; Langer, M.; Macario, G.; Pointecouteau, E.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources whose origins are investigated through multi-wavelength studies of cluster samples. We investigate the presence of diffuse radio emission in a sample of seven galaxy clusters in the largely unexplored intermediate redshift range (0.3 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A94

  6. Oxidative demethylation of lanosterol in cholesterol biosynthesis: accumulation of sterol intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, A.; Trzaskos, J.M.; Paik, Y.K.; Gaylor, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    With [ 3 H-24,25]-dihydrolanosterol as substrate, large-scale metabolic formation of intermediates of lanosterol demethylation was carried out to identify all compounds in the metabolic process. Utilizing knowledge of electron transport of lanosterol demethylation, we interrupted the demethylation reaction allowing accumulation and confirmation of the structure of the oxygenated intermediates lanost-8-en-3 beta,32-diol and 3 beta-hydroxylanost-8-en-32-al, as well as the demethylation product 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,14-dien-3 beta-ol. Further metabolism of the delta 8.14-diene intermediate to a single product 4,4-dimethyl-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol occurs under interruption conditions in the presence of 0.5 mM CN-1. With authentic compounds, each intermediate has been rigorously characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography plus mass spectral analysis of isolated and derivatized sterols. Intermediates that accumulated in greater abundance were further characterized by ultraviolet, 1 H-NMR, and infrared spectroscopy of the isolated sterols

  7. Brillouin spectroscopy with surface acoustic waves on intermediate valent, doped SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, U.; Jung, A.; Wachter, P.

    1998-01-01

    Brillouin scattering on surface acoustic waves is a very powerful tool to determine the elastic constants of intermediate valent crystals, since the method is non-destructive and no mechanical contact is needed. A strong evidence for intermediate valence is a negative value of Poisson's ratio, which describes the behavior of the volume under uniaxial pressure. SmS by itself makes a semiconductor-metal transition at a pressure of more than 6.5 kbar. When substituting the divalent Sm by a trivalent cation, like Y, La or Tm, SmS can become - depending on the doping concentration - intermediate valent without any applied, external pressure. In this work, we will present measurements of the velocities of the surface acoustic waves and the calculation of the elastic constants of La- and Tm-doped SmS compounds. We found a clear dependence of Poisson's ratio on the doping concentration and on the valence of the materials. Furthermore, we will discuss the mechanism leading to intermediate valence when substituting Sm. Besides the internal, chemical pressure, which is produced by the built in trivalent cations with their smaller ionic radii, we have clear evidence, that the free electrons in the 5d band, induced by the substituting atoms, also play an important role in making doped SmS intermediate valent. (orig.)

  8. Early Events, Kinetic Intermediates and the Mechanism of Protein Folding in Cytochrome c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Kliger

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies of the early events in cytochrome c folding are reviewed with a focus on the evidence for folding intermediates on the submillisecond timescale. Evidence from time-resolved absorption, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, fluorescence energy and electron transfer, small-angle X-ray scattering and amide hydrogen exchange studies on the t £ 1 ms timescale reveals a picture of cytochrome c folding that starts with the ~ 1-ms conformational diffusion dynamics of the unfolded chains. A fractional population of the unfolded chains collapses on the 1 – 100 ms timescale to a compact intermediate IC containing some native-like secondary structure. Although the existence and nature of IC as a discrete folding intermediate remains controversial, there is extensive high time-resolution kinetic evidence for the rapid formation of IC as a true intermediate, i.e., a metastable state separated from the unfolded state by a discrete free energy barrier. Final folding to the native state takes place on millisecond and longer timescales, depending on the presence of kinetic traps such as heme misligation and proline mis-isomerization. The high folding rates observed in equilibrium molten globule models suggest that IC may be a productive folding intermediate. Whether it is an obligatory step on the pathway to the high free energy barrier associated with millisecond timescale folding to the native state, however, remains to be determined.

  9. Parvoviral nuclear import: bypassing the host nuclear-transport machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah; Behzad, Ali R; Carroll, Jeffrey B; Panté, Nelly

    2006-11-01

    The parvovirus Minute virus of mice (MVM) is a small DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus of its host cells. However, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying parvovirus' nuclear import. Recently, it was found that microinjection of MVM into the cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes causes damage to the nuclear envelope (NE), suggesting that the nuclear-import mechanism of MVM involves disruption of the NE and import through the resulting breaks. Here, fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy were used to examine the effect of MVM on host-cell nuclear structure during infection of mouse fibroblast cells. It was found that MVM caused dramatic changes in nuclear shape and morphology, alterations of nuclear lamin immunostaining and breaks in the NE of infected cells. Thus, it seems that the unusual nuclear-import mechanism observed in Xenopus oocytes is in fact used by MVM during infection of host cells.

  10. Neutrino-nucleus collision at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Oset, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions at low and intermediate energy up to E ν = 500 MeV are studied for the most interesting nuclei from an experimental point of view. We focus on neutrino-nucleus cross-sections of semi-inclusive processes, for which recent measurements from radiochemical experiments at LAMPF and KARMEN laboratories are available. The method employed uses the modified Lindhard function for the description of the particle-hole excitations of the final nucleus via a local density approximation. (authors)

  11. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  12. LMFBR intermediate-heat-exchanger experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Beaver, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents developmental and operating experience of large Intermediate Heat Exchangers (IHX's) in US from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) to the Large Development Plant (LDP). Design commonalities and deviations among these IHX's are synopsized. Various developmental tests that were conducted in the areas of hydraulic, structural and mechanical design are also presented. The FFTF is currently operating. Performance data of the FFTF IHXs are reviewed, and comparisons between actual and predicted performances are made. The results are used to assess the adequacy of IHX designs

  13. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  14. The aftermath of the intermediate value theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Claudio H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvability of nonlinear equations has awakened great interest among mathematicians for a number of centuries, perhaps as early as the Babylonian culture (3000–300 B.C.E.. However, we intend to bring to our attention that some of the problems studied nowadays appear to be amazingly related to the time of Bolzano's era (1781–1848. Indeed, this Czech mathematician or perhaps philosopher has rigorously proven what is known today as the intermediate value theorem, a result that is intimately related to various classical theorems that will be discussed throughout this work.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of particles with intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, G.S.; Sarkar, S.; Spal/ek, J.; Byczuk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the distribution function of an ideal gas of particles (exclusons) which have statistics intermediate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein are obtained for all values of the Haldane statistics parameter α element-of[0,1]. The analytic structure of the distribution function is investigated and found to have no singularities in the physical region when the parameter α lies in the range 0 V of the D-dimensional excluson gas. The low-temperature series for the thermodynamic properties illustrate the pseudofermion nature of exclusons. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Geophysical Tests for Intermediate-Range Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    34Feeble intermediate-range Gravitation, 1989, 154. Topics: AG,T, A forces from higher dimensions", Physical Review 60. Bell J. S., Perring J. K., ൝r...M., 134 Bell J. S., 60, 61 Coleman R., 389 Beltran-Lopez V., 359 Cabibbo N., 64 Coleman R. A ., 135 Bender P. L., 540 Calafiura P., 106 Cook A . H...of Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., Selen M. A ., Shoemaker F. C., Smith A . J. S., 1985,88, 1946-1949.] Topics: SD,E,+ Blackmore E. W., Bryman D. A ., Felawka L

  17. A complete quasar sample at intermediate redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, S.; La Franca, F.; Barbieri, C.; Iovino, A.

    1991-01-01

    A search for intermediate-redshift quasars has been carried out with slitless spectroscopy in the central 21.07 deg 2 of the SA 94, where the existence of a large database of objects for which slit spectroscopy was already available provided a valuable opportunity of testing the properties of our selection technique. Fifty candidates have been observed with slit spectroscopy, confirming 34 quasars and two H II galaxies. The completeness of this survey as a function of magnitude and redshift has been analysed, and an effective area of 16.9 deg 2 has been evaluated. (author)

  18. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  19. Photofissility of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Likhachev, V.P.; Goncalves, M.

    2002-10-01

    We use the recently developed MCMC/MCEF (Multi Collisional Monte Carlo plus Monte Carlo for Evaporation-Fission calculations) model to calculate the photo fissility and the photofission cross section at intermediate energies for the 243 Am and for 209 Bi, and compare them to results obtained for other actinides and to available experimental data. As expected, the results for 243 Am are close to those for 237 Np. The fissility for pre actinide nuclei is nearly one order of magnitude lower than that for the actinides. Both fissility and photofission cross section for 209 Bi are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Parity violation experiments at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1996-06-01

    The status of the TRIUMF 221 MeV proton-proton violation experiment is reviewed. Several other proton-proton parity violation experiments in the in the intermediate energy range, currently in various stages of preparation, are discussed. A new experiment at an energy of 5.13 GeV (and if confirmed also at an energy of tens of GeV) is needed to follow on the earlier unexpected large result obtained at 5.13 GeV. (author)

  1. Characterization of monomeric intermediates during VSV glycoprotein structural transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie A Albertini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entry of enveloped viruses requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes, driven by conformational changes of viral glycoproteins. Crystal structures provide static pictures of pre- and post-fusion conformations of these proteins but the transition pathway remains elusive. Here, using several biophysical techniques, including analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroïsm, electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, we have characterized the low-pH-induced fusogenic structural transition of a soluble form of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV glycoprotein G ectodomain (G(th, aa residues 1-422, the fragment that was previously crystallized. While the post-fusion trimer is the major species detected at low pH, the pre-fusion trimer is not detected in solution. Rather, at high pH, G(th is a flexible monomer that explores a large conformational space. The monomeric population exhibits a marked pH-dependence and adopts more elongated conformations when pH decreases. Furthermore, large relative movements of domains are detected in absence of significant secondary structure modification. Solution studies are complemented by electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles in which monomeric ectodomains of G are observed at the viral surface at both pH 7.5 and pH 6.7. We propose that the monomers are intermediates during the conformational change and thus that VSV G trimers dissociate at the viral surface during the structural transition.

  2. 42 CFR 54.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54.12... intermediate organizations. If a nongovernmental organization (referred to here as an “intermediate organization”), acting under a contract or other agreement with the Federal Government or a State or local...

  3. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  4. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  5. Interpretation and code generation based on intermediate languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter; Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of supporting high level languages through intermediate languages to be used for direct interpretation and as intermediate forms in compilers is investigated. An accomplished project in the construction of an interpreter and a code generator using one common intermediate form...

  6. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  7. SDSS IV MaNGA - Properties of AGN Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernandez-Toledo, H.; Cortes-Suárez, E.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.; Ibarra-Medel, H.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Negrete, C. A.; Calette, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Aquino, E.; Valenzuela, O.; Clemente, J. C.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Schimoia, J.; Riffel, R. A.; Rembold, S. B.; Brownstein, J. R.; Pan, K.; Yates, R.; Mallmann, N.; Bitsakis, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present the characterization of the main properties of a sample of 98 AGN host galaxies, both type-II and type-I, in comparison with those of ≍2700 non-active galaxies observed by the MaNGA survey. We found that AGN hosts are morphologically early-type or early-spirals. AGN hosts are, on average, more massive, more compact, more centrally peaked and more pressure-supported systems. They are located in the intermediate/transition region between starforming and non-star-forming galaxies (i.e., the so-called green valley). We consider that they are in the process of halting/quenching the star formation. The analysis of the radial distributions of different properties shows that the quenching happens from inside-out involving both a decrease of the effciency of the star formation and a deficit of molecular gas. The data-products of the current analysis are distributed as a Value Added Catalog within the SDSS-DR14.

  8. Location of Host and Host Habitat by Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Rousse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentative releases of parasitoids may be a useful tool for the area-wide management of tephritid pests. The latter are parasitized by many wasp species, though only a few of them are relevant for augmentative biocontrol purposes. To date, nearly all the actual or potential biocontrol agents for such programs are egg or larval Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae. Here, we review the literature published on their habitat and host location behavior, as well as the factors that modulate this behavior, which is assumed to be sequential; parasitoids forage first for the host habitat and then for the host itself. Parasitoids rely on chemical, visual, and mechanical stimuli, often strongly related to their ecology. Behavioral modulation factors include biotic and abiotic factors including learning, climatic conditions and physiological state of the insect. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research are briefly highlighted. A detailed knowledge of this behavior may be very useful for selecting the release sites for both inundative/augmentative releases of mass-reared parasitoids and inoculative releases for classical biocontrol.

  9. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  10. Interface Molecules of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Their Role in Parasite Survival and Modulation of Host Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. Morassutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Disease presents following the ingestion of third-stage larvae residing in the intermediate mollusk host and disease manifests as an acute inflammation of the meninges characterized by eosinophil infiltrates which release a battery of proinflammatory and cytotoxic agents in response to the pathogen. As a mechanism of neutralizing these host defenses, A. cantonensis expresses different molecules with immunomodulatory properties that are excreted or secreted (ES. In this paper we discuss the role of ES proteins on disease exacerbation and their potential use as therapeutic targets.

  11. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L.; Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G.; Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W.; Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F.; Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G.; Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.)

  12. Treatment of rod shaped intermediate active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Blase, F.; Dirks, F.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operation Department (HDB) of the Research Center Karlsruhe operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to reduce the volume of the radioactive waste and to obtain waste products suitable for repository storage. One of the central facilities of the HDB is the intermediate level waste (ILW) scrapping facility which processes intermediate level waste. Since the ILW scrapping facility was not large enough to handle radioactive waste coming from the dismantling and operating of nuclear facilities, HDB expanded and built a larger hot cell. It contains a hydraulically driven metal cutter with a guiding channel and a high pressure compactor. A major task in the hot cell of the ILW scrapping facility is disposing of fuel boxes. These are cut in pieces and scrapped, which is a unique technique in Germany for fuel box disposal. HDB's experiences in disposing of radioactive waste in the ILW scrapping facility will described in detail, with special emphasis on the handling of rod shaped components. (author)

  13. Physics of intermediate shocks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.

  14. Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

  15. BANKING INTERMEDIATION AND CONSEQUENCES OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial intermediation of bank institutions, has an essential role in mobilising of the available funds and their distribution in various products and services, for economic growth. The extent that banking system is in distress or passing through a period of crisis, then, everything turns into a general crisis, especially that, in some states, natural and legal persons have been learned ,,to live’’ on the credits.The effectiveness of banking intermediation activity in Romania depends on how fast the market is enabled under the influence of the new European regulations. The Romanian market in all its forms is the second largest in the EU, and the banking system is almost entirely made up of banks with foreign capital. The romanian banking market has not suffered so much because of the financial crisis. To the extent that banking institutions provide the necessary funds, Romania has important resources for the transition to a new economic cycle based on sustainable development.

  16. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  17. Intermediate-field transport of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.; Kim, C.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-06-01

    This report is about ''intermediate-field'' transport or the migration of contaminants from arrays of discrete waste packages or sources. In constructing nuclear waste repositories in rock, it may be necessary to place a waste package across a rock fracture, or a rock fracture may develop some time after waste packages have been emplaced. To predict the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant species from a line of waste packages facing a rock fracture may be important, because such fractures may now be considered a preferential pathway for released radionuclides to re-enter the biosphere. In land disposal of hazardous wastes, individual barrels may contain especially toxic material whose dispersion special attention. We have published analytic solutions for the multidimensional advective transport of contaminants from arrays of waste packages and multiple areal sources into a planar fracture. The results show a near region in which the concentrations vary greatly in the direction transverse to ground-water flow, an intermediate region in which the array can be treated as an infinite plane source of dissolving species, and a far-field region in which the array can be treated as a plane source of finite extent. The array equations have been developed for both porous and fractured media. In this paper we summarize and compare the work with multiple areal sources facing a planar fracture and an array of point sources in porous media. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. Can Morphing Methods Predict Intermediate Structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dahlia R.; Levitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Movement is crucial to the biological function of many proteins, yet crystallographic structures of proteins can give us only a static snapshot. The protein dynamics that are important to biological function often happen on a timescale that is unattainable through detailed simulation methods such as molecular dynamics as they often involve crossing high-energy barriers. To address this coarse-grained motion, several methods have been implemented as web servers in which a set of coordinates is usually linearly interpolated from an initial crystallographic structure to a final crystallographic structure. We present a new morphing method that does not extrapolate linearly and can therefore go around high-energy barriers and which can produce different trajectories between the same two starting points. In this work, we evaluate our method and other established coarse-grained methods according to an objective measure: how close a coarse-grained dynamics method comes to a crystallographically determined intermediate structure when calculating a trajectory between the initial and final crystal protein structure. We test this with a set of five proteins with at least three crystallographically determined on-pathway high-resolution intermediate structures from the Protein Data Bank. For simple hinging motions involving a small conformational change, segmentation of the protein into two rigid sections outperforms other more computationally involved methods. However, large-scale conformational change is best addressed using a nonlinear approach and we suggest that there is merit in further developing such methods. PMID:18996395

  19. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 7 figs

  20. Recent evolutionary radiation and host plant specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa subspecies native to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Vickerman, Danel B; Bromley, Robin E; Russell, Stephanie A; Hartman, John R; Morano, Lisa D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 "non-IHR" isolates, 2 minimally recombinant "intermediate" ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): "almond," "peach," and "oak" types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity.

  1. Nitric oxide is an obligate bacterial nitrification intermediate produced by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranto, Jonathan D; Lancaster, Kyle M

    2017-08-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 )-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) emit substantial amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), both of which contribute to the harmful environmental side effects of large-scale agriculture. The currently accepted model for AOB metabolism involves NH 3 oxidation to nitrite (NO 2 - ) via a single obligate intermediate, hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH). Within this model, the multiheme enzyme hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of NH 2 OH to NO 2 - We provide evidence that HAO oxidizes NH 2 OH by only three electrons to NO under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. NO 2 - observed in HAO activity assays is a nonenzymatic product resulting from the oxidation of NO by O 2 under aerobic conditions. Our present study implies that aerobic NH 3 oxidation by AOB occurs via two obligate intermediates, NH 2 OH and NO, necessitating a mediator of the third enzymatic step.

  2. Host cell adhesion to Schistosoma mansoni larvae in the peritoneal cavity of naive mice: histological and scanning electron microscopic studies Adesão celular às larvas de Schistosoma mansoni na cavidade peritoneal de camundongos normais: estudos histológicos e microscopia eletrônica de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Lane de Melo

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of naive mice induced host cell adhesion to their surface, but after 90 minutes the number of adherent cells sharply decreased. The cell detachment is progressive and simultaneous to the cercaria-schistosomule transformation. The histological study showed mainly neutrophils in close contact with the larvae. Mononuclear cells and some eosinophils were occasionally seen surrounding the adherent neutrophils. The scanning electron microscopy showed cells displaying twisted microvilli and several microplicae contacting or spreading over the larval surface, and larvae completely surrounded by clusters of cells. These results suggest that the neutrophils recognize molecules on the cercarial surface which induce their spreadingA inoculação de cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni na cavidade peritoneal de camundongos normais induz uma aderência de células do hospedeiro a essas larvas. Essa adesão decresce rapidamente quando a larva infectante transforma-se em esquistossômulo. O destacamento das células é progressivo e simultâneo à transformação. Os métodos histológicos e a microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostraram que o neutrófilo é a célula predominante em estreito contacto com a larva. Células mononucleadas e eosinófilos foram observados rodeando o parasito, usualmente sem estar em contacto direto com a larva. Os resultados indicam que neutrófilos podem reconhecer, na superfície larvária, moléculas que induzem sua adesão e espalhamento.

  3. The intermediate endpoint effect in logistic and probit regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, DP; Lockwood, CM; Brown, CH; Wang, W; Hoffman, JM

    2010-01-01

    Background An intermediate endpoint is hypothesized to be in the middle of the causal sequence relating an independent variable to a dependent variable. The intermediate variable is also called a surrogate or mediating variable and the corresponding effect is called the mediated, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint effect. Clinical studies are often designed to change an intermediate or surrogate endpoint and through this intermediate change influence the ultimate endpoint. In many intermediate endpoint clinical studies the dependent variable is binary, and logistic or probit regression is used. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe a limitation of a widely used approach to assessing intermediate endpoint effects and to propose an alternative method, based on products of coefficients, that yields more accurate results. Methods The intermediate endpoint model for a binary outcome is described for a true binary outcome and for a dichotomization of a latent continuous outcome. Plots of true values and a simulation study are used to evaluate the different methods. Results Distorted estimates of the intermediate endpoint effect and incorrect conclusions can result from the application of widely used methods to assess the intermediate endpoint effect. The same problem occurs for the proportion of an effect explained by an intermediate endpoint, which has been suggested as a useful measure for identifying intermediate endpoints. A solution to this problem is given based on the relationship between latent variable modeling and logistic or probit regression. Limitations More complicated intermediate variable models are not addressed in the study, although the methods described in the article can be extended to these more complicated models. Conclusions Researchers are encouraged to use an intermediate endpoint method based on the product of regression coefficients. A common method based on difference in coefficient methods can lead to distorted

  4. Fingerprinting taste buds: intermediate filaments and their implication for taste bud formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, M; Reutter, K; Ganchrow, D; Ganchrow, J R

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate filaments in taste organs of terrestrial (human and chick) as well as aquatic (Xenopus laevis) species were detected using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. During development, the potential importance of the interface between the taste bud primordium and non-gustatory adjacent tissues is evidenced by the distinct immunoreactivity of a subpopulation of taste bud cells for cytokeratins and vimentin. In human foetuses, the selective molecular marker for taste bud primor...

  5. Hosting the first EDRS payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, D.; Glynn, S.; Heine, F.

    2017-11-01

    The European Data Relay System (EDRS) will provide optical and microwave data relay services between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites at altitudes up to 2000 km and the ground through geostationary (GEO) satellite nodes. Currently, two such nodes have been procured as part of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) between Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) and ESA. The first node (EDRS-A) is a hosted payload embarked upon the Eutelsat 9B satellite and scheduled for launch in early 2015.

  6. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  7. Improving the capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries by tailoring the polysulfide adsorption efficiency of hierarchical oxygen/nitrogen-functionalized carbon host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Artur; Janek, Jürgen; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2017-03-22

    The use of monolithic carbons with structural hierarchy and varying amounts of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities as sulfur host materials in high-loading lithium-sulfur cells is reported. The primary focus is on the strength of the polysulfide/carbon interaction with the goal of assessing the effect of (surface) dopant concentration on cathode performance. The adsorption capacity - which is a measure of the interaction strength between the intermediate lithium polysulfide species and the carbon - was found to scale almost linearly with the nitrogen level. Likewise, the discharge capacity of lithium-sulfur cells increased linearly. This positive correlation can be explained by the favorable effect of nitrogen on both the chemical and electronic properties of the carbon host. The incorporation of additional oxygen-containing surface groups into highly nitrogen-functionalized carbon helped to further enhance the polysulfide adsorption efficiency, and therefore the reversible cell capacity. Overall, the areal capacity could be increased by almost 70% to around 3 mA h cm -2 . We believe that the design parameters described here provide a blueprint for future carbon-based nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-sulfur cells.

  8. First Record of Transversotrema Witenberg, 1944 (Digenea) from the Americas, with Comments on the Taxonomy of Transversotrema patialense (Soparkar, 1924) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960, and an Updated List of Its Hosts and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Matthew R; Cox-Gardiner, Stephanie J; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Transversotrema patialense (sensu lato) ( Soparkar, 1924 ) Crusz and Sathananthan, 1960 (Digenea: Transversotrematidae) infected the skin (epidermal spaces beneath scales near pectoral fins) of 4 of 126 (prevalence 3%; mean intensity 1.8) zebrafish ( Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822) [Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae]) purchased in 2009 and cultured by a California (USA) fish supplier. These fish were sold as "laboratory-reared" and "specific pathogen free," purportedly raised in a recirculating aquaculture system that included zebrafish only. We herein describe the morphological features of this transversotrematid using light and scanning electron microscopy, provide a comprehensive list of hosts (snails and fishes) and geographic locality records for specimens reported as T. patialense, which is perhaps a species complex, and provide a brief historical synopsis of the taxonomic and life history research that has been conducted on this fluke. No species of Transversotrema previously had been reported from the Americas; however, this discovery is not surprising given that: (1) a suitable intermediate host (red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) [Cerithioidea: Thiaridae]) has been established in California and elsewhere in North America, (2) the zebrafish is a susceptible definitive host, and (3) T. patialense reportedly matures on a broad ecological and phylogenetic spectrum of freshwater fishes. To our knowledge, this is the northern-most geographic locality record for a species of this genus. We suspect this case study represents an example of a parasite that may now be established in North America by the fortuitous co-occurrence of a susceptible, exotic snail host (the red-rimmed melania) and a susceptible, widely distributed, exotic fish host (the zebrafish).

  9. Host and Non-Host roots in rice: cellular and molecular approaches reveal differential responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFiorilli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa, a model plant for Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, has both host and non-host roots. Large lateral (LLR and fine lateral (FLR roots display opposite responses: LLR support AM colonization, but FLR do not. Our research aimed to study the molecular, morphological and physiological aspects related to the non-host behavior of FLR. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LLR and FLR displayed divergent expression profiles, including changes in many metabolic pathways. Compared with LLR, FLR showed down-regulation of genes instrumental for AM establishment and gibberellin signaling, and a higher expression of nutrient transporters. Consistent with the transcriptomic data, FLR had higher phosphorus content. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated that, surprisingly, in the Selenio cultivar, FLR have a two-layered cortex, which is theoretically compatible with AM colonization. According to RNA-seq, a gibberellin inhibitor treatment increased anticlinal divisions leading to a higher number of cortex cells in FLR.We propose that some of the differentially regulated genes that lead to the anatomical and physiological properties of the two root types also function as genetic factors regulating fungal colonization. The rice root apparatus offers a unique tool to study AM symbiosis, allowing direct comparisons of host and non-host roots in the same individual plant.

  10. Pion deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    A comparison is made of results of calculations of πd elastic scattering cross section using multiple scattering and three-body equations, in relation to their ability to reproduce the experimental data at intermediate energies. It is shown that the two methods of theoretical calculation give quite similar curves for the elastic differential cross sections, and that both fail in reproducing backward scattering data above 200MeV. The new accurate experimental data on πd total cross section as a function of the energy are confronted with the theoretical values obtained from the multiple scattering calculation through the optical theorem. Comparison is made between the values of the real part of the forward amplitude evaluated using dispersion relations and using the multiple scattering method [pt

  11. Intermediate length scale dynamics of polyisobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, B.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.; Faust, R.; Buchenau, U.; Richter, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a neutron spin echo investigation of the intermediate scale dynamics of polyisobutylene studying both the self-motion and the collective motion. The momentum transfer (Q) dependences of the self-correlation times are found to follow a Q -2/β law in agreement with the picture of Gaussian dynamics. In the full Q range of observation, their temperature dependence is weaker than the rheological shift factor. The same is true for the stress relaxation time as seen in sound wave absorption. The collective times show both temperature dependences; at the structure factor peak, they follow the temperature dependence of the viscosity, but below the peak, one finds the stress relaxation behavior

  12. Meteorological perspective on intermediate range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoven, I.

    1981-01-01

    The intermediate range of atmospheric transport and diffusion is defined as those dispersion processes which take place at downwind distances of 10 to 100 kilometers from pollutant sources. Meteorologists often define this range as the mesoscale. It is the range of distances where certain environmental assessments are of concern such as the determination of significant deterioration of visibility, the effect of effluent releases from tall stacks, and the effect of pollutant sources in rural settings upon the more distant urban centers. Atmospheric diffusion theory is based on steady state conditions and spatial homogeniety. Techniques must be developed to measure the inhomogenieties, models must be devised to account for the complexities, and a data base consisting of appropriate measured meteorological parameters concurrent with tracer gas concentrations should be collected

  13. Modernisation of the intermediate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Inkeri; Heino, Olga; Hendolin, Ilkka; Galambosi, Szabolcs

    2018-03-01

    The intermediate laboratory courses at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, were reformed using desired learning outcomes as the basis for design. The reformed laboratory courses consist of weekly workshops and small-group laboratory sessions. Many of the laboratory exercises are open-ended and have several possible ways of execution. They were designed around affordable devices, to allow for the purchase of multiple sets of laboratory equipment. This allowed students to work on the same problems simultaneously. Thus, it was possible to set learning goals which build on each other. Workshop sessions supported the course by letting the students solve problems related to conceptual and technical aspects of each laboratory exercise. The laboratory exercises progressed biweekly to allow for iterative problem solving. Students reached the learning goals well and the reform improved student experiences. Neither positive or negative changes in expert-like attitudes towards experimental physics (measured by E-CLASS questionnaire) were observed.

  14. Environmental issues of an intermediate city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Our urban centers present a unique dimension of environmental problems. They are at one and the same time, enormous consumers of natural resources and produces of waste and pollution. In this respect intermediate cities and small towns appear to be more vulnerable to natural catastrophes and ecological accidents caused by human factors. While in large cities there exist pressure groups which attain government attention for the solution of their problems and have well equipped municipalities. However, a vast majority of the population lives in rural areas and depends upon medium sized cities and towns for access to services. These cities and towns form the pivot of economic, social, cultural and political life for a large part of the population. Therefore, it deserves more attention than bigger ones. This paper explores local people perception about urban environmental problems exist in the city. Attempts are also made to shape and guide municipality efforts to overcome such problems with available resources. (author)

  15. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  16. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  17. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  18. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  19. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  20. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.