WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate energy region

  1. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions

  2. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  3. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  4. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  5. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  6. Deuteron breakup mechanism in the intermediate-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divadeenam, M.; Ward, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier investigation, we have explored the possibility of explaining the deuteron breakup mechanism in terms of the Udagawa and Tannura (UT) formalism of the breakup-fusion process. The experimental doubly differential data were very well reproduced for the test case studies. However, the application of UT formalism of the spirit of DWBA involves the use of optical-model parameters for different nuclei and at different energies. The optical model parameters are not always unique. In the present study we investigate the deuteron breakup mechanism in terms of the semiclassical models of Serber (for the nuclear interaction part) and Dancoff (for the electromagnetic dissociation). In the case of Serber model the modification due to the finite range of the deuteron and the Glauber correction for the diffractive disassociation are considered. The modified deuteron breakup cross section either for the (d,p) or the (d,n) process is proportional to the product of the target radius and the deuteron radius (R target · R deuteron ). The predicted proton/neutron spectrum is centered around 1/2 E d and forward peaked. The Coulomb dissociation of deuteron is attributed to the deuteron dipole excitation in the presence of the nuclear Coulomb field. The neutron/proton spectrum, resulting from the Coulomb breakup of the deuteron, is highly forward peaked and also centered around 1/2 E d . The systematics of the deuteron breakup neutron/proton spectra are investigated for medium to heavy target nuclei at 50--200 MeV deuteron energies. 10 refs., 4 figs

  7. Program TOTELA calculating basic cross sections in intermediate energy region by using systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Niita, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Program TOTELA can calculate neutron- and proton-induced total, elastic scattering and reaction cross sections and angular distribution of elastic scattering in the intermediate energy region from 20 MeV to 3 GeV. The TOTELA adopts the systematics modified from that by Pearlstein to reproduce the experimental data and LA150 evaluation better. The calculated results compared with experimental data and LA150 evaluation are shown in figures. The TOTELA results can reproduce those data almost well. The TOTELA was developed to fill the lack of experimental data of above quantities in the intermediate energy region and to use for production of JENDL High Energy File. In the case that there is no experimental data of above quantities, the optical model parameters can be fitted by using TOTELA results. From this point of view, it is also useful to compare the optical model calculation by using RIPL with TOTELA results, in order to verify the parameter quality. Input data of TOTELA is only atomic and mass numbers of incident particle and target nuclide and input/output file names. The output of TOTELA calculation is in ENDF-6 format used in the intermediate energy nuclear data files. It is easy to modify the main routine by users. Details are written in each subroutine and main routine

  8. Unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Osamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    For an accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation system, it is very important to estimate sub-criticality of core system for feasibility and design study of the system. The fission cross section in the intermediate energy range has an important role. A program FISCAL has been developed to calculate neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in the energy region from several tens of MeV to 3 GeV. FISCAL adopts the systematics considering experimental data for Ag- 243 Am. It is found that unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections is available. (author)

  9. Carbon emission, energy consumption and intermediate goods trade: A regional study of East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Using country level panel data from East Asia over the period 1998–2011, this paper examines the implications of international production fragmentation-induced intermediate goods trade on the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution. The paper focuses on the interaction effect between energy consumption and trade in intermediate goods on carbon emission. The empirical results presented suggest that international trade in intermediate goods decreases the positive impact on carbon emission of energy consumption. When compared with the trade in final goods, intermediate goods trade contributes to a greater decrease in carbon pollution resulting from energy consumption. These results confirm that the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution in East Asia is significantly affected by international production fragmentation-induced trade in intermediate goods. The results presented in this paper have some important policy implications. - Highlights: • This paper tests the role of intermediates trade in energy-development nexus. • Empirical study is based on data of East Asia. • International trade can reduce the carbon pollution caused by energy use. • Intermediates trade has higher moderating effect than non-intermediate trade.

  10. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  11. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  12. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  13. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of 238U in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of 238 U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of 238 U

  14. Neutron-induced particle production in the cumulative and noncumulative regions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashnik, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    The first systematic measurements of neutron-induced inclusive production of protons, deuterons, tritons and charged pions on carbon, copper, and bismuth in the bombarding energy range of 300-580 MeV and in the angular interval from 51 deg to 165 deg have been analyzed in the framework of the cascade-exciton model. The role of single-particle scattering, the effects of rescattering, the pre-equilibrium emission and 'coalescence' mechanism in particle production in the cumulative (i.e., kinematically - forbidden for quasi-free intranuclear projectile-nucleon collisions) and noncumulative regions are discussed. A week sensitivity of the inclusive distributions to the specific reaction mechanisms and a need of correlation and polarization measurements are noted. 27 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Intermediate energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)

  16. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of {sup 238}U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of {sup 238}U.

  17. Salient features of heavy ion reactions in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, B.

    1987-01-01

    In this lecture the attention is focused on the most central and therefore generally also the most violent collisions. It is necessary to remember that the non-participating volumes could be very different for symmetric and asymmetric reactions. The onset of the multifragmentation channel or rather the cease of the fusion process is the first topic to be discussed. This question is directly related to the limitation in energy and momentum transfer and thus to the question about nuclear transparency. Exclusive data on multifragmentation on an event-by-event basis, which may help the model constructors, is presented as the second topic. In lecture the onset of fragmentation, fragment sizes in multifragmentation processes, the origin of light particle correlations and emission of pions and kaons close to the threshold are discussed

  18. Photonuclear reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant feature of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies is the excitation of the δ resonance and one can therefore use such reactions to study the dynamics of δ propagation in a nucleus. Following an introductory section the author comments on photoabsorption on a single nucleon in Section II. A review of the δ-n Greens function and of the photonuclear amplitude is given in Section III. Results for photoabsorption on 4 He are shown in Section IV and compared with the data. Coherent π 0 photoproduction is discussed in Section V and calculations for 12 C are compared to recent measurements. (Auth.)

  19. Detailed EXOSAT and optical observations of the intermediate polar 3A0729+103: discovery of two medium energy X-ray emission regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHardy, I.M.; Pye, J.P.; Fairall, A.P.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    EXOSAT observations of the intermediate polar cataclysmic variable 3A0729+103 reveal a strong orbital modulation, with the 2-4KeV X-rays being significantly more modulated than the 4-6keV X-rays, indicative of photoelectric absorption. The 913 second modulation which is very prominent in the optical light curve, is weakly detected in the medium-energy X-ray light curve, confirming that it represents the white dwarf spin period. These observations are well explained by a combination of two sources of medium-energy X-ray emission. The presence of two emission regions is also clearly seen in the optical spectroscopy, particularly in the intensity of the He II4686 line which has two peaks during the orbit. The authors identify the two optical emission regions with the two X-ray emission regions. (author)

  20. Nuclear photoreactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1989-02-01

    We review the interaction of real photons with nuclei up to the GeV region. The common microscopic description of exchange effects below threshold and of the corresponding real photoproduction above, is emphasized. The theoretical problems connected with π photoproduction in Δ region and vector meson photoproduction are spelled out and solved. The gross features of the reaction mechanism are shown to explain both the low energy region, the bulk properties around the Δ resonance as well as the appearance of shadowing only above ρ threshold

  1. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  2. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers

  3. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  4. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  5. Proceedings of the 6. National Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Several works on nuclear, hadron and quark physics are presented covering both aspects; theoretical and experimental, are presented. Emphasis is given in the intermediate energy region, several MeV centil few GeV. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L.; Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G.; Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W.; Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F.; Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G.; Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.)

  7. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 7 figs

  8. Proton scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, A.; Layly, V.; Schaeffer, R.

    1977-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of the most recent Saclay data of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on nuclei at incident energies around 1GeV ( 16 O, the Ca isotopes, the Ni isotopes, 90 Zr and 208 Pb). Various theories (Impulse or Glauber approximation) are comapred. It is shown that the reaction mechanism is very well understood at 1GeV and that, at these energies, absorption and distortion is small enough, so one can extract nuclear densities from the experiment. In particular, the shape of the neutron densities is given, and compared to the Hartree-Fock predictions. The uncertainties, especially in the determination of the neutron radii are discussed [fr

  9. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  10. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  11. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Tek P.; Różańska, Agata; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, Bozena [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: tek@camk.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR) by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 10{sup 11.5} cm{sup −3}, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  12. Parity violation experiments at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1996-06-01

    The status of the TRIUMF 221 MeV proton-proton violation experiment is reviewed. Several other proton-proton parity violation experiments in the in the intermediate energy range, currently in various stages of preparation, are discussed. A new experiment at an energy of 5.13 GeV (and if confirmed also at an energy of tens of GeV) is needed to follow on the earlier unexpected large result obtained at 5.13 GeV. (author)

  13. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities

  14. Systematics of elastic scattering at high and intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias De Deus, J [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Lisboa (Portugal); Kroll, P [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    A model for elastic scattering valid in the intermediate and high-energy region is proposed. The model includes three kinds of entities: the pomeron, a universal GS pomeron; the reggeons, also universal and of GS type; and the core, a low-energy central real piece required by dispersion relations. The number of free functions and parameters is rather small. The approach supports naive duality and, in general, agrees with the results of absorptive models.

  15. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  16. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  17. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.; Britt, H.C.; Claesson, G.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the production of intermediate mass fragments (A > 4) in intermediate and high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The mechanism for production of these fragments is not well understood and has been described by models employing a variety of assumptions. Some examples are: disassembly of a system in thermal equilibrium into nucleons and nuclear fragments, liquid-vapor phase transitions in nuclear matter, final state coalescence of nucleons and dynamical correlations between nucleons at breakup. Previous studies of fragment production, with one exception, have been single particle inclusive measurements; the observed fragment mass (or charge) distributions can be described by all of the models above. To gain insight into the fragment production mechanism, the authors used the GSI/LBL Plastic Ball detector system to get full azimuthal coverage for intermediate mass fragments in the forward hemisphere in the center of mass system while measuring all the light particles in each event. The authors studied the systems 200 MeV/nucleon Au + Au and Au + Fe

  18. Neutrino-nucleus collision at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Oset, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions at low and intermediate energy up to E ν = 500 MeV are studied for the most interesting nuclei from an experimental point of view. We focus on neutrino-nucleus cross-sections of semi-inclusive processes, for which recent measurements from radiochemical experiments at LAMPF and KARMEN laboratories are available. The method employed uses the modified Lindhard function for the description of the particle-hole excitations of the final nucleus via a local density approximation. (authors)

  19. Photofissility of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Likhachev, V.P.; Goncalves, M.

    2002-10-01

    We use the recently developed MCMC/MCEF (Multi Collisional Monte Carlo plus Monte Carlo for Evaporation-Fission calculations) model to calculate the photo fissility and the photofission cross section at intermediate energies for the 243 Am and for 209 Bi, and compare them to results obtained for other actinides and to available experimental data. As expected, the results for 243 Am are close to those for 237 Np. The fissility for pre actinide nuclei is nearly one order of magnitude lower than that for the actinides. Both fissility and photofission cross section for 209 Bi are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  20. Isospin effects in intermediate energy heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianye; Zuo Wei; Yang Yanfang; Zhao Qiang; Guo Wenjun

    2001-01-01

    Based on the achievements for the intermediate energy heavy ion collision in authors' recent work and the progresses in the world, the isospin effects and the dependence of the entrance channel conditions on them in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions were introduced, analysed and commended. From the calculation results by using isospin dependence quantum molecular dynamics, it is clear to see that the nuclear stopping power strongly depends on the in-medium isospin dependence nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the symmetry potential in the energy region from about Fermi energy to 150 MeV/u and the intermediate mass fragment multiplicity also sensitively depends on the in-medium isospin dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the symmetry potential in a selected energy region. But the preequilibrium emission neutron-proton ratio is quite contrary, it sensitively depends on the symmetry potential and weakly on the in-medium isospin dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section. In addition to the nuclear stopping sensitively depending on the beam energy, impact parameter and the mass of colliding system and weakly on the neutron-proton ratio of the colliding systems with about the same mass, the preequilibrium emission neutron-neutron ratio sensitively depends on the beam energy and the neutron-proton ratio of colliding system, but weakly on the impact parameter. From above results it is proposed that the nuclear stopping is a new probe to extract the information on the in-medium isospin dependence nucleon-nucleon cross section in energy region from about Fermi energy to 150 MeV/u and the preequilibrium emission neutron-proton ratio is a good probe for extracting the information about the symmetry potential from the lower energy to about 150 MeV/u

  1. Pion deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    A comparison is made of results of calculations of πd elastic scattering cross section using multiple scattering and three-body equations, in relation to their ability to reproduce the experimental data at intermediate energies. It is shown that the two methods of theoretical calculation give quite similar curves for the elastic differential cross sections, and that both fail in reproducing backward scattering data above 200MeV. The new accurate experimental data on πd total cross section as a function of the energy are confronted with the theoretical values obtained from the multiple scattering calculation through the optical theorem. Comparison is made between the values of the real part of the forward amplitude evaluated using dispersion relations and using the multiple scattering method [pt

  2. Transfer and breakup reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1986-04-01

    The origin of the quasi-elastic peak in peripheral heavy-ion reactions is discussed in terms of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions to unbound states of the primary projectile-like fragment. The situation is analogous to the use of reverse kinematics in fusion reactions, a technique in which the object of study is moving with nearly the beam velocity. It appears that several important features of the quasi-elastic peak may be explained by this approach. Projectile-breakup reactions have attractive features for the study of nuclear structure. They may also be used to determine the partition of excitation energy in peripheral reactions. At intermediate energies, neutron-pickup reactions leading to four-body final states become important. Examples of experiments are presented that illustrate these points. 15 refs., 14 figs

  3. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  4. Angular correlations and fragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansson, Anders.

    1990-05-01

    Intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions have been studied from 35 A MeV up to 94 A MeV at various accelerators. Angular correlations between light particles and detection of projectile- and target-fragments have been used to investigate the reaction mechanisms in this transition region between low- and high energy. An excess of correlations is observed in the particle-particle elastic scattering plane. This excess increases with particle mass and can be understood in terms of momentum conservation. The fragmentation measurements gives an indication that both energy and momentum transfer to the spectator volumes does occur. (author)

  5. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  6. The radial shapes of intermediate energy microscopic optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Wang Chang; Tian Ye; Zhuo Yizhong

    1984-01-01

    The radial shapes of intermediate energy proton microscopic optical potentials of 40 Ca are calculated with nuclear matter approach by Skyrme interactions. The calculated results show that the real central potential in central region of nucleus changes from attractive to repulsive when the energy of incident nucleon is above 150 MeV and appears apparently a 'wine-bottle-bottom' shape in the transition energy region (from 150 MeV to 300 MeV). This tendency is consistent with empirical optical potential obtained through fitting experiments and microscopic optical potential calculated with relativistic mean field theory as well as with the BHF theory. The calculated imaginary part of the microscopic optical potential changes from the dominant surface absorption into the volume absorption and its absolute value become larger as energy increases. The effects of Skyrme force parameters to the radial shape of the calculated microscopic optical potential are analysed in detail

  7. Selected problems in experimental intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, B.W.; Hungerford, E.V.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: investigate forefront problems in experimental intermediate energy physics; educate students in this field of research; and, develop the instrumentation necessary to undertake this experimental program. Generally, the research is designed to search for physical processes which cannot be explained by conventional models of elementary interactions. This includes the use of nuclear targets where the nucleus provides a many body environment of strongly perturbation of a known interaction by this environment. Unfortunately, such effects may be masked by the complexity of the many body problem and may be difficult to observe. Therefore, experiments must be carefully chosen and analyzed for deviations from the more conventional models. There were three major thrusts of the program; strange particle physics, where a strange quark is embedded in the nuclear medium; muon electro-weak decay, which involves a search for a violation of the standard model of the electro-weak interaction; and measurement of the spin dependent structure function of the neutron

  8. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  9. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS bar p experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance

  10. Sedimentation of dilute fine-grained suspension in intermediate region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 109-117 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Concentration * Intermediate region * Particle size * Sedimentation * Vessel inclination Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Nuclear studies with intermediate energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norum, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    Data from measurements at NIKHEF-K of the electro-production of neutral pions from the proton were completely analyzed and axe about to be submitted for publication. These results represent the first precise measurement of this fundamental process in the threshold region. The results are completely consistent with calculations based upon the Low Energy Theorems. Results from studies of a gas jet target in the electron storage ring of the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory (SAL) have been fully analyzed and are being prepared for publication. An Internal Target Development Facility (ITDF), established at NIKHEF-K in a collaborative effort for the purpose of developing higher density gas jet targets suitable for use in electron rings, is operational. Diagnostic techniques are being evaluated in preparation for evaluating jet technology options. Our study of the calcium isotopes ( 42 C and 44 C) is nearing completion. Both the electron and proton scattering data have been completely analyzed. Consistent proton and neutron transition densities have been extracted, and are being compared to corresponding results from pion scattering. Preparations for (γ,π - ) measurements at SAL have been completed, and data taking is about to commence

  12. Light fragment formation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    This paper concerns itself mainly with the production of energetic protons and light fragments at wide angles. The experiments point to nucleon emission in proton-induced reactions as involving a mechanism in which the observed nucleon is directly knocked out of the nucleus. A similar feature seems to be required to explain (p,F) and (e,F) reactions: an energetic nucleon is produced in one scattering of the projectile, and the struck nucleon subsequently loses some of its energy as it traverses the remaining part of the nucleus, gathering up other nucleons as it goes, to become a fragment. This is what one might call the extreme snowball model, and a more accurate description probably involves multiple scattering of the projectile in addition to the extreme snowball contribution. This will be particularly true for fragments in the mass 6 to 9 region. This scenario also appears to apply to deuteron-induced fragment production. However, for alpha-induced reactions it would appear that the nucleons forming a fragment can originate from collisions involving different incident nucleons in the projectile. For heavy ions, this effect is even stronger, and the snowball contribution is greatly reduced compared to that of the traditional coalescence model

  13. (γ,n) reaction in nuclei of the 12<=A<=238 interval in the intermediate energy region (300 MeV-1000MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    The absolute cross section of the 12 C(γ,n) 11 C, 19 F(γ,n) 18 F, 23 Na(γ,n) 22 Na, 31 P(γ,n) 30 P, 52 Cr(γ,n) 51 Cr, 55 Mn(γ,n) 54 Mn, 59 Co(γ,n) 58 Co, 75 As(γ,n) 74 As, 103 Rh(γn) 102 Rh, 127 I(γ,n) 126 I, 197 Au(γ,n) 196 Au and 238 U(γ,n) 237 U reactions were determined, experimentally, in the energy range from 300 MeV to 1000 MeV, using Bremsstrahlung photons. The measured cross sections were compared with results estimated by Monte Carlo Method applied to intranuclear cascades initiated by phothons. A functional dependence between the average value of (γ,n) absolute cross section and the mass number, were established. The (γ,n) absolute cross sections from simple relations, which transparencies of complexe nuclei for mesons and nucleons photo produced were also determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  15. Intermediate-energy neutron beams from reactors for NCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses ways that a beam of intermediate-energy neutrons might be extracted from a nuclear reactor. The challenge is to suppress the fast-neutron component and the gamma-ray component of the flux while leaving enough of the intermediate-energy neutrons in the beam to be able to perform neutron capture therapy in less than an hour exposure time. Moderators, filters, and reflectors are considered. 11 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  16. Processing and validation of intermediate energy evaluated data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Current accelerator-driven and other intermediate energy technologies require accurate nuclear data to model the performance of the target/blanket assembly, neutron production, activation, heating and damage. In a previous WPEC subgroup, SG13 on intermediate energy nuclear data, various aspects of intermediate energy data, such as nuclear data needs, experiments, model calculations and file formatting issues were investigated and categorized to come to a joint evaluation effort. The successor of SG13, SG14 on the processing and validation of intermediate energy evaluated data files, goes one step further. The nuclear data files that have been created with the aforementioned information need to be processed and validated in order to be applicable in realistic intermediate energy simulations. We emphasize that the work of SG14 excludes the 0-20 MeV data part of the neutron evaluations, which is supposed to be covered elsewhere. This final report contains the following sections: section 2: a survey of the data files above 20 MeV that have been considered for validation in SG14; section 3: a summary of the review of the 150 MeV intermediate energy data files for ENDF/B-VI and, more briefly, the other libraries; section 4: validation of the data library against an integral experiment with MCNPX; section 5: conclusions. (author)

  17. Assessment of Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes in Burgundy and in Franche-Comte - Intermediate review on June 27, 2017. Burgundy Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme. Project, Scheme, Appendix to the SRCAE - Wind regional scheme of Burgundy, synthesis, opinion of the Burgundy CESER. Territorial Climate Energy Plan - Program of actions, Plenary session of the November 25, 2013. Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme - Franche-Comte SRCAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    A first report proposes an assessment of the various aspects addressed by the Climate Air Energy Regional Schemes (SRCAE) of Burgundy and Franche-Comte: global aspects, and aspects related to adaptation to climate change, to air quality, to land planning, to the building sector, to mobility, to good transports, to agriculture, to forest, to industry and craft, to renewable energies, and to ecological responsibility. A synthetic presentation of the Burgundy scheme is proposed, and then an extended version which contains a description of the situation, an analysis of the regional potential, and a definition of orientations for the same above-mentioned aspects. A document more particularly addresses wind energy: role of wind energy in the energy mix of the region, role of small installations, wind energy potential, challenges and constraints (heritage and landscapes, natural environment, technical constraints), identification of areas of interest for wind energy projects, qualitative objectives. Documents published by the regional economic, social and environmental Council (CESER) of Burgundy are then proposed: a contribution to the Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme, a discussion and a presentation of a program of actions for the Climate Energy Territorial Plan (a large number of sheets of presentation of actions is proposed). The last document presents the Franche-Comte regional scheme: overview of regional knowledge on climate, air quality and environmental issues, challenges and potential per activity sector (transports and development, building, agriculture, industry, renewable energy production), definition of orientations and objectives for axes of action

  18. Future possibilities with intermediate-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    Future possibilities for using neutrons of intermediate energies (50 - 200 MeV) as a probe of the nucleus are discussed. Some of the recent thinking concerning a systematic approach for studying elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons and hadrons and the important role of medium- and intermediate-energy neutrons in such a programme is reviewed. The advantages of neutrons in this energy range over neutrons with lower energies and over intermediate-energy pions for determining nuclear-transition and ground state densities, and for distinguishing proton from neutron density (isovector sensitivity), are noted. The important role of (n,p) charge exchange reactions in nuclear excitation studies is also reviewed. Experimental methods for utilizing neutrons as probes in elastic, inelastic, and charge exchange studies at these energies are discussed

  19. Breakup reactions at intermediate and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shotter, A.C.; Bice, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Having considered some general aspects of peripheral break-up reactions involving heavy ions for the incident energy range 10-2000 MeV/A, specific experiments carried out at Berkeley in 1980 in the energy range 10-20 MeV/A are discussed. These indicate that sequential break-up processes from non-sequential inelastic processes both play significant roles in the mechanism. (UK)

  20. Dynamical effects in multifragmentation at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Normand, J. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS/ENSICAEN, 14 (France)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The fragmentation of the quasi-projectile is studied with the INDRA multidetector for different colliding systems and incident energies in the Fermi energy range. Different experimental observations show that a large part of the fragmentation is not compatible with the statistical fragmentation of a fully equilibrated nucleus. The study of internal correlations is a powerful tool, especially to evidence entrance channel effects. These effects have to be included in the theoretical descriptions of nuclear multifragmentation. (authors)

  1. Positron scattering by atomic hydrogen at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, K.; Burke, P.G.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an accurate calculation based upon the intermediate energy R-matrix theory are reported for elastic scattering of positrons by atomic hydrogen. T-matrix elements for both low and intermediate energy scattering are evaluated for the S e , P o , D e and F o partial wave symmetries. The low-energy elastic phaseshifts are found to be in good agreement with previous accurate variational calculations. Using an optical potential approach to include the effect of the higher partial waves, elastic and total cross sections are presented for energies ranging from near threshold to 3.7 Rydbergs. (author)

  2. (p,n) reaction at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the (p,n) reaction in exploring effective interactions is reviewed. Some recent data on self-conjugate nuclei taken at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) are presented, and the differences between low- and high-energy data are emphasized. Experimental problems and techniques used are briefly described. It is concluded that forward-angle (p,n) spectra at energies greater than 100 MeV are dominated by Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, while Fermi transitions (IAS transitions) dominate near 45 MeV. Prominent GT transitions are expected from a pion-exchange interaction, and it is expected that OPEP is the dominant component of the interaction in the energy range of 100 to 200 MeV. 27 figures, 2 tables

  3. Negotiating comfort in low energy housing: The politics of intermediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandclément, Catherine; Karvonen, Andrew; Guy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Optimising the energy performance of buildings is technically and economically challenging but it also has significant social implications. Maintaining comfortable indoor conditions while reducing energy consumption involves careful design, construction, and management of the built environment and its inhabitants. In this paper, we present findings from the study of a new low energy building for older people in Grenoble, France where conflicts emerged over the simultaneous pursuit of energy efficiency and comfort. The findings contribute to the contemporary literature on the sociotechnical study of buildings and energy use by focusing on intermediation, those activities that associate a technology to end users. Intermediation activities take many forms, and in some cases, can result in the harmonisation or alignment of energy efficiency goals and comfort goals. In other cases, intermediation is unsuccessful, leading to the conventional dichotomy between optimising technical performance and meeting occupant preferences. By highlighting the multiple ways that comfort and energy efficiency is negotiated, we conclude that buildings are provisional achievements that are constantly being intermediated. This suggests that building energy efficiency policies and programmes need to provide opportunities for intermediaries to negotiate the desires and preferences of the multiple stakeholders that are implicated in low energy buildings. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency and comfort are two possibly contradictory aims of buildings. •We study the pursuit of these aims at the occupation stage of a new building. •Aligning these aims involve negotiating them with occupants. •Intermediation processes are key to such negotiations. •Intermediation processes involve both actors and technical devices

  4. Heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.; Amsden, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of measurement are proposed for the analysis of heavy ion collisions in the range of energy of 20--200 MeV/A. First, measurement of the longitudinal component of the kinetic energy of the collision products characterizes the impact parameter of the collision. The distribution in this quantity allows the dissipation in the theoretical models to be determined. A second kind of measurement is that of the coefficients of a spherical harmonic expansion of the angular distribution of the products. Besides giving independent information on the impact parameter and reaction dynamics, measurement of these coefficients offers the possibility of measuring the stiffness of the equation of state of nuclear matter. These ideas are explored in the context of a hydrodynamic model for the collision. In the purely hydrodynamic model there is a large measurable asymmetry in the angular distribution, but the dependence on the equation of state is small

  5. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e + e - resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs

  6. Intermediate energy proton scattering from 10B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.R.; Shute, G.G.; Spicer, R.S.; Henderson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for 200 MeV proton scattering from 10 B. Data for six low lying natural parity levels below 6 MeV excitation energy are presented. Distorted wave analysis using a density dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction has assessed model spectroscopies of these excited states. The significance of the contribution from quadrupole scattering to the elastic cross section is discussed. 49 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs

  7. Photofissility of actinide nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Pina, S.R. de; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Goncalves, M.

    2001-08-01

    We analyze the recent experimental data on photofissility for 237 Np, 238 U, and 232 Th at incident photon energies above 200 MeV. For this analysis, we developed a Monte carlo algorithm for the nuclear evaporation process in photonuclear reactions. This code is used in association with the multi-collisional model for the photon-induced intranuclear cascade process. Our results show a good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the emission of protons and alpha particles at the evaporation stage is an important component for the non-saturation of the actinides photofissility up to, at least, 1GeV. (author)

  8. Innovative spin precessor for intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    A spin precessor has been designed to provide arbitrary orientation of the polarization in the external proton beam at LAMPF. The device utilizes two superconducting solenoids, three conventional dipoles, and conversion of polarized H - to H + to provide an achromatic, undeflected beam with tunable spin orientation over a range of energies from 400 MeV to 800 MeV. A portion of this device is being installed to provide compatibility between two facilities which simultaneously use two branches of the external proton beam at LAMPF

  9. Deuterons and flow: At intermediate AGS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, D.E.; Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H.

    1996-06-01

    A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics and Monte Carlo cascading is applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS and BEVALAC energies. The model was found to be in excellent agreement with particle spectra where data previously existed, for Si beams, and was able to successfully predict the spectra where data was initially absent, for Au beams. For Si + Au collisions baryon densities of three or four times the normal nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ) are seen in the theory, while for Au + Au collisions, matter at densities up to 10 ρ 0 is anticipated. The possibility that unusual states of matter may be created in the Au beams and potential signatures for its observation, in particular deuterons and collective flow, are considered

  10. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  11. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  12. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  13. Intermediate-energy neutron beam for NCT at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) is one of the high-flux reactors in the USA and it can be used to produce an intense beam of intermediate-energy neutrons for neutron capture therapy. Two methods are being evaluated at MURR to produce such a beam. The first uses a moderator of Al 2 O 3 replacing part of the graphite and water on one side of the core of the reactor to produce a source of predominantly intermediate-energy neutrons. The second method is a filter of 238 U between the core and the patient position to pass only intermediate-energy neutrons. The results of these evaluations are presented in this paper along with an outline of the other resources at the University of Missouri-Columbia that are available to support an NCT program. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  14. Microdosimetry of intermediate energy neutrons in fast neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saion, E.B.; Watt, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A coaxial double cylindrical proportional counter has been constructed for microdosimetry of intermediate energy neutrons in mixed fields. Details are given of the measured gas gain and resolution characteristics of the counter for a wide range of anode voltages. Event spectra due to intermediate neutrons in any desired energy band is achieved by an appropriate choice of thickness of the common dividing wall in the counter and by appropriate use of the coincidence, anticoincidence pulse counting arrangements. Calculated estimates indicate that the dose contribution by fast neutrons to the energy deposition events in the intermediate neutron range may be as large as 25%. Empirical procedures being investigated aim to determine the necessary corrections to be applied to the microdose distributions, with a precision of 10%. (author)

  15. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. We have solved a non-trivial model field theory in the strong coupling regime using a discretized light front quantization (DLFQ) scheme. The method we developed expands upon the method of Pauli and Brodsky by incorporating a dynamical treatment of the vacuum. This is a major result since we have shown directly that the light-cone vacuum is not structureless as has been traditionally claimed by some particle theorists. We have thus succeeded in elucidating the consequences of spontaneous symmetry breaking in light-cone quantization. We now propose to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We will complete our analysis of the SLAC NE3 data to explicate the degree to which they confirm the QCM prediction of ''steps'' in the ratio of nuclear structure functions when Bjorken x exceeds unity. In another effort, we will perform a search for narrow resonances in electron-positron interactions high in the continuum using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We have completed our development of microscopic effective Hamiltonians for nuclear structure which include the explicit treatment of delta resonances. These effective Hamiltonians were successfully used in constrained mean field calculations evaluating conditions for nuclei to undergo a transition from nucleon matter to delta matter. 73 refs

  16. Singlet channel coupling in deuteron elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalili, J.S.; Tostevin, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Intermediate energy deuteron elastic scattering is investigated in a three-body model incorporating relativistic kinematics. The effects of deuteron breakup to singlet spin intermediate states, on the elastic scattering observables for the 58 Ni(d vector, d) 58 Ni reaction at 400 and 700 MeV, are studied quantitatively. The singlet-breakup contributions to the elastic amplitude are estimated within an approximate two-step calculation. The calculation makes an adiabatic approximation in the intermediate states propagator which allows the use of closure over the np intermediate states continuum. The singlet channel coupling is found to produce large effects on the calculated reaction tensor analysing power A yy , characteristic of a dynamically induced second-rank tensor interaction. By inspection of the calculated breakup amplitudes we show this induced interaction to be of the T L tensor type. (orig.)

  17. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  18. Central collisions in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The critical collisions in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions are examined from both a microscopic and macroscopic viewpoint. In the microscopic description the proper tool is the extended TDHF approximation involving both the mean field and the particle collisions. To understand the underlying physics, the effect of the mean field and the effect of particle collisions are studied separately. It is found that th sudden increase in the density of the overlapping region can cause the volcano effect, leading to the complete disintegration of one of the nuclei. The self-consistent mean field also gives rise to the bunching instability when the two Fermi spheres of the colliding nucleons separate. The collision between nucleons, on the other hand, leads to irreversible dissipation, thermalization, and the possibility of a hydrodynamical description of the dynamics. Next is studied the dynamics of central collisions using the hydrodynamical description for many combinations of targets and projectiles at different energies. The formation of shock waves, sidesplash, and the complete disintegration of the whole nucleus are examined. Nuclear viscosity is found to affect the angular distribution of the reaction products and also the maximum compression ratio achieved during the collision. 28 references

  19. Theoretical research in intermediate energy nuclear physics: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress that has been made on the following problems: a numerical calculation of Skyrmiron scattering; (e,e'p) at high momentum transfer; spin-orbit nucleon-nucleon potential from Skyrme model; pionic atom anomaly; and field theory problems. The problems deal with various topics in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

  20. Proceedings of the 5. National Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Several papers concerning the physics at intermediate energies (∼ 100-1000MeV) are presented in this proceedings. Almost all the works show overlapping between Nuclear and Particles Physics. There is a predominance in theoretical papers. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  2. Polarization phenomena in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results of polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions at intermediate energies are discussed. Prospects of polarization experiments at the new CW electron accelerators, as well as on upgraded older machines are outlined. It is concluded that polarization experiments will play a very important role in the study of the structure of the nucleon and of light nuclei. 72 refs

  3. On spallation and fragmentation of heavy ions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musulmanbekov, G.; Al-Haidary, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new code for simulation of spallation and (multi)fragmentation of nuclei in proton and nucleus induced collisions at intermediate and high energies is developed. The code is a combination of modified intranuclear cascade model with traditional fission - evaporation part and multifragmentation part based on lattice representation of nuclear structure and percolation approach. The production of s-wave resonances and formation time concept included into standard intranuclear cascade code provides correct calculation of excitation energy of residues. This modified cascade code served as a bridge between low and high energy model descriptions of nucleus-nucleus collisions. A good agreement with experiments has been obtained for multiparticle production at intermediate and relatively high energies. Nuclear structure of colliding nuclei is represented as face centered cubic lattice. This representation, being isomorphic to the shell model of nuclear structure, allows to apply percolation approach for nuclear fragmentation. The offered percolation model includes both site and bond percolation. Broken sites represent holes left by nucleons knocked out at cascade state. Therefore, in the first cascade stage mutual rescattering of the colliding nuclei results in knocking some nucleons out of them. After this fast stage paltrily destruct and excited residues remain. On the second stage residual nuclei either evaporate nucleons and light nuclei up to alpha-particles or fragment into pieces with intermediate masses. The choice depends on residue's destruction degree. At low excitation energy and small destruction of the residue the evaporation and fission mechanisms are preferable. The more excitation energy and destruction the more probability of (multi)fragmentation process. Moreover, the more destruction degree of the residual the more the site percolation probability. It is concluded, that at low and intermediate excitation energies the fragmentation of nuclei is slow

  4. ''Super-radiant'' states in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.

    1994-01-01

    A ''super-radiant'' state emerges when, under certain conditions, one or a few ''internal'' states acquire a large collective decay width due to the coupling to one or a few ''external'' decay channels. The rest of the internal states are ''stripped'' of their decay width and become long lived quasistationary states. The essentials of such mechanism and its possible role in intermediate energy nuclear physics are discussed in this work

  5. Intermediate energy heavy ion reactions. A program for CELSIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, B.

    1986-02-01

    The accelerator system under construction in Uppsala with the ECR-source + the K equals 200 synchrocyclotron + the CELSIUS synchrotron ring for storage, cooling and acceleration opens up possibilities for a very fruitful heavy ion physics program. Some recently obtained results and some recent ideas on intermediate energy reactions are discussed and speculations are made about some experiments where the unconventional qualities of CELSIUS beams could be utilized. (author)

  6. Measurement of mass distribution of U-235 fission products in the intermediate neutron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagomi, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Shohei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kanno, Ikuo; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The mass distribution and the momentum distribution of U-235 fission products in the intermediate neutron region were measured by using a combination system of the Yayoi intermediate neutron column and an electron linear accelerator. The double energy measurement method was applied. A fission chamber, which consists of an enriched uranium target and two Si surface barrier detectors, was used for the measurement of the neutrons with energy above 1.3 eV. The linear accelerator was operated at the repetition rate of 100 Hz and the pulse width of 10 ns. The data obtained by the two-dimensional pulse height analysis were analyzed by the Schmitt's method. The preliminary results of the mass distribution and the momentum distribution of fission fragments were obtained. (Kato, T.)

  7. A few aspects of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guet, C.

    1982-10-01

    Some aspects of reactions induced by intermediate energy heavy ions, with a special emphasis of 85 MeV/nucleon 12 C data, are discussed and compared to low energy and relativistic energy features. Transition from mean field to independant nucleon picture is advocated by an increase of nuclear transparency illuminated by reaction cross section estimations. Projectile-like fragment distributions, while demonstrating a typical high energy fragmentation behaviour, exhibit low energy regime distortions. Light fragments, associated to large parallel momentum transfer may result from total explosion. Proton emission is investigated and discussed in terms of opposite models such as thermal equilibrium and nucleon-nucleon scattering. First pion production data are well explained by single nucleon-nucleon inelastic scattering

  8. Review of recent experiments in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P D [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The data generated at intermediate-energy accelerator facilities has expanded rapidly over the past few years. A number of recent experiments chosen for their impact on nuclear structure questions are reviewed. Proton scattering together with pionic and muonic atom X-ray measurements are shown to be giving very precise determinations of gross nuclear properties. Pion scattering and reaction data although less precise, are starting to generate a new understanding of wave functions of specific nuclear states. Specific examples where new unpublished data are now available are emphasized. In addition, other medium-energy experiments that are starting to contribute to nuclear structure physics are summarized.

  9. Needs for experiment and theory in intermediate energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize several reasons intermediate energy data are needed in both basic and applied science. The status of the data base at energies up to 2 GeV is cursorily reviewed. Experimental excitation functions, single and double differential cross sections are compared with predictions of the nuclear model code ALICE. The strengths and weaknesses of the code to reproduce data are summarized. Opinions are given as to areas where data are too few or totally lacking, yet are needed for the verification of models and theories. (author). 25 refs, 22 figs

  10. Energy in Italian regions. Energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catoni, P. G.; Perrella, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports the syntheses of regional energy balance and the elaboration of the most important energy index from 1990 to 1996 at this scope a specific methodology. Pentec (territorial energy planning ecompatible) is pointed [it

  11. MCNP6 fragmentation of light nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G., E-mail: mashnik@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kerby, Leslie M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the latest Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 and with its cascade-exciton model (CEM) and Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM) event generators, version 03.03, used as stand-alone codes. Such reactions are involved in different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU's), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, among others; therefore, it is important that MCNP6 simulates them as well as possible. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. Both CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to {sup 4}He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  12. Theoretical research in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress that has been made on the following six problems: (1) final state interactions in (e,e'p) at high momentum transfer; (2) a numerical calculation of skyrmion-antiskyrmion annihilation; (3) pion-nucleus interactions above 0.5 GeV/c; (4) pionic atom anomaly; (5) baryon interactions in Skyrme model; and (6) large N c quantum hydrodynamics. The problems deal with various topics in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. Since we plan to continue the investigation of these problems in the third year, we describe the plan of the investigation together

  13. Tensor polarized deuteron targets for intermediate energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Schilling, E.

    1985-03-01

    At intermediate energies measurements from a tensor polarized deuteron target are being prepared for the following reactions: the photodisintegration of the deuteron, the elastic pion-deuteron scattering and the elastic electron-deuteron scattering. The experimental situation of the polarization experiments for these reactions is briefly discussed in section 2. In section 3 the definitions of the deuteron polarization and the possibilities to determine the vector and tensor polarization are given. Present tensor polarization values and further improvements in this field are reported in section 4. (orig.)

  14. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, M.J.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dubach, J.; Beise, E.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed

  15. Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments

  16. Spin observables in proton-neutron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.

    1986-05-01

    A summary of np elastic scattering spin measurements at intermediate energy is given. Preliminary results from a LAMPF experiment to measure free neutron-proton elastic scattering spin-spin correlation parameters are presented. A longitudinally polarized proton target was used. These measurements are part of a program to determine the neutron-proton amplitudes in a model independent fashion at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Some new proton-proton total cross sections in pure helicity states (Δσ/sub L/(pp)) near 3 GeV/c are also given. 37 refs., 2 figs

  17. Electron capture in ion-molecule collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress of theoretical charge transfer study in ion-molecule collisions at the intermediate energy is reviewed. Concept of close and distant collisions obtained from extensive ion-atom collision studies is identified so that it can be utilized to model two distinct collision processes. For a close collision, explicit representation of the whole collision complex is necessary to describe collision dynamics correctly, while a model potential approach for molecule is appropriate for a distant collision. It is shown that these two distinct models are indeed capable of reproducing experimental charge transfer cross sections. Some remarks for further theoretical study of ion-molecule collisions are also given. 21 refs., 8 figs

  18. An analytic distorted wave approximation for intermediate energy proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; Amos, K.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic Distorted Wave approximation has been developed for use in analyses of intermediate energy proton inelastic scattering from nuclei. Applications are made to analyse 402 and 800 MeV data from the isoscalar and isovector 1 + and 2 + states in 12 C and to the 800 MeV data from the excitation of the 2 - (8.88MeV) state in 16 O. Comparisons of predictions made using different model two-nucleon t-matrices and different models of nuclear structure are given

  19. Production of intermediate energy beams by high speed rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, C.W.; Bale, T.J.; Cosgrove, P.; Kirby, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A rotor apparatus intended for the study of gas/surface interaction processes is presently nearing completion. The carbon fiber rotors under consideration are constructed with shapes derived from long thin cylindrical rods oriented with the longest axis in a horizontal plane, and spun in a horizontal plane about an axis which is perpendicular to the long axis and passes through the mid-point of the cylinder. The beam formation processes are discussed and rotor diagrams presented. Performance of these types of high speed rotor show them to have a very important future as sources of intermediate energy molecular beams

  20. Dynamic processes in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, E. P.

    1999-03-01

    This thesis describes the study of the reaction dynamics in heavy-ion collisions of small nuclear systems at intermediate energies. For this, experiments were performed of 24Mg+27A1 at 45 and 95 AMeV. The experiments described in this thesis were performed at the GANIL accelerator facility in Caeri (France) using the Huygens detectors in conjunction with the ‘MUR’. The Huygens detectors consist of the CsI(Tl)-Wall (CIW) covering the backward hemisphere and, located at mid-rapidity, the central trigger detector (CTD), a gas chamber with microstrip read-out backed by 48 plastic scintillators. The forward region is covered by 16 of the plastic scintillators of the CTD and by the MUR, a time-of-flight wall consisting of 96 plastic scintillator sheets. In earlier experiments only fragments with atomic number, Z, greater then two could be identifled in the CTD. Therefore, an investigation was done into the properties of different drift gases. The use of freon (CF4) in the drift chamber, combined with an increase of the gas pressure to 150 mbar, makes it possible to identify all particles with Z ≥ 2. Under these conditions particles with Z = 1 can only be identifled to approximately 25 AMeV. The Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model has been used, to interpret the measured data. This model gives a microscopical description of heavy-ion collisions and simulates collisions on an event by event basis. In IQMD all protons and neutrons are represented as individual Gaussian wave packets. After initialisation the path of each nucleon is calculated for 200 fm/c, after which the simulation is stopped. At this time, nucleons which are close in space are clustered into fragments. The events generated by IQMD can then be processed by a GEANT detector simulation. This calculation takes into account the effects of the detector on the incoming particles. By using the GEANT simulation it is possible to give a direct comparison between the results of IQMD and the

  1. Monte Carlo calculations for intermediate-energy standard neutron field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Subbukutty, K.; Iyengar, S.B.D.; Navalkar, M.P.

    Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field (ISNF) which produces a well characterised spectrum in the energy range of interest for fast reactors including breeders, has been set up at NBS using thin enriched 235 U fission sources. A proposal has been made for setting up a similar facility at BARC using however, easily available natural U instead of enriched U sources, to start with. In order to simulate the neutronics of such a facility Monte Carlo method of calculations has been adopted and developed. The results of these calculations have been compared with those of NBS and it is found that there may be a maximum difference of 10% in spectrum characteristics for the two cases of using thick and thin fission sources. (K.B.)

  2. Macroscopic/microscopic simulation of nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-01-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. The model simulates events for reactions close to the fusion barrier (5-10 MeV/A) up to higher energy (100 MeV/A) and it gives access to the phase-space explored during the collision. The development of HIPSE has been largely influenced by experimental observations. We have separated the reaction into 4 steps: contact, fragment formation, chemical freeze-out, and in-flight deexcitation. HIPSE will be useful for a study of various mechanisms such as neck fragmentation or multi-fragmentation

  3. Dynamical and statistical aspects of intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lectures presented deal with three different topics relevant for the discussion of nuclear collisions at medium to high energies. The first lecture concerns a subject of general interest, the description of statistical systems and their dynamics by the concept of missing information. If presents an excellent scope to formulate statistical theories in such a way that they carefully keep track of the known (relevant) information while maximizing the ignorance about the irrelevant, unknown information. The last two lectures deal with quite actual questions of intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. These are the multi-fragmentation dynamics of highly excited nuclear systems, and the so called subthreshold particle production. All three subjects are self-contained, and can be read without the knowledge about the other ones. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear data evaluation at intermediate energies: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    An outline is presented of the status of nuclear data evaluation for intermediate energies. Our specific contribution to the field concerns neutron and proton transport data libraries, for energies below about 150 MeV. The evaluated data are calculated and stored in ENDF6-format with the computer codes ECIS96, GNASH and MINGUS. New phenomenological optical model potentials up to 200 MeV are presented and we illustrate the library production with a short outline of the other employed physical methods. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. A 68 MeV neutron transmission experiment on iron has been analyzed with MCNPX using the Los Alamos LA150 neutron data library, the ECN/BRC 150 MeV neutron data library and with the intranuclear cascade code LAHET. The clear improvement by using the data libraries is confirmed. (author)

  5. Accuracy estimation for intermediate and low energy neutron transport calculation with Monte Carlo code MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1987-02-01

    Both ''measured radioactive inventory due to neutron activation in the shield concrete of JPDR'' and ''measured intermediate and low energy neutron spectra penetrating through a graphite sphere'' are analyzed using a continuous energy model Monte Carlo code MCNP so as to estimate calculational accuracy of the code for neutron transport in thermal and epithermal energy regions. Analyses reveal that MCNP calculates thermal neutron spectra fairly accurately, while it apparently over-estimates epithermal neutron spectra (of approximate 1/E distribution) as compared with the measurements. (author)

  6. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Barron, W.F. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)); Kamel, A.M. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Santiago, H.T. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an intermediate evaluation'' of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  7. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barron, W.F. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong); Kamel, A.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Santiago, H.T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an ``intermediate evaluation`` of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  8. International codes and model intercomparison for intermediate energy activation yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, M.; Nagel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this intercomparison came from data needs of accelerator-based waste transmutation, energy amplification and medical therapy. The aim of this exercise is to determine the degree of reliability of current nuclear reaction models and codes when calculating activation yields in the intermediate energy range up to 5000 MeV. Emphasis has been placed for a wide range of target elements ( O, Al, Fe, Co, Zr and Au). This work is mainly based on calculation of (P,xPyN) integral cross section for incident proton. A qualitative description of some of the nuclear models and code options employed is made. The systematics of graphical presentation of the results allows a quick quantitative measure of agreement or deviation. This code intercomparison highlights the fact that modeling calculations of energy activation yields may at best have uncertainties of a factor of two. The causes of such discrepancies are multi-factorial. Problems are encountered which are connected with the calculation of nuclear masses, binding energies, Q-values, shell effects, medium energy fission and Fermi break-up. (A.C.)

  9. Energy in Italian regions. Energy environment situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, E.; Coralli, L.; Porpiglia, V.; Perrella, G.; De Lauretis, R.; Romagnoli, A.; Gomboli, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide a representative picture of the choice regions in energy and environment field. Are singled out the laws and regulations of some regions and concrete territorial applications [it

  10. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs

  11. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  12. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  13. Proceedings of the Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics. Keynote address: New directions in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the keynote address given by G.E. Brown at a LASL colloquium on August 21, 1979, for the Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics. Professor Brown reviewed major topics of interest in intermediate-energy nuclear physics and suggested experimental approaches that might be most productive in the near future. 22 figures

  14. Spin effects in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Li Baoan; Xia Yin; Shen Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report and extend our recent work where the nucleon spin-orbit interaction and its spin degree of freedom were introduced explicitly for the first time in the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model for heavy-ion reactions. Despite of the significant cancellation of the time-even and time-odd spin-related mean-field potentials from the spin-orbit interaction,an appreciable local spin polarization is observed in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies because of the dominating role of the time-odd terms. It is also found that the spin up-down differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions is a useful probe of the strength, density dependence, and isospin dependence of the in-medium spin-orbit interaction, and its magnitude is still considerable even at smaller systems. (authors)

  15. Nucleon charge-exchange reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, W.P.; Spicer, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    An historical review of the development of ideas pertaining to Gamow-Teller giant resonances is given, and a description of the emergence of techniques for the study of charge exchange reactions - particularly the technical advances which yielded the recent volume of new date. The present status of charge exchange reactions is reviewed and assessed. Evidence is presented from the 14 C(p,n) reaction for the dominance of the spin-isospin component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in intermediate energy reactions. In (p,n) reactions the Gamow-Teller giant resonance dominates the spectra, with higher multipoles contributing. By contrast, in (n,p) reactions in the heavier nuclei, the Gamow-Teller transitions are substantially Pauli-blocked and the spin dipole resonance dominates, with contributions from higher multipoles. Discussions of the multipole decomposition process, used to obtain from the data the contributions of the different multipoles, and the contributions of the multipoles, are given

  16. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  17. Pitfalls in looking for color transparency at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.L.; Strikman, M.I.; Zhalov, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    The problems and uncertainties in the search for color transparency at intermediate Q 2 are considered. We show that conventional (optical) model [distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA)] predicts a substantial change of the transparency, T, with Q 2 in the kinematics of the Ne-18 (e,e ' p) experiment, while the color transparency phenomenon may lead to nearly Q 2 independent T. In the case of A(p,2p) reaction we demonstrate that the conventional optical model describes well the 1 GeV A(p,2p) data but not the transparency observed at higher energies. We find also that DWIA (with or without color transparency) predicts strong dependence of T on the momentum of the struck nucleon which is consistent with the pattern of the Brookhaven National Laboratory A(p,2p) data at p N =6 GeV/c and 10 GeV/c

  18. On selection rules and inelastic electron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuroh, K.

    1986-12-01

    Correlation effects are included in the Bethe-Born theory for the generalized oscillator strength of inelastic scattering of electrons on atoms. The formulation is such as to allow for the calculation of relative line strengths of multiplets. It is used to analyze line strengths of the 4d → 4f transition in La 3+ and Ce 4+ within LS-coupling. The analysis indicates that only singlet states of the intermediate 4d 9 4f configuration are allowed. Calculated line strengths are compared with a recent core electron energy loss spectra of metallic La and tetravalent CeO 2 and there is an overall qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Kaon production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russkikh, V.N.; Ivanov, Yu.B.

    1992-01-01

    Production of positive kaons in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies (∝ 1-2 GeV/nucleon) is studied within the 3-dimensional fluid dynamics combined with the hadrochemical kinetics for strangeness production. Sensitivity of the kaon probe to a form of the nuclear equation of state is analyzed. The model reproduces total and differential cross sections of Ne+NaF→K + +X and Ne+Pb→K + +X reactions at E lab =2.1 GeV/nucleon, provided a soft equation of state is used. The pion-production data are also well described employing the same equation of state. Predictions are made for the current experiment on kaon production at the SIS accelerator. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of other models. (orig.)

  20. (γ,2n) reactions in complexe nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro Filho, J. de D.

    1976-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Method has been used in the intranuclear cascade model for the calculation of the cross sections of the (γ,2n) reactions in complex nuclei 9 Be, 12 C, 16 O, 59 Co, 103 Rh, 127 I, 197 Au and 209 Bi at intermediate energies (200MeV-1000MeV). The initial photon-interaction via the photomesonic and quasi-deuteron mechanisms have been taken into account. The nuclear model used was a degenerate Fermi gas of nucleons, and the Pauli exclusion principle was considered in all secondary interactions. To improve accuracy in the results of the calculations, 30000 cascades have been followed for each target nucleus at a given incident photon energy. The probabilities of the various (γ,2n) reactions, as well as the correspondent cross section obtained, are summarized in tables and graphs. New data on the cross sections of the 59 Co (γ,2n) and 209 Bi (γ,2n) reactions at photon energies between 300 MeV and 1000MeV are also reported. These measurements were obtained with the Bremsstrahlung beams of the Frascati 1 GeV Electron Synchrotron. A comparison between all existing data in the literature on the (γ,2n) reaction cross sections and the estimates by the Monte Carlo Method, is presented. (Author) [pt

  1. High-energy intermediates in protein unfolding characterized by thiol labeling under nativelike conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Pooja; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2014-06-10

    A protein unfolding reaction usually appears to be so dominated by a large free energy barrier that identifying and characterizing high-energy intermediates and, hence, dissecting the unfolding reaction into multiple structural transitions have proven to be a challenge. In particular, it has been difficult to identify any detected high-energy intermediate with the dry (DMG) and wet (WMG) molten globules that have been implicated in the unfolding reactions of at least some proteins. In this study, a native-state thiol labeling methodology was used to identify high-energy intermediates, as well as to delineate the barriers to the disruption of side chain packing interactions and to site-specific solvent exposure in different regions of the small protein, single-chain monellin (MNEI). Labeling studies of four single-cysteine-containing variants of MNEI have identified three high-energy intermediates, populated to very low extents under nativelike conditions. A significant dispersion in the opening rates of the cysteine side chains has allowed multiple steps, leading to the loss of side chain packing, to be resolved temporally. A detailed structural analysis of the positions of the four cysteine residue positions, which are buried to different depths within the protein, has suggested a direct correlation with the structure of a DMG, detected in previous studies. It is observed that side chain packing within the core of the protein is maintained, while that at the surface is disrupted, in the DMG. The core of the protein becomes solvent-exposed only in a WMG populated after the rate-limiting step of unfolding at high denaturant concentrations.

  2. Multimode approximation for {sup 238}U photofission at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demekhina, N. A., E-mail: demekhina@lnr.jinr.ru [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); Karapetyan, G. S. [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

    2008-01-15

    The yields of products originating from {sup 238}U photofission are measured at the bremsstrahlung endpoint energies of 50 and 3500 MeV. Charge and mass distributions of fission fragments are obtained. Symmetric and asymmetric channels in {sup 238}U photofission are singled out on the basis of the model of multimode fission. This decomposition makes it possible to estimate the contributions of various fission components and to calculate the fissilities of {sup 238}U in the photon-energy regions under study.

  3. Photonucleon reactions in 40Ca at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.-O.; Bulow, B.; Jonsson, G.G.; Lindgren, K.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of the reactions 40 Ca(γ,n) 39 Ca* and 40 Ca(γ,p) 39 K* to the first three excited states have been measured for bremsstrahlung with end-point energies in the region 100-750 MeV. The C 2 S values for the first excited state were deduced from the pion photoproduction contribution to the measured yields. (Auth.)

  4. Regional energy facility siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, R.C.; Eagles, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the energy facility siting analysis portion of a regional pilot study performed for the anticipated National Energy Siting and Facility Report are presented. The question of cell analysis versus site-specific analysis is explored, including an evaluation of the difference in depth between the two approaches. A discussion of the possible accomplishments of regional analysis is presented. It is concluded that regional sitting analysis could be of use in a national siting study, if its inherent limits are recognized

  5. np elastic scattering analyzing power characteristics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Davis, C.A.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Healey, D.C.; Miller, C.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Wait, G.D.; Ahmad, M.; Cairns, E.B.; Coombes, G.H.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Moss, G.A.; Roy, G.; Soukup, J.; Tkachuk, R.R.; Ye, Y.; Watson, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Recent measurements of charge symmetry breaking in the np system at 477 MeV, and of A oonn for np elastic scattering at 220, 325 and 425 MeV also yield accurate analyzing power data. These data allow the energy dependence of the analyzing power zero-crossing angle and the slope of the analyzing power at the zero-crossing to be determined. The incident neutron energies span a region where the zero-crossing angle is strongly energy dependent (Ε n n > 350 MeV). The results are compared to current phase shift analysis predictions, recently published LAMPF data, and the predictions of the Bonn and Paris potentials. (Author) 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Regional energy-environmental planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavecchio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    In consideration of the relationship existing between energy and environment, it's clear that tools are needed to reach a pre-emptive convergence of different interests coming from the management of these sectors. The main tool to realize the above-mentioned convergence of interests in the Regional Energy and Environment Plan (PEAR). The plan allows italian Regions to schedule and to address energy measures in their own area and to regulate Local entities functions [it

  7. Formation of large target residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Xu, Z.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    We have used radiochemical techniques to measure the yields, angular distributions and velocity spectra of the large (A/sub frag/ ≥ 2/3 A/sub tgt/) target residues from the fragmentation of 197 Au by intermediate energy 12 C, 20 Ne, 32 S, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 139 La projectiles. The fragment moving frame angular distributions are asymmetric for the lighter projectiles (C-Ar). The fragment velocity spectra are Maxwellian for the Kr induced reactions and non-Maxwellian for the reactions induced by the lighter ions. We interpret these results in terms of a change in the dominant fragment production mechanism(s) from one(s) involving a fast non-equilibrium process for the lighter ions to a slow, equilibrium process for Kr. Comparison of the measured yields and angular distributions with calculations made using a Boltzmann transport equation with appropriate modifications for Pauli blocking, etc., show excellent agreement between data and theory. 12 refs., 12 figs

  8. Protons scattering on Li isotopes at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Sanfirova, A.V.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The protons scattering differential cross section on the 6,7,8 Li nuclei are calculated within the framework the Glauber-Sitenko multiple scattering theory at intermediate energies (from 100 to 1000 MeV). In the calculations the multi-cluster wave functions (αt for 7 Li, αnp for 6 Li, and αtn for 8 Li) considering within potential cluster model have been used. Differential cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 8 Li and 9 Li nuclei are similar: absolute cross sections are almost the same, diffraction minimum for large A shifting to the field of the least scattering angles that reflecting increase of the material radius. For the 11 Li the differential cross section absolute value is smaller about in two time than for the rest isotopes. At present it is reliably established, that the 11 Li nucleus has an exotic structure - the nine-nucleon core ( 9 Li) around which the two-neutron halo is rotating. The principal characteristics of the Li nuclei are presented in tabular form

  9. Nucleon charge-exchange reactions at intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, W.P. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Spicer, B.M. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    An historical review of the development of ideas pertaining to Gamow-Teller giant resonances is given, and a description of the emergence of techniques for the study of charge exchange reactions - particularly the technical advances which yielded the recent volume of new date. The present status of charge exchange reactions is reviewed and assessed. Evidence is presented from the {sup 14}C(p,n) reaction for the dominance of the spin-isospin component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in intermediate energy reactions. In (p,n) reactions the Gamow-Teller giant resonance dominates the spectra, with higher multipoles contributing. By contrast, in (n,p) reactions in the heavier nuclei, the Gamow-Teller transitions are substantially Pauli-blocked and the spin dipole resonance dominates, with contributions from higher multipoles. Discussions of the multipole decomposition process, used to obtain from the data the contributions of the different multipoles, and the contributions of the multipoles, are given. 226 refs., 19 figs.

  10. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  11. Pion- and proton-nucleus interactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    1992-12-01

    We report on scattering and reaction experiments on light nuclei using the π-meson and proton beams from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). Differential cross sections, cross section asymmetries, and angular correlation functions have been measured in order to test models of the reaction mechanism and of nuclear structure. At LAMPF we have measured asymmetries for pion scattering from polarized 13 C which are uniquely sensitive to the isoscalar spin density. In order to determine details of the reaction mechanism, we have obtained approval for a scattering experiment on polarized 3 He for which the nuclear structure is very well known. We have completed data taking for two studies of elastic scattering of π + from 6 Li and l3 C. The detailed differential cross sections from these experiments will be used to constrain theoretical analyses of previous polarization experiments done at the Pierre-Scherrer-Institute (PSI) and at LAMPF. We have analyzed π-triton coincidence events from the 4 He(π,π' t)p reaction and have found evidence for direct triton knockout from 4 He. We have extended these angular correlation measurements to higher energies and to 2 H and 3 He targets. At IUCF we have performed the first 4 He(p,n) experiment at intermediate energies, T p = 100, 147, and 200 MeV, in a search for previously reported narrow states in 4 Li of widths of ∼ 1 MeV. Within the statistics of the data we have found no evidence for such narrow structures

  12. Machine constraints for experiments in an intermediate luminosity interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, D.

    1989-05-01

    We summarize existing information about the luminosity as a function of clear space between the interaction point and the front of the final-focus triplet, and about the minimum beam pipe dimensions (stay-clear dimensions) in the region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Reconstruction of the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gorbunov et al. have developed a kinetic theory of the electron current drawn by a probe, which substantially extends the region of applicability of the probe method for determining the electron energy distribution function, enabling probes to be used for intermediate and high pressures (up to p ≤ 0.5 atm for monatomic gases). They showed that for λ var-epsilon >> a + d (where a is the probe radius, d is the sheath thickness, and λ var-epsilon is the electron energy relaxation length) the current density j e (V) drawn by the probe is related to the unperturbed distribution function by an integral equation involving the distribution function. The kernal of the integral equation can be written as a function of the diffusion parameter. In the present paper the method of quadrature sums is employed in order to obtain the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures. This technique enables them to recover the distribution function from the integral equation when the diffusion parameter has an arbitrary energy dependence ψ 0 (var-epsilon) in any given energy range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by application to both model problems and experimental data

  14. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  15. Mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    The principal question for studies of photon scattering by nucleons and nuclei is the following: Can photon scattering say something new about the structure of these objects in comparisons with photo- and electroproduction investigations? There is a general reason to believe that it is indeed the case. The Hamiltonian of the electromagnetic interaction has, in general, a piece quadratic in the electromagnetic field (the so-called two-photon seagull) which is seen only in two-photon processes, such as Compton scattering. Although the longitudnal part of this seagull is constrained by the gauge invariance, its transverse part is decoupled from the electromagnetic current and cannot be found in photoabsorption processes. The seagull S μν depends on explicit degrees of freedom included into the Hamiltonian. E.g. the non-relativisitic Schroedinger equation has an effective seagull due to the kinetic energy (p - eA) 2 /2M. Its parent relativistic Dirac equation has no seagull at all but has the same low-energy consequences due to additional degrees of freedom (antiparticles). In low-energy nuclear physics, with explicit meson exchanges and meson clouds (i.e. internal polarizability of the nucleons). By explicitly including the mesons into the Hamiltonian one can remove part of the seagulls. Then the rest of them will be a signal for degrees of freedom invisible in photoabsorption at energies of the considered scale. Some seagulls are related with t-channel exchanges in Compton scattering. The π o -exchange is seen in γp-scattering but has no counterpart in photoproduction off the proton. Thus, a complementary study of one- and two-photon reactions provides a way to look in a region of higher energies where direct studies via photoproduction processes may be hard

  16. Role of compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-05-01

    Hot compound nuclei are frequently produced in intermediate-energy reactions through a variety of processes. Their decay is shown to be an important and at times dominant source of complex fragments, high energy-gamma rays, and even pions

  17. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.; Iliescu, B.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, M.; Calin, C.; Horbuniev, A.; Arsene, I.; Esanu, T.; Ochesanu, S.; Caramarcu, C.; Bordeianu, C.; Rosu, I.; Grossu, V.; Zgura, I.S.; Stan, E.; Mitu, C.; Potlog, M.; Cherciu, M.; Stefan, I.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed taking into account different scales. These scales are related to the fragment sizes. Taking into account the possible different fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained in different experiments performed at the JINR Dubna (Russia), KEK Tsukuba (Japan), GSI Darmstadt (Germany) is done. Results on apparent temperatures, angular distributions, fragment momentum spectra, multiplicities of the intermediate mass fragments are used to analyse the competition between two possible nuclear fragmentation mechanisms, namely: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves, and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly, because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the participant region at transverse angles on the incident nucleus, in CMS.Some connections with chaos dynamics and fractal structure of the fragmentation patterns are included. (authors)

  18. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs

  19. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed

  20. Peripheral collisions of heavy ions induced by 40Ar at intermediate energies: giant resonance high energy structures and projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.

    1987-09-01

    The results obtained in similar studies at low incident energies are first of all reviewed. The time of flight spectrometer built for the experiments is then described. A study of the properties of the projectile-like fragments shows numerous deviations from the relativistic energy fragmentation model. Evidence for a strong surface transfer reaction component is given and the persistence of mean field effects at intermediate energies is stressed. A calculation of the contribution of the transfer evaporation mechanism to the inelastic spectra shows that this mechanism is responible for the major part of the background measured at high excitation energy and can in some cases induce narrow structures in the spectra. The inelastic spectra shows a strong excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance. In the region between 20 and 80 MeV excitation energy narrow structures are present for all the studied systems. Statistical and Fourier analysises allow to quantify the probabilities of existence, the widths and the excitation energies of these structures. A transfer evaporation hypothesis cannot consistently reproduce all the observed structures. The excitation energies of the structures can be well described by phenomenological laws where the energies are proportional to the -1/3 power of the target mass. Complete calculations of the excitation probabilities of giant resonances and multiphonon states are performed within a model where the nuclear excitation are calculated microscopically in the Random Phase Approximation. It is shown that a possible interpretation of the structures is the excitation of multiphonon states built with 2 + giant resonances [fr

  1. Gemini Spectroscopic Survey of Young Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The majority of stars form in embedded clusters. Current research into star formation has focused on either high-mass star-forming regions or low-mass star-forming regions. We present the results from a Gemini spectroscopic survey of young intermediate-mass star-forming regions. These are star forming regions selected to produce stars up to but not exceeding 8 solar masses. We obtained spectra of these regions with GNIRS on Gemini North and Flamingos-2 on Gemini South. We also combine this with near-infrared imaging from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VVV to study the stellar content.

  2. On FEL integral equation and electron energy loss in intermediate gain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    1994-03-01

    The FEL pendulum equation in a intermediate gain small signal regime is investigated. By calculating the energy loss of the electron beam in terms of the solution of the pendulum equation, we confirm the consistency of the FEL equation in intermediate gain regime. (author)

  3. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of σ(700)-meson exchange in γγ→ππ processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the γΝ-Δ transition; pion photoproduction and the γΝ-Δ amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson's theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p(rvec γ, π o ) reaction; multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies; compton scattering off the proton; connections between compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region; single-pion electroproduction and the transverse one-half and scalar helicity transition form factors; relativistic effects, QCD mixing angles, and Ν → Νγ and Δ → γΝ transition form factors; electroproduction studies of the Ν → Δ transition at bates and CEBAF

  4. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M. [eds.

    1992-10-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of {sigma}(700)-meson exchange in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{pi} processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} transition; pion photoproduction and the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson`s theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}{sup o}) reaction; multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies; compton scattering off the proton; connections between compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region; single-pion electroproduction and the transverse one-half and scalar helicity transition form factors; relativistic effects, QCD mixing angles, and {Nu} {yields} {Nu}{gamma} and {Delta} {yields} {gamma}{Nu} transition form factors; electroproduction studies of the {Nu} {yields} {Delta} transition at bates and CEBAF.

  5. Different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies up to intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallouet, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on different aspects of nuclear physics from low energies to intermediate ones. For the low energies, the nuclear matter is essentially constituted from interacting nucleons. Part I is on the fusion-fission of super-heavy elements, while Part II is on the Skyrme interactions associated sum rules. In the case of the intermediate energies, where the nuclear matter is considered as being an hadronic phase mainly constituted from pions, Part III is focused on nuclear matter relativistic hydrodynamics with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In Part I, the formation and the deexcitation of super-heavy nuclei are being studied. The memory effect must be taken into consideration within the super-heavy nuclei formation dynamics. Therefore we analyzed the formation of compound nuclei including the memory effects. As for the intermediate memory effects some oscillations appear, which is very different from the Markovian dynamics. For super-heavy nuclei deexcitation, the existence of isomeric state within the potential barrier cannot explain the results of experiments performed at GANIL with the crystal blocking technique, and this despite of the fact that it modifies the deexcitation dynamics and increases the fission time. However, this latter study could be useful for the study of the actinides fission. In Part II, the phenomenological Skyrme effective interactions-associated M 1 and M 3 sum rules are being calculated based on their intrinsic definitions. We identify then M 1 up to the tensorial level and M 3 with central potential. In Part III, as for the hadronic matter hydrodynamics being applied to heavy ions collisions, and as a first approach only, we can neglect spontaneous chiral symmetry but certainly not the dissipative impact. (author)

  6. Compound nuclei, binary decay, and multifragmentation in intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-07-01

    Hot compound nuclei, frequently produced in intermediate-energy reactions through a variety of processes, are shown to be an important and at times dominant source of complex fragments. 13 refs., 12 figs

  7. Intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions at the hadronic structural level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowinski, B [Institute of Physics, Warsaw, University of Technology, Poland, Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Form tens of MeV to several hundred of GeV is stretched out quite a large interval of energy when the interaction between hadrons (for instance, pion/nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions) can be described by the considerably simplified way with still acceptable accuracy. This happens because in this energy region hadrons (i.e. pions, nucleons etc.) remain quasiparticles of nuclear matter mostly without revealing any internal structure, their de Broglie`s wavelength is much shorter as compared to the average intranuclear nucleon`s distance, and the energy transfers in the reaction are, on the average, significantly greater than the binding energy of nucleons inside nuclei. Consequently an approach to the analysis of these phenomena based on simple geometric and probabilistic considerations is justifiable, especially for many practical purposes, in particular, for shielding and dosimetric estimations, material behaviour prediction, as well as for the approximate evaluation of electronuclear breeding effects in different composites of target materials, for nuclear passivation problems and so on. In this work basic physical reasons of such a simplified picture of intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions are presented. The most usual phenomenological models of hadronic multiple emission/production and recent results of the cascade evaporation type models, are also discussed. 2 figs.

  8. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gikal, K. B., E-mail: kgikal@mail.ru; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Piasecki, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University (Poland); Rubchenya, V. A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Sahiev, S. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Trzaska, W. H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Vardaci, E. [INFN Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell’Università di Napoli (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  9. Energy Technology Programmes 1993-1998. Intermediate report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Tekes energy technology research programmes were launched in 1993. The aim is to produce innovative solutions that are efficient, environmentally sound and widely - even globally - applicable. Now Tekes manages a total of 12 energy technology research programmed. Research programmed form a network linking academia and industry. Total funding for the energy technology programmed during the years 1993-1998 is estimated at some FIM 1.5 billion, about half of which will be put up by the Tekes and the rest by the industry. Funding by the Ministry of Trade and Industry covers the first full-scale applications (demonstrations) resulting from the research and development activities. Finnish technology is front-ranking in the efficient use of energy, combustion technology, renewable energy sources and environmental technology. In this report the results and the research activities of the separate programmes is presented and discussed

  10. Systematics of intermediate-energy single-nucleon removal cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostevin, J. A.; Gade, A.

    2014-11-01

    There is now a large and increasing body of experimental data and theoretical analyses for reactions that remove a single nucleon from an intermediate-energy beam of neutron- or proton-rich nuclei. In each such measurement, one obtains the inclusive cross section for the population of all bound final states of the mass A -1 reaction residue. These data, from different regions of the nuclear chart, and that involve weakly and strongly bound nucleons, are compared with theoretical expectations. These calculations include an approximate treatment of the reaction dynamics and shell-model descriptions of the projectile initial state, the bound final states of the residues, and the single-particle strengths computed from their overlap functions. The results are discussed in the light of recent data, more exclusive tests of the eikonal dynamical description, and calculations that take input from more microscopic nuclear structure models.

  11. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Al; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed by taking into account different scales related to the fragment sizes. Considering two fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained was done. Goldhaber formula was improved by analyzing the discrepancies between data and theories concerning the projectile fragmentation. We implied that the projectile fragmentation process would be governed by the distribution of nucleon momenta in the projectile after the collision occurred. We used in our analysis protons from the 4 He + 7 Li at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum, as well as from 40 Ar + 12 C at 213 AMeV bombarding energy. We proved that in order to proceed in analyzing the projectile fragmentation process at intermediate and high energies one has to consider the dependence σ 0 on the apparent temperature of projectile nucleus after the collision took place. The generalized Bertsch correction for light projectile nuclei and fragments was used and the number of spatial correlations between identical nucleons having anticorrelated momenta was found. Thus we found apparent temperature values close to the separation energies of the considered fragments per number of fragments. The temperatures associated to kinetic energy spectra of the projectile fragments were calculated following two methods. The results from Bauer's method were compared with those obtained by fitting the kinetic energy distributions of the projectile fragments in the rest frame of the projectile with a Maxwellian curve. We also accomplished the comparison of the experimental results with similar events simulated with RQMD 2.4. All the results obtained suggested two nuclear fragmentation mechanisms: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the

  12. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  13. Projectile and target fragmentation at intermediate energies (20 MeV <= E/A <= 100 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayras, R.A.

    1985-04-01

    In order to follow the evolution of the reaction mechanisms in the transition region of the intermediate energy range, detailed studies of projectile-like fragments from a 44 MeV/u 40 Ar projectile bombarding 27 Al and sup(NAT)T: targets have been made. Experimental results are given. Discussion of the data is presented: transfer reactions, isotopic distributions, the fragmentation model, and abrasion model are used in the discussion

  14. dd →3 Hen Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    The dd → 3 Hen reaction is considered at the energies between 200 and 520 MeV. The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations are iterated up to the lowest order terms over the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix. The parameterized 3He wave function including five components is used. The angular dependence of the differential cross section and energy dependence of tensor analyzing power T 20 at the zero scattering angle are presented in comparison with the experimental data. (author)

  15. Soft electromagnetic bremsstrahlung in inelastic hadronic collisions at high and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckl, R.

    1978-01-01

    Electromagnetic bremsstrahlung in hadronic collisions was studied extensively at low and intermediate energies. It was found that the infrared divergent term of the cross section describes the data well up to surprisingly large photon energies. Using essentially the same soft photon approximation, production of low mass-low energy electron pairs via internal conversion of soft virtual bremsstrahlung accompanying the production of charged hadrons in hadron-hadron collisions at very high and intermediate energies. The resulting electron yields explain, at least in part, the direct electrons with small transverse momenta seen at the ISR, and are in no contradiction to the rates observed at LAMPF

  16. Spin asymmetries for elastic scattering in krypton at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Went, M R; McEachran, R P; Lohmann, Birgit; MacGillivray, W R

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the spin asymmetry for elastic scattering of spin-polarized electrons from krypton are presented, for incident energies in the range 20-200 eV. The measured spin asymmetries are generally small, and do not exceed 0.25 in magnitude at any energy or angle. The experimental results are compared with calculated values of the Sherman function, obtained by solution of the Dirac-Fock equations. The calculations have been performed with the inclusion of polarization and dynamic distortion potentials, and with the addition of an absorption potential to model inelastic processes. For incident energies of 50, 60 and 65 eV, the calculated values of the Sherman function are shown to be extremely sensitive to the details of the model, with the addition of the absorption potential producing dramatically different results

  17. Multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, R.L.; Arndt, R.A.; Zhujun Li

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the results of several multipole analyses of pion-photoproduction data to 2 GeV in the lab photon energy. Comparisons are made with previous analyses. The photo-decay couplings for the delta are examined in detail. Problems in the representation of photoproduction data are discussed, with an emphasis on the recent LEGS data. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Study of projectile break-up process at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Harish; Parashari, Siddharth; Tali, Suhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The projectile break-up reactions are explained in terms of incomplete fusion or massive transfer reactions leading to the formation of composite system with less mass, charge and excitation energy, as compared to the complete fusion (CF) process. Since, the existing theoretical models are not applicable to reproduce the experimentally measured ICF, data satisfactory below 10 MeV/nucleon energies; thereby the study of the role of the entrance channel parameters in the fusion reactions is still a relevant problem in establishing the explicit inference regarding the influence of ICF on CF at 4-7 MeV/nucleon energies. Recently reported some studies have also shown that alpha Q-value is also an important parameter which affects the onset of ICF and conflict with the suggestion of Morgenstern et al. Keeping in view the recent aspects, to provide more strength to the aspect of projectile-target mass-asymmetry effect, role of non α-cluster projectile over α-cluster projectile, the present work has been carried out which will be useful to understand a clearer picture about the conflict between mass-asymmetry and projectile structure effect on break-up fusion process. As such, excitation function measurement of residues produced in 13 C + 175 Lu system has been carried out in a series of experiments of comparative study using α-cluster as well as non α-cluster projectiles with deformed heavier target nuclei at lower projectile energies ≈ 4-7 MeV/nucleon

  19. Double differential cross sections for methane molecules at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Ozer, Zehra Nur; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut; Okumus, Nimet; Sahlaoui, Mohammed; Benmansour, Houda; Bouamoud, Mammar

    2014-01-01

    Double differential cross sections (DDCS) can be obtained by the measurements of energy and angular distributions of one of the two outgoing electrons by a detector. In this pespective, we used methane molecule as a target that is reasonable to expect to understand ionization mechanisms of polyatomic molecular systems.

  20. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  1. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  2. Iran and regional energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics reviewed in these conference proceedings in the first session include domestic imperatives covering the economy, social imperatives - civil society and the rule of law, and the overall investment climate. Session 2 focuses on Iran and the energy sector with papers on oil and gas pipelines, and the effect of sanctions. Session 3 deals with Iran and the Persian Gulf with papers on new developments in Iran and its Arab neighbours, and Iran and Arab attempts to manage oil output. Session 4 concentrates on business and investment perspectives with papers on the low oil and gas prices and the new competition for investment capital, the investment climate, the building of connection with Iran, and identifying the predominant trends. A keynote address by the former deputy Foreign Minister of Iran examines regional energy development

  3. Mass distributions in nucleon-induced fission at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Duijvestijn, M C; Hambsch, F J

    2001-01-01

    Temperature-dependent fission barriers and fission-fragment mass distributions are calculated in the framework of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MM-RNRM). It is shown how the distinction between the different fission modes disappears at higher excitation energies, due to the melting of shell effects. The fission-fragment mass yield calculations are coupled to the nuclear reaction code ALICE-91, which takes into account the competition between the other reaction channels and fission. With the combination of the temperature-dependent MM-RNRM and ALICE-91 nucleon-induced fission is investigated at energies between 10 and 200 MeV for nuclei varying from Au to Am. (72 refs).

  4. Proton-4He elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.; Gillespie, J.; Lombard, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    Differential elastic cross sections and polarizations are calculated in a multiple scattering formalism for proton- 4 He scattering for energies in the range 0.6-24GeV and for momentum transfers up to 4.0fmsup(-1). The calculations include Coulomb and spin effects. Corrections due to target-nucleon overlap and charge exchange are estimated. The results are compared with experimental data [fr

  5. Coherent pion photoproduction from deuterium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Rej, A.K.

    1975-12-01

    The coherent photoproduction of neutral pions on deuterons is studied at energies around the (3,3) resonance and discuss the effects of the Fermi motion, rescattering and kinematical approximations. The results are very dependent upon what kinematical approximations one adopts for the impulse approximation term, which dominates up to very large angles. Allowing for this uncertainty in the kinematics, our results are in good agreement with the most recent experimental data

  6. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  7. Magnetic effects in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Li; Li Baoan

    2011-01-01

    The time evolution and space distribution of internal electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion reactions at beam energies between 200 and 2000 MeV/nucleon are studied within an isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck transport model (ibuu11). While the magnetic field can reach about 7x10 16 G, which is significantly higher than the estimated surface magnetic field (∼1x10 15 G) of magnetars, it has almost no effect on nucleon observables because the Lorentz force is normally much weaker than the nuclear force. Very interestingly, however, the magnetic field generated by the projectilelike (targetlike) spectator has a strong focusing and defocusing effect on positive and negative pions at forward (backward) rapidities. Consequently, the differential π - /π + ratio as a function of rapidity is significantly altered by the magnetic field, whereas the total multiplicities of both positive and negative pions remain about the same. At beam energies above about 1 GeV/nucleon, while the integrated ratio of total π - to π + multiplicities is not, the differential π - /π + ratio is sensitive to the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ). Our findings suggest that magnetic effects should be carefully considered in future studies of using the differential π - /π + ratio as a probe of the E sym (ρ) at suprasaturation densities.

  8. Improvement of the intranuclear cascade code of Bruyeres-le-Chatel (BRIC) at low intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, H.

    2003-01-01

    The IntraNuclear cascade code of Bruyeres-le-Chatel called BRIC has been extended to low intermediate energy by taking in account some medium effects that are included in other nuclear dynamics models such as BUU or QMD. The results of BRIC 1.4 with the medium effects are in better agreement with experimental data than those of the first version on a wide range of incident energy, especially at low intermediate energy. We may conclude that no preequilibrium model is necessary between our INC and the deexcitation step. (orig.)

  9. Heavy residue properties in intermediate energy nuclear collisions with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1990-10-01

    We have measured the target fragment production cross sections and angular distributions for the interaction of 32, 44 and 93 MeV/nucleon argon, 35 and 43 MeV/nucleon krypton with gold. The fragment isobaric yield distributions, moving frame angular distributions and velocities have been deduced from these data. This fission cross section decreases with increasing projectile energy and the heavy residue cross section increases. The ratio v parallel /v cn increases approximately linearly with mass removed from the target. 21 refs., 8 figs

  10. The intermediate layers and associated tidal motions observed by a digisonde in the equatorial anomaly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lee

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents an initial attempt to analyze a full year of daily ionosonde observations relevant to the determination of plasma densities, tidal structures, and ion transports in the equatorial anomaly region of the lower ionosphere. Particular focus is on the intermediate layers, their seasonal and diurnal variations, and cause-effect relationships. The ionogram database was recorded using a digisonde portable sounder (DPS at National Central University (NCU, 24 °58' N, 121°11' E during 1996. Statistical results indicate that the intermediate layers appear primarily during the daytime of the spring/winter months. The monthly median height characteristics reveal that the layers descend from high to low altitudes and different tidal motions control the layers in different months. Generally, the semi-diurnal and quarter-diurnal tides, which cause ionization convergence, are mainly in the spring/winter and summer/autumn months, respectively. Variations in the electron densities of the layers also indicate that the density increases could result from a great number of molecular and metallic ions. Furthermore, a novel approach to ionogram presentation is introduced to investigate the intermediate layers. This approach allows the DPS to characterize the detailed daily information of the intermediate layers.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  11. Region based route planning - Multi-abstraction route planning based on intermediate level vision processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Rajkumar S.; Lam, Raymond; White, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Intermediate and high level processing operations are performed on vision data for the organization of images into more meaningful, higher-level topological representations by means of a region-based route planner (RBRP). The RBRP operates in terrain scenarios where some or most of the terrain is occluded, proceeding without a priori maps on the basis of two-dimensional representations and gradient-and-roughness information. Route planning is accomplished by three successive abstractions and yields a detailed point-by-point path by searching only within the boundaries of relatively small regions.

  12. Angular evolution of peripheral heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Chomaz, P.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Jacmart, J.C; Roynette, J.C

    1985-01-01

    Energy spectra and angular distributions of projectile-like fragments have been measured in the vicinity of the grazing angle for the 40 Ar+ 40 Ca and 40 Ar+ 208 Pb reactions at 44MeV/nucleon. Measurements of the 40 Ar+ 40 Ca system at 27MeV/nucleon and 20 Ne+ 208 Pb reaction at 44MeV/nucleon at one angle have also been performed. For fragments with charge and mass close to the projectile numerous deviations from the standard fragmentation model have been observed including rapidly changing shapes of the angular distributions with the fragment mass. Moreover the isotopic distributions and mean fragment velocities are strongly dependent on detection angle. A surface transfer reaction component dominant at the grazing angle can be separated from a second component which cannot be entirely accounted for by a simple fragmentation mechanism

  13. Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed.

  14. Intermediate energy electron scattering from sodium and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.

    1979-06-01

    This thesis describes an experimental investigation of the interaction of fast electrons with alkali metal atoms. Several of the theoretical models which have been applied to atomic collision processes including the first Born approximation, the Glauber approximation, the optical model and the distorted wave polarized orbital approximation are discussed. The theory of electron-photon coincidence experiments is outlined and the effects of fine and hyperfine structure on the polarization state of photons emitted from an excited atom are calculated for Sodium. The results of elastic scattering measurements on Sodium and Potassium are presented and used to test several theoretical models in their description of the differential cross section at incident energies between 50 and 200eV. Absolute differential and integrated total cross sections for the Potassium resonance lines and Sodium D-lines are presented. Results of the first electron-polarized photon coincidence experiment on the Sodium D-lines are presented and compared with available theoretical calculations

  15. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Annual progress report, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. The nucleon-nucleon research has involved studies of interactions between polarized neutrons and polarized protons. Its purpose is to help complete the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as part of a program currently in progress at LAMPF, as well as to investigate the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The pion-nucleus research involves studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been adequately explored. These include experiments on elastic and double charge exchange scattering at energies above the /Delta/(1232) resonance, interactions with polarized nuclear targets, and investigations of pion absorption using a detector covering nearly the full solid angle region. 21 refs., 4 figs

  16. UCLA Intermediate Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics Research: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M.K. [Principal Investigator, ed.; Goetz, J; Lapik, A; Korolija, M; Prakhov, S; Starostin, A [ed.

    2011-05-18

    This project covers the following research: (a) Investigations into the structure of the proton and neutron. This is done by investigating the different resonance states of nucleons with beams of tagged, polarized photons, linearly as well as circularly, incident on polarized hydrogen/deuterium targets and measuring the production of {pi}{sup 0}, 2{pi}{sup }0, 3{pi}{sup 0}, {eta} , {eta}', {omega}, etc. The principal detector is the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer which has an acceptance of nearly 4 . It has been moved to the MAMI accelerator facility of the University of Mainz, Germany. We investigate the conversion of electromagnetic energy into mesonic matter and conversely. (b) We investigate the consequences of applying the "standard" symmetries of isospin, G-parity, charge conjugation, C, P, T, and chirality using rare and forbidden decays of light mesons such as the {eta} ,{eta}' and {omega}. We also investigate the consequences of these symmetries being slightly broken symmetries. We do this by studying selected meson decays using the Crystal Ball detector. (c) We determine the mass, or more precisely the mass difference of the three light quarks (which are inputs to Quantum Chromodynamics) by measuring the decay rate of specially selected {eta} and {eta}' decay modes, again we use the Crystal Ball. (d)We have started a new program to search for the 33 missing cascade baryons using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory. Cascade resonances are very special: they have double strangeness and are quite narrow. This implies that they can be discovered by the missing mass technique in photoproduction reactions such as in {gamma}p{yields}{Xi}{sup}K{sup +}K{sup +}. The cascade program is of particular importance for the upgrade to 12 GeV of the CLAS detector and for design of the Hall D at JLab. (e) Finally, we are getting more involved in a new program to measure the hadronic matter form factor of complex nuclei, in particular

  17. Final Technical Report - Nuclear Studies with Intermediate Energy Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Blaine [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-12-14

    During the almost 20 year period of this grant research was carried out on atomic nuclei and their constituents using both photons and electrons. Research was carried out at the electron accelerator facility of the Netherlands Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEFK, Amsterdam) until the electron accelerator facility was closed in 1998. Subsequently, research was carried out at the Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) until the LEGS was closed at the end of 2006. During the next several years research was carried out at both the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) and the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) of the Tri-Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) located on the campus of Duke University. Since approximately 2010 the principal focus was on research at TUNL, although analysis of data from previous research at other facilities continued. The principal early focus of the research was on the role of pions in nuclei. This was studied by studying the production of pions using both photons (at LEGS) and electrons (at NIKHEF-K and JLAB). Measurements of charged pion photoproduction from deuterium at LEGS resulted in the most interesting result of these two decades of work. By measuring the production of a charged pion (p + ) in coincidence with an emitted photon we observed structures in the residual two-nucleon system. These indicated the existence of long-lived states not explicable by standard nuclear theory; they suggest a set of configurations not explicable in terms of a nucleon-nucleon pair. The existence of such “exotic” structures has formed the foundation for most of the work that has ensued.

  18. Regional regularities for the even-even nuclei in intermediate mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Mani; Singh, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of experimental techniques more and more nuclear data are accumulated and compiled for over five decades. The proton neutron interaction has been considered the key ingredient in the development of collectivity and ultimately the deformation in atomic nuclei. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the growth of R4/2 in different mass regions. The rate of growth regions in regions having proton number Z = 38, 54, 60 and 76 with changing neutron number where the interaction between particle - particle, particle - hole and hole - hole

  19. Low-energy consequences of superstring-inspired models with intermediate-mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenological consequences of implementing intermediate-mass scales in E 6 superstring-inspired models are discussed. Starting from a suitable Calabi-Yau compactification with b 1,1 >1, one gets, after Hosotani breaking, the rank r=5 gauge group SU(3) C x SU(2) L x U(1) Y x U(1) E , that is broken at an intermediate-mass scale down to the standard-model group. The analysis of both the intermediate and the electroweak breaking is performed in the two cases Λ c = M x and Λ c x , where Λ c is the scale at which the hidden sector gauginos condensate. It is performed quantitatively the minimization of the low-energy effective potential and the renormalization group analysis, yielding a viable set of mass spectra and confirming the reliability of the intermediate-breaking scheme

  20. Electron-positron pair production and bremsstrahlung at intermediate energies in the field of heavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.N.; Milstein, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.; Schwartz, O.Ya.

    2006-01-01

    The Coulomb corrections (CC) to the processes of bremsstrahlung and pair production are investigated. The next-to-leading term in the high-energy asymptotics is found. This term becomes very essential in the region of intermediate energies. The influence of screening for CC is small for differential cross section, spectrum, and the total cross section of pair production. The same is true for the spectrum of bremsstrahlung, but not for the differential cross section, where the influence of screening can be very large. The corresponding screening corrections as well as the modification of the differential cross section of bremsstrahlung are found. A comparison of our results for the total cross section of pair production with the experimental data available is performed. This comparison has justified our analytical results and allowed to elaborate a simple ansatz for the next-to-leading correction. The influence of the electron beam shape on CC for bremsstrahlung is investigated. It turns out that the differential cross section is very sensitive to this shape

  1. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  2. [Intermediate energy studies of polarization transfer, polarized deuteron scattering, and (p,π+-) reactions: Rapporteur's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of intermediate energy (80 to 1000 MeV) study contributions to the International Polarization Symposium in Osaka, Japan, August 1985 is presented in this report. Contributions fall into three categories: polarization transfer, polarized deuteron scattering and polarized (p,π +- ) reactions

  3. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd→ 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  4. Ionization of multielectronic atoms by proton impact at high and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.; Ponce, V.H.; Rivarola, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, it is studied Ne ionization by proton impact at high and intermediate energies using the CDW-EIS model. Calculations on simple and double differential cross sections are presented. The results are compared to available experimental data. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  5. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei

  6. Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: an energy-economic scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation by Thorsten Frank Schulz the intermediate steps necessary to realise the 2000-Watt Society in Switzerland are examined. An analysis of an energy-economic scenario shows that the 2000-Watt Society should be seen as a long-term goal. According to the author, the major changes required to allow the implementation of this project concern energy-transformation and energy-demand technologies. Electricity will, according to the author, play an important role in a service-oriented society in the future. In such a transformation even intermediate steps are associated with considerable expense. The aims of the 2000-Watt Society project are listed. Energy and CO 2 balances for the domestic and transport sectors are presented and discussed. Complementary analyses are presented concerning fuel cells and wood-based fuel technologies. Finally, the implications of the 2000-Watt society and the effects of technological change are summarised and an outlook is presented

  7. Energy-momentum tensor of intermediate vector bosons in an external electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostepanenko, V.M.; Sokolov, I.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Expressions are obtained for the canonical and metric energy-momentum tensors of the vector field of intermediate bosons in an external electromagnetic field. It is shown that in the case of a gyromagnetic ratio not equal to unity the energy-momentum tensor cannot be symmetrized on its indices, and an additional term proportional to the anomalous magnetic moment appears in the conservation laws. A modification of the canonical formalism for scalar and vector fields in an external field is proposed in accordance with which the Hamiltonian density is equal to the 00 component of the energy-momentum tensor. An expression for the energy-momentum tensor of a closed system containing a gauge field of intermediate bosons and an electromagnetic field is obtained

  8. Fragment mass distribution of proton-induced spallation reaction with intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Sheng; Ye Yanlin; Xu Chuncheng; Chen Tao; Sobolevsky, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The test of part benchmark of SHIELD code is finished. The fragment cross section and mass distribution and excitation function of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thin Pb target with intermediate energy have been calculated by SHIELD code. And the results are in good agreement with measured data. The fragment mass distribution of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thick Pb target with incident energy 1.6 GeV have been simulated

  9. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  10. SECTORIAL DYNAMICS AND THE CONVERGENCE OF REGIONS OF INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Torrejo˜n-Velardiez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the Valencian Community (Spain as a case study to analyse, in terms of GDP per person, the convergence of regions of intermediate development with the most advanced ones within the European Union. The obstacles hindering this convergence and the paths the convergence takes are shown not only in the context of a growing interdependence in the world economy but also of European integration. The study clearly demonstrates how convergence only comes about as a result of the creation of employment, while the gap in productivity is getting ever wider. The explanation fundamentally stems from the lack of convergence of the production structure with the more advanced activities which predominate in the most developed regions. With the arrival of the economic crisis from 2007, a reversal has occurred of the process of convergence that had taken place during the previous phase of expansion.

  11. The energy-deposition model. Electron loss of heavy ions in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelko, V.P.; Litsarev, M.S.; Kato, D.; Tawara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Single- and multiple-electron loss processes in collisions of heavy many-electron ions (positive and negative) in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies are considered using the energy-deposition model. The DEPOSIT computer code, created earlier to calculate electron-loss cross sections at high projectile energies, is extended for low and intermediate energies. A description of a new version of DEPOSIT code is given, and the limits of validity for collision velocity in the model are discussed. Calculated electron-loss cross sections for heavy ions and atoms (N + , Ar + , Xe + , U + , U 28+ , W, W + , Ge - , Au - ), colliding with neutral atoms (He, Ne, Ar, W) are compared with available experimental and theoretical data at energies E > 10 keV/u. It is found that in most cases the agreement between experimental data and the present model is within a factor of 2. Combining results obtained by the DEPOSIT code at low and intermediate energies with those by the LOSS-R code at high energies (relativistic Born approximation), recommended electron-loss cross sections in a wide range of collision energy are presented. (author)

  12. The extended sum-rule model view of light and intermediate mass fragment emission in nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Rebel, H.; Wentz, J.; Corcalciuc, V.

    1989-11-01

    The original sum-rule model worked out by Wilczynski et al. and successfully used for a global description of complete and incomplete fusion reactions has been extended by a term accounting for dissipative processes of the dinuclear system on its way to fusion. When applying to light and heavy ion collisions with various targets at energies in the transitional region, the new term proves to be rather essential for reproducing the element distributions of the fragments emitted from rather asymmetric systems. (orig.) [de

  13. Applications of a lead pile coupled with fast reactor core of Yayoi as an intermediate energy neutron standard field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Sekiguchi, Akira; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki.

    1976-10-01

    Intermediate neutron column of YAYOI reactor is here evaluated as an intermediate energy neutron standard field which provides a base of the measurements of various reaction rates in that energy region, including detector calibration and Doppler coefficient determination. The experiments were performed using YAYOI's core as a fast neutron source by coupling with the large lead pile, which is a 160 ton's octagon of 2.5 m high and with a thickness of about 2.5 m face to face distance. Spatial variation of the neutron flux in the lead pile was estimated by gold activation foils, and the neutron spectrum by sandwich foils, a helium-3 proportional counter and a proton recoil counter. The calculated results were obtained using one and two- dimensional discrete ordinate code, ANISN and TWOTRAN II. Through comparison of experiment with calculation, it became clear that the neutron field at the central block has simple energy spectrum and stable spatial distribution of the neutron flux, the absolute of which was 5.0 x 10 4 (n/cm 2 /sec/Watt) at the representative energy of 1 KeV. The energy spectrum of the position and the spatial dependent neutron flux in the lead pile are both represented by the semiempirical formula, which must be useful both for evaluation of experimental data and for future applications. (auth.)

  14. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  15. Energy Strategy and Regional Planning in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the relationship between energy strategy and regional planning in Croatia, the targets, environmental issues and preconditions to be met for the establishment of a modern energy sector. (author)

  16. The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed

  17. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions. FERC is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil....

  18. Differential cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran at intermediate impact energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.

  19. Selected problems in experimental intermediate energy physics. Final technical report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, B.W.; Hungerford, E.V.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description of the research program of the intermediate energy group at the University of Houston may be found in previous progress reports, renewal proposals, and proposals to various accelerator advisory committees. The summaries of activities are presented in the next section. The objectives of the research program are to: (1) investigate selected, forefront problems in experimental intermediate energy physics; (2) educate students in this field of research; and (3) develop the instrumentation necessary to undertake this experimental program. There were three major thrusts of the program: (1) strange particle physics, where a strange quark is embedded in the nuclear medium; (2) muon electro-weak decay, which involves a search for a violation of the standard model of the electro-weak interaction; and (3) measurement of the spin dependent structure function of the neutron and proton

  20. Proceedings of the Northwest regional energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A S; Comstock, D R [eds.

    1978-12-01

    The conference was directed toward two main objectives. First, a major portion of the proceedings were to focus on the policies, programs, and priorities of the new US DOE, and their relationships to the Pacific Northwest region. Second, the conference was to explore specific energy issues of regional significance and provide an opportunity for regional feedback on energy policies. The 10 sessions of the conference are Keynote Session: Congress, and the National Energy Plan Sen. Henry Jackson; National Perspectives on Energy Issues (I): An Overview of the NEP, Programs and Priorities of DOE (Alvin Alm and NEP - Conservation and Solar Applications (Don Beattie); and Luncheon address - Alaska Energy Issues (Robert LeResche); National Perspectives on Energy Issues (II): Utility Rate Reform - National Provisions and Relationships to the Pacific Northwest (David Bardin) and Technology for Energy and Long Term Short Alternatives (Robert Thorne); Concurrent Interest Group Sessions: State and Local Roles in Energy Planning and Decision-Making and Industry and University Roles in DOE Research and Programs; Banquet address. The US Energy Future (James Schlesinger); Regional Perspectives on Energy Issues: DOE-X - Organization and Response to Regional Needs (Randall Hardy). What Comes After Number 13 (Sterling Munro), Hanford 1978 (Alex Fremling), and Low Head Hydro and Geothermal (Richard Wood); Lucheon address - The Washington Perspective on Energy (Dixie Lee Ray); Regional Power Planning (Panel); and Conference Wrap Up Session. (MCW)

  1. Supplement to the report of the Expert Committee 'Intermediate-Energy Physics' 1986-1988/89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In the supplement to the scientitic report of the sponsoring project of the Federal Ministery for Research and Technology 'Intermediate-Energy Physics' the publications are collected, which have come out in the three years of the sponsoring in the single projects. Essentially only journal articles were taken up, in order to keep the extent of this list surveyable. On the taking up of the manifold of dissertations, diploma theses, and talks generally was abandoned. (orig.) [de

  2. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the progress in the following experiments: Λ Spin Transfer Experiment; Σ 0 Spin Transfer Experiment; Strangeness Production in Heavy Ion Collisions; Measurement of the Imaginary Part of the I=1 /bar N/N S-Wave Scattering Length; Single Pion Production in np Scattering; Measurements of the π + d→Δ ++ n at Intermediate Energy; and PhotoJets from Nuclei

  3. (Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.

  4. Development of an intermediate energy heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Mingtao; Wang Zhiguang; He Yuan; Gao Daqing; Yang Xiaotian; Liu Jie; Su Hong; Man Kaidi; Sheng Li'na

    2008-01-01

    The micro-beam irradiation system, which focuses the beam down the micron order and precisely delivers a predefined number of ions to a predefined spot of micron order, is a powerful tool for radio-biology, radio-biomedicine and micromachining. The Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences is developing a heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation system up to intermediate energy. Based on the intermediate and low energy beam provided by Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou, the micro-beam system takes the form of the magnetic focusing. The heavy-ion beam is conducted to the basement by a symmetrical achromatic system consisting of two vertical bending magnets and a quadrupole in between. Then a beam spot of micron order is formed by magnetic triplet quadrupole of very high gradient. The sample can be irradiated either in vacuum or in the air. This system will be the first opening platform capable of providing heavy ion micro-beam, ranging from low (10 MeV/u) to intermediate energy (100 MeV/u), for irradiation experiment with positioning and counting accuracy. Target material may be biology cell, tissue or other non-biological materials. It will be a help for unveiling the essence of heavy-ion interaction with matter and also a new means for exploring the application of heavy-ion irradiation. (authors)

  5. Reactor-moderated intermediate-energy neutron beams for neutron-capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to producing an intermediate energy beam is moderating fission neutrons escaping from a reactor core. The objective of this research is to evaluate materials that might produce an intermediate beam for NCT via moderation of fission neutrons. A second objective is to use the more promising moderator material in a preliminary design of an NCT facility at a research reactor. The evaluations showed that several materials or combinations of materials could produce a moderator source for an intermediate beam for NCT. The best neutron spectrum for use in NCT is produced by Al 2 O 3 , but mixtures of Al metal and D 2 O are also attractive. Using the best moderator materials, results were applied to the design of an NCT moderator at the Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor's bio-medical facility. The amount of photon shielding and thermal neutron absorber were optimized with respect to the desired photon dose rate and intermediate neutron flux at the patient position

  6. Northeast Asia regional energy infrastructure proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Gulidov, Ruslan; Kalashnikov, Victor; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in the countries of Northeast Asia has spurred a massive increase in the need for energy, especially oil, gas, coal, and electricity. Although the region, taken as a whole, possesses financial, technical, labor, and natural resources sufficient to address much of the region's needs now and into the future, no one country has all of those attributes. As a result, over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in regional proposals that would allow sharing of resources, including infrastructure to develop and transport energy resources from the Russian Far East to South Korea, China, and Japan, and cooperation on energy-efficiency, renewable energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle as well. In this article we review some of these proposals, identify some of the factors that could contribute to the success or failure of infrastructure proposals, and explore some of the implications and ramifications of energy cooperation activities for energy security in the region.

  7. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  8. A possible method to produce a polarized antiproton beam at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Vaandering, E.W.; Hofmann, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A feasible and conservative design for a medium energy polarized antiproton beam has been presented. The design requires an intense beam of unpolarized antiprotons (≥ 10 7 /sec) from a typical secondary beam line in order to achieve reasonable anti pp elastic scattering count rates. All three beam spin directions can be achieved. Methods were discussed to reverse the spin directions in modest times, and to change to a polarized proton beam if desired. It is expected that experiments with such a beam would have a profound effect on the understanding of the anti NN interaction at intermediate energies

  9. Isovector couplings for nucleon charge-exchange reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.G.; Nakayama, K.; Franey, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The isovector parts of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction are studied by examination of the reaction /sup 14/C(p,n) at intermediate energies near zero momentum transfer with use of recently developed G-matrix and free--t-matrix interactions. The spin-independent coupling (V/sub tau/) exhibits a strong energy and density dependence which, in the case of the G matrix based on the Bonn potential, significantly improves the agreement between calculated values of chemical bondV/sub σ//sub tau//V/sub tau/chemical bond 2 at q = 0 and those recently extracted from the reaction /sup 14/C

  10. DWBA differential and total pair production cross sections for intermediate energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraju, C.; Bhullar, A.S.; Sud, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    We present in this communication the theoretical differential and total cross section for electron-positron pair creation by intermediate energy photons (5.0-10.0 MeV) on different targets (Z=1, 30, 50, 68, 82 and 92). The computed cross sections are in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) in point Coulomb potential. The database of the differential and total pair production cross sections is presented in tabulated as well as in graphical form and the interpolation of differential cross sections for different atomic numbers, positron and photon energies is discussed

  11. Simulation of neutron rich nuclei production through 239U fission at intermediates energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirea, M.; Clapier, F.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical part and some results obtained from a model realised for fission processes in wide range of mass-asymmetries are presented. The fission barriers are computed in a tridimensional configuration space using the Yukawa - plus - exponential macroscopic energies corrected within the Strutinsky procedure. It is assumed that channel probabilities are proportional with Gamow penetrabilities. The model is applied for the disintegration of the 239 U in order to determine the relative yields for the production of neutron rich nuclei at diverse intermediate energies. (author)

  12. The origin of nuclear spin and its effect durning intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao; Ma Yugang; Cai Xiangzhou; Wang Hongwei; Fang Deqing; Tian Wendong; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei; Liu Guihua

    2010-01-01

    We use the heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin and its effect in Intermediate energy nuclear reaction. It is found that the spin of projectile depends on the impact parameter of the reaction system heavily, while on the violence lightly by contrast. Some interesting multifragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown, especially those of phase transition. At the same time, the role of excited energy for multifragmentation is also invested. We find the later plays a more robust role durning the nuclear disintegration. (authors)

  13. Origin of the finite nuclear spin and its effect in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao

    2012-01-01

    The heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model is used to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin in intermediate energy heavy-ion collision (HIC). The spin of maximal projectile-like fragment is found to depend strongly on impact parameter of a reaction system,while it relates weakly to the collision violence. Some interesting multi-fragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown. We also found that the excitation energy in the de-excitation stage plays a robust role at the de-excitation stage in HIC. (authors)

  14. The 2-ID-B intermediate-energy scanning X-ray microscope at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Paterson, D.; Arko, J.; Erdmann, M.; Goetze, K.; Ilinski, P.; Mooney, T.; Vogt, S.; Xu, S.; Frigo, S.P.; Stampfl, A.P.J.; Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The intermediate-energy scanning x-ray microscope at beamline 2-ID-B at the Advanced Photon Source is a dedicated instrument for materials and biological research. The microscope uses a zone plate lens to focus coherent 1-4 keV x-rays to a 60 nm focal spot of 10 9 photons/s onto the sample. It records simultaneous transmission and energy-resolved fluorescence images. We have used the microscope for nano-tomography of chips and micro-spectroscopy of cells. (authors)

  15. Nuclear energy and comprehension of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Dong; Hong, Du Seung

    1992-12-01

    This book explains the comprehension of nuclear energy with making approaches to social science. So it deals with disposal of radiation active waste as an social issue, recognition to nuclear energy of people and understanding of the region and support for the development of the region. It introduces two Anti-nuclear energy movements happened in Anmyondo and Yeongdeok. It reports these two cases approached with the method of social science.

  16. Energy sustainability performance of the regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Danilov

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the dynamics of energy intensity of gross regional product of the Sverdlovsk region for the period 1996 - 2003 years. and projections for the period up to 2015. The principal possibility of growth performance of the regional economy, without a significant increase in the consumption of primary fuel.

  17. Regional renewable energy and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Hon Loong; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of the energy potential in biomass in a specific geographical region is frequently constrained by high production costs and the amount of land required per unit of energy generated. In addition, the distributed nature of the biomass resource and its normally low energy density may result in large transportation costs. Biomass also requires large land areas to collect and process the incoming solar radiation before the energy can be harvested. Previously published works on regional energy clustering (REC) and the Regional Resources Management Composite Curve, RRMCC (in this paper shortened to RMC), have been extended in this paper to tackle simultaneously the issues of the biomass supply chain, transportation, and land use. The RMC is a tool for supporting decision making in regional resource management. It provides a complete view of energy and land availability in a region, displaying their trade-offs in a single plot. The extension presented in this work has been developed in two steps. The first step presents the Regional Energy Cascade Analysis, which estimates the energy target within regional supply chains and provides the result for energy exchange flows between zones, the quantity of energy required to be imported/exported, and the locations of the demands. In the second step, the initial results are analysed against potential measures for improving the energy and land use targets by using the RMC and a set of rules for its manipulation. The presented method provides the option to assess the priorities: either to produce and sell the surplus energy on the fuel market or use the land for other purposes such as food production. This extended approach is illustrated with a comprehensive case study demonstrating that with the RMC application it is possible to maximise the land use and to maximise the biofuel production for the requested energy demand.

  18. Regional and global exergy and energy efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Kurz, R [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (Ecuador) Project; Gilli, P V [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    We present estimates of global energy efficiency by applying second-law (exergy) analysis to regional and global energy balances. We use a uniform analysis of national and regional energy balances and aggregate these balances first for three main economic regions and subsequently into world totals. The procedure involves assessment of energy and exergy efficiencies at each step of energy conversion, from primary exergy to final and useful exergy. Ideally, the analysis should be extended to include actual delivered energy services; unfortunately, data are scarce and only rough estimates can be given for this last stage of energy conversion. The overall result is that the current global primary to useful exergy efficiency is about one-tenth of the theoretical maximum and the service efficiency is even lower. (Author)

  19. Regional profile, energy-impacted communities: Region VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This report has data on population, administration, finance, housing, health and safety, human services, education, and water and sewage for 325 energy-impacted communities. A review of current and potential energy developments in the region shows over 900 energy resource impacts listed for the 325 impacted communities. Coal development represents over one-third of the developments listed. Communities reporting coal development are distributed as follows: Colorado (36), Montana (42), North Dakota (61), South Dakota (13), Utah (73), and Wyoming (35). Energy-conversion initiatives represent another high incidence of energy-resource impact, with uranium development following closely with 83 communities reporting uranium development impact in the region. These projections indicate continued development of regional energy resources to serve national energy requirements. The 325 impacted communities as reported: Colorado (46), Montana (73), North Dakota (62), South Dakota (21), Utah (80), and Wyoming (43) follow a distribution pattern similar to that of future projects which illustrates that no area of the region will escape the impacts of energy development. (ERA citation 04:041706)

  20. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  1. Specialized reactions: reactions at intermediate energies: Baryon--nucleus collisions, 150 MeV--1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igo, G.

    1974-01-01

    The high energy collision approximation proposed by Glauber to describe experimental data at the upper end of the intermediate range is reviewed. Some aspects of the model which limit its validity are outlined. Elastic scattering of protons from light nuclei is discussed in the framework of the Glauber model. For data in the energy region near 200 MeV, the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) and the distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) are applied. Quasielastic scattering is treated by considering (p,p') and (p,2p) reactions with light nuclei. A short discussion of the high resolution spectrometer facility at LAMPF and the SPES 1 facility at Saturne is given. (46 figures, 3 tables, 102 references) (U.S.)

  2. Model for bremsstrahlung emission accompanying interactions between protons and nuclei from low energies up to intermediate energies: Role of magnetic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    2012-07-01

    A model of the bremsstrahlung emission which accompanies proton decay and collisions of protons off nuclei in the low- to intermediate-energy region has been developed. This model includes spin formalism, a potential approach for describing the interaction between protons and nuclei, and an emission that includes a component of the magnetic emission (defined on the basis of the Pauli equation). For the problem of bremsstrahlung during proton decay the role of magnetic emission is studied by using such a model. For the 146Tm nucleus the following has been studied: (1) How much does the magnetic emission change the full bremsstrahlung spectrum? (2) At which angle is the magnetic emission the most intensive relative to the electric emission? (3) Is there some spatial region where the magnetic emission increases strongly relative to the electric emission? (4) How intensive is the magnetic emission in the tunneling region? (5) Which is the maximal probability? Which value does it equal to at the zero-energy limit of the emitted photons? It is demonstrated that the model is able to describe well enough experimental data of bremsstrahlung emission which accompanies collisions of protons off 9C, 64Cu, and 107Ag nuclei at an incident energy of Tlab=72 MeV (at a photon energy up to 60 MeV) and off 9Be, 12C, and 208Pb nuclei at an incident energy of Tlab=140 MeV (at a photon energy up to 120 MeV).

  3. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, Kin.

    1996-05-01

    The 129 Xe-induced reactions on nat Cu, 89 Y, 165 Ho, and 197 Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 ampersand 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129 Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied

  4. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  5. Faddeev and Glauber calculations at intermediate energies in a model for n+d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elster, Ch.; Lin, T.; Gloeckle, W.; Jeschonnek, S.

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining cross sections for nuclear reactions at intermediate energies based on the Glauber formulation has a long tradition. Only recently the energy regime of a few hundred MeV has become accessible to ab initio Faddeev calculations of three-body scattering. In order to go to higher energies, the Faddeev equation for three-body scattering is formulated and directly solved without employing a partial wave decomposition. In the simplest form the Faddeev equation for interacting scalar particles is a three-dimensional integral equation in five variables, from which the total cross section, the cross sections for elastic scattering and breakup reactions, as well as differential cross sections are obtained. The same observables are calculated based on the Glauber formulation. The first order Glauber calculation and the Glauber rescattering corrections are compared in detail with the corresponding terms of the Faddeev multiple scattering series for projectile energies between 100 MeV and 2 GeV

  6. Spin observables at intermediate energies: a tool in viewing the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize some of the advances made in intermediate nuclear physics through measurements of spin observables, notably in the range of bombarding energies from 100 to 1000 MeV. Relative to measurements of cross section, spin observables offer a highly selective filter in viewing the nucleus. Their general utility is found in their sensitivity to particular nuclear transitions and is further augmented by their simple connections to the NN force. The advantage of higher energies is apparent from the dominance of single-step mechanisms even at large energy losses where general nuclear spin responses may be made. Experimentally, this is an energy range where efficient, high-analyzing-power polarimeters can be coupled with high resolution detection techniques. 29 refs., 5 figs

  7. Characteristics of intermediate-energy nucleons emitted from 50 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.P.; Singh, S.; Arya, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    The multiplicity and angular distributions of intermediate-energy (grey) nucleons are studied from 50 GeV π - -nucleus data and compared with those available from π - -nucleus and p-nucleus interactions at other energies. The value of is found to be dependent both on the energy as well as on the projectile. The former variation is attributable to kinematics and the latter explainable on the basis of the additive quark model. The angular distribution of grey particles is found to be independent of energy, projectile and target, which supports the view that grey particles are chiefly due to knock-on recoiling protons. The various versions of the cascade model, however, are unable to explain any of the observed features of grey-particle distributions

  8. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  9. Emission of medium-heavy fragments in asymetric heavy ion collisions at intermediate and relativistic incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkau, T.U.E.

    1991-11-01

    For the study of the emission of medium-heavy fragments in asymmetric heavy ion collisions a series of experiments was performed and thereby following systems at intermediate and relativistic incident energies studied: 84 Kr+ 197 Au at E/A=35 MeV, 40 Ar+ 197 Au at E/A=30 MeV, respectively 220 MeV, and 12 C+ 197 Au at E/A=99 MeV, 301 MeV, 601 MeV, respectively 1105 MeV. In the experiments highly resolving detector telescopes with low thresholds were applied to the measurement of the energy and angular distributions of the medium-heavy fragments. The spectra were analyzed in the picture of longitudinally moving sources. Thereby beyond the production cross sections the angular distributions, the decreasement parameters in the high-energetic region of the energy spectra, and the position of the maxima were determined as characteristic parameters. The following picture resulted: The production cross sections for medium-heavy fragments showed a steep increasement and then a saturation, but with a strong projectile dependence. The charge distributions could be described by a power law, the parameter of which showed a universal dependence on the total incident energy. In the angular distributions the transition from an anisotropic emission at low energies to an isotropic emission from a nearly resting source at relativistic energies was distinctly to be recognized. The decreasement parameters of the energy distribution increased - for different projectiles differently strongly - logarithmically with growing incident energy. And the maxima of the energy distribution travelled with growing incident energy to smaller and smaller fragment energies. From this systematics a schematic model of the fragmentation can be obtained. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. The energy implications of Chinese regional disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuanxi; Todd, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Chinese regional disparities are readily apparent, with well-being seen the highest at the coast and declining steadily inland. Their mitigation will clearly be hostage to improvement in economic development, since the unevenness of that development created them in the first place. Integral to development is structural change, and the key to effecting that change is improved energy efficiency. Indeed, this paper explores energy usage and regional development from 1952 to the present, establishing that they both conform to an inverted-U pattern. Eastern China, the leader in industrialization, has moved beyond the apogee of the curve, but Central and Western China have failed to follow suit, being held back by poor industrial structures and adverse patterns of energy consumption. Remedying this laggardly performance preoccupies China's Government, for rendering the country energy-efficient and containing regional disparities, both rest on pushing the Central and Western regions down the curve in the wake of the prosperous coast.

  11. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  12. Energy outlook for the APEC region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The outlook for energy demand in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) region to 2010 is summarized under two scenarios: capacity constraints, in which energy price increases dampen demand, and energy savings, in which energy demand growth is dampened by improvements to the underlying energy intensity trends. In the capacity constraints case, total APEC primary energy demand is projected to increase by more than 50 percent, at an average annual rate of 2.3 percent. Natural gas and solids (mostly coal) are expected to be the fastest growing fossil fuels. In the energy savings case, total primary energy demand could increase by 42 percent, an annual average rate of 2 percent. Projected demands for energy are presented, categorized by fuel: oil demand/supply, natural gas, coal and other solid fuel, electricity and heat, hydroelectric power, and nuclear power. (author). 4 tabs., 3 figs

  13. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yun-xiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method was performed to analyse the expression of tumor markers. Related literatures were reviewed. Results A 6-year old boy with clinical manifestations of penis enlargement and rapid growth for more than one year, presented a mass in his pineal region through MRI. The tumor was surgically excised after it is refractory to 10 times experimental radiotherapy as germinoma. The level of β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG in his postoperative blood was decreased to normal, but gradually increased, once again followed to normal after three times chemotherapy. Patient was normal almost postoperative 6 months later by follow -up. Pathological examination showed sheets necrosis with multiple calcification and scattered fresh blood cells, epithelioid tumor cells with solid growth pattern. The tumor cells were atypical mononuclear cells with relative uniform (between heterotypic cells and partially surrounding and invasing the vascular walls. The cytoplasm of tumor cells was eosinophilic or clear, the nucleus was round or irregular in shape and some with intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and its mitotic figures were rarely seen under light microscopy. The tumor cells showed strong positive for AE1/AE3, cell adhesion molecules 5.2 (CAM5.2, human placental lactogen (hPL, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and E-cadherin. P53 was also expressed. The positive rate of Ki-67 was about 10%, and β-hCG was expressed in the extremely tumor cells. The

  14. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on photon and neutral meson physics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.; Crannell, H.; Peterson, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Workshop on ''Photon and Neutral-Meson, Physics at Intermediate Energies,'' held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, January 7 to 9, 1987. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together scientists working in the areas of electromagnetic, heavy-ion, and light hadron physics to discuss both the physics that could be addressed and potential capabilities of new, large intermediate-energy photon detectors. Based on the papers contained in these proceedings, it appears clear that there are a number of important areas that could be addressed with a much higher resolution neutral meson detector. It is also clear that the technical capability for building a neutral meson detector for energies up to 4 GeV with solid angle of approximately 10 mrs and resolution of a few hundred keV now exists. It also appears entirely reasonable to construct such a detector to be easily transportable so that it would become a national facility, available for use at a number of different laboratories. From the many interesting papers presented and from the broad representation of physicists from laboratories in Asia, Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States, there appears to be a strong case for proceeding with the construction of such a detector

  15. [Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy ( 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ''best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon 129 Xe with 197 Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon 12 C with 197 Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated

  16. Calculation for fission decay from heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaich, T.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Fowler, M.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Namboodiri, M.N.; Sangster, T.C.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed deexcitation calculation is presented for target residues resulting from intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions. The model involves an intranuclear cascade, subsequent fast nucleon emission, and final decay by statistical evaporation including fission. Results are compared to data from bombardments with Fe and Nb projectiles on targets of Ta, Au, and Th at 100 MeV/nucleon. The majority of observable features are reproduced with this simple approach, making obvious the need for involving new physical phenomena associated with multifragmentation or other collective dissipation mechanisms

  17. A BGO detector array and its application in intermediate energy heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zuyu; Jin Genming; He Zhiyong; Duan Limin; Wu Heyu; Qi Yujin; Luo Qingzheng; Zhang Baoguo; Wen Wanxin; Dai Guangxi

    1996-01-01

    A BGO crystal (Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ) as the E detector of ΔE-E for identification of reaction products has been used for detecting the charged particles emitting from the 25 MeV 40 Ar induced reaction. The responses of the BGO crystal to various light charged particles were measured. A close-packed hexagonal array consisting of thirteen ΔE-E telescopes (Si-BGO) has been developed to detect the light charged particles interfering with each other in intermediate-energy heavy-ion induced reactions. Some applications of this telescope array are also described. (orig.)

  18. Intercomparison of codes for intermediate energy nuclear data: The first step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Gruppelaar, H.; Nagel, P.; Rodens, J.

    1994-01-01

    Several weak points of the intermediate energy nuclear data calculated in this exercise are described as introduction to some of the areas needing discussion at this meeting. These include nuclear structure effects on precompound spectra, large variations between codes in predicted total reaction cross sections, and in total neutron and proton multiplicities. INC codes don't reflect correct experimental Q values, and may have difficulties at very low angles due to overestimation of the quasi-elastic peak. We raise questions as to additional reaction properties (beyond n and p spectra) which may need benchmarking

  19. Single electron capture differential cross section in H+ + He collisions at intermediate and high collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; Fainstein, P D; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D

    2005-01-01

    The generalized continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS II) approximation is employed to study differential cross sections (DCS) for single electron capture in H + + He collisions at intermediate and high energies. Present results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained using the previous CDW-EIS formulation in order to show the importance of the description of the bound and continuum target states in the entrance and exit channels, respectively. Both DCS are also shown together with other theoretical results and with experimental data

  20. A Monte Carlo method for nuclear evaporation and fission at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Pina, S.R. de; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Goncalves, M.; Rodriguez, O.

    2003-04-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo method to calculate the characteristics of the competition between particle evaporation and nuclear fission processes taking place in the compound nucleus formed after the intranuclear cascade following the absorption of intermediate energy photons by the nucleus. In this version we include not only neutrons, but also protons and alphas as possible evaporating particles. However, this method allows an ease inclusion of other evaporating particles, as deuteron or heavier clusters. Some results for 237 Np, 238 U, and 232 Th are shown. (author)

  1. A Monte Carlo method for nuclear evaporation and fission at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Goncalves, M.; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Pina, S.R. de; Rodriguez, O.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo method to calculate the characteristics of the competition between particle evaporation and nuclear fission processes taking place in the compound nucleus formed after the intranuclear cascade following the absorption of intermediate energy photons by the nucleus. In this version we include not only neutrons, but also protons and alphas as possible evaporating particles. The present method allows the easy inclusion of other evaporating particles, such as deuteron or heavier clusters. Some fissility results are discussed for the target nuclei 237 Np, 238 U and 232 Th

  2. Quark-exchange effects in a deuteron breakup at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobushkin, A.P.; Syamtomov, A.I.; Glozman, L.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    Microscopical approach to a deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energies is proposed. We show that the quark exchange effects, resulting from the full asymmetry of the 6q-deuteron wave function with respect to the pair permutations of quark variables, strongly affect the proton momentum distribution in the deuteron, as well as the polarization observables of inclusive deuteron breakup, when the '' internal momentum '' in the deuteron is of order of a few hundreds MeV/c. 25 refs., 2 tab., 9 figs

  3. Quark-exchange effects in a deuteron breakup at intermediate energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobushkin, A P; Syamtomov, A I; Glozman, L Ya

    1996-12-31

    Microscopical approach to a deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energies is proposed. We show that the quark exchange effects, resulting from the full asymmetry of the 6q-deuteron wave function with respect to the pair permutations of quark variables, strongly affect the proton momentum distribution in the deuteron, as well as the polarization observables of inclusive deuteron breakup, when the `` internal momentum `` in the deuteron is of order of a few hundreds MeV/c. 25 refs., 2 tab., 9 figs.

  4. MCNP6 Fission Cross Section Calculations at Intermediate and High Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Mashnik, Stepan G.; Sierk, Arnold J.; Prael, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    MCNP6 has been Validated and Verified (V&V) against intermediate- and high-energy fission cross-section experimental data. An error in the calculation of fission cross sections of 181Ta and a few nearby target nuclei by the CEM03.03 event generator in MCNP6 and a "bug: in the calculation of fission cross sections with the GENXS option of MCNP6 while using the LAQGSM03.03 event generator were detected during our V&V work. After fixing both problems, we find that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM...

  5. Probing in-medium spin–orbit interaction with intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating for the first time both the spin and isospin degrees of freedom explicitly in transport model simulations of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, we observe that a local spin polarization appears during collision process. Most interestingly, it is found that the nucleon spin up–down differential transverse flow is a sensitive probe of the spin–orbit interaction, providing a novel approach to probe both the density and isospin dependence of the in-medium spin–orbit coupling that is important for understanding the structure of rare isotopes and synthesis of superheavy elements

  6. A liquid He-3 target system for use at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, D.K.; Abegg, R.; Murdoch, B.T.; van Oers, W.J.H.; Soukup, J.

    1981-04-01

    A liquid 3 He target system with remote instrumentation and handling capabilities has been developed for experiments using the 180-525 MeV TRIUMF cyclotron. Helium-3 gas is liquefied by means of a 4 He cryostat into a cylindrical target cell (4.4 cm diameter, 1.6 cm thick) and maintained during operation at approximately 1.6 K. This provides an areal target density of approximately 2.7 x 10 22 He-3 nuclei/cm 2 (128 mg/cm 2 ), suitable for intermediate energy proton scattering. (author)

  7. Intermediate-energy particle physics with real photons at the new direct-current accelerator ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menze, D.

    1987-12-01

    The author reviews the physics of intermediate-energy photon interactions with nucleons and light nuclei. After a consideration of the photoproduction of mesons in the framework of the quark model and a description of the different polarization observables he discusses the photoproduction of pions, vector mesons, and kaons. In this connection the decay of baryon resonances of dibaryon resonances by photoexcitation of the deuteron are considered whereby also the polarization observables are described. Finally the photon reactions on three-nucleon systems are considered. (HSI)

  8. Production of nuclei far from the beta stability line using intermediate-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1986-05-01

    The production of far unstable nuclei using heavy ion accelerators in the intermediate energy domain is reviewed. The various mechanisms responsible for the production of exotic species, mainly the projectile fragmentation and transfer reactions, are discussed, and the first experimental results presented. Results can be summarized as follows: existence of 4 new isotopes 22 C, 23 N, 29 Ne, 30 Ne; indication of bound character of 71 Ni, 72 Ni; clear evidence for bound character of 23 Si, 27 S, 31 Ar, 35 Ca; indications of bound character of 43 V, 46 Mn, 47 Mn, 48 Fe, 50 Co, 52 Co, 52 Ni, 55 Cu, 56 Cu

  9. Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering of electrons on Kr and Xe atoms at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation of the larger- number noble-gas atoms is a way of understanding excitation mechanisms in atomic collisional processes. Krypton and xenon have the largest atomic number of all the stable noble gases. Therefore, effects dependent on the size of a target atom, such as alignment and orientation of the atomic outer shell charge cloud after collisional excitation, are best observed by studying these atoms. Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) for the lowest electronic states of Kr and Xe atoms, at intermediate energies, are the subject of this report

  10. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies; Integracion Regional de energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Guerra, J; Dominguez Bravo, J [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs.

  11. Energy efficiency: From regional to global cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1994-01-01

    In developing, reforming and emerging countries in particular, institutional hurdles have hindered the introduction of energy efficient technology. The author develops the theme from two U.N. projects: A new institutional accessibility to supra-regional cooperation could provide an important stimulus for future worldwide cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. (orig.) [de

  12. Energy and externality environmental regional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, L.; Bianchi, A.; Peri, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of environmental externalities in both territorial management and the direction of energy and environment, faces the difficulties arising from their calculation. The so-called MACBET regional model, which has been constructed for Lombardy, is a first brand new attempt to overcome them. MACBET is a calculation model to assess environmental and employment externalities connected to energy use [it

  13. Regional energy assessment - Technical Guidebook nr. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This publication indicates and describes how a regional energy assessment is to be performed. Some general aspects and features are first addressed: conversion coefficients, climate correction. Then, its describes how final consumptions of the different consuming sectors are to be addressed: industry with its nomenclature of activities, transport, housing, office building, agriculture. Final consumptions of the different energy products are then addressed: solid mineral fuels (in industry and other sectors), oil products (different types of fuels), natural gas, heat, electricity. Regional statistical sources are indicated for electric power, natural gas, oil, renewable energies, industry, and sectors as a whole

  14. Energy policy and regional inequalities in the Brazilian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gervasio F.; Haddad, Eduardo A.; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-run regional impacts of the tariff policy of the Brazilian electric power sector. This sector has undergone a reform process that started in the 1990s. Since the beginning of the reform, two spatial trends of distribution of electric power tariffs have emerged among the Brazilian states, one of convergence and another of spatial divergence. These trends have been guided by the new electric power tariff policy and by the spatial features of the Brazilian economy, which is marked by a high degree of spatial concentration and hierarchical distribution of large markets. In addition, because of the presence of strong economies of scale, the recent electric power prices differentials might be caused by differentials in market size that provide better conditions for the achievement of economies of scale for electric power utility companies located in larger markets. Given the role of electric power as an important intermediate input in the production process and the interdependence between sectors, an Energy Interregional Computable General Equilibrium model was used to simulate the long-run regional impacts of electric power tariff policy in Brazil. The simulations showed that the heterogeneity of energy-intensity and the differentials of energy substitution drive the spatial impacts of changes in electric power prices. On the other hand, the recent trend of spatial dispersion of electric power prices might contribute to a decrease in the long-run economic growth and to an increase in the regional inequalities in Brazil. - Highlights: ► We model the regional impacts of tariff policy of the electric power sector in Brazil. ► High electric power tariffs increases in regions with higher electric-power-intensity. ► Heterogeneity of energy supply determines an unequal pattern of energy substitution. ► Low possibilities of energy substitution generate the most negative economic impacts

  15. Excitation energy of the fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudan, S.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of the primary fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn system from 32 to 50 AMeV have been deduced. By using the relative velocity correlation technique between the light charged particles (LCP) and detected fragments, we were able to extract the multiplicities and average kinetic energy of the secondary evaporated LCP. We then reconstructed the size and excitation energy of the primary fragments. For each bombarding energy a constant value of the excitation energy per nucleon, over the whole range of fragment charge has been found, suggesting that on the average thermodynamical equilibrium has been achieved at the freeze-out. This value increases slightly from 2.8 to 3.8 AMeV with a large increase of bombarding energy, 32 to 50 AMeV. (authors)

  16. Excitation energy of the fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudan, S.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Characteristics of the primary fragments produced in central collisions of Xe + Sn system from 32 to 50 AMeV have been deduced. By using the relative velocity correlation technique between the light charged particles (LCP) and detected fragments, we were able to extract the multiplicities and average kinetic energy of the secondary evaporated LCP. We then reconstructed the size and excitation energy of the primary fragments. For each bombarding energy a constant value of the excitation energy per nucleon, over the whole range of fragment charge has been found, suggesting that on the average thermodynamical equilibrium has been achieved at the freeze-out. This value increases slightly from 2.8 to 3.8 AMeV with a large increase of bombarding energy, 32 to 50 AMeV. (authors)

  17. Inclusive quasielastic neutrino reactions in 12C and 16O at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Oset, E.

    1993-01-01

    Inclusive quasielastic neutrino (antineutrino) reactions on 12 C and 16 O at intermediate energies (50< E<400 MeV) are studied to investigate the effects of the nuclear medium on the total cross section and the energy spectrum of the outgoing leptons. The calculations are done in the local density approximation and various nuclear effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, and strong-interaction renormalizations due to the presence of nucleons are taken into account. The corrections due to Coulomb effects are included which have been hitherto neglected in inclusive reactions. The results presented here are applicable to the inclusive reactions with neutrino beams planned to look for neutrino oscillations in the Los Alamos experiments or the experiments with underground detectors looking for atmospheric or solar flare neutrinos

  18. Progress in applyiong the FKK multistep reaction theory to intermediate-energy data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments to the physics modeling in the FKK-GNASH code system are reviewed. We describe modifications to include a linking of multistep direct and multistep compound processes, which are important when the incident energy is less than about 30 MeV. A model for multiple preequilibrium emission is given, and compared with experimental measurements of proton reactions on 90 Zr at 160 MeV. We also give some preliminary observations concerning FKK calculations which use both normal and non-normal DWBA matrix elements. We describe the application of the FKK-GNASH code to a range of nuclear data applications, including intermediate energy reactions of importance in the accelerator transmutation of waste, and fast neutron and proton cancer radiation treatment. We outline areas where further work is needed for the accurate modeling of nuclear reactions using the FKK theory

  19. Intermediate energy heavy ions: An emerging multi-disciplinary research tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1988-10-01

    In the ten years that beams of intermediate energy (∼50 MeV/amu≤E≤∼2 GeV/amu) heavy ions (Z≤92) have been available, an increasing number of new research areas have been opened up. Pioneering work at the Bevalac at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, still the world's only source of the heaviest beams in this energy range, has led to the establishment of active programs in nuclear physics, atomic physics, cosmic ray physics, as well as biology and medicine, and industrial applications. The great promise for growth of these research areas has led to serious planning for new facilities capable of delivering such beams; several such facilities are now in construction around the world. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-II E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on 241Am, 238U, and 237Np targets and the Bremmstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on 232Th and 238U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments.

  1. Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-II, E.; Karapetyan, G.S.; Deppman, A.; Guimaraes, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Balabekyan, A.R. [Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian 1, Yerevan (Armenia); Demekhina, N.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanyan Brothers 2, Yerevan (Armenia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (LNR), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}U, and {sup 237}Np targets and the Bremsstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments. (author)

  2. Inelastic heavy ion scattering on 90Zr and 208Pb at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Beaumel, D.; Chomaz, P.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Jacmart, J.C.; Roynette, J.C.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Suomijarvi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy ion inelastic scattering has been investigated using the SPEG spectrometer at GANIL. It is shown that the use of such a high resolution spectrometer allows a quantitative study of the giant resonances excited in heavy ion collisions. The contribution of the pick-up break-up mechanism to the high excitation energy region (E > 30 MeV) is then discussed. Recent results obtained with 40 Ar beams at two different incident energies show that target excitations are also present in this energy region

  3. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  4. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  5. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  6. Investigation of incomplete linear momentum transfer in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1986-07-01

    At intermediate energies, heavy ion central collisions lead to the incomplete fusion of the incident nuclei while part of the initial linear momentum is carried away by fast light particles. Experiments were performed with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles bombarding heavy targets. Results obtained with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20 MeV per nucleon argon beams are in good agreement with an empirical law established with lighter projectiles. On the contrary, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles do not follow the same law and fission fragments progressively disappear. A simple model explains the evolution of the amount of transferred linear momentum versus incident energy. The disappearance of the fusion products of the composite system observed with argon projectiles beyond 35 MeV per nucleon is explained by a limitation of the excitation energy per nucleon which can be deposited in a nucleus. The limit is evaluated from nucleon binding energy in nuclei and probability to emit clusters and is in good agreement with experimental data. Because of the coupling between intrinsic motion of nucleons and relative motion of nuclei, some nucleons have a kinetic energy high enough to be emitted: a theoretical model is proposed which rather well fits the data concerning fast nucleons but cannot explain the measured amounts of transferred linear momentum. This is attributed to the existence of other mechanisms [fr

  7. BioBoost. Biomass based energy intermediates boosting bio-fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebel, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)

    2013-10-01

    To increase the share of biomass for renewable energy in Europe conversion pathways which are economic, flexible in feedstock and energy efficient are needed. The BioBoost project concentrates on dry and wet residual biomass and wastes as feedstock for de-central conversion by fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization to the intermediate energy carriers oil, coal or slurry. Based on straw the energy density increases from 2 to 20-30 GJ/m{sup 3}, enabling central GW scale gasification plants for bio-fuel production. A logistic model for feedstock supply and connection of de-central with central conversion is set up and validated allowing the determination of costs, the number and location of de-central and central sites. Techno/economic and environmental assessment of the value chain supports the optimization of products and processes. The utilization of energy carriers is investigated in existing and coming applications of heat and power production and synthetic fuels and chemicals. (orig.)

  8. Pion-nucleon interactions in low energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshige, Noboru; Tsujimura, Tadakuni.

    1977-01-01

    Pion-nucleon interactions in low energy region (below 320 MeV in kinetic energy) are investigated on the basis of the one-particle-exchange model. The model is directly compared with the experimental data, i.e., differential cross sections and recoil nucleon polarizations, since phase shifts have not been uniquely determined. It is shown that these experimental data can be well reproduced by taking account of N (nucleon), Δ 33 , N 11 , N 13 , rho, f 0 and S (scalar meson) in the intermediate state. Some comments are given on the coupling constants which are determined so as to minimize chi-squared value (chi 2 ). Our predicted phase shifts for s-, p- and d-waves are also compared with other authors'. (auth.)

  9. Gross–Tulub polaron functional in the region of intermediate and strong coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the polaron functional obtained as a result of averaging the Fröhlich Hamiltonian on the translation-invariant function have been investigated. The polaron functional can be represented in two different forms. It has been shown that the functional of translationally invariant Gross–Tulub polaron cannot be applied in the strong coupling region, where the real part of the complex quantity takes negative values. The function coincides in its structure with the dynamic susceptibility of degenerate electron gas. The necessary condition for obtaining correct results is investigation of the region of admissible values of the Gross–Tulub functional depending on properties of the function , variational parameters, and the electron-phonon interaction parameter α (Fröhlich coupling constant. A simple and exact formula for the recoil energy of the translationally invariant polaron has been derived, which makes it possible to extend the range of admissible values of the parameters of the electron-phonon interaction to the region of extremely strong coupling (α > 10, where . Numerical investigation of different forms of polaron functionals obtained using the field theory methods has been carried out.

  10. Regional energy observatory. Energy status - greenhouse effect in the Aquitaine region. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The IDEA organization (information about the environmental development in Aquitaine region) has created an energy observatory, the mission of which is to supply regularly a reliable, objective and useful information about energy and greenhouse effect in the Aquitaine region (SW France). This document presents: the end-use energy consumption, the sectorial statuses (residential, tertiary sector, industry, agriculture, transports), the energy production and the renewable energy sources in Aquitaine region. Details are given in separate files at the end of the document for the 5 departements of Aquitaine (Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrennees Atlantiques). (J.S.)

  11. Emission of high-energy, light particles from intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Auble, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early surprises in examining reaction products from heavy ion reactions at 10 MeV/nucleon and above was the large yield of light particles emitted and the high energies to which the spectra of these particles extended. The interpretation of the origin of the high energy light ions has evolved from a picture of projectile excitation and subsequent evaporation to one of pre-equilibrium (or nonequilibrium) emission. The time scale for particle emission has thus moved from one that occurs following the initial collision to one that occurs at the very early stages of the collision. Research at ORNL on this phenomenon is reviewed

  12. Studying multifragmentation dynamics at intermediate energies using two-fragment correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, T.C.; Britt, H.C.; Namboodiri, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in Nuclear Physics is the multifragmentation at moderate excitation energies in large nuclear systems. Although the idea that multifragmentation is analogous to a liquid-gas like phase transition is not new, it has only been recently that highly exclusive experimental measurements have been coupled with sophisticated theoretical models like QMD and BUU/VUU to explore reaction dynamics and the process of fragment formation. Indeed, much of what is known about multifragmentation has resulted from the study of complex correlations present in both the experimental data and theoretical calculations. One of the most crucial questions in the ongoing debate concerning the liquid-gas analogy is the differentiation between simultaneous and sequential fragment emission. Clearly, the phase transition analogy breaks down if fragments are emitted sequentially as in an evaporative process. There have been a number of two-fragment correlation results published recently (including those presented in this paper) which attempt to put limits on the emission timescale using three-body Coulomb trajectory calculations with explicit emission times for sequential decays from a fixed source density. These results have been generally consistent and indicate that intermediate mass fragment (IMF) emission is nearly simultaneous in medium energy heavy ion collisions. Only very recently have calculations been performed which approach this question from the other extreme: simultaneous emission from a variable density source. When considered together, these results argue favorably for a simultaneous multifragmentation. In this paper the authors present comprehensive results on two-fragment correlations for heavy systems at intermediate energies

  13. Regional energy system optimization - Potential for a regional heat market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu; Klugman, Sofia; Henning, Dag; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Energy supply companies and industrial plants are likely to face new situations due to, for example, the introduction of new energy legislation, increased fuel prices and increased environmental awareness. These new prerequisites provide companies with new challenges but also new possibilities from which to benefit. Increased energy efficiency within companies and increased cooperation between different operators are two alternatives to meet the new conditions. A region characterized by a high density of energy-intensive processes is used in this study to find the economic potential of connecting three industrial plants and four energy companies, within three local district heating systems, to a regional heat market, in which different operators provide heat to a joint district heating grid. Also, different investment alternatives are studied. The results show that the economical potential for a heat market amounts to between 5 and 26 million EUR/year with payback times ranging from two to eleven years. However, the investment costs and the net benefit for the total system need to be allotted to the different operators, as they benefit economically to different extents from the introduction of a heat market. It is also shown that the emissions of CO 2 from the joint system would decrease compared to separate operation of the systems. However, the valuation of CO 2 emissions from electricity production is important as the difference of emitted CO 2 between the accounting methods exceeds 650 kton/year for some scenarios

  14. Study of nucleus-nucleus interaction from elastic and inelastic scattering of 12C ions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The elastic and inelastic scattering angular distributions of 12 C on the targets 12 C and 208 Pb have been measured at the Laboratoire National Saturne (Saclay) using the spectrometer SPES 1. The data have been analysed in the framework of the optical model with Woods-Saxon potentials. A near side/far side decomposition of the cross-section has provided a more detailed insight into the refraction effects. These analysises show that the strong absorption radius, the reaction cross-section, and consequently the absorption in the surface region, decrease when the incident energy increases, allowing to probe the inner part of the ion-ion potential. The transparency region extends down to a radial internuclei distance of about 3 fm for the 12 C - 12 C system and 8 fm for the 12 C - 208 Pb system. The onset of a decrease of the imaginary potential has been deduced for the two systems. The real potential is also decreasing, but much more rapidly for the 12 C - 208 Pb system than for 12 C- 12 C. We have also developed a microscopic approach in the optical limit of the Glauber theory, including the Pauli-blocking, the Fermi motion and the nucleus finite size effects. For the intermediate energies, the calculations are in fair agreement with the experimental data [fr

  15. Nuclear power as a regional energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLoon, Frank.

    1983-02-01

    The author describes the Point Lepreau nuclear power plant and its impact on the electric power grid and the economy of the small province of New Brunswick. The 600 MW CANDU reactor is considered suitable for small operations and has an excellent world record. Although nuclear energy has high capital costs, its fuel costs are low, thus rendering it comparatively inflation free. Its fuel costs of 3 to 4 mills are contrasted with 40 mills for oil-fuelled units. The cost advantage of uranium over coal and oil permits New Brunswick to put aside funds for waste management and decommissioning. Regulatory streamlining is needed to reduce both expense and time of construction. The CANDU system is ideally suited to providing base load, with coal as an intermediate load supply and hydro for peaking. There is room for tidal power as a future part of the mix

  16. Which visual functions depend on intermediate visual regions? Insights from a case of developmental visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    A key question in visual neuroscience is the causal link between specific brain areas and perceptual functions; which regions are necessary for which visual functions? While the contribution of primary visual cortex and high-level visual regions to visual perception has been extensively investigated, the contribution of intermediate visual areas (e.g. V2/V3) to visual processes remains unclear. Here I review more than 20 visual functions (early, mid, and high-level) of LG, a developmental visual agnosic and prosopagnosic young adult, whose intermediate visual regions function in a significantly abnormal fashion as revealed through extensive fMRI and ERP investigations. While expectedly, some of LG's visual functions are significantly impaired, some of his visual functions are surprisingly normal (e.g. stereopsis, color, reading, biological motion). During the period of eight-year testing described here, LG trained on a perceptual learning paradigm that was successful in improving some but not all of his visual functions. Following LG's visual performance and taking into account additional findings in the field, I propose a framework for how different visual areas contribute to different visual functions, with an emphasis on intermediate visual regions. Thus, although rewiring and plasticity in the brain can occur during development to overcome and compensate for hindering developmental factors, LG's case seems to indicate that some visual functions are much less dependent on strict hierarchical flow than others, and can develop normally in spite of abnormal mid-level visual areas, thereby probably less dependent on intermediate visual regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermediate-energy nuclear theory. Progress report, July 1, 1977--June 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.A.

    1978-03-01

    The research reported has centered on the nucleon-nucleon interaction at medium energies, with especial emphasis on the reaction NN → NNπ up to 800 MeV. Elastic NN scattering near the pion production threshold was also investigated, both through phase-shift analysis of data and theoretical interpretation of the intermediate-range force. The quasi-elastic amplitude N anti N → ππ for 4m/sub pi/ 2 less than or equal to t less than or equal to 50m/sub pi/ 2 was studied because of its bearing on the NN problem; a simple but useful model was developed. Finally, work on the pion-photoproduction reaction γN → πΔ was completed, and the close correspondence with the amplitude NN → NNπ exploited. A list of publications is included

  18. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.; Blanco, F.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°-90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  19. Probing core polarization around 78Ni: intermediate energy Coulomb excitation of 74Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2013-12-01

    We have recently measured the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ of the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory of the Michigan State University. The 74Ni secondary beam has been produced by fragmentation of 86Kr at 140 AMeV on a thick Be target. Selected radioactive fragments impinged on a secondary 197Au target where the measurement of the emitted γ-rays allows to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section and related structure information. Preliminary B(E2 values do not point towards an enhancement of the transition matrix element and the comparison to what was already measured by Aoi and co-workers in [1] opens new scenarios in the interpretation of the shell evolution of the Z=28 isotopes.

  20. Atomic-orbital expansion model for describing ion-atom collisions at intermediate and low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.D.; Fritsch, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the description of inelastic processes in ion-atom collisions at moderate energies, the semiclassical close-coupling method is well established as the standard method. Ever since the pioneering work on H + + H in the early 60's, the standard procedure is to expand the electronic wavefunction in terms of molecular orbitals (MO) or atomic orbitals (AO) for describing collisions at, respectively, low or intermediate velocities. It has been recognized since early days that traveling orbitals are needed in the expansions in order to represent the asymptotic states in the collisions correctly. While the adoption of such traveling orbitals presents no conceptual difficulties for expansions using atomic orbitals, the situation for molecular orbitals is less clear. In recent years, various forms of traveling MO's have been proposed, but conflicting results for several well-studied systems have been reported

  1. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, 09210-580 São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-14

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  2. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule

  3. Semi-classical approaches for the proton emission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Scheuter, F.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1984-05-01

    Semi-classical approaches are proposed to study the transition between the one- and two-body processes in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The Landau-Vlasov equation is used as a transport equation for nucleons in the nuclear matter. We apply our formalism to the fast proton ejection. On the one hand, the effects of the nucleon-nucleon collisions are studied for the particles which travel through the nucleus cores. On the other hand, the inertial emission turns out to be an important proton emission mechanism. Our results conflict the interpretation of the proton spectra in terms of moving sources. Reasonable agreements with the experimental data are found without reference to any thermal equilibrium

  4. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables and is intended to complement the main publication. This information paper provides an in-depth account of the regional markets and policy trends in all six focus regions; 56 countries in total. Each region is discussed with regards to: recent market developments in the electricity, heat and transport sector; policy developments; IEA projections; an analysis of the mid-term (2030) potential of renewable energy technologies in these regions; and an analysis of the strategic drivers underpinning the deployment of RE in each region.

  5. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  6. Neutron-proton bremsstrahlung from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions as a probe of the nuclear symmetry energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, G.-C.; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2008-01-01

    Hard photons from neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions are examined as a potential probe of the nuclear symmetry energy within a transport model. Effects of the symmetry energy on the yields and spectra of hard photons are found to be generally smaller than those due to the currently existing uncertainties of both the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections and the photon production probability in the elementary process pn→pnγ. Very interestingly, nevertheless, the ratio of hard photon spectra R 1/2 (γ) from two reactions using isotopes of the same element is not only approximately independent of these uncertainties but also quite sensitive to the symmetry energy. For the head-on reactions of 132 Sn + 124 Sn and 112 Sn + 112 Sn at E beam /A=50 MeV, for example, the R 1/2 (γ) displays a rise up to 15% when the symmetry energy is reduced by about 20% at ρ=1.3ρ 0 which is the maximum density reached in these reactions

  7. TH-EF-BRB-07: Novel Hardware and Software Platform for Intermediate Energy 4π Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, K; Sheng, K [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Harrison, M; Boucher, S; McNevin, J; Kutsaev, S; Faillace, L [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust and efficient platform for the optimization and robotic delivery of highly noncoplanar intensity modulated radiotherapy, which enables significant reduction of normal tissue toxicity and escalation of tumor dose. Methods: An innovative high-output compact 3 MV linac was designed for mounting onto a commercial robotic system in order to access the entire 4π beam solution space without moving the patient couch. The use of intermediate energy X-rays for radiotherapy was evaluated in comparison to clinical plans delivered using 6 MV X-rays and a state-of-the-art delivery system. Monte Carlo simulations of a 3 MV percent depth dose curve were performed for intermediate energy dose calculation. The beam model was used to create a convolution/superposition-based dose calculation engine for 3MV X-rays. The 4π greedy column generation algorithm was used for optimized beam selection and fluence map optimization. Results: A detailed design of the first 3 MV linac capable of producing a competitively high dose rate of >800 cGy/min at 100 cm was completed and verified through extensive simulation. The complete linac head including a multileaf collimator can access most of the 4π solution space including the posterior orientations without changing the couch height. When compared to 6 MV clinical plans, the proposed 3 MV 4π plans demonstrated significantly better dose compactness and normal tissue sparing in brain, prostate, and partial breast treatment plans. Conclusion: We demonstrate the design of a highly versatile radiotherapy machine to natively deliver non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy without the need to move the patient during treatment. This novel platform is efficient and capable of providing dosimetry that is 30–50% more compact than existing therapy platforms. The new system is projected to be cost effective due to improved treatment time and automation. NIH R43CA183390, NIH R01CA188300.

  8. Quasielastic 3Hp and 3Hep scattering at intermediate energies and Glauber sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, A.V.; Vanyushin, I.A.; Grechko, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    Differential cross sections and average energy losses of fast protons in reactions p +3 H→psub(F)+X and p+ 3 He → psub(F)+X are studied making use of the ITEP liquid hydrogen bubble chamber of 80-cm diameter exposed to 2.5-GeV/c tritium nuclei (the kinetic energy of the incident protons in the nucleus rest frame Tsub(p)=0.318 GeV) and to 5-GeV/c 3 He nuclei (Tsub(p)=0.978 GeV). The experimental results are compared to predictions based on the sum rules for differential cross sections and average energy losses in the Glauber-Sitenko multiple scattering theory using the completeness condition for the wave functions of the nuclear excited states and the locality of the nuclear potential. The theory and the data are in good agreement at momentum of 2.5 GeV/c. Inconsistence between the Glauber sum rule predictions and the 5 GeV/c data is attributed to the Δ-isobar production in the intermediate state. It is found that possible six-quark bag admixture in the 3 H and 3 He nuclei does not exceed 5%

  9. Energy transfer by way of an exciplex intermediate in flexible boron dipyrromethene-based allosteric architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Soumyaditya; Elliott, Kristopher; Harriman, Anthony; Ziessel, Raymond

    2010-10-07

    We have designed and synthesized a series of modular, dual-color dyes comprising a conventional boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dye, as a yellow emitter, and a Bodipy dye possessing extended conjugation that functions as a red emitter. A flexible tether of variable length, built from ethylene glycol residues, connects the terminal dyes. A critical design element of this type of dyad relates to a secondary amine linkage interposed between the conventional Bodipy and the tether. Cyclic voltammetry shows both Bodipy dyes to be electroactive and indicates that the secondary amine is quite easily oxidized. The ensuing fluorescence quenching is best explained in terms of the rapid formation of an intermediate charge-transfer state. In fact, exciplex-type emission is observed in weakly polar solvents and over a critical temperature range. In the dual-color dyes, direct excitation of the yellow emitter results in the appearance of red fluorescence, indicating that the exciplex is likely involved in the energy-transfer event, and provides for a virtual Stokes shift of 5000 cm(-1). Replacing the red emitter with a higher energy absorber (namely, pyrene) facilitates the collection of near-UV light and extends the virtual Stokes shift to 8000 cm(-1). Modulation of the efficacy of intramolecular energy transfer is achieved by preorganization of the connector in the presence of certain cations. This latter behavior, which is fully reversible, corresponds to an artificial allosteric effect.

  10. Excited state conformational dynamics in carotenoids: dark intermediates and excitation energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Warren F; Bishop, Michael M; Roscioli, Jerome D; Ghosh, Soumen; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    A consideration of the excited state potential energy surfaces of carotenoids develops a new hypothesis for the nature of the conformational motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 (1(1)Bu(+)) state. After an initial displacement from the Franck-Condon geometry along bond length alternation coordinates, it is suggested that carotenoids pass over a transition-state barrier leading to twisted conformations. This hypothesis leads to assignments for several dark intermediate states encountered in femtosecond spectroscopic studies. The Sx state is assigned to the structure reached upon the onset of torsional motions near the transition state barrier that divides planar and twisted structures on the S2 state potential energy surface. The X state, detected recently in two-dimensional electronic spectra, corresponds to a twisted structure well past the barrier and approaching the S2 state torsional minimum. Lastly, the S(∗) state is assigned to a low lying S1 state structure with intramolecular charge transfer character (ICT) and a pyramidal conformation. It follows that the bent and twisted structures of carotenoids that are found in photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins yield excited-state structures that favor the development of an ICT character and optimized energy transfer yields to (bacterio)chlorophyll acceptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  12. Optical model theory of elastic electron- and positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachain, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the basic idea of the optical model theory is to enable analysis of the elastic scattering of a particle from a complex target by replacing the complicated interactions between the beam and the target by an optical potential, or pseudopotential, in which the incident particle moves. Once the optical potential is determined the original many-body elastic scattering problem reduces to a one-body situation. The resulting optical potential is, however, a very complicated operator, and the formal expressions obtained from first principles for the optical potential can only be evaluated approximately in a few simple cases, such as high energy elastic hadron-nucleus scattering, for the the optical potential can be expressed in terms of two-body hadron-nucleon amplitudes, and the non-relativistic elastic scattering of fast charged particles by atoms. The elastic scattering of an electron or positron by a neutral atom at intermediate energies is here considered. Exchange effects between the projectile and the atomic electrons are considered; also absorption and polarisation effects. Applications of the full-wave optical model have so far only been made to the elastic scattering of fast electrons and positrons by atomic H, He, Ne, and Ar. Agreements of the optical model results with absolute measurements of differential cross sections for electron scattering are very good, an agreement that improves as the energy increases, but deteriorates quickly as the incident energy becomes lower than 50 eV for atomic H or 100 eV for He. For more complex atoms the optical model calculations also appear very encouraging. With regard to positron-atom elastic scattering the optical model results for positron-He scattering differ markedly at small angles from the corresponding electron-He values. It would be interesting to have experimental angular distributions of positron-atom elastic scattering in order to check predictions of the optical model theory. (U.K.)

  13. Optimization of finances into regional energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yuryevich Domnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern Russian energy collides with the need for major investments in the modernization and renewal of generation and transmission capacity. In terms of attracting sufficient financial resources and find ways to increase, energy sector profitability and investment attractiveness of particular importance is the problem of investment financing optimizing aimed at minimizing the cost of financing while maintaining financial stability of the power companies and the goals and objectives of Russian energy system long-term development. The article discusses the problem of investment projects financing in power generation from the point of view of the need to achieve optimal investment budget. Presents the author’s approach to the investment financing optimization of power generation company that will achieve the minimum cost of resources involved, taking into account the impact of the funding structure for the power generating company financial sustainability. The developed model is applied to the problem of investment budget optimizing, for example, regional power generating company. The results can improve the efficiency of investment in energy, sustainable and competitive development of regional energy systems.

  14. Fully differential cross sections for low to intermediate energy perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G., E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.in; Singh, P.; Patidar, V.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We present triply differential cross section (TDCS) results for the perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms. • The TDCS has been calculated in the modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism. • The effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. • The polarization potential, higher order effects and PCI has been found to be useful in the description of TDCS. - Abstract: Triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the perpendicular plane ionization of Xe (5p) at incident electron energies 5 eV, 10 eV, 20 eV, and 40 eV above ionization potential. The modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism with first as well as the second order Born terms has been used to calculate the TDCS. Effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. We compare the (e, 2e) TDCS results of our calculation with the recent available experimental data and theoretical results and discuss the process contributing to structure seen in the differential cross section. It has been observed from the present study that the second order effect and target polarization make significant contribution in description of collision dynamics of xenon at the low and intermediate energy for the perpendicular emission of electrons.

  15. Fully differential cross sections for low to intermediate energy perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, G.; Singh, P.; Patidar, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present triply differential cross section (TDCS) results for the perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms. • The TDCS has been calculated in the modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism. • The effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. • The polarization potential, higher order effects and PCI has been found to be useful in the description of TDCS. - Abstract: Triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the perpendicular plane ionization of Xe (5p) at incident electron energies 5 eV, 10 eV, 20 eV, and 40 eV above ionization potential. The modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism with first as well as the second order Born terms has been used to calculate the TDCS. Effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. We compare the (e, 2e) TDCS results of our calculation with the recent available experimental data and theoretical results and discuss the process contributing to structure seen in the differential cross section. It has been observed from the present study that the second order effect and target polarization make significant contribution in description of collision dynamics of xenon at the low and intermediate energy for the perpendicular emission of electrons

  16. Bimodality emerges from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2016-04-01

    This work is a continuation of our effort [S. Mallik, S. Das Gupta, and G. Chaudhuri, Phys. Rev. C 91, 034616 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.034616 to examine if signatures of a phase transition can be extracted from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. A signature of first-order phase transition is the appearance of a bimodal distribution in Pm(k ) in finite systems. Here Pm(k ) is the probability that the maximum of the multiplicity distribution occurs at mass number k . Using a well-known model for event generation [Botzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) plus fluctuation], we study two cases of central collision: mass 40 on mass 40 and mass 120 on mass 120. Bimodality is seen in both the cases. The results are quite similar to those obtained in statistical model calculations. An intriguing feature is seen. We observe that at the energy where bimodality occurs, other phase-transition-like signatures appear. There are breaks in certain first-order derivatives. We then examine if such breaks appear in standard BUU calculations without fluctuations. They do. The implication is interesting. If first-order phase transition occurs, it may be possible to recognize that from ordinary BUU calculations. Probably the reason this has not been seen already is because this aspect was not investigated before.

  17. Lifetime measurements using radioactive ion beams at intermediate energies and the Doppler shift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, A.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, T.; Rother, W.; Fransen, C.; Moeller, O.; Zell, K.O.; Jolie, J. [IKP, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Petkov, P. [Bulg. Acad. of Science, INRNE, Solfia (Bulgaria); Starosta, K.; Przemyslaw, A.; Miller, D.; Chester, A.; Vaman, C.; Voss, P.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Stolz, A.; Bazin, D.; Weisshaar, D. [NSCL, MSU, East Lansing (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Absolute transition probabilities are crucial quantities in nuclear structure physics. Therefore, it is important to establish Doppler shift (plunger) techniques also for the measurement of level lifetimes in radioactive ion beam experiments. After a first successful test of the Doppler Shift technique at intermediate energy (52MeV/u) with a stable {sup 124}Xe beam, a plunger has been built and used in two experiments, performed at the NSCL/MSU with the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the plunger technique after a knock-out reaction using a radioactive {sup 65}Ge beam at 100 MeV/u for populating excited states in {sup 64}Ge. The second experiment aimed to measure the lifetimes of the first 2{sup +} states in {sup 110,114}Pd with the plunger technique after Coulomb excitation at beam energies of 54 MeV/u. First results of both experiments will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

  18. The nuclear spin response to intermediate energy protons and deuterons at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Djalali, C.; Glashausser, C.; Lenske, H.; Love, W.G.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Wambach, J.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of polarization transfer in the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy protons and deuterons have yielded a wealth of data on the spin response of nuclei. This work complements the well-known studies of Gamow-Teller strength in charge-exchange reactions. The emphasis here is on a consistent determination of the S=1, T=0 response, practical only with deuterons, and on the proper separation of S=0 and S=1 strength in proton spectra for appropriate comparison with sum rules. We concentrate on two nuclei, 40 Ca and 12 C, at momentum transfers below about 1 fm -1 and on excitations up to about 50 MeV. The continuum second random phase approximation provides the primary theoretical tool for calculating and interpreting the response in terms of properties of the nucleon-nucleon force inside the nuclear medium. The reaction mechanism is described by the DWIA, applied here to continuum proton scattering almost as rigorously as it is usually applied to low energy excitations. A new DWIA formalism for the description of spin observables in deuteron scattering is used. Comparison of the proton and deuteron data with each other and with RPA/DWIA calculations yields interesting insights into the current state of understanding of collectivity and the nuclear spin response. (orig.)

  19. Direct processes in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Chariarse, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with direct processes induced by Zp charge ion impact on one or two electron atoms and ions at intermediate energies. At a first step, a one-dimensional collision model is used in order to prove the different theoretical methods available to study collisions at such energy range, such as: perturbative and related variational principles, and distorted wave methods. The best description of both, symmetric and asymmetric collision type, is achieved by the distorted wave methods, particularly the ones using the exact impulsive wave function. As a next step, the appropriate formulations of the wave functions employed in the one-dimensional model to describe the real 3-dimensional Coulomb interaction case are examined by using the Eikonal and impulse hypothesis. In this way, the VPS and Eikonal wave functions are reviewed, and furtherly, the Eikonal form of the extended impulse wave function is derived. The Eikonal impulse approximation (EIA) is introduced. This is a distorted wave method using the Eikonal and extended impulse wave functions. The choice of the EIA prior version, i.e., the one using extended impulse wave function in the final channel for excitation is widely discussed and justified. (Author) [es

  20. Studies on the dynamics of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.; Hartnack, C; Aichelin, J.

    1997-01-01

    We use the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model for the investigation of the dynamics of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. A detailed comparison between different versions of the models demonstrate the influence of not exactly known parameters in the description of nuclei like interaction range or initial densities and thus describes the limits of predictive power. The dynamics of the reaction are discussed quite similarly in the different models. A radial expansion with a linear velocity profile is found at central collisions. A strong interaction of pions with nuclear matter is reported. This interaction is strongly influenced by the lifetime of baryonic resonances in nuclear matter. These lifetimes depend strongly on the mass distribution of the resonances. These mass distributions are influenced by the momentum distribution in the nuclei. Here the inclusion of the spectral function shows visible effects. These effects influence the energy dissipation in nuclei and thus enter e.g. into the analysis of p + A collisions for the GEDEON project. (author)

  1. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  2. Advantages of intermediate X-ray energies in Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Hong, Youli; Ge, Xin; Wang, Dajiang; Pan, Zhiyun; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchical organizations of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. Light microscopy is a powerful tool for observations of the dynamics of live cells, its resolution attainable is limited and insufficient. While electron microscopy can produce images with astonishing resolution and clarity of ultra-thin (3D images of cryo-preserved cells. The relatively low X-ray energy (3D imaging (e.g., ~1 μm DoF for 20 nm resolution). An X-ray microscope operating at intermediate energy around 2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast can overcome the above limitations and reduces radiation dose to the specimen. Using a hydrated model cell with an average chemical composition reported in literature, we calculated the image contrast and the radiation dose for absorption and Zernike phase contrast, respectively. The results show that an X-ray microscope operating at ~2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast offers substantial advantages in terms of specimen size, radiation dose and depth-of-focus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation resistant PIDECα cell using photon intermediate direct energy conversion and a 210Po source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles L; Schott, Robert J; Prelas, Mark A; Wisniewski, Denis A; Rothenberger, Jason B; Lukosi, Eric D; Oh, Kyuhak

    2018-02-01

    Radiation damage is a significant concern with both alphavoltaic and betavoltaic cells because their performance degrades, especially with high-energy - (>200keV) beta and alpha particles. Indirect excitation methods, such as the Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) framework, can protect the transducer from radiation. A nuclear battery using a 90 Sr beta source was constructed by the author's research group, which demonstrated the radiation resistance of a PIDEC cell driven by beta particles (PIDECβ cell). Use of alpha sources to drive nuclear batteries would appear to be much more attractive than beta sources due to higher potential power density. However, they are also subject to higher rates of radiation damage. This paper describes the successful incorporation of alpha particles into the PIDEC framework using the alpha emitter 210 Po to form a PIDECα cell. The PIDECα cell transducer was exposed to alpha particles for over one year without experiencing adverse effects from radiation damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F. P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities.

  5. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F.P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities

  6. Semi-classical approach of heavy ion physics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinet, L.

    1986-01-01

    The study of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (10 to 100 MeV/A), can be undertaken by a semi-classical approach: the nuclear Vlasov equation. It is possible to decompose the one body distribution function over a suitable coherent state basis for dynamical studies. This method is applied for colliding slabs, and the results are compared with those of TDHF. With imposed spherical symmetry, the isoscalar monopole resonance, evaporation, formation of bubble nuclei and total evaporation, are obtained. The extension to three dimensions and to the Landau-Vlasov equation through the residual interaction included in the Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term, permits a general study of the dynamical instability of highly excited nuclei. The application to heavy ion collisions gives a description of both the main mechanisms of reaction, and the ineffective fusion for the system 40 Ar (35 MeV/A) + 27 Al. Alpha particle multiplicities in correlation with evaporated residues in the experience 40 Ar (27 MeV/A) + 27 Al, have been extracted. From theoretical results, different scenari are proposed (entrance channel limitation and exit channel disintegration), in order to explain the disappearance of the fusion component observed for this system at energies above 32 MeV/A [fr

  7. Probing the density dependence of the symmetry potential in intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingfeng; Li Zhuxia; Soff, Sven; Gupta, Raj K; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Based on the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics model, the effects of the density-dependent symmetry potential for baryons and of the Coulomb potential for produced mesons are investigated for neutron-rich heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The calculated results of the Δ - /Δ ++ and π - /π + production ratios show a clear beam-energy dependence on the density-dependent symmetry potential, which is stronger for the π - /π + ratio close to the pion production threshold. The Coulomb potential of the mesons changes the transverse momentum distribution of the π - /π + ratio significantly, though it alters only slightly the π - and π + total yields. The π - yields, especially at midrapidity or at low transverse momenta and the π - /π + ratios at low transverse momenta are shown to be sensitive probes of the density-dependent symmetry potential in dense nuclear matter. The effect of the density-dependent symmetry potential on the production of both K 0 and K + mesons is also investigated

  8. Nuclear photofissility in the quasi-deuteron energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, E. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Terranova, M.L.

    2001-04-01

    A two hundred experimental photofissility data obtained in the quasi-deuteron region (∼ 30 - 140 MeV) of photonuclear absorption covering the target nuclei 27 Al, n at Ti, 51 V, 154 Sm, 174 Yb, n at T Hf, 181 Ta, n a t W, nat Re, nat Os, n a t Pt, 197 Au, na t Tl, 208 Pb, nat Pb and 209 Bi have been analysed in the framework of the current, two-step model for intermediate-energy photofission reactions. The incoming photon is assumed to be absorber by a neutron-proton pair (Levinger's quasi-deuteron model), followed by a mechanism of evaporation-fission competition for the excited residual nuclei. The experimental features of photofissility have been reproduced successfully by the model. (author)

  9. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  10. Inner-shell excitation in heavy ion collisions up to intermediate incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, T. de.

    1987-04-01

    Electronic excitations in collisions of very heavy ions with a total nuclear charge Z greater than 1/α ≅ 137 at bombarding energies reaching from 3.6 MeV/n up to 100 MeV/n are the subject of this thesis. The dynamical behaviour of the electron-positron-field is described within a semiclassical model, which is reviewed and extended to include electronic interactions via a mean field. A detailed comparison with experimental data of K-vacancy formation, δ-electron and positron emission shows an improved agreement compared with former calculations. Structures in spectra of positrons emitted in sub- and supercritical collision are discussed in two respects: Firstly as a signal of the vacuum decay in supercritical electromagnetic fields which evolve in the vicinity of long living giant nuclear molecules. Secondly as an atomic effect, which might be related to an instaneous formation of molecular 1sσ- and 2p 1/2 σ- levels. However, beyond this speculation the emission spectra of electrons and positrons in deep inelastic reactions have proven to be a powerful tool for measuring nuclear reaction or delay times in the order of 10 -21 s. This property was transfered to the domain of intermediate energy collisions. In first order perturbation theory we derived a scaling law, exhibiting how nuclear stopping times could be extracted from the emission spectra of high energetic δ-electrons. Quantitative calculations within a coupled channel code have been carried out for the system Pb+Pb, yielding cross sections of up to 20 nb for the emission of electrons with a kinetic energy of 50 MeV in 60 MeV/n-collisions. (orig./HSI)

  11. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    We are applying for a three-year grant from the US Department of Energy to New Mexico State University to continue its support of our work on experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies, which has been carried out in collaboration with groups from various laboratories and universities. The nucleon-nucleon work is aimed at making measurements that will contribute to a determination of the isospin-zero amplitudes, as well as continuing our investigations of evidence for dibaryon resonances. It is based at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Current and planned experiments include measurements of total cross-section differences in pure spin states and of spin parameters in neutron-proton scattering. The pion-nucleus work is aimed at improving our understanding both of the nature of the pion-nucleus interaction and of nuclear structure. It consists of two programs, one based at LAMPF and one based principally at the SIN laboratory in Switzerland. The LAMPF-based work involves studies of large-angle scattering, double-charge-exchange scattering, including measurements at a new energy range above 300 MeV, and a new program of experiments with polarized nuclear targets. The SIN-based work involves studies of quasielastic scattering and absorption, including experiments with a new large-acceptance detector system planned for construction there. We are requesting support to continue the LAMPF-based work at its current level and to expand the SIN-based work to allow for increased involvement in experiments with the new detector system. 57 refs

  12. Present state of the perception gap of nuclear energy between Japanese nuclear energy supplying region and an energy consuming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2002-01-01

    Public opinion surveys have been carried out since 1998 on what phase and on what extent of the perception of nuclear energy differs between Japanese dwelling in energy supplying region and an energy-consuming region. Southern Fukui rural district where 15 nuclear reactors are now installed and Osaka urban region of about 100 km apart from Fukui were selected as the respective targets for the energy supplying and consuming regions. Analyses of the data of about 3000 samples have revealed the followings. (1) The public in the nuclear energy supplying region are very friendly to nuclear energy so that only about 20 and 39 of the public are resistive to the general promotion of nuclear energy in Japan and to the construction of another nuclear reactor in their dwelling region, respectively. (2) On the other hand, in the energy-consuming region those respective fractions are 41 and 70 implying strong resistance to nuclear energy in the urban region. (3) Both the degree of interest in and the degree of knowledge on nuclear energy are very low, whereas the extent of fear to nuclear is high for the urban public. (4) Not only the fraction of the public who are satisfied with their present life, but the public fraction who is eagerly support the thought of return-to-nature are very high in the urban region. (5) On the other hand, in the energy supplying region, many peoples eagerly want their life to become more convenient than it is now, and 6) all those trends (I)-(5) are revealed more pronouncedly in the woman than the man. The perception gap of nuclear energy thus became clear between Japanese dwelling in rural and urban regions. On the basis of this knowledge, discussions on the nature of the so-called NIMBY will be made from the socio-psychological viewpoint and propositions will also be made on the methods to dissolve the perception gap of that soft. (author)

  13. Energy in the regions. [Of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The present document is primarily intended to put together and present in a coherent fashion information about the energy in the regions in as complete and up-to-date manner as possible. Data come from: - the general census of the population of 1982, conducted by INSEE; - the enquiry on the receipts and expenses of agricultural undertakings (ERDEXA) which was completed by the Ministry of Agriculture concerning the year 1981; - the annual enquiry on the energy consumption in industry (EACE) covering the year 1982 which was carried out by the Ministry of Industry and Research; the transport enquiry, effected in 1982 by INSEE at the request of the Institute of Research into Transport. The year of reference is therefore as far as possible 1982. These four enquiries form the basis of the four chapters devoted to the residential sector, to agriculture, to industry and to transport. The tertiary, the predominant economic sector which represents over half the jobs, is unfortunately largely unknown as regards energy consumption. It has not been possible to deal with it. The first two chapters give on the one hand the essential economic data on a national and regional level (e.g. the population, employment, income and the GNP) and on the other hand the principal figures concerning production and consumption of energy as well as the distribution systems.

  14. Energy for our future: Balancing regional interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, S.

    1993-01-01

    An emerging global governance is suggested in which the environment is the central organizing principle of civilization. A shift is noted in which transnational, regional, nation-state, local, and tribal structures exist and compete. Nations with strong environmental regulations are more able to meet international competition in such a scenario. It has also been observed in many instances that for managing common resources such as forests and fish stocks, there have been traditional institutions resembling neither state or market but based on such principles as clearly defined boundaries, monitoring of compliance, graduated sanctions, and collective choice arrangements. Examples of a certain kind of well-managed common resource are provided by certain energy utilities which make profits from energy conservation. One such example is the Tennessee Valley Authority, which helps customers install and finance energy-efficient windows for mutual benefit of both parties

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on program options in intermediate-energy physics. Volume 1. Summary and panel reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.; Talley, B. (comps.)

    1980-05-01

    A Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics sponsored by the US Department of Energy was held at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, August 20 to 31, 1979. The scope of the workshop included all laboratories in intermediate-energy physics, worldwide, and all of these sent representatives to the workshop. The workshop addressed itself to the critical questions on nuclear and particle physics and how they can best be investigated by intermediate-energy accelerators. Among the questions that the workshop members considered were: (1) what are the important physics topics which might be understood through research on these accelerators in the next 10 years. These topics include, but are not restricted to, fundamental interactions and symmetries in particle physics, and nuclear modes of motion, structure, and reaction mechanisms; (2) what experiments should be undertaken to carry out the program. What are the kinematical conditions, accuracies, resolutions, and other parameters required to obtain the desired knowledge; (3) which accelerators are best suited for each experiment. What work at other laboratories (low-, intermediate-, or high-energy) could be undertaken to complement and/or supplement the proposed LAMPF program; and (4) what new facility capabilities should be explored for the long-term future. The workshop was divided into small panels in order to promote effective interchange of ideas. After reports to other panels and plenary sessions, the panelists prepared reports stating the results of their deliberations. These reports comprise the principal part of Volume I.

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on program options in intermediate-energy physics. Volume 1. Summary and panel reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, J.C.; Talley, B.

    1980-05-01

    A Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics sponsored by the US Department of Energy was held at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, August 20 to 31, 1979. The scope of the workshop included all laboratories in intermediate-energy physics, worldwide, and all of these sent representatives to the workshop. The workshop addressed itself to the critical questions on nuclear and particle physics and how they can best be investigated by intermediate-energy accelerators. Among the questions that the workshop members considered were: (1) what are the important physics topics which might be understood through research on these accelerators in the next 10 years. These topics include, but are not restricted to, fundamental interactions and symmetries in particle physics, and nuclear modes of motion, structure, and reaction mechanisms; (2) what experiments should be undertaken to carry out the program. What are the kinematical conditions, accuracies, resolutions, and other parameters required to obtain the desired knowledge; (3) which accelerators are best suited for each experiment. What work at other laboratories (low-, intermediate-, or high-energy) could be undertaken to complement and/or supplement the proposed LAMPF program; and (4) what new facility capabilities should be explored for the long-term future. The workshop was divided into small panels in order to promote effective interchange of ideas. After reports to other panels and plenary sessions, the panelists prepared reports stating the results of their deliberations. These reports comprise the principal part of Volume I

  17. Effects of retarded electrical fields on observables sensitive to the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Ou, Li; Cao, Xin-Wei; Liu, Xu-Yang

    2018-03-01

    Within the isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11, we examine the relativistic retardation effects of electrical fields on the π-/π+ ratio and neutron-proton differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Compared to the static Coulomb fields, the retarded electric fields of fast-moving charges are known to be anisotropic and the associated relativistic corrections can be significant. They are found to increase the number of energetic protons in the participant region at the maximum compression by as much as 25% but that of energetic neutrons by less than 10% in 197Au+197Au reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. Consequently, more π+ and relatively fewer π- mesons are produced, leading to an appreciable reduction of the π-/π+ ratio compared to calculations with the static Coulomb fields. Also, the neutron-proton differential transverse flow, as another sensitive probe of high-density symmetry energy, is also decreased appreciably due to the stronger retarded electrical fields in directions perpendicular to the velocities of fast-moving charges compared to calculations using the isotropic static electrical fields. Moreover, the retardation effects on these observables are found to be approximately independent of the reaction impact parameter.

  18. Isospin effect of coulomb interaction on momentum dissipation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun; Li Xiguo; Xing Yongzhong

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigate the isospin effect of Coulomb interaction on the momentum dissipation or nuclear stopping in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions by using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the Coulomb interaction induces obviously the reductions of the momentum dissipation. The authors also find that the variation amplitude of momentum dissipation induced by the Coulomb interaction depends sensitively on the form and strength of symmetry potential. However, the isospin effect of Coulomb interaction on the momentum dissipation is less than that induced by the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section. In this case, Coulomb interaction does not changes obviously the isospin effect of momentum dissipation induced by the in-medium two-body collision. In particular, the Coulomb interaction is preferable for standing up the isospin effect of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section on the momentum dissipation and reducing the isospin effect of symmetry potential on it, which is important for obtaining the feature about the sensitive dependence of momentum dissipation on the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the symmetry potential. (author)

  19. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of [sigma](700)-meson exchange in [gamma][gamma][yields][pi][pi] processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the [gamma][Nu]-[Delta] transition; pion photoproduction and the [gamma][Nu]-[Delta] amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson's theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p([rvec [gamma

  20. Semi-classical approaches to the phase space evolutions in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remaud, B; Sebille, F; Raffray, Y; Gregoire, C; Vinet, L

    1986-01-06

    The properties of semi-classical phase space evolution equations - as the Vlasov/Boltzmann equations - are discussed in the context of the heavy ion reaction theory at intermediate energies (from 10 to 100 MeV per nucleon). The generalized coherent state set is shown to form a (over) complete basis for the phase space; then every solution of the Vlasov/Boltzmann equations can be defined as a convolution product of the generalized coherent state basis by an appropriate weight function w. The uniform approximation for w is shown to provide an accurate semi-classical description of fermion systems in their ground state: the examples of fermions in a harmonic well and of cold nuclei are discussed. The solution of the Vlasov equation amounts to follow the time evolution of the coherent states which play the role of a moving basis. For the Boltzmann equation, the collision term is taken into account by explicit or implicit variations of the function w. Typical applications are discussed: nuclear response to the giant monopole resonance excitation, fast nucleon emission in heavy-ion reactions. (orig.).

  1. Improvement of radiological penumbra using intermediate energy photons (IEP) for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, Lauren; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beachey, David J; Keller, Brian M; Presutti, Joseph; Sharpe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Using efficient immobilization and dedicated beam collimation devices, stereotactic radiosurgery ensures highly conformal treatment of small tumours with limited microscopic extension. One contribution to normal tissue irradiation remains the radiological penumbra. This work aims at demonstrating that intermediate energy photons (IEP), above orthovoltage but below megavoltage, improve dose distribution for stereotactic radiosurgery for small irradiation field sizes due to a dramatic reduction of radiological penumbra. Two different simulation systems were used: (i) Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the dose distribution of monoenergetic IEP between 100 keV and 1 MeV in water phantom; (ii) the Pinnacle 3 TPS including a virtual IEP unit to investigate the dosimetry benefit of treating with 11 non-coplanar beams a 2 cm tumour in the middle of a brain adjacent to a 1 mm critical structure. Radiological penumbrae below 300 μm are generated for field size below 2 x 2 cm 2 using monoenergetic IEP beams between 200 and 400 keV. An 800 kV beam generated in a 0.5 mm tungsten target maximizes the photon intensity in this range. Pinnacle 3 confirms the dramatic reduction in penumbra size. DVHs show for a constant dose distribution conformality, improved dose distribution homogeneity and better sparing of critical structures using a 800 kV beam compared to a 6 MV beam

  2. Improvement of radiological penumbra using intermediate energy photons (IEP) for stereotactic radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Lauren; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beachey, David J.; Keller, Brian M.; Presutti, Joseph; Sharpe, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Using efficient immobilization and dedicated beam collimation devices, stereotactic radiosurgery ensures highly conformal treatment of small tumours with limited microscopic extension. One contribution to normal tissue irradiation remains the radiological penumbra. This work aims at demonstrating that intermediate energy photons (IEP), above orthovoltage but below megavoltage, improve dose distribution for stereotactic radiosurgery for small irradiation field sizes due to a dramatic reduction of radiological penumbra. Two different simulation systems were used: (i) Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the dose distribution of monoenergetic IEP between 100 keV and 1 MeV in water phantom; (ii) the Pinnacle3 TPS including a virtual IEP unit to investigate the dosimetry benefit of treating with 11 non-coplanar beams a 2 cm tumour in the middle of a brain adjacent to a 1 mm critical structure. Radiological penumbrae below 300 µm are generated for field size below 2 × 2 cm2 using monoenergetic IEP beams between 200 and 400 keV. An 800 kV beam generated in a 0.5 mm tungsten target maximizes the photon intensity in this range. Pinnacle3 confirms the dramatic reduction in penumbra size. DVHs show for a constant dose distribution conformality, improved dose distribution homogeneity and better sparing of critical structures using a 800 kV beam compared to a 6 MV beam.

  3. Explosion-evaporation model for fragment production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.; Randrup, J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear collisions at intermediate energies may create transient systems of hot nuclear matter that decay into many nuclear fragments. The disassembly of such a nuclear fireball is described as a two-stage process. In the primary explosion stage the system quickly fragments into nucleons and composite nuclei according to the available phase space. The explosion produces excited nuclei with half-lives longer than the time associated with the breakup. In the secondary evaporation stage, these nuclei decay, first by sequential emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, alphas), later by electromagnetic radiation. The secondary stage in general changes the relative abundancies of the various fragment species. This general feature makes it essential to take account of the composite fragments before using d/p as a measure of the entropy of the initial source. The formation of unbound nuclei at the explosion stage also has the desirable effect of enhancing the final abundancies of particularly stable nuclei, e.g., 4 He. For neutron-excessive sources the presence of composite nuclei amplifies the ratio of observed neutrons and protons; this effect persists for heavier mirror systems. Predictions of the model are qualitatively compared to available experimental data. The model offers a convenient way to augment existing dynamical models, such as intra-nuclear cascade and nuclear fluid dynamics, to yield actual nuclear fragments rather than merely matter distributions

  4. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd -> sup 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ladygin, V P

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A sub y sub y , A sub x sub x , and A sub x sub z in the dd -> sup 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the sup 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  5. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd → 3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.; )

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd → 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown [ru

  6. Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: an energy-economic scenario analysis[Dissertation 17314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F

    2007-07-01

    In this dissertation by Thorsten Frank Schulz the intermediate steps necessary to realise the 2000-Watt Society in Switzerland are examined. An analysis of an energy-economic scenario shows that the 2000-Watt Society should be seen as a long-term goal. According to the author, the major changes required to allow the implementation of this project concern energy-transformation and energy-demand technologies. Electricity will, according to the author, play an important role in a service-oriented society in the future. In such a transformation even intermediate steps are associated with considerable expense. The aims of the 2000-Watt Society project are listed. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances for the domestic and transport sectors are presented and discussed. Complementary analyses are presented concerning fuel cells and wood-based fuel technologies. Finally, the implications of the 2000-Watt society and the effects of technological change are summarised and an outlook is presented.

  7. Energy options and regional cooperation on nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews the extensive forms of Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power to develop and provide economical and reliable energy supply for sound economical growths of developing countries in this region, which has seen rapid growth of energy consumption more than anywhere else in recent years. Nuclear power has received keen attention from DCs because it can provide a self-reliable energy supply and promote development of high technology in the associated engineering and manufacturing industries locally. However, due to the particular characteristics in nuclear power technology, a close cooperation is required between the seller(industrialized) and buyer(developing) countries. The Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power is a step toward providing mutual benefits to the countries involved in this region, and this paper explores potential ways in formulating basic and systematic approaches and areas of full scope cooperation. (author)

  8. An intermediate region in C-terminal of phosphoprotein is required ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the region of P that binds to NPNC was mapped. To determine the binding region, 18 N- and C-terminally truncated P mutants were synthesized by in vitro translation in rabbit reticulocytes and mixed with purified NP (NPNC). The mutants which did not bind to NP were considered as mutants and they contain ...

  9. Prognostication of regional energy system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Borisovich Korovin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes practice and development of new methodological approaches to forecasting the development of regional energy systems. It is shown that the energy complex is involved in a variety of forward and backward linkages as an element of socio-economic systems, and the quality and availability of energy resources largely determines the structure and pace of economic, social and environmental development of the region. Analysis of existing current practice of territorial and sectoral forecasting implemented in Russia and abroad, suggests that such practice is inadequate in its theoretical and methodological elaboration. This is confirmed by the frequent discrepancy between actual results and plans, as well as their regular revision. The methods are mostly based on extrapolation of existing tendencies and not taking into account many factors and emerging trends related to the complexity and openness of the social and economic systems. Post-industrial level of civilization is characterized by fast development of technology; knowledge, information, technological and institutional innovation become the main resources. The greatest importance is attached to such development properties as instability, various orderliness, nonlinearity, interactions etc. Current approaches to forecasting the future are described by a number of theories that are generally called self-organization theory, taking into account these singularities. These concepts should be included in the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of regional development forecasts. Using the synergetic approach assumes that, along with organizational processes, processes of self-organization and self-development are very important in the system, they are characterized by spontaneous, unexpected formations and emerging structures. The development of such systems can generate stable and efficient new structure. The presence of crisis is an integral feature of complex

  10. Thin walls in regions with vacuum energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, D [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics; Vuille, C [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (USA). Dept. of Math/Physical Science

    1989-12-01

    The motion of a thin wall is treated in the case where the regions on either side of the wall have vacuum energy. This treatment generalises previous results involving domain walls in vacuum and also previous results involving the properties of false vacuum bubbles. The equation of state for a domain wall is{tau} = {sigma} where {tau} is the tension in the wall and {sigma} is the energy density. We consider the motion of a more general class of walls having equation of state {tau}{Gamma}{sigma} with 0{le}{Gamma}{le}1. Spherically symmetric and planar symmetric walls are examined. We also find the global structure of the wall spacetime. (author).

  11. Interaction region design driven by energy deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Roman; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy; Tomás, Rogelio; Cruz-Alaniz, Emilia; Dalena, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The European Strategy Group for High Energy Physics recommends to study collider designs for the post-LHC era. Among the suggested projects there is the circular 100 TeV proton-proton collider FCC-hh. Starting from LHC and its proposed upgrade HL-LHC, this paper outlines the development of the interaction region design for FCC-hh. We identify energy deposition from debris of the collision events as a driving factor for the layout and draft the guiding principles to unify protection of the superconducting final focus magnets from radiation with a high luminosity performance. Furthermore, we offer a novel strategy to mitigate the lifetime limitation of the first final focus magnet due to radiation load, the Q1 split.

  12. Interaction region design driven by energy deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Strategy Group for High Energy Physics recommends to study collider designs for the post-LHC era. Among the suggested projects there is the circular 100 TeV proton-proton collider FCC-hh. Starting from LHC and its proposed upgrade HL-LHC, this paper outlines the development of the interaction region design for FCC-hh. We identify energy deposition from debris of the collision events as a driving factor for the layout and draft the guiding principles to unify protection of the superconducting final focus magnets from radiation with a high luminosity performance. Furthermore, we offer a novel strategy to mitigate the lifetime limitation of the first final focus magnet due to radiation load, the Q1 split.

  13. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  14. Urbanism and energy in developing regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.L.; Berman, S.; Dowell, D.

    1978-03-01

    The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently exhibited by the developed countries. Thus, the 1.6 billion urban dwellers in 1978 would become about 3 billion in 1995--if major catastrophes can be avoided. Feasibility assessments for Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro, Calcutta, Cairo-Alexandria, Mexico City, and Seoul are presented in the appendices. This analysis-from-a-distance is insufficient to judge how much extra installed electrical generating capacity is required before 1995, the added refining capability for liquid fuels, or the uses for new LNG and coal imports due to be arranged. It is evident that energy (and perhaps also water in most regions) planning is the major determinant of the manner in which these urban areas will adapt to the extraordinary pressures for new settlement. The current round of planning in such metropolitan areas has been addressed to solving traffic-congestion problems, and reorganizing land use in central districts, as the most-pressing issues. Since energy sources and distribution systems now affect the largest and most crucial investments in urban growth it is to be expected that future metropolitan planning may concentrate upon energy efficiency. Energy supplies must be planned to meet requirements set by locally dominant values regarding human services and the environment.

  15. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  16. De-excitation gamma-ray technique for improved resolution in intermediate energy photonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.; Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.; Adler, J.O.; Fissum, K.; Issaksson, L.; Ruijter, H.; Schroeder, B.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Crawford, G.I.; Gregel, J.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 C (γ,p) reaction was studied. The experiment was done at the MAX Laboratory of Lund University, using tagged photons with energy between 50 and 70 MeV and natural carbon targets. It has been possible to detect γ-ray emitted from the residual nucleus, in coincidence with photoprotons leading to the excited residual state. The 200 KeV gamma-ray resolution permitted the identification of the residual states and allowed off-line cuts to be made in order to identify the excitation region in 11 B from what particular de-excitation gamma-ray were seen. 9 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. Search for dynamical effects in the multifragmentation process at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.; Eudes, P.; Gourio, D.; Laville, J.L.; Lebrun, C.; Reposeur, T.; Assenard, M.; Ardouin, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Benlliure, J.; and others.

    1997-01-01

    Inclusive energy spectra of fast protons arising from Ar+Ta collisions at 94 MeV/u have been measured at large angles. These data are analysed in the framework of a one-body transport theory simulated by the BNV code emphasizing the primordial origin of these protons. A possible extension of such an analysis is derived using correlation functions in relative angle between two protons emitted in the mid rapidity region of the Xe+Sn reaction at 50 MeV/u. (author)

  18. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhongquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of functional material with plasticity of dielectric was obtained. • Powerful characterization methods was exploited to determine this ultra-thin layer. • The electronic structures and properties of this intermediate layer were analyzed. • A potential application of this structure were investigated. - Abstract: A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  19. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong [SHU-SolarE R& D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, Zhongquan, E-mail: zqma@shu.edu.cn [SHU-SolarE R& D Lab, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Instrumental Analysis & Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A new kind of functional material with plasticity of dielectric was obtained. • Powerful characterization methods was exploited to determine this ultra-thin layer. • The electronic structures and properties of this intermediate layer were analyzed. • A potential application of this structure were investigated. - Abstract: A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  20. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1999-06-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/ dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H ++H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pad

  1. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1999-01-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H + +H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pade

  2. Present and prospective role of bioenergy in regional energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V.; Joshi, N.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Center for Ecological Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2000-12-01

    Bioenergy is the energy released from the reaction of organic carbon material with oxygen. The organic material derived from plants and animals is also referred to as biomass. Biomass is a flexible feedstock capable of conversion into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels by chemical and biological processes. These intermediate biofuels (such as methane gas, ethanol, charcoal) can be substituted for fossil based fuels. Wood and charcoal are important as household fuels and for small scale industries such as brick making, cashew processing etc. The scarcity of biofuels has far reaching implications on the environment. Hence, expansion of bioenergy systems could be influential in bettering both the socioeconomic condition and the environment of the region. This paper examines the present role of biomass in the region's (Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State, India) energy supply and calculates the potential for future biomass provision and scope for conversion to both modern and traditional fuels. Based on the detailed investigation of biomass resource availability and demand, we can categorise the Uttara Kannada District into two zones (a) Biomass surplus zone consisting of Taluks mainly from hilly area (b) Biomass deficit zone, consisting of thickly populated coastal Taluks such as Bhatkal, Kumta, Ankola, Honnavar and Karwar. Fuel wood is mainly used for cooking and horticulture residues from coconut, arecanut trees are used for water heating purposes. Most of the households in this region still use traditional stoves where efficiency is less than 10%. The present inefficient fuel consumption could be brought down by the usage of fuel efficient stoves (a saving of the order of 27%). Availability of animal residues for biogas generation in Sirsi, Siddapur, Yellapur Taluks gives a viable alternative for cooking, lighting fuel and a useful fertiliser. However to support the present livestock population, fodder from agricultural residues is insufficient in these

  3. An experimental investigation on reduced radiological penumbra for intermediate energy x-rays: Implications for small field radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brian Michael

    Current day external beam radiation therapy typically uses x-ray energies in the megavoltage (6--18 MV) or in the superficial/orthovoltage (80--350 kVp) energy ranges. It has been found that intermediate energy x-rays (those greater than orthovoltage but sub-megavoltage) may offer an advantage in the field of high precision radiation therapy such as in radiosurgery. This advantage is a reduction in the radiological penumbra associated with small (less than about 3 cm) radiation dose fields. A consequence of reduced radiological penumbra is a more homogenous, conformal dose distribution in the patient with dose escalation and organ sparing made more feasible. The objectives of this thesis were as follows: to produce and to characterize an intermediate energy x-ray beam, to establish a method of accurate penumbra measurement at the micron level for millimeter size fields, to measure the radiological penumbra of single small intermediate energy x-ray fields, and to show the clinical consequences of a multiple beam irradiation in a stereotactic head phantom. A maximum photon energy of 1.2 +/- 0.1 MeV was determined for the intermediate energy x-ray spectrum at the expense of a low dose rate. A digital microscope with a computer controlled translation stage was investigated for its ability to resolve steep dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film for field sizes as small as 1 mm and for photon energies as low as 100 kVp. The microscope-film system resolved gradients to within about 30 mum, limited by the inherent spatial resolution of the film, the noise of the system, and the uncertainties of measurement. Penumbra widths were compared for 1.2 MV versus 6 MV for identical irradiation conditions. In some instances, there was a five-fold reduction in the radiological penumbra of single 1.2 MV x-ray beams. A multiple beam arc irradiation demonstrated that the advantages seen with single beams carry over to multiple beams. The benefits of reduced radiological penumbra for

  4. Recoil properties of radionuclides formed in photospallation reactions on complex nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Oura, Yasuji; Shibata, Seiichi; Furukawa, Michiaki; Fujiwara, Ichiro

    2001-01-01

    heavy target region, as also found in our recent yield measurements of photospallation and photopion reactions. The ε s values of photon-reaction appear to be slightly lower than those of proton-reactions for nat Ag, nat Ta, and 197 Au. This difference may indicate the lower excitation energy left after the first step in photon-reactions than in proton-reactions. (author)

  5. Intermediate- and high-energy reactions of uranium with neon and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughey, P.L.

    1982-11-01

    Target fragment production from the interactions of 1.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 12 GeV 12 C and 5.0, 8.0, 20, and 42 GeV 20 Ne with uranium has been measured using off-line gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques. The experimental charge and mass yield distributions are generally consistent with the concepts of limiting fragmentation and factorization at energies of 3.0 GeV and above. The total projectile kinetic energy was found to be the relevant scaling parameter for the comparison of reactions induced by projectiles of different sizes. Light fragments with mass number less than 60 were found to violate limiting fragmentation, and had excitation functions that were strongly increasing with projectile energy until 8.0 to 12.0 GeV. With the 1.0 GeV 12 C beam the pattern of mass yields was quite different from that of all the other reactions, with the normal peak in the fission mass region (80 < A < 145), but with much lower yields below mass number 60 and between mass numbers 145 and 210, indicating that these fragments are formed primarily in very energetic reactions in which large excitation energies are transferred to and significant amounts of mass are removed from the target nucleus. Theoretical predictions of the intra-nuclear cascade, nuclear fireball, and nuclear firestreak models are compared with the experimental results. The intra-nuclear cascade and nuclear firestreak models are both able to predict the general shapes of the experimental distributions, with the exception of the yields for the lightest fragments

  6. Behaviour of the intermediate region of the ionosphere at F1 heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicella, S.M.; Mosert Gonzalez, M. de; Scotto, C.; Zolesi, B.; Jadur, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics and occurrence of the F1 ledge in the electron density profile are reviewed and discussed in terms of its relevance for the empirical modelling of the ionosphere. An updated and selected data base is used to confirm the validity the DuCharme et al. formula taking into account alternative solutions for the particular occurrence restrictions imposed by the formula and the IRI-90. The information considered includes also L conditions that indicates the presence of a less defined F1 cusp in the ionogram. A probability of occurrence of the F1 layer is introduced making use of the hourly ionogram scaling information given in monthly bulletins of ionospheric data. The possible prediction of the electron density at fixed heights in the F1 region is discussed and a formulation for such prediction is proposed as a preliminary step. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Spin observables in inelastic proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of spin observables in inelastic proton-nucleus reactions for incident proton energies near 1 GeV. At this energy, the dominant reaction mechanisms are (1) quasi-free knockout of one or more nucleons, and (2) pion production through the Δ resonance. The cross section due to quasi-free knockout can be reasonably well understood theoretically in a multiple scattering picture, which uses measured NN amplitudes as input. Calculations of this sort were carried out in reference [10] using scalar NN amplitudes parameterized as Gaussians. The author has extended this picture to include spin dependent NN amplitudes. This allows calculation of all the spin observables, Ay, DLL, DSS, DNN, DLS, and DSL, as well as the cross section dsigma/dOmegadp due to quasi-free knockout of one or more particles. The cross section and polarization Ay have been measured at the LAMPF High Resolution Spectrometer at T/sub L/ = 800 MeV on 12 C. The theoretical results agree well with the data in the quasi-free region. The results for the remaining spin observables provide predictions for experiments which can be performed at LAMPF. By comparing the calculations with the data, it may be possible to separate the contribution due to a quasi-free knockout, and see a signature of quasi-free Δ production in the spin observables

  8. Regional energy planning: some suggestions to public administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozzi, R

    1982-01-01

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the relevant data and to improve the energy efficiency in regional energy planning. The quantification of the regional energy system is subdivided in three independent parameters which are separetely estimated: energy demand, energy consumption, and transformation capacity. Definitions and estimating procedures are given. The optimization of the regional planning includes the application, wherever possible, of the technologies which centralize the space-heating energy production or combine the production of electric energy with space-heating energy distribution.

  9. Regional energy planning: Some suggestions to public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, R.

    A methodology is proposed to estimate the relevant data and to improve the energy efficiency in regional energy planning. The quantification of the regional energy system is subdivided in three independent parameters which are separetely estimated: energy demand, energy consumption, and transformation capacity. Definitions and estimating procedures are given. The optimization of the regional planning includes the application, wherever possible, of the technologies which centralize the space-heating energy production or combine the production of electric energy with space-heating energy distribution.

  10. Modeling of plasma flow switches at low, intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.; Turchi, P.

    1992-01-01

    Inductively stored pulsed power technology has been used over the past thirty years to produce multi-megaamp currents to implode low inductance loads and produce x-radiation. Because of the large difference in timescales for the delivery of magnetic energy to the load and the desire for high power x-radiation output (short timescale for the implosion), most inductively stored systems require at least one opening switch. The design and understanding of fast, efficient opening switches for multi-megaamp systems represents a long standing problem in pulsed power research. The Los Alamos Foil Implosion Project uses inductively stored magnetic energy to implode thin metallic liners. A plasma flow switch (PFS) has been investigated as the final pulse shaping step for this systems. The PFS consists of a wire array and a barrier foil located upstream from the load region. Several stages can be identified in the performance of the plasma flow switch. These are: (1) the vaporization of the wire array; (2) the assembly of the initiated plasma on tie barrier foil to form the switch plasma; (3) the motion of the switch plasma down the coaxial barrel; and (4) current switching to the load (the actual switching stage). The fourth stage affects the switch's efficiency, as well as the quality of the load implosion. Instabilities may develop during any of these four stages, and their presence may seriously degrade the structure of the switch plasma. Two primary criteria may be used to characterize good switching. The first is switching efficiency. A second criterion is transferred to the load during or after switching. This paper summarizes the computational design of the PFS experiments carried out on Pegasus 1. We conclude by considering the implications of these results for the design of a PFS for the higher energy regime (Procyon) regime

  11. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  12. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  13. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping, E-mail: juarez@ice.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  14. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M.; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhang, Qizhou; Qiu, Keping

    2017-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s −1 , converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  15. Proceedings of the third Regional meetings on energy 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falque-Masset, Marie-Laure; Ceron, Pascale; Gorges, Pascale; Boulet, Sophie; Petit-Tesson, Christophe

    2011-05-01

    After a presentation of the energy road map established by the Ile de France regional council, this document comments the commitment of regional and local actors on climate and energy (notably within the climate-air-energy regional scheme, and the regional implementation of the Grenelle de l'Environnement, or through the ARENE, regional agency for environment and new energies), outlines the expertise of the commissioner with respect to the contractor in the building sector, comments the development of renewable energies in rural areas, discusses various actions undertaken for a sustainable city and in the field of education, training and support of local communities

  16. Development of Si-based detectors for intermediate energy heavy-ion physics at a storage-ring accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J.; Jaworowski, J.; Leandersson, M.; El Bouanani, M. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan Lund, (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Jakobsson, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cosmic and Subatomic Physics; Romanski, J.; Westerberg, L.; Van Veldhuizen, E.J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); The Chicsi Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) compatible Si detectors are being developed by the CELSIUS Heavy lon Collaboration (CHIC) for measuring the energy and identity of Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) with Z {approx} 3 - 12 and energies of 0.7 - I 0 A MeV. Here we give an overview of the development of Si {delta}E-E detector telescopes and investigations on IMF identification based on the pulse shape from Si-detectors where the particles impinge on the rear-face of the detector. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Nd break-up process with considering 3NF at intermediate energies in a 3D approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radin, M., E-mail: harzchi@kntu.ac.ir; Ghasemi, H.

    2016-01-15

    In this work we have applied a three-dimensional approach to solve the three-nucleon Faddeev equation in the Jacobi momenta space. To this end, we have considered the inhomogeneous part of the Faddeev equation as an appropriate approximation for projectile intermediate energies. As an application the Bonn-B and the Tucson–Melbourne two- and three-nucleon forces have been used for calculating the differential cross section for proton–deuteron break-up process. Finally, comparing our results with the experimental data has been performed for 197 MeV and 346 MeV projectile energies.

  18. Development of Si-based detectors for intermediate energy heavy-ion physics at a storage-ring accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H J; Jaworowski, J; Leandersson, M; El Bouanani, M [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan Lund, (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Jakobsson, B [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cosmic and Subatomic Physics; Romanski, J; Westerberg, L; Van Veldhuizen, E J [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); The Chicsi Collaboration

    1997-12-31

    Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) compatible Si detectors are being developed by the CELSIUS Heavy lon Collaboration (CHIC) for measuring the energy and identity of Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) with Z {approx} 3 - 12 and energies of 0.7 - I 0 A MeV. Here we give an overview of the development of Si {delta}E-E detector telescopes and investigations on IMF identification based on the pulse shape from Si-detectors where the particles impinge on the rear-face of the detector. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  20. Interplay between one-body and two-body dynamics in the subthreshold pion production at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassing, W.

    1984-12-01

    The role of the time-dependent mean field in subthreshold pion production by first chance nucleon-nucleon collisions is studied for heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies in a finite two-center shell model. It is found that the energy distribution of the nucleons for overlapping ions can roughly be approximated by shifted groundstate momentum distributions using a quasi-free dispersion relation. The absolute cross sections for the production of neutron pions can be reproduced from 35 MeV/u to 150 MeV/u. (orig.)

  1. The (3He,t) and (d,2He)reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockstedt, A.

    1987-09-01

    The ( 3 He,t) reaction has been studied at 0.6-2.3 GeV at small scattering angles, 0-7 degrees, on various nuclei ( 12 C, 13 C, 26 Mg, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, 54 Fe, 90 Zr, 159 Tb, 208 Pb) including a proton target. The reaction is a single-step reaction and selects the spin-isospin channel. Angular distributions for low-lying states in 12 N are well described by DWIA calculations. From 13 C to 13 N transitions the ratio J στ /J τ , at momentum transfer, q, close to zero, is derived. The ratio remains roughly constant in the region 300 - 700 MeV/nucleon. The position of the quasi-free peak is shifted compared with free nucleon-nucleon scattering. The shift is towards higher excitation energies at q approx 1.4 fm -1 , and towards lower excitation energies at q approx 2.5 fm -1 . The p( 3 He,t)Δ ++ reaction is analysed as one-pion exchange and the ( 3 He,t) form factor is extracted. The shape and position of the Δ resonance seem to be independent of target mass for the targets studied. Compared with the p to Δ ++ transition the position is shifted towards lower excitation energy in nuclei. The (d,2p[ 1 S 0 ]) reaction, with the two protons in an 1 S 0 state labelled 2 He, is studied at 0.65 and 2.0 GeV at small angles, 0-4 degrees, on some of the targets used in the ( 3 He,t) experiment (p, 12 C, 40 Ca, 54 Fe). This reaction is also a one-step reaction that can be used for studies of spin-isospin excitations. Cross sections and tensor analysing powers are determined for the p(d, 2 He)n reaction. These results are compared with PWIA calculations. The Δ resonance in carbon is also here shifted down in excitation energy compared with the proton target. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the 2. Regional meetings on energy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falque-Masset, Marie-Laure; Labrousse, Muriel; Gorges, Pascale; Boulet, Sophie; Petit-Tesson, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    This conference addressed local initiatives and actors concerning or involved in climate and energy issues in the Ile de France region, initiatives for energy in European cities and regions. It discusses the impact of the Grenelle de l'Environnement on regional energy and climate policies. It comments the development of professions and activities related to energy efficiency and renewable energies in the Ile de France region. Some remarkable actions are presented: intelligent control of energetic installations, solar heat pump for an education centre, heat network and geothermal energy in Melun

  3. Burgundy-Franche-Comte Region. The energy transition commitment: for a positive-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This report first presents an inventory of actions and arrangement of the region for energy transition. These actions and arrangements first concern the mobilisation of territories. They also deal with buildings (social housing, public buildings, individual housing), and schools (actions on the built patrimony in terms of renovation, energy efficiency, renewable energies, and so on, implementation of a specific eco-school approach, and struggle against food waste in schools). They comprise some general means (through actions on public buildings, on vehicles), public purchases, transports (organisation and tariffs, access to stations, development of inter-modal and green transports, actions in favour of rural mobility, energy saving in touristic transport, development of car sharing, support to the development of tomorrow's vehicles). Other actions and arrangements concern the environment: waste reduction and management, development of circular economy, national scheme for biomass, education. Other themes are economy (support to sectors and enterprises), research and innovation, agriculture and forests, renewable energies, education and training, citizen mobilisation, digital environment. The presence and existence of various European programmes (FEDER, and others) in the region are mentioned

  4. Regional politics of energy savings and instruments of its realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkiv Lilya Yevgenivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and methodological foundations and applied aspects of the regional policy of energy saving aimed at the efficient use of energy resources in the region, diversification of energy supplies, modernization of energy infrastructure through the introduction of new technologies and protection of regional interests in the energy sector. The basic approaches and methods for the formation of regional policy of energy saving are determined. It allows deepening and expanding of the basic applied researches, and solving of more complex theoretical and applied problems of regional development. It is mentioned, that the development of regional energy saving policy involves the formation of appropriate legal, financial and credit policy; scientific research, economic, organizational and management measures; advertising and marketing support. It is proved, that for the practical implementation of regional policy the complex combination of economic feasibility, social effectiveness and environmental safety is required.

  5. Dilepton spectroscopy at intermediate energies; the carbon - carbon reaction at 1 GeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunet, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Physics context of this work is heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies where di-electron provide informations on the produced hot and dense nuclear matter. The experiment is performed by the DiLepton Spectrometer (DLS) Collaboration at the Lawrence Berkeley's Bevalac. After a description of the apparatus, we review the whole program and the main results so far obtained: first evidence of a significant di-electron signal at energies above 1 GeV/A; improvement of the understanding of di-electron production (electromagnetic decays of hadrons, π + π - annihilation and hadronic Bremsstrahlung). The results of p-p, p-d reactions from 1 to 4.9 GeV/A show that hadronic Bremsstrahlung (pp, pn) should be reformulated. Our analysis, optimized on the reaction Carbon-Carbon at 1 GeV/A, has been applied to α-Ca and d-Ca. We have developed two main aspects: improvement of the time resolution (500 ps) in order to eliminate all of the protons. Improvement of the space resolution (300 μ) for better mass resolution, in particular in the ρ region. We obtain the cross section of di-electron production as a function of mass, transverse momentum and rapidity from the C-C, α-Ca and d-Ca reactions at 1 GeV/A. We also compare the cross section for all of the measured systems at 1 GeV/A, including Ca-Ca, and we show a (ApAt) α dependence with α ≅ 1.1. A study of the associated multiplicity has also been performed. Nevertheless, the limited acceptance of the DLS and its poor mass resolution to identify the ρ, ω vector mesons, do not allow to conclude on hadron behaviour in nuclear matter. This point is one of the main goal of the HADES project at GSI (Darmstadt), which we give a brief description of the main features. (authors). 60 refs

  6. Detection system with a large angular acceptance and an energy high dynamics, for heavy ion physics at intermediate energies: M.E.ω. detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, F.

    1985-01-01

    Built for intermediate energy heavy ions nuclear physics, the M.E.ω. detector uses various and complementary detection methods: ionization chamber, parallel plate avalanche counter, plastic scintillators. With these techniques, velocity, energy, mass and charge of nuclei were measured over wide range. From the detailed theoretical study of each method, limitations and perturbation causes are deduced. The solutions used for optimizing the detector, and the main results are exposed. The internal sectorisation of the detector, which permits a modulation in counting rate and electronical adjustments, has been revealed to be very suitable for heavy ions intermediate energy physics. Results of the first experiment realised with M.E.ω. (Ar + Ag at 35 MeV/u) are commented [fr

  7. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.; Muntzing, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  8. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39(+5) weeks, range 37(+2)-41(+6)). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development.

  9. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  10. Implementation of multi-regional energy balances for Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, B.; Schechtner, O.; Zelle, K.; Andjelic, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system used for preparing energy balances for Styria and 17 Styrian districts, which was developed by ADIP-GRAZ in accordance with the federal energy balance of Austria, is being applied to Slovenia. Energy balances are a necessary tool for monitoring the impact of measures initiated by the energy policy. Therefore balances are of a basic mutual interest, also in connection with balances of air pollutants that can be calculated from energy balances. The official Slovenian energy balance for the year 1990 is the basis for implementation of regional balances for five chosen regions (Maribor region, Celje region, Ljubljana region, Littoral region, and Upper-Slovenia region). Results are presented according to defined concepts and structures which are closely related to the MEDEE-RS methodology. (Author)

  11. Measurement of Fragment Mass Distributions in Neutron-induced Fission of 238U and 232Th at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simutkin, V.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conceptual analysis of accelerator-driven systems assumes extensive use of nuclear data on neutron-induced reactions at intermediate energies. In particular, information about the fission fragment yields from the 238 U(n,f) and 232 Th(n,f) reactions is of particular interest at neutron energies from 10 to 200 MeV. However, there is a lack of such data for both 238 U and 232 Th. Up to now, the intermediate energy measurements have been performed for 238 U only, and there are no data for the 232 Th(n,f) reaction. The aim of the work is to provide such data. Fission fragment mass distributions for the 232 Th(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) reactions have been measured for the incident neutron energies 32.8 MeV, 45.3 MeV and 59.9 MeV. The experiments have been performed at the neutron beam facility of the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used as a fission fragment detector. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MMRNRM). (authors)

  12. The Midi-Pyrenees regional energy observatory - Release 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, Martin; Daubigny, Jean; Fraysse, Jean-Marie; Dedieu-Casties, Francoise; RIEY, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Illustrated with maps and graphs, this publication proposes a synthetic and brief energy assessment for the Midi-Pyrenees region. It briefly presents the regional energy situation in terms of final energy consumption between 1990 and 2003, of primary energy production during the same period, of inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, and of CO 2 emissions by the energy sector. It also proposes an overview of the situation, evolution and production of various energy sources: hydroelectricity, wood, wind, solar photovoltaic, solar and thermal energy, co-generation, and other types of energy valorisation modes (biogas, combustion). It proposes a focus on two important sectors, transports and housing

  13. Investigation of the core-halo structure of the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He by intermediate-energy elastic proton scattering at high momentum transfer; Etude de la structure coeur-halo des noyaux riches en neutron {sup 6}He et {sup 8}He par la diffusion elastique de protons aux energies intermediaires etendue a la region du premier minimum de diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksouh, F

    2002-12-01

    The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in {sup 6,8}He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)

  14. A Free Energy Barrier Caused by the Refolding of an Oligomeric Intermediate Controls the Lag Time of Amyloid Formation by hIAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Arnaldo L; Lomont, Justin P; Tu, Ling-Hsien; Raleigh, Daniel P; Zanni, Martin T

    2017-11-22

    Transiently populated oligomers formed en route to amyloid fibrils may constitute the most toxic aggregates associated with many amyloid-associated diseases. Most nucleation theories used to describe amyloid aggregation predict low oligomer concentrations and do not take into account free energy costs that may be associated with structural rearrangements between the oligomer and fiber states. We have used isotope labeling and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to spectrally resolve an oligomeric intermediate during the aggregation of the human islet amyloid protein (hIAPP or amylin), the protein associated with type II diabetes. A structural rearrangement includes the F 23 G 24 A 25 I 26 L 27 region of hIAPP, which starts from a random coil structure, evolves into ordered β-sheet oligomers containing at least 5 strands, and then partially disorders in the fibril structure. The supercritical concentration is measured to be between 150 and 250 μM, which is the thermodynamic parameter that sets the free energy of the oligomers. A 3-state kinetic model fits the experimental data, but only if it includes a concentration independent free energy barrier >3 kcal/mol that represents the free energy cost of refolding the oligomeric intermediate into the structure of the amyloid fibril; i.e., "oligomer activation" is required. The barrier creates a transition state in the free energy landscape that slows fibril formation and creates a stable population of oligomers during the lag phase, even at concentrations below the supercritical concentration. Largely missing in current kinetic models is a link between structure and kinetics. Our experiments and modeling provide evidence that protein structural rearrangements during aggregation impact the populations and kinetics of toxic oligomeric species.

  15. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  16. On light cluster production in nucleon induced reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Blideanu, V.; Durand, D.

    2004-09-01

    A dynamical model dedicated to nucleon induced reaction between 30-150 MeV is presented. It considers different stages of the reaction: the approaching phase, the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collisions, the cluster formation and the secondary de-excitation process. The notions of influence area and phase-space exploration during the reaction are introduced. The importance of the geometry of the reaction and of the conservation laws are underlined. The model is able to globally reproduce the absolute cross sections for the emission of neutron and light charged particles for proton and neutron induced reactions on heavy and intermediate mass targets ( 56 Fe and 208 Pb). (authors)

  17. Calculated microdose spectra for intermediate energy neutrons (1 to 100 keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Affan, I.A.M.; Watt, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Basic formulae for calculation of energy deposition events due to insiders, starters, stoppers and crossers, using the continuous slowing down approximation have been modified to allow for the enhanced energy deposition in spherical volumes due to elastic scattering interactions which reduce the penetration depth of the charged particle recoils. Energy deposition spectra have been obtained for energies of 1, 10, 50, 100 keV in 0.2 μm and 1 μm tissue-equivalent spheres. From these, frequency and dose distributions in lineal energy and in specific energy density have been calculated. Also calculated for different neutron energies are values of zeta, the energy average of event size, as a function of the diameter of the sensitive site. The structure of the energy event distributions can be interpreted in terms of the basic physics. The effect of the modifications to the basic formulae is to increase the number of energy deposition events due to insiders and to decrease the number of starters, stoppers and crossers. The degree of the effect increases with decreasing neutron energy, increasing sphere size, and the change is most significant for low energy deposition events. (author)

  18. Calculated microdose spectra for intermediate energy neutrons (1 to 100 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I.A.M.; Watt, D.E. (Dundee Univ. (UK). Dept. of Medical Biophysics); Colautti, P.; Talpo, G. (Laboratori Nazionali dell' Infn, 35020, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy))

    1983-01-01

    Basic formulae for calculation of energy deposition events due to insiders, starters, stoppers and crossers, using the continuous slowing down approximation have been modified to allow for the enhanced energy deposition in spherical volumes due to elastic scattering interactions which reduce the penetration depth of the charged particle recoils. Energy deposition spectra have been obtained for energies of 1, 10, 50, 100 keV in 0.2 ..mu..m and 1 ..mu..m tissue-equivalent spheres. From these, frequency and dose distributions in lineal energy and in specific energy density have been calculated. Also calculated for different neutron energies are values of zeta, the energy average of event size, as a function of the diameter of the sensitive site. The structure of the energy event distributions can be interpreted in terms of the basic physics. The effect of the modifications to the basic formulae is to increase the number of energy deposition events due to insiders and to decrease the number of starters, stoppers and crossers. The degree of the effect increases with decreasing neutron energy, increasing sphere size, and the change is most significant for low energy deposition events.

  19. Extension of the energy-to-moment parameter Θ to intermediate and deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloor, Nooshin; Okal, Emile A.

    2018-01-01

    We extend to intermediate and deep earthquakes the slowness parameter Θ originally introduced by Newman and Okal (1998). Because of the increasing time lag with depth between the phases P, pP and sP, and of variations in anelastic attenuation parameters t∗ , we define four depth bins featuring slightly different algorithms for the computation of Θ . We apply this methodology to a global dataset of 598 intermediate and deep earthquakes with moments greater than 1025 dyn∗cm. We find a slight increase with depth in average values of Θ (from -4.81 between 80 and 135 km to -4.48 between 450 and 700 km), which however all have intersecting one- σ bands. With widths ranging from 0.26 to 0.31 logarithmic units, these are narrower than their counterpart for a reference dataset of 146 shallow earthquakes (σ = 0.55). Similarly, we find no correlation between values of Θ and focal geometry. These results point to stress conditions within the seismogenic zones inside the Wadati-Benioff slabs more homogeneous than those prevailing at the shallow contacts between tectonic plates.

  20. Relative biological efficiency of intermediate energy neutrons and 60Co rays for induction of chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturelid, S.; Bergman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Intermediate energy neutrons are unique in that a considerable fraction of critical interactions and of dose absorbed is not associated with ionization but with atomic collision. It is still unknown to what extent the qualitative difference in primary damage after atomic collision compared to that of ionization and excitation becomes expressed at biological levels. Chromosomal aberrations were studied in Chinese hamster fibroblasts exposed for 5-8 hours at 22 degree C to intermediate energy neutrons, mean energy 8.5 keV, or to 60 Co-gamma rays. RBE at the 10 per cent aberration frequency level in S-phase were 2.2+-0.6 for total aberrations, 2.1+-0.6 for chromatid breaks and 1.8+-0.5 for exchanges. For each chromatid aberration observed after recovery, about 200 bondbreaking atomic collisions besides 3000 primary iniozations should have occured in DNA. However, the extent to which the aberration response is due to atomic collisions is not clear. (author)

  1. Regional energy projects in the Eurasian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Dobrica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian area has a very rich energy reserves, and is characterized by a complex network of relationships between major suppliers and consumers. The central place in this area has Russia as a country richest in energy resources in Eurasia. Beside her, the European Union is the largest economic and political grouping in the world, and a huge consumer of energy. The dynamic development of Chinese economy requires more energy imports by China. Dependence of the European Union and China on imported energy is high and will grow in the future. Russia is the world's dominant natural gas producer and one of the two largest oil producers in the world. Russia is the largest natural gas supplier of the EU and a significant oil and natural gas supplier of China. Energy projects in Eurasia are the result of the need to strengthen the stability of energy supplies, efforts to diversify sources of supply, and the geographic redistribution of Russian oil and gas exports. Although the interests of the main actors often do not agree, the reasons of energy security affect the development of joint energy projects.

  2. Electron capture in low- and intermediate-energy collisions between completely stripped light ions and metastable H(2s) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.A.; Falcon, C.A.; Reinhold, C.O.; Casaubon, J.I.; Piacentini, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron capture from H(2s) targets by He 2+ ions have been computed in the impact velocity range 0.05-0.5 au. Calculations were performed using a molecular close-coupling approach with inclusion of electron translation factors. A ten-state molecular basis set was considered. A comparison is made with Landau-Zener results for the same system. Intermediate projectile energy classical Monte Carlo capture cross sections are also presented for H + , He 2+ , Li 3+ and C 6+ projectiles. (author)

  3. Energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, J S; Brainard, J P

    1977-08-01

    This report presents a review of the energy situation in the Mid-Atlantic Region. It describes the patterns of energy production, supply and demand by state and compares these to national and regional averages. It presents a picture of existing energy and environmental interactions and a view of potential energy and environmental conflicts. A review of the major issues by energy sector is included as is a description of the existing energy actors and major energy programs for Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Delaware, Maryland, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Washington, DC.

  4. A methodology for the data energy regional consumption consistency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The article introduces a methodology for data energy regional consumption consistency analysis. The work was going based on recent studies accomplished by several cited authors and boarded Brazilian matrices and Brazilian energetics regional balances. The results are compared and analyzed

  5. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  6. Modelling smart energy systems in tropical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Dobravec, V.; Jiang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    and water desalination sectors. Five different large scale storages were modelled, too. The developed linear optimization model further included endogenous decisions about the share of district versus individual cooling, implementation of energy efficiency solutions and implementation of demand response...... emissions, 15% higher particulate matter emissions and 2% larger primary energy consumption compared to a business-as-usual case....

  7. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  8. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  9. Isospin equilibrium and non-equilibrium in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liewen; Ge Lingxiao; Zhang Xiaodong; Zhang Fengshou

    1997-01-01

    The equilibrium and non-equilibrium of the isospin degree of freedom are studied in terms of an isospin-dependent QMD model, which includes isospin-dependent symmetry energy, Coulomb energy, N-N cross sections and Pauli blocking. It is shown that there exists a transition from the isospin equilibrium to non-equilibrium as the incident energy from below to above a threshold energy in central, asymmetric heavy-ion collisions. Meanwhile, it is found that the phenomenon results from the co-existence and competition of different reaction mechanisms, namely, the isospin degree of freedom reaches an equilibrium if the incomplete fusion (ICF) component is dominant and does not reach equilibrium if the fragmentation component is dominant. Moreover, it is also found that the isospin-dependent N-N cross sections and symmetry energy are crucial for the equilibrium of the isospin degree of freedom in heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy. (author)

  10. Technical papers 1: regional energy accounting; Cahiers techniques 1: bilan energetique regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The regional energy accounting is an appropriate tool to the elaboration energy conservation programs. It allows to identify the regional stakes and understand the impacts of the energy policies. In this accounting the consumptions are presented by energy products (petroleum products, mineral solid fuels, renewable energies, electric power, natural gas) and by consumption sectors (steel metallurgy, accommodation, ternary industry, agricultural, transport). (A.L.B.)

  11. Regional energy observatory. Energy status - greenhouse effect in the Aquitaine region. First results; Observatoire regional de l'energie. Bilan energie - effet de serre de la region Aquitaine. Premiers resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The IDEA organization (information about the environmental development in Aquitaine region) has created an energy observatory, the mission of which is to supply regularly a reliable, objective and useful information about energy and greenhouse effect in the Aquitaine region (SW France). This document presents: the end-use energy consumption, the sectorial statuses (residential, tertiary sector, industry, agriculture, transports), the energy production and the renewable energy sources in Aquitaine region. Details are given in separate files at the end of the document for the 5 departements of Aquitaine (Dordogne, Gironde, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrennees Atlantiques). (J.S.)

  12. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots embedded in energy fence barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Wei, Guodan

    2010-07-06

    A plurality of layers of a first semiconductor material and a plurality of dots-in-a-fence barriers disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode. Each dots-in-a-fence barrier consists essentially of a plurality of quantum dots of a second semiconductor material embedded between and in direct contact with two layers of a third semiconductor material. Wave functions of the quantum dots overlap as at least one intermediate band. The layers of the third semiconductor material are arranged as tunneling barriers to require a first electron and/or a first hole in a layer of the first material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the second material within a respective quantum dot, and to require a second electron and/or a second hole in a layer of the first semiconductor material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach another layer of the first semiconductor material.

  13. The role of collision terms for nucleon emission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Scheuter, F.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1984-01-01

    A semi-classical description of heavy ion collisions is developed with a particular attention to the nucleon flux from one partner through the other one. The phase-space extension of the nucleons is explicitly treated by means of the Wigner transform of the density matrix. Its dynamical evolution is obtained by solving the Landau-Vlasov equation, where collision terms are explicitely introduced. As a matter of fact, the experimental nucleon spectra usually described by a thermal source with an intermediate velocity (around vsub(beam)/2) are interpreted in our framework by the coexistence of one-and two-body dissipation. Multi-differential cross-sections d 2 σ/dEdΩ are computed for the 12 C(86MeV/u) + 12 C system and are compared with the experimental data. Comparisons are also given for the 16 O (20 MeV/u) + 197 Au system

  14. On light cluster production in nucleon induced reactions at intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Blideanu, V.; Durand, D

    2004-09-01

    A dynamical model dedicated to nucleon induced reaction between 30-150 MeV is presented. It considers different stages of the reaction: the approaching phase, the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collisions, the cluster formation and the secondary de-excitation process. The notions of influence area and phase-space exploration during the reaction are introduced. The importance of the geometry of the reaction and of the conservation laws are underlined. The model is able to globally reproduce the absolute cross sections for the emission of neutron and light charged particles for proton and neutron induced reactions on heavy and intermediate mass targets ({sup 56}Fe and {sup 208}Pb). (authors)

  15. Isospin effects on pt-differential flow in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rubina; Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the role of isospin degree of freedom in heavy-ion collisions through the transverse momentum (p t ), neutron to proton ratio and system mass dependence of p t -differential transverse flow. Our study shows that (p t )-differential transverse flow dependence can act as sensitive probe to study symmetry energy and its density dependence compared to the energy of vanishing flow. Symmetry energy and its density dependence play a dominant role over the isospin-dependence of nucleon–nucleon cross-section at Fermi energy. (author)

  16. Average regional end-use energy price projections to the year 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The energy prices shown in this report cover the period from 1991 through 2030. These prices reflect sector/fuel price projections from the Annual Energy Outlook 1991 (AEO) base case, developed using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) forecasting model. Projections through 2010 are AEO base case forecasts. Projections for the period from 2011 through 2030 were developed separately from the AEO for this report, and the basis for these projections is described in Chapter 3. Projections in this report include average energy prices for each of four Census Regions for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation end-use sectors. Energy sources include electricity, distillate fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline, residual fuel oil, natural gas, and steam coal. (VC)

  17. Public-Private Partnership for Regional Development of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the public-private partnership as a possible solution for regional development of renewable energy. Firstly, the study reveals the strong connection between renewable energy and sustainable regional development, and secondly, the study discloses some reasons for developing renewable energy through public-private partnerships in Romania’s regions. The findings of this study reveal that there is a strong need for a renewable energy partnership between public authorities, business community and civil society in order to achieve the regional development of renewable energy. The results of this study may be used for upcoming research in the area of implementing renewable energy projects through public-private partnerships in order to achieve sustainable regional development.

  18. The (γ, p) reaction in 30Si, 68Zn and 130Te at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulow, B.; Johnsson, B.; Nilsson, M.

    1977-01-01

    The yields of (γ, p) reactions on 30 Si, 68 Zn and 130 Te have been measured as a function of the bremsstrahlung end-point energy, Esub(γ, max), in the energy range 75-800 MeV, using the activation method. Cross sections have been deduced and are compared to results obtained using a semiempirical model. (Auth.)

  19. Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies; Photoproduction de mesons sur le nucleon aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, M

    1997-01-01

    In this work a model is proposed to simulate the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons ('PI' and K) on the nucleon at high energy. This model is based on the exchange of mesonic or baryonic Regge trajectories, it is gauge invariant and it uses a Feynman diagram formalism inspired from isobaric models. The measurements concerning the following reactions {gamma}p {yields} n{pi}{sup +}, {gamma}n {yields} p{pi}{sup -}, {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0} and {gamma}n {yields} n{pi}{sup 0} are reviewed and the new model is confronted to the experimental results. The model gives a reasonable and coherent description of these 4 reactions. The model has also been applied to the photoproduction of strange mesons and of {lambda} and {sigma} baryons and has been extrapolated at low energy to the threshold of the reaction, the model matches the results even up to E{sub {gamma}} = 2 GeV for differential cross-sections and recoil polarization. An attempt has been made to associate a Regge based description, which is valid with low transfers, with perturbative quantum chromodynamics which is valid with high transfers. The model relies on the saturation of trajectories in the high transfer region and on the counting laws that give the right variation of the cross-section. It seems that a model based on linear trajectories can be reliable up to 4 GeV. The domain of high transfer has been too little investigated to provide enough experimental data to validate the model. An experiment whose purpose is to study the photoproduction of {phi} at high transfer, is proposed. This experiment requires an accelerator with high useful cycle because of the smallness of the expected cross-section. The CEBAF (continuous electron beam accelerator facility) as well as the CLAS 4{pi} detector is presented. The study of {gamma}p {yields} p{phi} and {gamma}p {yields} K{lambda}{sup *} (1520) requires the discrimination of kaons from pions so the measurement of 180 ps as time resolution allows the

  20. Theory of inelastic ion-atom scattering at low and intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G. B.; Garcia, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are presented of inelastic energy loss and ionization phenomena associated with Ar(+)-Ar collisions at small distances of closest approach and for laboratory collision energies ranging from several keV to several hundred keV. Outer-shell excitations are handled statistically; inner-shell excitations are calculated from the viewpoint of quasidiabatic molecular orbital promotion. Auger electron yield, average state of ionization, and average inelastic energy loss are calculated per collision as a function of distance of closest approach of the collision partners for several laboratory collision energies. Average charge-state probabilities per collision partner are calculated as a function of the average inelastic energy loss per atom. It is shown that the structure in the data is due to the underlying structure in the inner-shell independent-electron quasimolecular promotion probabilities.

  1. UCLA intermediate energy nuclear physics and relativistic heavy ion physics. Annual report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In this contract year the UCLA Intermediate Energy Group has continued to pursue a general set of problems in intermediate energy physics using new research tools and theoretical insights. Our program to study N-N scattering and proton-light nucleus scattering has been enhanced by a new polarized target facility (both hydrogen and deuterium) at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This facility has been constructed by our group in collaboration with physicists from KEK, LAMPF and the University of Minnesota; and the first set of experiments studying polarized beam-polarized target scattering at the HRS were completed this summer and early fall. The HRS mode of operation has led to some unique design features which are described. At the Bevalac, a new beam line spectrometer will be constructed for us during this year and next to significantly enhance our capability to study subthreshold k + , k - and anti p production in relativistic heavy ion collisions and to search for fractionally charged particles. During this period a proposal is being prepared for a very large acceptance spectrometer and its associated beam line which will be used to detect dilepton pairs produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In concert with these experimental projects, theoretical advances in the understanding of new data from the HRS, particularly spin transfer data, have been made by the UCLA group and are described

  2. On the study of rotational effects in mass asymmetric colliding nuclei at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suneel

    2018-05-01

    The rotational dynamics has been studied for different mass asymmetric systems 49122In + 50126Sn, 48114Cs + 54134In, 40100Mo + 64148Gd, 3686Kr + 67162Ho, 3171Ga + 71177Lu, 2860Ni + 76188Os and 2450Cr + 78198 Pt for incident energies between 40 MeV/nucleon and 400 MeV/nucleon for impact parameter range 0.25 free protons have been compared successfully with IQMD model calculations. The rotational flow of free protons with increasing incident energies and elliptic flow (calculated from the fits of azimuthal distributions of free protons) dependence with energy has also been investigated.

  3. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  4. Determination of minimum impact parameter by modified touching spheres schemes for intermediate energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)

  5. Intermediate-energy nuclear theory. Final report, July 1, 1976-August 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.A.

    1985-02-01

    We summarize the research accomplishments of the Texas A and M Medium-Energy Theory Group which was funded by the Department of Energy from July 1976 through August 1984. Our research was mainly in the area of nucleon-nucleon and NNπ theory and data analysis, although some effort was also devoted to the elementary-particle aspects of these hadrons in order to better understand the NN force. Publications and reports are listed

  6. Total electron scattering cross sections for methanol and ethanol at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D G M; Tejo, T; Lopes, M C A; Muse, J; Romero, D; Khakoo, M A

    2010-01-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements of electron scattering from gaseous methanol and ethanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 60 to 500 eV, using the linear transmission method. The attenuation of intensity of a collimated electron beam through the target volume is used to determine the absolute TCS for a given impact energy, using the Beer-Lambert law to first approximation. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also determined TCS using the additivity rule.

  7. High-energy X-ray diffraction studies of short- and intermediate-range structure in oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2002-01-01

    The feature of high-energy X-ray diffraction method is explained. The oxide glasses studies by using BL04B2, high-energy X-ray diffraction beam line of SPring-8, and the random system materials by high-energy monochromatic X-ray diffraction are introduced. An advantage of third generation synchrotron radiation is summarized. On SPring-8, the high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments of random system are carried out by BL04B2 and BL14B1 beam line. BL04B2 can select Si (111)(E=37.8 keV, λ=0.033 nm) and Si(220)(E=61.7 keV, λ=0.020 nm) as Si monochromator. The intermediate-range structure of (MgO) x (P 2 O 5 ) 1-x glass ,MgP 2 O 6 glass, B 2 O 3 glass, SiO 2 and GeO 2 are explained in detail. The future and application of high-energy X-ray diffraction are stated. (S.Y.)

  8. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Wang, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  9. Energetic evaluation of high pressure PEM electrolyzer systems for intermediate storage of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensmann, B.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Peña Arias, I.K.; Sundmacher, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three pathways for high pressure hydrogen production by means of water electrolysis are energetically compared. Besides the two classic paths, comprising either the pressurization of the product gas (path I) or the mechanical pressurization of the feed water (path II), a third path is discussed. It involves the electrochemical co-compression during the electrolysis. The energetic evaluation is based on a uniform model description of the different hydrogen production pathways. It consists of integral, steady-state balances for energy, entropy and mass as well as a modern equation of state. From this the reversible energy demand is used to identify the inherent thermodynamic drawbacks of the pathways. The additional consideration of irreversibilities allows for the determination of efficiency losses due to device specific characteristics. For hydrogen delivery pressures of up to 40 bar the classical pathways are out-performed by path III. Since the hydrogen is already produced at elevated pressure this eliminates the need for an energy consuming mechanical hydrogen compression and spares the additional energy demand due to the oxygen pressurization. However, with increasing pressure differences the hydrogen back-diffusion strongly decreases the Faradaic efficiency of the asymmetric electrolyzer that has to be compensated by an additional energy supply

  10. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  11. Parameterization of α-nucleus total reaction cross section at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, M A; Abdulmomen, M A

    2008-01-01

    Applying a Coulomb correction factor to the Glauber model we have derived a closed expression for α-nucleus total reaction cross section, σ R . Under the approximation of rigid projectile model, the elastic S-matrix element S el (b) is evaluated from the phenomenological N-α amplitude and a Gaussian fit to the Helm's model form factor. Excellent agreements with the experimental data have been achieved by performing two-parameter fits to the α-nucleus σ R data in the energy range about 75 to 193 MeV. One of the parameters was found to be energy independent while the other, as expected, shows the energy dependence similar to that of N-α total cross section.

  12. Intermediate-energy differential and integral cross sections for vibrational excitation in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z.; Silva, G. B. da; Limão-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; White, R. D.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results

  13. Method of measurement of cross sections of heavy nuclei fission induced by intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, Alexander; Chtchetkovski, Alexander; Fedorov, Oleg; Gavrikov, Yuri; Chestnov, Yuri; Poliakov, Vladimir; Vaishnene, Larissa; Vovchenko, Vil; Fukahori, Tokio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is experimental studies of the energy dependence of the fission cross sections of heavy nuclei, nat Pb, 209 Bi, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu, by protons at the energies from 200 to 1000 MeV. At present experiment the method based on use of the gas parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) for registration of complementary fission fragments in coincidence and the telescope of scintillation counters for direct counting of the incident protons on the target has been used. First preliminary results of the energy dependences of proton induced fission cross sections for nat Pb, 209 Bi, 235 U and 238 U are reported. (author)

  14. Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin,’ Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.

  15. Dynamical aspects of intermediate-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassing, W.

    1987-01-01

    Central collisions of heavy nuclei are investigated within the limit of selfconsistent independent single-particle motion in terms of the Wigner transform of the one-body density matrix in space and time. The energy regime considered extends from roughly 15 MeV/u to 150 MeV/u. Special attention is devoted to the relation between energy and momentum of the nucleons in the collision zone of the two nuclei. An initial average energy-momentum distribution f(k; E) is determined within the fully quantal approach which proves to be vital for our understanding of energetic particle production in the very early stage of the heavy-ion reaction. A comparison with related classical quantities shows the peculiar features of quantum dynamics for finite size fermion systems far from equilibrium. (orig.)

  16. Intermediate-energy differential and integral cross sections for vibrational excitation in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Pettifer, Z. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); White, R. D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-06-07

    Differential and integral cross section measurements, for incident electron energies in the 20–50 eV range, are reported for excitation of several composite vibrational modes in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). Optimisation and frequency calculations, using GAUSSIAN 09 at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, were also undertaken for the two most abundant conformers of THFA, with results being reported for their respective mode classifications and excitation energies. Those calculations assisted us in the experimental assignments of the composite features observed in our measured energy loss spectra. There are, to the best of our knowledge, no other experimental or theoretical data currently available in the literature against which we can compare the present results.

  17. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  18. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  19. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  20. Isospin diffusion in 58Ni-induced reactions at intermediate energies. I. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galichet, E.; Rivet, M. F.; Borderie, B.; Colonna, M.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Lopez, O.; Manduci, L.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Dayras, R.; Volant, C.; Guinet, D. C. R.; Lautesse, P.; Neindre, N. Le; Parlog, M.; Rosato, E.

    2009-01-01

    Isospin diffusion in semiperipheral collisions is probed as a function of the dissipated energy by studying two systems 58 Ni+ 58 Ni and 58 Ni+ 197 Au, over the incident energy range 52A-74A MeV. A close examination of the multiplicities of light products in the forward part of the phase space clearly shows an influence of the isospin of the target on the neutron richness of these products. A progressive isospin diffusion is observed when collisions become more central, in connection with the interaction time.

  1. Uranium target fragmentation by intermediate and high energy 12C and 20Ne ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughey, P.L.; Loveland, W.; Morrissey, D.J.; Aleklett, K.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Target fragment formation cross sections for nuclides with 24 12 C and 8.0 and 20.0 GeV 20 Ne with 238 U. Fragment isobaric yields were deduced from these data. The light fragment (A 12 C projectile energy of 1.0 GeV, the n-deficient fragments appear to originate primarily from a fission rather than a spallation process.) The excitation functions of the heavy fragments with 60 60, indicating that the general pattern of yields of these fragments is governed by the excitation energy deposited in the nucleus during the first step of the reaction and the geometry of the collision

  2. The nanostructure formation on muscovite mica surface induced by intermediate-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, P.; Zhang, HQ., E-mail: zhanghq@lzu.edu.cn; Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Guan, S.; Wang, G.; Zhou, C.; Jia, J.; Lv, X.; Shao, J.; Cui, Y.; Chen, L.; Chen, X., E-mail: chenxm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-07-15

    Muscovite mica sheets were bombarded by lithium, carbon and oxygen ions in the energy range from several hundred keV to several MeV. The induced surface structures were measured in the air with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The hillock-like structure on the mica surface was observed. The height of the hillock increases linearly when the energy loss is above 1.2 keV/nm. The induced structures are similar with the similar electronic stopping powers but different projectiles for muscovite mica.

  3. Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of intermediate energy electrons from sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubner, P.J.O.; Buckner, S.J.; Noble, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from sodium have been measured with high angular resolution for incident energies of 54.4, 75, 100 and 150 eV and over an angular range of 12 0 to 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with calculations based on the First Born approximation, the Glauber approximation and a close coupling impact parameter calculation. Calculations have been carried out for an optical model using the prescription of Vanderpoorten for localizing the absorptive part of the potential. Of the theoretical calculations the optical model is found to best reproduce the general features of the cross section at all energies. (Author)

  4. Angle-averaged effective proton-carbon analyzing powers at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Berg, A.M. van den; Hunyadi, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Woertche, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The angle-averaged effective analyzing powers, A-bar c , for proton-carbon inclusive scattering were measured as a function of the kinetic energy of protons in a double scattering experiment. The measurements were performed in the kinetic energy range of 44.8-136.5MeV at the center of 1-5cm thick graphite analyzers using a polarized proton beam on a CH 2 film or liquid hydrogen serving as target for the primary scattering. These data can be used for measuring the polarization of protons emerging from other reactions such as H(d-bar ,p-bar )d

  5. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  6. Emerging Regional Energy Security Issues China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    moving toward European standards and taxation of least efficient vehicles www.csis.org | 7 China’s Energy Strategy - Clean Power Generation...Project Type of Contract Signature Date Estimated Value Contractor(s) Remarks Malaysian Amona (Main Contractor), Chinese COSL and CNOOC The first...infrastructure. List of Upstream Agreements Between Iran and China in Recent Years ** The original buyback contract w as signed betw een Malaysian Amona and

  7. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology was founded in 1827 and it is the largest technical university in Sweden with five campuses and Around 15,000 students. KTH-dESA combines an outstanding knowledge in the field of energy systems analysis. This is demonstrated by the successful collaborations with many (UN) organizations. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa include Assessing renewable energy potentials; Analysing investment strategies; ) Assessing climate resilience; Comparing electrification options; Providing web-based decision support; and Quantifying energy access. It is conclude that Strategies required to ensure a robust and flexible energy system (-> no-regret choices); Capacity investments should be in line with national & regional strategies; Climate change important to consider, as it may strongly influence the energy flows in a region; Long-term models can help identify robust energy investment strategies and pathways that Can help assess future markets and profitability of individual projects

  8. Economic growth, regional disparities and energy demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Yu; Shi, Xunpeng; Zhang, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Using the panel data of 27 provinces between 1978 and 2008, we employed a instrumental regression technique to examine the relationship between economic growth, energy demand/production and the related policies in China. The empirical results show that forming a cross-province integrated energy market will in general reduce the response of equilibrium user costs of energy products to their local demand and production, through cross-regional energy transfer (including both energy trade and cross-regional reallocation). In particular, reducing transportation costs and improving marketization level are identified as two important policy instruments to enhance the role of energy market integration. The findings support the argument for a more competitive cross-province energy transfer policies and calls for more developed energy connectivity and associate institutional arrangements within China. These policy implications may also be extended to the East Asia Summit region where energy market integration is being actively promoted. - Highlights: • Development driving energy demand has different impacts on energy prices than others. • EMI will reduce the response of equilibrium energy prices to local demand and production. • Reducing transportation costs and improving marketization level enhance the role of EMI. • More market competition and better physical and institutional connectivity are better. • Policy implications to China may be extended to the East Asia Summit region

  9. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  10. A hybrid model for the investigation of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The coupling of the Botzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model with Kopenhagen multifragmentation model realising a new hybrid model, application on 197 Au+ 197 Au reactions between 100 and 250 A.MeV, calculation of the chracteristics of the fragmentation system including mass number, excitation energy, angular momenta, two-particle correlation function

  11. Nucleon charge exchange reaction and antiproton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenfeld, J.

    1985-02-01

    This work treats the medium energy nuclear (p,n) charge exchange reaction to analog states and the low energy elastic scattering of antiprotons and investigates the central aspects of a microscopic theory based on multiple-scattering series which are pertinent to these reactions. A two-step term of the Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation (DWIA) in treating the (p,n) reaction, was included. For the very absorptive p-bar interaction with nuclei we conjecture that a partial infinite summation, constituing a renormalization of the single scattering term of the optical potential series provides the dominant feature of this interaction. In this work the excitation of analog states is calculated and it was found that the (p,n) reaction is described fairly well by the DWIA. In the first part of the work the (p,n) reaction in the energy range 100-200 MeV was treated. The DWIA calculations were based on eikonalization. In the second part of the work the p-barA interaction with the selfconsistent scheme mentioned above, for scattering energies 30-120 MeV, was examined. (author)

  12. Intermediate energy cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ellis-Gibbings, L.; García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY (United Kingdom); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-07

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine, at incident electron energies in the range 15–50 eV. The scattered electron angular range for the DCS measurements was 15°–90°. The measurements at the DCS-level are the first to be reported for vibrational-excitation in pyrimidine via electron impact, while for the ICS we extend the results from the only previous condensed-phase study [P. L. Levesque, M. Michaud, and L. Sanche, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094701 (2005)], for electron energies ⩽12 eV, to higher energies. Interestingly, the trend in the magnitude of the lower energy condensed-phase ICSs is much smaller when compared to the corresponding gas phase results. As there is no evidence for the existence of any shape-resonances, in the available pyrimidine total cross sections [Baek et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032702 (2013); Fuss et al., ibid. 88, 042702 (2013)], between 10 and 20 eV, this mismatch in absolute magnitude between the condensed-phase and gas-phase ICSs might be indicative for collective-behaviour effects in the condensed-phase results.

  13. Elastic scattering of polarized protons from 3He at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.; Bracco, A.; Gubler, H.P.

    1982-09-01

    Using the polarized proton beam facility of the TRIUMF cyclotron, differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured in the angular range 20 0 - 150 0 c.m. for proton elastic scattering from 3 He at incident proton energies of 200, 300, 415 and 515 MeV. The differential cross sections exhibit a minimum at t = -0.33 (GeV/c) 2 which becomes more pronounced with increasing energy. There is evidence for the onset of a second minimum corresponding to the interference between double and triple scattering amplitudes. Large analyzing powers are observed at the lower energies. The data from the present analysis, together with data obtained from the literature in the energy range 100-1000 MeV, have been analyzed within the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering formalism. Nucleon-nucleon scattering parameters were taken from a global phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering data. Reasonable agreement with the data is obtained

  14. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  15. Intermediate-energy proton- 4He elastic scattering with a microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Y.; Landau, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    A microscopic, momentum space, optical potential calculation of elastic p- 4 He scattering is compared with 100-200 MeV data over the full angular range. The least sophisticated potential explains the occurrence and energy dependence of the back angle peak. (Auth.)

  16. Intermediate Energies for Nuclear Astrophysics and the Development of a Position Sensitive Microstrip Detector System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobotka, Lee G. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blackmon, J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bertulani, C. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-12-30

    The chemical elements are made at astrophysical sites through a sequence of nuclear reactions often involving unstable nuclei. The overarching aim of this project is to construct a system that allows for the inverse process of nucleosynthesis (i.e. breakup of heavier nuclei into lighter ones) to be studied in high efficiency. The specific problem to be overcome with this grant is inadequate dynamic range and (triggering) threshold to detect the products of the breakup which include both heavy ions (with large energy and large deposited energy in a detector system) and protons (with little energy and deposited energy.) Early on in the grant we provided both TAMU and RIKEN (the site of the eventual experiments) with working systems based on the existing technology. This technology could be used with either an external preamplifier that was to be designed and fabricated by our RIKEN collaborators or upgraded by replacing the existing chip with one we designed. The RIKEN external preamplifier project never can to completion but our revised chip was designed, fabricated, used in a test experiment and performs as required.

  17. Exclusive study of the formation and the decay of hot nuclei in the intermediate energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of exclusive measurements performed at GANIL in order to study hot nuclei will be given. Heavy-ion induced reactions on heavy targets have been investigated over a wide range of incident energy, using various techniques: - fission fragment angular correlations. - 4 π neutron multiplicity measurements. - light charged particle correlations. In each case, a selection of the most violent collisions can be achieved. For central collisions induced by 40 Ar, a same excitation energy of about 650 MeV is deduced from the totally different and independent sets of data, corresponding to an average temperature of 5 MeV. At 60 MeV/u, this value is quite low as compare to the total available energy for central collisions A tentative explanation based on Landau-Vlasov simulations will be proposed: the excitation energy dissipated in the system could be stored in a highly excited compression mode as well as under a thermal form. Some recent results on the Kr+Au system at 32 MeV/u will be presented indicating that heavier projectiles than 40 Ar can lead to a temperature of the hot system approaching 7 MeV

  18. Verification of MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 Data bases at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarenko, Y. E. (Yury E.); Batyaev, V. F. (Vyacheslav F.); Karpikhin, E. I. (Evgeny I.); Zhivun, V. M. (Valery M.); Koldobsky, A. B. (Aleksander B.); Mulambetov, R. D. (Ruslan D.); Mulambetova, S. V.; Trebukhovsky, Y. V. (Yury V.); Zaitsev, S. L.; Lipatov, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Prael, R. E. (Richard E.)

    2004-01-01

    The work presents results on computer simulations of two experiments whose aim was measuring the threshold activation reaction rates in {sup 12}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 93}Nb, {sup 115}In, {sup 169}Tm, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, and {sup 209}Bi thin samples placed inside and outside a 0.8-GeV proton-irradiated 4-cm thick W target and a 92-cm thick W-Na composite target of 15-cm diameter both. In total, more than 1000 values of activation reaction rates were determined in both experiments. The measured data were compared with results by the LAHET code using several nuclear data bases for the respective excitation functions, namely, ENDF/B6 for cross section of neutrons at energies below 20 MeV and MENDL2 together with MENDL2P for cross sections of protons and neutrons of 20 to 100 MeV energies. The recently developed IEAF-2001 data base that provides neutron cross sections up to 150 MeV was used as well. Simulation-to-experiment results obtained using MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 are presented. The agreement between simulation and experiment was found satisfactory for both data bases. Nevertheless; further studies should be conducted to improve simulations of the production of secondary protons and high-energy neutrons, as well as the high-energy neutron elastic scattering. Our results allow drawing some conclusions concerning the reliability of the transport codes and data bases used to simulate Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), particularly with Na-cooled W targets. The high-energy threshold excitation functions to be used in activation-based unfolding of neutron spectra inside the ADS can be also inferred from our results.

  19. Energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaidi, Adel; AlFaris, Fadi; Montoya, Francisco G.; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Building sector consumes a significant amount of energy worldwide (up to 40% of the total global energy); moreover, by the year 2030 the consumption is expected to increase by 50%. One of the reasons is that the performance of buildings and its components degrade over the years. In recent years, energy benchmarking for government office buildings, large scale public buildings and large commercial buildings is one of the key energy saving projects for promoting the development of building energy efficiency and sustainable energy savings in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO_2 emissions and conventional air pollution. This paper focuses on energy benchmarking for shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region. In addition, this paper will analyze a sample of shopping centers data in Gulf Coast Region (Dubai, Ajman, Sharjah, Oman and Bahrain). It aims to develop a benchmark for these shopping centers by highlighting the status of energy consumption performance. This research will support the sustainability movement in Gulf area through classifying the shopping centers into: Poor, Usual and Best Practices in terms of energy efficiency. According to the benchmarking analysis in this paper, the shopping centers best energy management practices in the Gulf Coast Region are the buildings that consume less than 810 kW h/m"2/yr, whereas the poor building practices are the centers that consume greater than 1439 kW h/m"2/yr. The conclusions of this work can be used as a reference for shopping centres benchmarking with similar climate. - Highlights: •The energy consumption data of shopping centers in Gulf Coast Region were gathered. •A benchmarking of energy consumption for the public areas for the shopping centers in the Gulf Coast Region was developed. •The shopping centers have the usual practice in the region between 810 kW h/m"2/yr and 1439 kW h/m"2/yr.

  20. Myocardial perfusion assessment by dual-energy computed tomography in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zam, M.C.; Capunay, C.; Rodriguez Granillo, G.A.; Deviggiano, A.; Campisi, R.; Munain, M. López de; Vallejos, J.; Carrascosa, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to explore the feasibility and diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD), and to assess the impact of beam hardening artifacts (HAE). Methods. The present prospective study involved patients with known or suspected CAD referred for myocardial perfusion imaging by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Twenty patients were included in the study protocol, and scanned using DECT imaging (n = 20). The same pharmacological stress was used for DECT and SPECT scans. Results. A total of 680 left ventricular segments were evaluated by DECT and SPECT. The contrast to noise ratio was 8.8±2.9. The diagnostic performance of DECT was very good in identifying perfusion defects [area under ROC curve (AUC) of DECT 0.90 (0.86-0.94)] compared with SPECT, and remained unaffected when including only segments affected by beam hardening artifacts (BHA) [AUC= DECT 0.90 (0.84-0.96)]. Conclusions. In this pilot investigation, myocardial perfusion assessment by DECT imaging in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of CAD was feasible and remained unaffected by the presence of BHA. (authors) [es

  1. Experimental measurement of radiological penumbra associated with intermediate energy x-rays (1 MV) and small radiosurgery field sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Brian M.; Beachey, David J.; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is used to treat intracranial lesions with a high degree of accuracy. At the present time, x-ray energies at or above Co-60 gamma rays are used. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated that intermediate energy x-ray photons or IEPs (defined to be photons in the energy range of 0.2-1.2 MeV), combined with small field sizes, produce a reduced radiological penumbra leading to a sharper dose gradient, improved dose homogeneity and sparing of critical anatomy adjacent to the target volume. This hypothesis is based on the fact that, for small x-ray fields, a dose outside the treatment volume is dictated mainly by the range of electrons set into motion by x-ray photons. The purpose of this work is: (1) to produce intermediate energy x rays using a detuned medical linear accelerator (2) to characterize the energy of this beam (3) to measure the radiological penumbra for IEPs and small fields to compare with that produced by 6 MV x rays or Co-60, and (4) to compare these experimental measurements with Monte Carlo computer simulations. The maximum photon energy of our IEP x-ray spectrum was measured to be 1.2 MeV. Gafchromic EBT films (ISP Technologies, Wayne, NJ) were irradiated and read using a novel digital microscopy imaging system with high spatial resolution. Under identical irradiation conditions the measured radiological penumbra widths (80%-20% distance), for field sizes ranging from 0.3x0.3 to 4.0x4.0 cm 2 , varied from 0.3-0.77 mm (1.2 MV) and from 1.1-2.1 mm (6 MV). Even more dramatic were the differences found when comparing the 90%-10% or the 95%-5% widths, which are in fact more significant in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations agreed well with the experimental findings. The reduction in radiological penumbra could be substantial for specific clinical situations such as in the treatment of an ocular melanoma abutting the macula or for the treatment of functional disorders such as trigeminal neuralgia (a nonlethal

  2. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  3. The azimuthally anisotropic emission of unstable light nuclear in the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiyong; Jin Genming; Li Zuyu; Duan Limin; Dai Guangxi; Zhang Baoguo; Wu Heyu; Wen Wanxin; Qi Yujin; Luo Qingzheng

    1996-01-01

    The unstable light nuclei emitted in the interaction of 40 Ar on 197 Au have been detected at energy of 25 MeV/u by using particle-particle correlation measurement at small relative angle. Their in-plane and out-of-plane emission were measured for three bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter. The enhanced in-plane emission for mid-rapidity unstable nuclei is observed. This enhanced in-plane emission becomes stronger with increasing of impact parameter, but changes small with the mass of unstable nuclei. The in-plane enhancement decreases slightly with the energy of excited state of unstable nuclei. For projectile-like unstable nuclei, the in-plane emission dominates as expected

  4. The spin correlation parameter and analyzing power in n-p elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Davis, C.A.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Healey, D.C.; Miller, C.A.; Wait, G.D.; Ahmad, M.; Green, P.W.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Moss, G.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Roy, G.; Ye, Y.

    1989-06-01

    In order to improve existing I=0 phase shift solutions, the spin correlation parameter, A NN , and the analyzing powers, A 0N and A N0 , have been measured in n-p elastic scattering over an angular range of 50 degrees -150 degrees (c.m.) at three neutron energies, 220, 325 and 425 MeV to an absolute accuracy of ±0.03. The data have a profound effect on various phase parameters, particularly the 1 P 1 , 3 D 2 and ε 1 phase parameters which in some cases change by almost a degree. With exception of the highest energy, the data support the predictions of the latest version of the Bonn potential. Also the analyzing power data (A 0N and A N0 ) measured at 477 MeV in a different experiment over a limited angular range (60 degrees - 80 degrees (c.m.)) are reported here. (Author) 30 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Measurement of neutron-production double-differential cross sections for intermediate energy pion incident reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Satoh, Daiki

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-production double-differential cross sections for 870-MeV π + and π - and 2.1-GeV π + mesons incident on iron and lead targets were measured with NE213 liquid scintillators by time-of-flight technique. NE213 liquid scintillators 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm thick were placed in directions of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150deg. The typical flight path length was 15 m. Neutron detection efficiencies were derived from the calculation results of SCINFUL and CECIL codes. The experimental results were compared with the JAM code. The double differential cross sections calculated by the JAM code disagree with experimental data at neutron energies below about 30 MeV. JAM overestimates π + -incident neutron-production cross sections in forward angles at neutron energies of 100 to 500 MeV. (author)

  6. Impact of thermal and intermediate energy neutrons on the semiconductor memories for the CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchetto, Matteo; Gerardin, Simone

    A wide quantity of SRAM memories are employed along the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the main CERN accelerator, and they are subjected to high levels of ionizing radiations which compromise the reliability of these devices. The Single Event Effect (SEE) qualification for components to be used in the complex high-energy accelerator at CERN relies on the characterization of two cross sections: 200-MeV protons and thermal neutrons. However, due to cost and time constraints, it is not always possible to characterize the SEE response of components to thermal neutrons, which is often regarded as negligible for components without borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG). Nevertheless, as recent studies show, the sensitivity of deep sub-micron technologies to thermal neutrons has increased owing to the presence of Boron 10 as a dopant and contact contaminant. The very large thermal neutron fluxes relative to high-energy hadron fluxes in some of the heavily shielded accelerator areas imply that even comparatively small therm...

  7. Overview of polarization in intermediate energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, T.

    1985-01-01

    The general role that polarization transfer (PT) can play in the ''dissection'' of medium-energy N-nucleus inelastic reactions is reviewed, specifically concentrating on the importance of complete sets of PT observables for the study of nuclear structure. The discussion is largely in the context of plane-wave impulse approximations, with the effects of distortions considered through comparisons between simple plane-wave predictions and DWIA computations. 31 refs., 11 figs

  8. Radial collective flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.

    1996-11-01

    The production of radial collective flow is associated with collisions leading to sources which undergo multifragmentation/explosion processes. After a theoretical survey of possible causes of production of radial flow, methods used to derive experimental values are discussed. Finally, a large set of data is presented which can be used to study and disentangle the different effects leading to radial collective flow. The dominant role of compression in the lower energy domain is emphasized. (author)

  9. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-06-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  10. The EDDA experiment: proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberher, F.

    1996-01-01

    The EDDA experiment is designed to provide a high precision measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV of (lab) incident kinetic energy. It is an internal target experiment utilizing the proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY operated by KFA Juelich. The excitation functions are measured during the acceleration ramp of COSY. (author)

  11. Disintegration of nuclei and formation of composite systems in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Jacquet, D.; Sebille, F.; Vinet, L.; Pi, M.; Suraud, E.; Schuck, P.

    1987-04-01

    In a first part, the Landau-Vlasov dynamical instabilities found in the expansion of an excited nucleus are discussed with their dependence on the initial preparation. In a second part, we show the absence of fusion window when residual interactions are involved. We describe also onset and properties of ineffectual and incomplete fusion for systems like 40 Ar + 27 Al and 238 U near the Fermi energy and 12 C + 139 La at 50 MeV/u

  12. DAPHNE: A large-acceptance tracking detector for the study of photoreactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audit, G.; Bloch, A.; Hose, N. d' ; Isbert, V.; Martin, J.; Powers, R.; Sundermann, D.; Tamas, G.; Wallace, P.A.; Bechade, J.; Carton, P.H.; Conat, S.; Foucaud, D.; Goldsticker, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)); Braghieri, A.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy) Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica)

    1991-03-15

    A large-acceptance (94% of 4{pi} sr) hadron detector capable of handling multiparticle final states is described. The track reconstruction capability, energy resolution, particle identification capability and neutral-particle detection efficiency of the detector are discussed and the results of tests shown. Tests have been performed both with cosmic rays and in a realistic experimental situation using a 500 MeV photon beam impinging on hydrogen and deuteron targets. (orig.).

  13. Electron capture in collisions of Si3+ ions with atomic hydrogen from low to intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Liu, L.; Wang, J. G.

    2014-07-01

    The electron capture process for the Si3+(3s) + H(1s) collisions is investigated by the quantum-mechanical molecular orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method and by the two-center atomic orbital close-coupling (AOCC) method in the energy range of 10-5-10 keV/u and 0.8-200 keV/u, respectively. Total and state-selective cross sections are presented and compared with the available theoretical and experimental results. The present MOCC and AOCC results agree well with the experimental measurements, but show some discrepancy with the calculations of Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 74, 052709 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevA.74.052709] at E > 40 eV/u because of the inclusion of rotational couplings, which play important roles in the electron capture process. At lower energies, the present results are about three to five times smaller than those of Wang et al. due to the difference in the molecular data at large internuclear distances. The energy behaviors of the electron capture cross sections are discussed on the basis of identified reaction mechanisms.

  14. A hadron-nucleus collision event generator for simulations at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Bollmann, R

    2002-01-01

    Several available codes for hadronic event generation and shower simulation are discussed and their predictions are compared to experimental data in order to obtain a satisfactory description of hadronic processes in Monte Carlo studies of detector systems for medium energy experiments. The most reasonable description is found for the intra-nuclear-cascade (INC) model of Bertini which employs microscopic description of the INC, taking into account elastic and inelastic pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering. The isobar model of Sternheimer and Lindenbaum is used to simulate the inelastic elementary collisions inside the nucleus via formation and decay of the DELTA sub 3 sub 3 -resonance which, however, limits the model at higher energies. To overcome this limitation, the INC model has been extended by using the resonance model of the HADRIN code, considering all resonances in elementary collisions contributing more than 2% to the total cross-section up to kinetic energies of 5 GeV. In addition, angular d...

  15. Observations of resonance-like structures for positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, L.

    1993-01-01

    Absolute values of elastic differential cross sections (DCS's) are measured for position (e + ) scattering by argon (8.7-300 eV) krypton (6.7-400 eV) and also neon (13.6-400 eV) using a crossed-beam experimental setup. When the DCS's are plotted at fixed scattering angles of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees and 120 degrees versus energy it has been found that well-defined resonance-like structures are found at an energy of 55-60 eV for argon and at 25 and 200 eV for krypton, with a broader structure found between 100-200 eV for neon. These observed resonance-like structures are unusual because they occur at energies well above the known inelastic thresholds for these atoms. They may represent examples of open-quotes coupled channel shape resonancesclose quotes, first predicted by Higgins and Burke [1] for e + -H scattering in the vicinity of 36 eV (width ∼ 4 eV), which occurs only when both the elastic and positronium formation scattering channels are considered together. A more recent e + -H calculation by Hewitt et al. [2] supports the Higgins and Burke prediction. These predictions and the present observations suggest the existence of a new type of atomic scattering resonance

  16. Observations of resonance-like structures for positron-atom elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, L.; Kauppila, W.E.; Kwan, C.K.; Stein, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured absolute values of elastic differential cross sections (DCS's) for positron (e + ) scattering by argon (8.7-300 eV), krypton (6.7-400 eV), and also neon (13.6-400 eV) using a crossed-beam experimental setup. When the DCS's are plotted at fixed scattering angles of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees versus energy it has been found that well-defined resonance-like structures were found at an energy of 55-60 eV for argon and at 25 and 200 eV for krypton, with a broader structure found between 100-200 eV for neon. These observed resonance-like structures are unusual because they occur at energies well above the known inelastic thresholds for these atoms. They may represent examples of open-quotes coupled channel shape resonancesclose quotes, first predicted by Higgins and Burke for e + -H scattering in the vicinity of 36 eV (width ∼ 4 eV), which occurs only when both the elastic and positronium formation scattering channels are considered together. A more recent e + -H calculation by Hewitt et al. supports the Higgins and Burke prediction. These predictions and the present observations suggest the existence of a new type of atomic scattering resonance

  17. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  18. H2@Scale: Technical and Economic Potential of Hydrogen as an Energy Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  19. Theoretical research in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. [Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses progress that has been made on the following seven problems: (1) (e, e'p) at high momentum transfer; (2) post,acceleration effects in two-nucleon interferometry of heavy-ion collisions; (3) pion-nucleus interactions above 0.5 GeV; (4) chiral symmetry breaking in nuclei and picnic atom anomaly; (5) atomic screening on nuclear astronomical reactions; (6) QCD related work (coherent pion production from skyrmion-antiskyrmion annihilation, QCD in 1 + 1 dimensions, and correlation functions in the QCD vacuum), and (7) kaonic hydrogen atom experiment. The problems deal with various topics mostly in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. We place priority on (1) and (2), and describe them somewhat in detail below. Other problems are our on-going projects, but we are placing lower priority on them in the second and third year

  20. Determination of diffuseness parameter to estimate the survival probability of projectile using Woods-Saxon formula at intermediate beam energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Goyal, Monika; Roshni; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the S-matrix has been evaluated by using simple Woods-Saxon formula as well as the realistic expression for a number of projectiles varying from 26N e to 76 Ge at intermediate incident beam energies ranging from 30 MeV/A to 300 MeV/A. The target is 197 Au in each and every case. The realistic S-matrix is compared with that of obtained by using the simple Woods-Saxon formula. The motive of this comparison is to fix the value of otherwise free Δ so that the much involved evaluation of realistic S-matrix can be replaced by the simple Woods-Saxon formula

  1. Fission of intermediate mass nuclei by bremsstrahlung photons in the energy range 0.8-1.8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de.

    1983-01-01

    The fission of intermediate mass nuclei in the Al-Ta internal induced by bremsstrahlung photons of maximum energies between 0,8 to 1,8 GeV is studied. Thin targets of Nd and Sm and dense targets of Al,Ti,Co,Zr,Nb,Ag,In and Ta are utilized, and all the aspects related with the fission fragment absorption by the targets themselves are considered. The samples are exposed in th 2,5 GeV Electron Synchrotron at Bonn University. Muscovite mica, CR-39 and makrofol are used as fission fragments detectors. Fission cross sections and nuclear fissionabilities of the studied elements are estimated. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Experimental determination of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for p-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.; Aas, B.; Azizi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A complete measurement of the polarization transfer observables has been made for the first time in the (p,p') reaction at intermediate energies. Measurements are reported for the 12 C(p,p') 12 C reaction to the 1 + , T = 0(12.71 MeV) and 1 + , T = 1(15.11 MeV) states at 500 MeV at laboratory scattering angles of 3.5 0 , 5.5 0 , 7.5 0 , and 12.0 0 . Linear combinations of these observables are shown to exhibit a very selective dependence on the isoscalar and isovector spin-dependent components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. To the extent of the validity of the single collision approximation, these amplitudes are compared directly to the free nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at small momentum transfers

  3. Lombardy (Italy) regional energy balance: 1984-1990 statistical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, P.; Di Marzio, T.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the scope and key econometric elements of the energy balance analysis, this paper tables energy supply and demand data for Italy's Lombardy Region. The primary and secondary energy data are expressed in metric quantities and in equivalent calorific values and are sub-divided according to type of energy source and consuming sector. Assessments are made of the degree of reliability of the information and sources of information

  4. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  5. Transformation of cooperative free energies between ligation systems of hemoglobin: resolution of the carbon monoxide binding intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Ackers, G K

    1996-01-23

    A strategy has been developed for quantitatively "translating" the distributions of cooperative free energy between different oxygenation analogs of hemoglobin (Hb). The method was used to resolve the cooperative free energies of all eight carbon monoxide binding intermediates. These parameters of the FeCOHb system were determined by thermodynamic transformation of corresponding free energies obtained previously for all species of the Co/FeCO system, i.e., where cobalt-substituted hemes comprise the unligated sites [Speros, P. C., et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7254-7262]. Using hybridized combinations of normal and cobalt-substituted Hb, ligation analog systems Co/FeX (X = CO, CN) were constructed and experimentally quantified. Energetics of cobalt-induced structural perturbation were determined for all species of both the "mixed metal" Co/Fe system and also the ligated Co/FeCN system. It was found that major energetic perturbations of the Co/Fe hybrid species originate from a pure cobalt substitution effect on the alpha subunits. These perturbations are transduced to the beta subunit within the same dimeric half-tetramer, resulting in alteration of the free energies for binding at the nonsubstituted (Fe) sites. Using the linkage strategy developed in this study along with the determined energetics of these couplings, the experimental assembly free energies for the Co/FeCO species were transformed into cooperative free energies of the 10 Fe/FeCO species. The resulting values were found to distribute according to predictions of a symmetry rule mechanism proposed previously [Ackers, G. K., et al. (1992) Science 255, 54-63]. Their distribution is consistent with accurate CO binding data of normal Hb [Perrella, M., et al. (1990b) Biophys. Chem. 37, 211-223] and also with accurate O2 binding data obtained under the same conditions [Chu, A. H., et al. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 604-617].

  6. Nuclear structure studies at intermediate energies. Annual progress report, October 1985-August 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, N.M.

    1986-09-01

    New data was collected for proton reactions on lead 208 in the Δ region and the measurement of K/sub ss/ for proton-proton interactions. Analysis of completed experiments concerned determination of scattering amplitudes for proton-proton interactions, the determination of neutron-proton matrix element rations for pion reactions on lead 208, and proton scattering on lead isotopes, nickel isotopes, neodymium 150, gadolinium 154, and osmium 192. Computer program development and theoretical analysis is also reviewed. A list of publications is included. 65 refs., 91 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Coulomb correlations in electron and positron impact ionization of hydrogen at intermediate and higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetzke, S.; Faisal, F.H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Investigating the relation between the asymptotic condition and the dynamic Coulomb correlation for single and multiple ionization we discuss a complete set of spatially separable N-electrons final-state wavefunctions, satisfying multiple ionization boundary conditions. We apply these results to electron and positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen in the energy range 54.4 and 250 eV on the basis of a parameter-free model formulated within the scope of the multiple scattering approach. A comparison between our results and available experimental data and alternative theoretical calculations are made and discussed. (Author)

  8. γ-rays as a probe to study nuclear dynamics and nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of gamma rays in nuclear physics is reviewed, and it is shown how they offer insight into the structure and damping of giant resonances, and how they can be used as an isospin filter. Results from inclusive and exclusive experiments at GANIL are discussed. It is stressed that although the production of high energy gamma rays in heavy ion reactions between 30 MeV/A and 86 MeV/A is understood qualitatively, most models fail in being more quantitative

  9. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, B.; Mignerey, A.C.; Madani, H.; Marchetti, A.A.; Colonna, M.; DiToro, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in lanthanum-induced reactions utilizing inverse kinematics has been studied from E/A = 35 to 55 MeV. At each bombarding energy studied, the probability for the multiple emission of complex fragments has been found to be independent of target. Global features (total charge, source velocity) of the reaction La + Al at E/A = 45 MeV have been reproduced by coupling a dynamical model to study the collision stage of the reaction to a statistical model of nuclear decay

  10. High energy x-radiographic assessment of conditioned intermediate level waste blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewcock, A.I.; Burch, S.F.; Reynolds, W.N.; Pullen, D.A.W.; Smith, D.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes an effective technique for examining the quality of the solidification matrix material in a 500 litre waste drum, testing for homogeneity and major cracks and the confirmation of set. A high energy x-ray source, (an 8 MeV Linac) and a special x-ray TV system, were used to examine several different types of solidified waste form, with and without background radiation, simulated by the use of an uncollimated radiographic isotope. The system as tested showed no discernable image degradation when the isotope was positioned to give a representative background dose as experienced with active ILW monoliths. (author)

  11. Study of 40Ca-40Ca elastic scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Srivastava, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross sections for 40 Ca- 40 Ca elastic scattering have been calculated at laboratory incident energy of 240 MeV using a sharp cut off of the partial waves below a critical angular momentum, 1sub(c)' to account for absorption. The effective 40 Ca- 40 Ca potential is taken to be the sum of a real nuclear potential and the Coulomb potential. The calculated differential cross sections which are in fair agreement with the experimental data are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections of Pb and Bi at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhov, Igor; Tutin, Gennady; Eismont, Vilen; Mitryukhin, Andrey; Oplavin, Valery; Soloviev, Sergey; Conde, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Renberg, Per-Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of nat Pb and 209 Bi have been measured relative to the 238 U(n.f) cross section at energies 96 MeV for lead and 133 MeV for bismuth. The measurements were performed at the quasi-mono-energetic neutron beam facility of The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala using Frisch-gridded ionization chamber. The results obtained are compared with other experimental data. The present state of the Bi standard recommended by IAEA is discussed. (author)

  13. Low and intermediate energy pion-nucleus interactions in the cascade-exciton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashnik, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of experimental data on pion-nucleus interactions in the bombarding energy range of 0-3000 MeV, on nucleon-induced pion production and on cumulative nucleon production, when a two-step process of pion production followed by absorption on nucleon pairs within a target is taken into account, are analyzed with the Cascade-Exciton Model of nuclear reactions.Comparison is made with other up-to-date models of these processes. The contributions of different pion absorption mechanisms and the relative role of different particle production mechanisms in these reactions are discussed

  14. Energy autarky: A conceptual framework for sustainable regional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Matthias Otto; Staempfli, Adrian; Dold, Ursula; Hammer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of energy autarky rests on increasing energy efficiency, realizing the potential of renewable energy resources and relying on a decentralized energy system. Practically, a transition towards regional energy autarky requires administrations and civil society actors to initialize and develop projects at the local level, ensure their acceptance and support by the regional population and implement the project in collaboration with relevant actors. Besides the description of the concept and the benefits its implementation brings, this article provides a process for implementation, and some examples from Austria, Germany and Switzerland. - Highlights: → We introduce energy autarky as a conceptual framework for sustainable development. → Transforming the energy subsystem creates various benefits for communities. → Local participation should lead to social acceptance of renewables. → We review and discuss projects implementing energy autarky. → Further research needs to compare successful implementations with failures.

  15. Energy intensity and its determinants in China's regional economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yanrui

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the existing literature as well as policy debates by examining energy intensity and its determinants in China's regional economies. The analysis is based on a comprehensive database of China's regional energy balance constructed for this project. Through its focus on regional China, this study extends the existing literature, which mainly covers nationwide studies. It is found in this paper that energy intensity declined substantially in China. The main contributing factor is the improvement in energy efficiency. Changes in the economic structure have so far affected energy intensity modestly. Thus there is considerable scope to reduce energy intensity through the structural transformation of the Chinese economy in the future. - Highlights: ► First study examining energy intensity and its determinants using sectoral data in Chinese regions. ► Major findings. ► Decline in energy intensity is due to the rise in energy efficiency. ► Economic structural change has played little role. ► Growth in capital intensity alone would not lead to the decline in energy consumption.

  16. Contributions to the study of photons electric scattering on the nucleon at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiasu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The goals of this work are: a) to examine and turn to account in the study of γ-proton elastic scattering the possibility of using a dispersion representation assumed for the amplitude set Asub(i), free of singularities and kinematic zeroes. This is achieved through a direct calculation of the effective unpolarized differential section of the Compton effect on the proton, at various scattering angles in an energy range of 0 β which agrees with current experimental data. c) to establish a law regarding low ω 5 order energies for the helicity amplitudes and for the unpolarized differential effective section of the process γ + p → γ' + p'. We believe this law to be necessary on one hand for a more accurate determination of the α, β variables out of existent experiments and, on the other hand, for the opportunity to define within the Compton effect on the nucleon new structure constants of the nucleon such as the quadrupolar electromagnetic polarizabilities. By fitting the formula of the unpolarized differential effective section in order ω 5 to the experimental data we obtained modified values of α, β, but still in accordance with the order α > β. d) to establish an inequality based upon the analyticity properties of the Compton invariant amplitudes between expressions that include measurable physical variables, static properties of the nucleon and integrals on the effective differential section for the process γ + p → γ' + p'. (author)

  17. Excitation and photon decay of giant resonances excited by intermediate energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the giant resonances. In particular, recent measurements have been made of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented. 22 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  18. Elastic scattering of {sup 12} C by {sup 12} C at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khallaf, S A.E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, M A; Abdel-Raheem, S K; Mahmoud, S W.Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, El-Minia, (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Using the double folding model (DF), the real part of the central potential for {sup 12} C + {sup 12} C system is derived. This potential as well as the single folding cluster model potential (SFC) were used to calculate the total and differential cross sections for {sup 12} C elastically scattered on {sup 12} C at three laboratory energies; E{sub 1ab}. = 300, 344.5 and 360 MeV. The calculations were carried out using five sets of nucleon nucleon (NN) interaction of the integrable Gaussian form and two sets of parameters for the nuclear matter density of the harmonic oscillator form. The transparency of the target nucleus was found to increase as the projectile energy increases. Good fits between the present calculations and the experimental data as well as the previously published calculations were obtained. The present simple methods used to calculate the real part of the optical potential stand on equal footing with the density dependent (DDM 3 Y) procedure and it reduces the potential computing time enormously. The suitable choice of NN interaction as well as nuclear matter densities is important. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Intermediate steps towards the 2000 W society in Switzerland: An energy-economic scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo; Wokaun, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In the future, sustainable development under the umbrella of the 2000 W society could be of major interest. Could the target of the 2000 W society, i.e. a primary energy per capita (PEC) consumption of 2000 W, be realized until 2050? Various combinations of PEC and CO 2 targets are tested, and the additional costs to be paid by the society are estimated. The assessment is carried out with the Swiss MARKAL model, a bottom-up energy-system model projecting future technology investments for Switzerland. The analysis reveals that the 2000 W society should be seen as a long-term goal. For all contemplated scenarios, a PEC consumption of 3500 W per capita (w/cap) is feasible in the year 2050. However, strong PEC consumption targets can reduce CO 2 emissions to an equivalent of 5% per decade at maximum. For stronger CO 2 emission reduction goals, corresponding targets must be formulated explicitly. At an oil price of 75 US$ 2000 /bbl in 2050, the additional (cumulative, discounted) costs to reach a 10% CO 2 reduction per decade combined with a 3500 W per capita target amount to about 40 billion US$ 2000 . On the contrary, to reach pure CO 2 reduction targets is drastically cheaper, challenging the vision of the 2000 W society

  20. Halo structure of 8B determined from intermediate energy proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, G. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Inglessi, A. G.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Egelhof, P.; Estradé, A.; Dillmann, I.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Ilieva, S.; Ke, Y.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kurcewicz, J.; Le, X. C.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petrov, G. E.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sergeev, L. O.; Simon, H.; Takechi, M.; Tang, S.; Volkov, V.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Weick, H.; Yatsoura, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The absolute differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the proton-rich 8B nucleus has been measured in inverse kinematics for the first time. The experiment was performed using a secondary radioactive beam with an energy of 0.7 GeV/u at GSI, Darmstadt. The active target, namely hydrogen-filled time projection ionization chamber IKAR, was used to measure the energy, angle and vertex point of the recoil protons. The scattering angle of the projectiles was simultaneously determined by the tracking detectors. The measured differential cross section is analyzed on the basis of the Glauber multiple scattering theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. The radial density distribution deduced for 8B exhibits a halo structure with the root-mean-square (rms) matter radius Rm = 2.58 (6) fm and the rms halo radius Rh = 4.24 (25) fm. The results on 8B are compared to those on the mirror nucleus 8Li investigated earlier by the same method. A comparison is also made with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions for both nuclei.

  1. Microscopic theory for nucleon-nucleus optical potential in intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guozhu; Cai Chonghai

    1984-01-01

    Based on the scattering theory of KMT and FGH we calculate the nucleon-nucleus optical potentials of 4 He, 16 O and 40 Ca from the Paris N-N potential given by M. Lacombe et al. The real part Vsub(R)(r) of our optential has the form of Woods-Saxon when the kinetic energy E of the incident nucleon is low. The depth of Vsub(R)(r) will decrease as E increases, and it turns into positive in the interior of nucleus when E approx.= 300 MeV. The repulsive effect in the interior of nucleus increases rapidly as E increases even more, butthere always exists some attractive effect at the surface of nucleus. Therefore, Vsub(R)(r) has generally the wine-bottle bottom shape. We also calculate the quatity Jv/N = (4π/N)∫sub(0)sub(infinity)Vsub(R)(r)r 2 dr. Our results are basically in acordance with those of M.Jaminon et al's relativistic Hatree calculation as well as the experimental results. In this work we also calculate the imaginary part of optical potential and its variation with the kinetic energy of the incident nucleon

  2. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  3. Regional energy autarky: Potentials, costs and consequences for an Austrian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Schönhart, M.; Biberacher, M.; Guggenberger, T.; Hausl, S.; Kalt, G.; Leduc, S.; Schardinger, I.; Schmid, E.

    2012-01-01

    Local actors at community level often thrive for energy autarky to decrease the dependence on imported energy resources. We assess the potentials and trade-offs between benefits and costs of increasing levels of energy autarky for a small rural region of around 21,000 inhabitants in Austria. We use a novel modeling approach which couples a regional energy system model with a regional land use optimization model. We have collected and processed data on the spatial distribution of energy demand and potentials of biomass, photovoltaics and solar thermal resources. The impacts of increasing biomass production on the agricultural sector are assessed with a land-use optimization model that allows deriving regional biomass supply curves. An energy system model is subsequently applied to find the least cost solution for supplying the region with energy resources. Model results indicate that fossil fuel use for heating can be replaced at low costs by increasing forestry and agricultural biomass production. However, autarky in the electricity and the heating sector would significantly increase biomass production and require a full use of the potentials of photovoltaics on roof tops. Attaining energy autarky implies high costs to consumers and a decline in the local production of food and feed. - Highlights: ► Energy autarky strong vision for many regional actors. ► Assessment of consequences of energy autarky for a rural region in Austria. ► Novel modeling approach coupling energy system model with land use model. ► Power and heat autarky causes high costs and decline in regional food and feed production. ► Heat autarky achievable at lower costs by utilizing regional forestry and agricultural biomass.

  4. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. From developing region to energy powerhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, F. [ed.] [Power in Asia, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Western prospectors are poised to go east, lured by the lucrative ore of electricity infrastructure. But increasingly, Asia is sending the message: Not For Sale. China, for example, has placed limits on the profits Western companies can squeeze out of their investments. As a result, they have adopted a strategy of {open_quotes}build, operate, and transfer,{close_quotes} says Frank Gray, editor of Power in Asia, a Financial Times energy publication based in London, England. {open_quotes}A key provision of the arrangement is that the company investing in the project owns that project for only a predetermined time, usually 15 to 20 years. After the term expires, project ownership reverts to the host nation,{close_quotes} Gray says. But the developing countries of Asia need an infusion of foreign capital, and Western utilities need to expand into that market to compensate for a relatively flat growth rate at home. {open_quotes}Central planning, in fact, is part of the legacy of colonial rule. Now, however, it will be national politicians, not foreign diplomats, who will call the shots,{close_quotes} Gray says.

  6. The role of non-elastic nuclear processes for intermediate-energy protons in silicon targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormaza, Joel Mesa, E-mail: jmesa@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Cesar E., E-mail: cgarcia@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), Havana (Cuba); Arruda Neto, Joao D.T.; Rodrigues, Tulio E., E-mail: arruda@if.usp.br, E-mail: tulio@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valery, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paschuck, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: evseev@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The transportation of energetic ions in bulk matter is of direct interest in several areas including shielding against ions originating from either space radiations or terrestrial accelerators, cosmic ray propagation studies in galactic medium, or radiobiological effects resulting from the work place or clinical exposures. For carcinogenesis, terrestrial radiation therapy, and radiobiological research, knowledge of beam composition and interactions is necessary to properly evaluate the effects on human and animal tissues. For the proper assessment of radiation exposures both reliable transport codes and accurate input parameters are needed. In the last years efforts have been increasing in order to develop more effective models to describe and predict the damages induced by radiation in electronic devices. In this sense, the interaction of protons with those devices, particularly which operate in space, is a topic of paramount importance, mainly because although the majority of them are made with silicon, experimental data on p+Si nuclear processes is very sparse. In this work we have used a new quite sophisticated Monte Carlo multicollisional intranuclear cascade (MCMC) code for pre-equilibrium emission, plus de-excitation of residual nucleus by two ways: evaporation of particles (mainly nucleons, but also composites) and possibly fragmentation/fission in the case of heavy residues, in order to study some observable of nuclear interaction of protons between 100-200 MeV in a {sup 28}Si target. The code has been developed with very recent improvements that take into account Pauli blocking effects in a novel and more precise way, as well as a more rigorous energy balance, an energy stopping time criterion for pre-equilibrium emission and the inclusion of deuteron, triton and 3He emissions in the evaporation step, which eventually concurs with fragmentation/break-up stage. The fragment mass distributions, as well as the multiplicities and the spectra of secondary

  7. The role of non-elastic nuclear processes for intermediate-energy protons in silicon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormaza, Joel Mesa; Garcia, Cesar E.; Arruda Neto, Joao D.T.; Rodrigues, Tulio E.; Paschuck, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The transportation of energetic ions in bulk matter is of direct interest in several areas including shielding against ions originating from either space radiations or terrestrial accelerators, cosmic ray propagation studies in galactic medium, or radiobiological effects resulting from the work place or clinical exposures. For carcinogenesis, terrestrial radiation therapy, and radiobiological research, knowledge of beam composition and interactions is necessary to properly evaluate the effects on human and animal tissues. For the proper assessment of radiation exposures both reliable transport codes and accurate input parameters are needed. In the last years efforts have been increasing in order to develop more effective models to describe and predict the damages induced by radiation in electronic devices. In this sense, the interaction of protons with those devices, particularly which operate in space, is a topic of paramount importance, mainly because although the majority of them are made with silicon, experimental data on p+Si nuclear processes is very sparse. In this work we have used a new quite sophisticated Monte Carlo multicollisional intranuclear cascade (MCMC) code for pre-equilibrium emission, plus de-excitation of residual nucleus by two ways: evaporation of particles (mainly nucleons, but also composites) and possibly fragmentation/fission in the case of heavy residues, in order to study some observable of nuclear interaction of protons between 100-200 MeV in a 28 Si target. The code has been developed with very recent improvements that take into account Pauli blocking effects in a novel and more precise way, as well as a more rigorous energy balance, an energy stopping time criterion for pre-equilibrium emission and the inclusion of deuteron, triton and 3He emissions in the evaporation step, which eventually concurs with fragmentation/break-up stage. The fragment mass distributions, as well as the multiplicities and the spectra of secondary particles

  8. Homogenization and implementation of a 3D regional velocity model in Mexico for its application in moment tensor inversion of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cardozo, Félix; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Caló, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Moment tensor inversions for intermediate and small earthquakes (M. < 4.5) are challenging as they principally excite relatively short period seismic waves that interact strongly with local heterogeneities. Incorporating detailed regional 3D velocity models permits obtaining realistic synthetic seismograms and recover the seismic source parameters these smaller events. Two 3D regional velocity models have recently been developed for Mexico, using surface waves and seismic noise tomography (Spica et al., 2016; Gaite et al., 2015), which could be used to model the waveforms of intermediate magnitud earthquakes in this region. Such models are parameterized as layered velocity profiles and for some of the profiles, the velocity difference between two layers are considerable. The "jump" in velocities between two layers is inconvenient for some methods and algorithms that calculate synthetic waveforms, in particular for the method that we are using, the spectral element method (SPECFEM3D GLOBE, Komatitsch y Tromp, 2000), when the mesh does not follow the layer boundaries. In order to make the velocity models more easily implementec in SPECFEM3D GLOBE it is neccesary to apply a homogenization algorithm (Capdeville et al., 2015) such that the (now anisotropic) layer velocities are smoothly varying with depth. In this work, we apply a homogenization algorithm to the regional velocity models in México for implementing them in SPECFEM3D GLOBE, calculate synthetic waveforms for intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in México and invert them for the seismic moment tensor.

  9. Elastic scattering of intermediate energy protons on 4He and 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.A.

    1981-01-01

    The elastic angular distribution and polarization of approx. equal to 1 GeV protons on 4 He and 12 C have been analysed using the recently proposed correlation expansion for the Glauber amplitude by retaining terms up to three-body density only. The calculations include Coulomb and spin effects. Using realistic form factors for target nuclei it is found that we need to consider only up to the second-order density term to provide a satisfactory explanation of both kinds of experimental data in the available momentum transfer region. The contribution of the three-body density term is only marginal except in 4 He differential cross-section in the cm angular range 45 0 0 . (orig.)

  10. Relativistic three-body approach to NN scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Faassen, E.; Tjon, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter equation for coupled-channel N-Δ scattering is extended to satisfy unitarity in the NN and NNπ sectors. The procedure eliminates the unitarity violations characteristic of the standard ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation in the inelastic region, and improves the description of pion production near threshold. Results are presented for the NN phase shift and a number of observables up to 1 GeV. In particular, the 1D 2 inelasticity is found to be considerably smaller than found from phase shift analysis. In this context, the importance of the pion deuteron channel for the inelasticity parameter of is pointed out. 33 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Quasielastic knock out of light fragments from 12C and 16O by intermediate energy pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, B.M.; Borodin, Yu.A.; Bulychev, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using 0.72 GeV s -1 pulse π - -meson beam one studied the quasi-elastic knocking out of deuterons and of tritons from 12 C and 16 O nuclei. One derived the quasi-deuteron intranuclear motion pulse distributions, the residual nucleus excitation energy spectra and the effective number of quasi-deuterons. The parameters of quasi-deuteron intranuclear motion pulse distributions are in line with the measurement results for other beams. The effective numbers of quasi-deuterons in nuclei from 6 Li up to 16 O do not depend on the atomic number. One observed knocking out of tritons from the mentioned nuclei enabling to evaluate the cross section of elastic pion-triton backscattering [ru

  12. Multi-functional measurement systems for studying photon-hadron interactions in the intermediate energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Vol'nov, M.I.; Eliseev, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The PION multifunctional time-of-flight measurement system operating on-line with the D-116 computer is described. The system is designed to study proton-hadron interaction processes using the PACHRA synchrotron beam. The following devices are involved into the basic permanent system equipment: two gamma telescope counters, neutron spectrometer, scintillation mass spectrometer, and also cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets, ionization chambers, and quantometer. The time-of-flight neutron spectrometer consists of 4 coordinate-sensitive scintillation counters, before which the logic detector operating in the anticoincidence regime is placed. Information acquisition and measurement system control are accomplished by the computer using the CAMAK modules. The above system allows one to observe at the same time different physical processes and to carry out simultaneous measurements in a wide energy range

  13. Calculations of nucleus-nucleus microscopic optical potentials at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, K.M.; Kuhtina, I.N.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Slowinski, B.

    2006-01-01

    Three types of microscopic nucleus-nucleus optical potentials are constructed using three patterns for their real and imaginary parts. Two of these patterns are the real V H and imaginary W H parts of the potential which reproduces the high-energy amplitude of scattering in the microscopic Glauber-Sitenko theory. Another template VDF is calculated within the standard double-folding model with the exchange term included. For either of the three tested potentials, the contribution of real and imaginary patterns is adjusted by introducing two fitted factors. Correspondingly, using numerical code ECIS, the elastic differential cross-sections were fitted to the experimental data on scattering of the 16,17 O heavy-ions at about hundred Mev/nucleon on various target-nuclei. The relativization effect is also included. The tables of the obtained factors which renormalize the strengths of the real and (or) imaginary parts of the calculated microscopic potentials are given

  14. Hydrogen is a preferred intermediate in the energy-conserving electron transport chain of Methanosarcina barkeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gargi; Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Guss, Adam M; Metcalf, William W

    2009-09-15

    Methanogens use an unusual energy-conserving electron transport chain that involves reduction of a limited number of electron acceptors to methane gas. Previous biochemical studies suggested that the proton-pumping F(420)H(2) dehydrogenase (Fpo) plays a crucial role in this process during growth on methanol. However, Methanosarcina barkeri Delta fpo mutants constructed in this study display no measurable phenotype on this substrate, indicating that Fpo plays a minor role, if any. In contrast, Delta frh mutants lacking the cytoplasmic F(420)-reducing hydrogenase (Frh) are severely affected in their ability to grow and make methane from methanol, and double Delta fpo/Delta frh mutants are completely unable to use this substrate. These data suggest that the preferred electron transport chain involves production of hydrogen gas in the cytoplasm, which then diffuses out of the cell, where it is reoxidized with transfer of electrons into the energy-conserving electron transport chain. This hydrogen-cycling metabolism leads directly to production of a proton motive force that can be used by the cell for ATP synthesis. Nevertheless, M. barkeri does have the flexibility to use the Fpo-dependent electron transport chain when needed, as shown by the poor growth of the Delta frh mutant. Our data suggest that the rapid enzymatic turnover of hydrogenases may allow a competitive advantage via faster growth rates in this freshwater organism. The mutant analysis also confirms the proposed role of Frh in growth on hydrogen/carbon dioxide and suggests that either Frh or Fpo is needed for aceticlastic growth of M. barkeri.

  15. Solar energy demonstration zones in the Dalmatian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrastnik, B. [Energy Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Frankovic, B. [University of Rijeka (Croatia). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-11-01

    The energy consumption in the Dalmatian region was estimated for residential and public sector, tourism, commercial sector and industry. The national energy program for the use of solar energy, SUNEN, assessed solar energy potential in Croatia. Energy from fossil fuels and electricity consumption in the region, which is mostly used in households for preparing hot water and space heating, could be economically substituted by renewable energy. The situation is most promising for the islands of the Adriatic, where solar thermal collectors, PV modules and wind generators could substitute conventional energy sources in satisfying the present thermal and electric demand. The Dalmatian Islands, characterised by a small density of energy consumption, are proposed as unique candidates in Europe for renewable zones, which could demonstrate the full potential of the renewable energy option. As a practical demonstration, the island of Lastovo and the planned tourist village and yacht marina in the Bay of Jurjeva Luka are proposed as a first solar demonstration project on the islands. Technical, economic, legal and institutional barriers, as well as shortages of financing the project identification process produced hereto an adverse environment for solar applications in Croatia. This paper is an initiative for eliminating the barriers and intensify the solar energy use in Croatia providing the clean environment and activation of indigenous energy resources in the region. (author)

  16. Multidetector system for the identification of and measurement of the energies of heavy ions at intermediate energies; Systeme multidetecteur pour l`identification et la mesure des energies des ions lourds aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samri, M; Beaulieu, L; Djerroud, B [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Physique; and others

    1994-12-31

    A scintillation multidetector system composed (at the present time) of 80 detectors is described and its performance reported. It contains both phoswich and CsI detectors. A number of recent publications have shown that CsI or phoswich detectors do not have an adequately quantitative response to heavy ions in the intermediate energy range, but this difficulty can be avoided by calibrating the detectors for energy. In the present case, the use of the technique of secondary detector clusters is shown to be effective. Detection over a wide solid angle is possible. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Perception of the energy question in different regions of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouque, B.; Villaret, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors first outline the main variables which account for regional differences in the perception of the energy question, and go on to discuss these differences and the factors underlying them [fr

  18. The Haute-Normandie Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This regional public and planning document (SRCAE) first proposes a regional diagnosis in terms of energetic situation, climatic situation, air quality situation, building condition (in terms of energy), transports (characteristics of regional transport, of person and goods transport), industries and enterprises (important role of oil and chemical activities, low level of renewable and recovery energies), agriculture and forest, renewable energies (biomass and wastes, wind energy, solar photovoltaic, hydroelectricity, renewable heat production), and territory vulnerability in front of climate change. The second part states objectives and orientations: definition of scenarios, and of sector-based objectives (in the building, transport, agricultural, and industrial sectors, in the development of renewable energies, and in terms of adaptation to climate change). Synthetic approaches are then stated in relationship with different challenges related to sustainable behaviours and consumption, promotion of professions related to energy transition, diffusion of good practices in the fields of energy efficiency and emission reduction, sustainable land development, promotion of environmental mutations for the regional economy, innovation to face climate and energy challenges, development of renewable energies, anticipation of the adaptation to climate change, and SRCAE follow-up and assessment. Sheets of definitions of objectives are given for each sector. A synthetic version of this study is provided

  19. Regional plan in favour of energy sobriety and renewable energies - positive energy Aquitaine. TEPOS in Aquitaine, for a positive-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation and a brief comment of levels of final energy consumptions per sector and per energy source in Aquitaine in 2008, a first report proposes a brief overview of a Negawatt-type scenario for the region, a brief presentation of the notion of positive-energy territories, and a brief evocation of the role of smart grids and of energy storage. It discusses the role of the building sector by commenting some initiatives, objectives of building renovation and of thermal insulation of individual dwellings, and the development of positive-energy building. Then, it describes opportunities of a rational and combined development of renewable energies in the region. It more deeply discusses these opportunities for biomass (wood, methanization, bio-fuels), solar photovoltaic, geothermal, wind, and marine energies. For each of them, stakes, objectives, assets and arrangements for research and development, and current activities are presented. The report then addresses the issue of education and training for professions related to a green growth, the issue of financial engineering for these developments, and the issue of social innovation and acceptance as they are addressed at the regional level. A second document presents the regional approach (initiatives, tools and arrangements, examples) for a positive-energy territory

  20. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Misra, Neha

    2007-01-01

    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs