WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate energy activation

  1. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  2. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  3. Intermediate energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)

  4. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  5. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  6. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  7. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  8. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  9. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  10. Nuclear photoreactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christillin, P.

    1989-02-01

    We review the interaction of real photons with nuclei up to the GeV region. The common microscopic description of exchange effects below threshold and of the corresponding real photoproduction above, is emphasized. The theoretical problems connected with π photoproduction in Δ region and vector meson photoproduction are spelled out and solved. The gross features of the reaction mechanism are shown to explain both the low energy region, the bulk properties around the Δ resonance as well as the appearance of shadowing only above ρ threshold

  11. Intermediate-energy light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Corbett, W

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, atomic scale information underlies scientific and technological progress in disciplines ranging from pharmaceutical development to materials synthesis to environmental remediation. While a variety of research tools are used to provide atomic scale information, synchrotron radiation has proved invaluable in this quest. The rapid growth of soft- and hard X-ray synchrotron light sources stands as stark testimony to the importance and utility of synchrotron radiation. Starting from just a handful of synchrotron light sources in the early 1970s, this burgeoning field now includes over 70 proposed, in-construction, or operating facilities in 23 countries on five continents. Along the way, synchrotron light facilities have evolved from small laboratories extracting light parasitically from storage rings designed for high-energy physics research to large, dedicated sources using the latest technology to produce extraordinarily bright photon beams. The basic layout of a multi-GeV storage ring light sourc...

  12. Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The originally proposed and funded research activities followed two major areas of study: semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current and charm production. The charm production work revolved around the Jefferson Lab experiment E03-008, 'Sub-threshold J/psi Photoprouction', which ran in late 2004. The PI was a co-spokesperson for the experiment. For the three year renewal proposal starting in 2007, the scope and size of the research project changed and increased. In addition to the parity violating studies, the PI had well defined lead roles in a series experiments nucleon spin-structure functions.

  13. Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, James, A.

    2012-06-22

    The originally proposed and funded research activities followed two major areas of study: semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current and charm production. The charm production work revolved around the Jefferson Lab experiment E03-008, 'Sub-threshold J/psi Photoprouction', which ran in late 2004. The PI was a co-spokesperson for the experiment. For the three year renewal proposal starting in 2007, the scope and size of the research project changed and increased. In addition to the parity violating studies, the PI had well defined lead roles in a series experiments nucleon spin-structure functions.

  14. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions, examination of the conditions of exoneration and attenuation for the energy uses in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulinet, M.

    2000-05-01

    This document examines the conditions for a broadening of the general tax on polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions in order to reinforce the fight against greenhouse effect and to better master the energy consumption. It analyses the characteristics of each energy source with respect to the principle of a taxation of the consumptions. Finally, several scenarios are analyzed to show the advantage and drawbacks of such a system. A first evaluation and a preliminary tariffing are given. (J.S.)

  15. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  16. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  17. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  18. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS bar p experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance

  19. Mechanism of intermediate mass fragment emission at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, A.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Krishan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of intermediate mass fragment emission in fusion-fission processes has been carried out. The average kinetic energies and relative yield ratio of different fragments are calculated and compared with experimental values

  20. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  1. Intermediate-energy neutron beams from reactors for NCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses ways that a beam of intermediate-energy neutrons might be extracted from a nuclear reactor. The challenge is to suppress the fast-neutron component and the gamma-ray component of the flux while leaving enough of the intermediate-energy neutrons in the beam to be able to perform neutron capture therapy in less than an hour exposure time. Moderators, filters, and reflectors are considered. 11 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  2. (p,n) reaction at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the (p,n) reaction in exploring effective interactions is reviewed. Some recent data on self-conjugate nuclei taken at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) are presented, and the differences between low- and high-energy data are emphasized. Experimental problems and techniques used are briefly described. It is concluded that forward-angle (p,n) spectra at energies greater than 100 MeV are dominated by Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions, while Fermi transitions (IAS transitions) dominate near 45 MeV. Prominent GT transitions are expected from a pion-exchange interaction, and it is expected that OPEP is the dominant component of the interaction in the energy range of 100 to 200 MeV. 27 figures, 2 tables

  3. Heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.; Amsden, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of measurement are proposed for the analysis of heavy ion collisions in the range of energy of 20--200 MeV/A. First, measurement of the longitudinal component of the kinetic energy of the collision products characterizes the impact parameter of the collision. The distribution in this quantity allows the dissipation in the theoretical models to be determined. A second kind of measurement is that of the coefficients of a spherical harmonic expansion of the angular distribution of the products. Besides giving independent information on the impact parameter and reaction dynamics, measurement of these coefficients offers the possibility of measuring the stiffness of the equation of state of nuclear matter. These ideas are explored in the context of a hydrodynamic model for the collision. In the purely hydrodynamic model there is a large measurable asymmetry in the angular distribution, but the dependence on the equation of state is small

  4. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e + e - resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs

  5. Innovative spin precessor for intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    A spin precessor has been designed to provide arbitrary orientation of the polarization in the external proton beam at LAMPF. The device utilizes two superconducting solenoids, three conventional dipoles, and conversion of polarized H - to H + to provide an achromatic, undeflected beam with tunable spin orientation over a range of energies from 400 MeV to 800 MeV. A portion of this device is being installed to provide compatibility between two facilities which simultaneously use two branches of the external proton beam at LAMPF

  6. Role of near threshold resonances in intermediate energy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Abstract. The presence of a resonance close to the threshold strongly effects the dynamics of the interacting particles at low energies. Production of 12C, the element for life, in 4He burning in. Sun is a classic example of such a situation. In intermediate energy nuclear physics, this situation arises in the ...

  7. Hard photon as probes of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemssen, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Some recent results on the production of hard photons in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions are reported. The topics covered are the use of hard photons as a means to study the energy dissipation mechanism in peripheral heavy ion reactions and the observation of second chance or thermal hard photons

  8. Light fragment formation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    This paper concerns itself mainly with the production of energetic protons and light fragments at wide angles. The experiments point to nucleon emission in proton-induced reactions as involving a mechanism in which the observed nucleon is directly knocked out of the nucleus. A similar feature seems to be required to explain (p,F) and (e,F) reactions: an energetic nucleon is produced in one scattering of the projectile, and the struck nucleon subsequently loses some of its energy as it traverses the remaining part of the nucleus, gathering up other nucleons as it goes, to become a fragment. This is what one might call the extreme snowball model, and a more accurate description probably involves multiple scattering of the projectile in addition to the extreme snowball contribution. This will be particularly true for fragments in the mass 6 to 9 region. This scenario also appears to apply to deuteron-induced fragment production. However, for alpha-induced reactions it would appear that the nucleons forming a fragment can originate from collisions involving different incident nucleons in the projectile. For heavy ions, this effect is even stronger, and the snowball contribution is greatly reduced compared to that of the traditional coalescence model

  9. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. We have solved a non-trivial model field theory in the strong coupling regime using a discretized light front quantization (DLFQ) scheme. The method we developed expands upon the method of Pauli and Brodsky by incorporating a dynamical treatment of the vacuum. This is a major result since we have shown directly that the light-cone vacuum is not structureless as has been traditionally claimed by some particle theorists. We have thus succeeded in elucidating the consequences of spontaneous symmetry breaking in light-cone quantization. We now propose to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We will complete our analysis of the SLAC NE3 data to explicate the degree to which they confirm the QCM prediction of ''steps'' in the ratio of nuclear structure functions when Bjorken x exceeds unity. In another effort, we will perform a search for narrow resonances in electron-positron interactions high in the continuum using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We have completed our development of microscopic effective Hamiltonians for nuclear structure which include the explicit treatment of delta resonances. These effective Hamiltonians were successfully used in constrained mean field calculations evaluating conditions for nuclei to undergo a transition from nucleon matter to delta matter. 73 refs

  10. Intermediate-energy neutron beam for NCT at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) is one of the high-flux reactors in the USA and it can be used to produce an intense beam of intermediate-energy neutrons for neutron capture therapy. Two methods are being evaluated at MURR to produce such a beam. The first uses a moderator of Al 2 O 3 replacing part of the graphite and water on one side of the core of the reactor to produce a source of predominantly intermediate-energy neutrons. The second method is a filter of 238 U between the core and the patient position to pass only intermediate-energy neutrons. The results of these evaluations are presented in this paper along with an outline of the other resources at the University of Missouri-Columbia that are available to support an NCT program. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  11. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions

  12. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  13. Theoretical research in intermediate energy nuclear physics: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress that has been made on the following problems: a numerical calculation of Skyrmiron scattering; (e,e'p) at high momentum transfer; spin-orbit nucleon-nucleon potential from Skyrme model; pionic atom anomaly; and field theory problems. The problems deal with various topics in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

  14. Proceedings of the 5. National Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Several papers concerning the physics at intermediate energies (∼ 100-1000MeV) are presented in this proceedings. Almost all the works show overlapping between Nuclear and Particles Physics. There is a predominance in theoretical papers. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  16. Inelastic α-particle scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.S.; Beurtey, R.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Catz, H.; Couvert, P.; Escudie, J.L.; Fontaine, J.M.; Garcon, M.; Lugol, J.C.; Matoba, M.; Platchkov, S.; Rouger, M.; Terrien, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The rigid body approximation is used to extend the Glauber formalism to the analysis of inelastic scattering of 1.37 GeV α particles by 24 Mg and 58 Ni. Angular distributions for low-lying states in 24 Mg and 58 Ni are analyzed in this framework together with previously published data for Ca isotopes. Intermediate energy α particle scattering is tested as a tool to observe the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance. Energy weighted sum rules are drawn from the analysis of L = 2 angular distributions measured in the proper energy range. Comparison is made with existing data

  17. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions, examination of the conditions of exoneration and attenuation for the energy uses in the industry; Examen des conditions d'un elargissement de la TGAP aux consommations intermediaires d'energie, examen des conditions d'exoneration et d'attenuation des usages d'energie dans l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulinet, M

    2000-05-15

    This document examines the conditions for a broadening of the general tax on polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions in order to reinforce the fight against greenhouse effect and to better master the energy consumption. It analyses the characteristics of each energy source with respect to the principle of a taxation of the consumptions. Finally, several scenarios are analyzed to show the advantage and drawbacks of such a system. A first evaluation and a preliminary tariffing are given. (J.S.)

  18. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  19. ''Super-radiant'' states in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.

    1994-01-01

    A ''super-radiant'' state emerges when, under certain conditions, one or a few ''internal'' states acquire a large collective decay width due to the coupling to one or a few ''external'' decay channels. The rest of the internal states are ''stripped'' of their decay width and become long lived quasistationary states. The essentials of such mechanism and its possible role in intermediate energy nuclear physics are discussed in this work

  20. The radial shapes of intermediate energy microscopic optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Wang Chang; Tian Ye; Zhuo Yizhong

    1984-01-01

    The radial shapes of intermediate energy proton microscopic optical potentials of 40 Ca are calculated with nuclear matter approach by Skyrme interactions. The calculated results show that the real central potential in central region of nucleus changes from attractive to repulsive when the energy of incident nucleon is above 150 MeV and appears apparently a 'wine-bottle-bottom' shape in the transition energy region (from 150 MeV to 300 MeV). This tendency is consistent with empirical optical potential obtained through fitting experiments and microscopic optical potential calculated with relativistic mean field theory as well as with the BHF theory. The calculated imaginary part of the microscopic optical potential changes from the dominant surface absorption into the volume absorption and its absolute value become larger as energy increases. The effects of Skyrme force parameters to the radial shape of the calculated microscopic optical potential are analysed in detail

  1. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  2. Spin observables in proton-neutron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.

    1986-05-01

    A summary of np elastic scattering spin measurements at intermediate energy is given. Preliminary results from a LAMPF experiment to measure free neutron-proton elastic scattering spin-spin correlation parameters are presented. A longitudinally polarized proton target was used. These measurements are part of a program to determine the neutron-proton amplitudes in a model independent fashion at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Some new proton-proton total cross sections in pure helicity states (Δσ/sub L/(pp)) near 3 GeV/c are also given. 37 refs., 2 figs

  3. Electron capture in ion-molecule collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress of theoretical charge transfer study in ion-molecule collisions at the intermediate energy is reviewed. Concept of close and distant collisions obtained from extensive ion-atom collision studies is identified so that it can be utilized to model two distinct collision processes. For a close collision, explicit representation of the whole collision complex is necessary to describe collision dynamics correctly, while a model potential approach for molecule is appropriate for a distant collision. It is shown that these two distinct models are indeed capable of reproducing experimental charge transfer cross sections. Some remarks for further theoretical study of ion-molecule collisions are also given. 21 refs., 8 figs

  4. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolf, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[CEBAF Theory Group, Newport News, VA (United States); Donnelly, T.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Dubach, J. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Pollock, S.J. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie K; Kowalski, S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Beise, E.J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.]|[Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed.

  5. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, M.J.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dubach, J.; Beise, E.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed

  6. Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments

  7. Production of intermediate energy beams by high speed rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, C.W.; Bale, T.J.; Cosgrove, P.; Kirby, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A rotor apparatus intended for the study of gas/surface interaction processes is presently nearing completion. The carbon fiber rotors under consideration are constructed with shapes derived from long thin cylindrical rods oriented with the longest axis in a horizontal plane, and spun in a horizontal plane about an axis which is perpendicular to the long axis and passes through the mid-point of the cylinder. The beam formation processes are discussed and rotor diagrams presented. Performance of these types of high speed rotor show them to have a very important future as sources of intermediate energy molecular beams

  8. An analytic solution for energy loss and time-of-flight calculations for intermediate-energy light ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, RJM; Hulsbergen, W; Prendergast, EP; van den Brink, A; de Haas, AP; Habets, JJLM; Kamermans, R; Koopmans, M; Kuijer, PG; de Laat, CTAM; Ostendorf, RW; Peghaire, A; Rossewij, M

    1999-01-01

    Particle identification in intermediate heavy-ion collisions, using a modern 4 pi detector which contains several active layers, relies on a parametrisation or numerical integration of the energy loss in thick layers of detector material for different ions. Here an analytical solution applicable

  9. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, D.

    2000-05-01

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  10. ECUT: Energy Conversion and utilization Technologies program biocatalysis research activity. Generation of chemical intermediates by catalytic oxidative decarboxylation of dilute organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, S.; Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A rhodium-based catalyst was prepared and preliminary experiments were completed where the catalyst appeared to decarboxylate dilute acids at concentrations of 1 to 10 vol%. Electron spin resonance spectroscoy was used to characterize the catalyst as a first step leading toward modeling and optimization of rhodium catalysts. Also, a hybrid chemical/biological process for the production of hydrocarbons has been assessed. These types of catalysts could greatly increase energy efficiency of this process.

  11. Monte Carlo calculations for intermediate-energy standard neutron field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Subbukutty, K.; Iyengar, S.B.D.; Navalkar, M.P.

    Intermediate-Energy Standard Neutron Field (ISNF) which produces a well characterised spectrum in the energy range of interest for fast reactors including breeders, has been set up at NBS using thin enriched 235 U fission sources. A proposal has been made for setting up a similar facility at BARC using however, easily available natural U instead of enriched U sources, to start with. In order to simulate the neutronics of such a facility Monte Carlo method of calculations has been adopted and developed. The results of these calculations have been compared with those of NBS and it is found that there may be a maximum difference of 10% in spectrum characteristics for the two cases of using thick and thin fission sources. (K.B.)

  12. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Barron, W.F. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)); Kamel, A.M. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Santiago, H.T. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an intermediate evaluation'' of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  13. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barron, W.F. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong); Kamel, A.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Santiago, H.T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an ``intermediate evaluation`` of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  14. Measurements of activation reaction rates in transverse shielding concrete exposed to the secondary particle field produced by intermediate energy heavy ions on an iron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Morev, M.N.; Iimoto, T.; Kosako, T.

    2012-01-01

    Reaction rate distributions were measured inside a 60-cm thick concrete pile placed at the lateral position of a thick (stopping length) iron target that was bombarded with heavy ions, 400 MeV/u C and 800 MeV/u Si. Foils of aluminum and gold, as well as gold, tungsten and manganese covered with cadmium were inserted at various locations in the concrete pile to serve as activation detectors. Features of reaction rate distribution, such as the shape of the reaction rate profile, contribution of the neutrons from intra-nuclear cascade and that from evaporation to the activation reactions are determined by the analysis of measured reaction rates. The measured reaction rates were compared with those calculated with radiation transport simulation codes, FLUKA and PHITS, to verify their capability to predict induced activity. The simulated reaction rates agree with the experimental results within a factor of three in general. However, systematic discrepancies between simulated reaction rates and measured reaction rates attributed to the neutron source terms are observed.

  15. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  16. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs

  17. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics. Keynote address: New directions in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the keynote address given by G.E. Brown at a LASL colloquium on August 21, 1979, for the Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics. Professor Brown reviewed major topics of interest in intermediate-energy nuclear physics and suggested experimental approaches that might be most productive in the near future. 22 figures

  19. Study of (p-π) reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvert, Pierre.

    1983-02-01

    This thesis presents all the A(p,π +- )A+1 experimental data measured at Saturne since 1974. A theoretical analysis of a few of them is made in the frame of a microscopic two-nucleon model, involving an intermediate δ(1232) resonance excitation. The spectrometer SPES I and the focal plane detection system are rapidly described. The data analysis method is presented in details. Calculations of the 10 B(p,π + ) 11 B (G.S.) excitation functions at constant transfer momentum lead to a good qualitative agreement in a wide range of incident energy and momentum transfer. This model also reproduces the 12 C(p,π - ) 13 O(G.S.) experimental cross sections at 613 MeV, pointing out the importance of the N(1520) resonance contribution to the (p,π - ) reaction mechanism above the (3,3) resonance [fr

  20. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  1. On selection rules and inelastic electron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuroh, K.

    1986-12-01

    Correlation effects are included in the Bethe-Born theory for the generalized oscillator strength of inelastic scattering of electrons on atoms. The formulation is such as to allow for the calculation of relative line strengths of multiplets. It is used to analyze line strengths of the 4d → 4f transition in La 3+ and Ce 4+ within LS-coupling. The analysis indicates that only singlet states of the intermediate 4d 9 4f configuration are allowed. Calculated line strengths are compared with a recent core electron energy loss spectra of metallic La and tetravalent CeO 2 and there is an overall qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Recoil studies of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, H

    2002-01-01

    A review is given on the recoil studies of photonuclear reactions on complex nuclei at intermediate energies. Recoils of 167 radionuclides formed in the photonuclear reactions of sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup n sup a sup t V, sup n sup a sup t Cu, sup 9 sup 3 Nb, sup n sup a sup t Ag, sup n sup a sup t Ta, and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au, induced by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E sub 0) from 600 to 1100 MeV, have been investigated by the thick-target thick-catcher method. The recoil velocity from the first step and the mean kinetic energy of the residual nuclei in the second step were deduced based on the two-step vector velocity model and discussed by comparing with the reported results on proton-induced reactions. Recoils of sup 2 sup 4 Na produced from sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup n sup a sup t V, sup n sup a sup t Cu, sup n sup a sup t Ag, and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au are of special interest from a viewpoint of a change in the production mechanism with respect to target mass. Reaction yields of 58 and 63 radionuclides produce...

  3. Energy Technology Programmes 1993-1998. Intermediate report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Tekes energy technology research programmes were launched in 1993. The aim is to produce innovative solutions that are efficient, environmentally sound and widely - even globally - applicable. Now Tekes manages a total of 12 energy technology research programmed. Research programmed form a network linking academia and industry. Total funding for the energy technology programmed during the years 1993-1998 is estimated at some FIM 1.5 billion, about half of which will be put up by the Tekes and the rest by the industry. Funding by the Ministry of Trade and Industry covers the first full-scale applications (demonstrations) resulting from the research and development activities. Finnish technology is front-ranking in the efficient use of energy, combustion technology, renewable energy sources and environmental technology. In this report the results and the research activities of the separate programmes is presented and discussed

  4. Ionization of neon by intermediate energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLawhorn, S.L.; Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.; Dingfelder, M.; Toekesi, K.; Sulik, B.; Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.; Reinhold, C.; Schultz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During the past few years there has been increasing interest in ionization of atomic and molecular targets by intermediate-energy dressed and partially dressed ions. These systems are particularly challenging to describe theoretically owing to screening of the projectile nuclear charge by bound electrons, interactions of projectile electrons with target electrons, and the large number of possible exit channels. At ECU we have initiated measurements of the doubly-differential ionization cross sections, differential in ejected electron energy and emission energy, for carbon ions of different initial charge states with atomic and molecular targets. In this presentation we compare those results with calculations being conducted at several institutions. For this presentation we will focus on electron emission from neon following interactions with carbon ions with energies from 0.067 MeV/u to 0.35 MeV/u and incident charge states from C + to C 3+ . Electron energies from 10 to 1500 eV are observed at emission angles from 20 to 120 degrees. The calculations separate the process into ionization of the target by the screened incident nucleus and the ionization of the target by the screened target nucleus. By summing these components in the rest frame of the target we can compare to the measured electron spectra. Figure 1 shows the single differential cross sections for ejection of electrons in C + -Ne collisions. Note the small contribution from ionization of the projectile. As the energy increases the contribution from projectile ionization increases; likewise as the ion energy decreases that contribution decreases. The excellent agreement shown in Figure 1 provides confidence to our use of Bohr theory for this energy range for this target. Doubly-differential cross sections based on the Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) techniques are compared with measurements in Fig. 2 for electron emission at 30 degrees. Again, excellent

  5. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  6. Raman optical activity study on insulin amyloid- and prefibril intermediate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Watarai, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 97-103 ISSN 0899-0042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : raman optical activity * amyloid * fibril * intermediate * insulin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2012

  7. Formation of large target residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Xu, Z.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    We have used radiochemical techniques to measure the yields, angular distributions and velocity spectra of the large (A/sub frag/ ≥ 2/3 A/sub tgt/) target residues from the fragmentation of 197 Au by intermediate energy 12 C, 20 Ne, 32 S, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 139 La projectiles. The fragment moving frame angular distributions are asymmetric for the lighter projectiles (C-Ar). The fragment velocity spectra are Maxwellian for the Kr induced reactions and non-Maxwellian for the reactions induced by the lighter ions. We interpret these results in terms of a change in the dominant fragment production mechanism(s) from one(s) involving a fast non-equilibrium process for the lighter ions to a slow, equilibrium process for Kr. Comparison of the measured yields and angular distributions with calculations made using a Boltzmann transport equation with appropriate modifications for Pauli blocking, etc., show excellent agreement between data and theory. 12 refs., 12 figs

  8. Protons scattering on Li isotopes at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Sanfirova, A.V.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The protons scattering differential cross section on the 6,7,8 Li nuclei are calculated within the framework the Glauber-Sitenko multiple scattering theory at intermediate energies (from 100 to 1000 MeV). In the calculations the multi-cluster wave functions (αt for 7 Li, αnp for 6 Li, and αtn for 8 Li) considering within potential cluster model have been used. Differential cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 8 Li and 9 Li nuclei are similar: absolute cross sections are almost the same, diffraction minimum for large A shifting to the field of the least scattering angles that reflecting increase of the material radius. For the 11 Li the differential cross section absolute value is smaller about in two time than for the rest isotopes. At present it is reliably established, that the 11 Li nucleus has an exotic structure - the nine-nucleon core ( 9 Li) around which the two-neutron halo is rotating. The principal characteristics of the Li nuclei are presented in tabular form

  9. Selected problems in experimental intermediate energy physics. Final technical report, February 1, 1991--January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, B.W.; Hungerford, E.V.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description of the research program of the intermediate energy group at the University of Houston may be found in previous progress reports, renewal proposals, and proposals to various accelerator advisory committees. The summaries of activities are presented in the next section. The objectives of the research program are to: (1) investigate selected, forefront problems in experimental intermediate energy physics; (2) educate students in this field of research; and (3) develop the instrumentation necessary to undertake this experimental program. There were three major thrusts of the program: (1) strange particle physics, where a strange quark is embedded in the nuclear medium; (2) muon electro-weak decay, which involves a search for a violation of the standard model of the electro-weak interaction; and (3) measurement of the spin dependent structure function of the neutron and proton

  10. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  11. Dynamical aspects of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, James Francis

    1997-10-01

    The production of neutrons, light charged particles (LCPs), and intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs), from the four reactions 55 MeV/A [124,136Xe] + [112,124Sn], is studied with an experimental apparatus which is highly efficient for the detection of both charged particles and neutrons. The IMFs are found more localized in the mid-velocity region (parallel velocity close to center of mass) than are the LPCs, and the detected multiplicity of IMFs depends linearly on the charge lost from the projectile. IMF multiplicity is found to be largely independent of the neutron excess of the system, aside from a slight increase with increasing neutron excess that is expected from statistical-model simulations. Remnants of the projectile, with very little velocity reduction, are found for most of the reaction cross section. Isotopic and isobaric fragment yields in the projectile-velocity region indicate that charge-to- mass ratio neutralization is generally not achieved but is approached when little remains of the projectile. For all systems, the fragments found in the mid-velocity region are substantially more neutron rich than those found in the velocity region dominated by the emission from the projectile. This observation can be qualitatively accounted for if the mid-velocity source (or sources) is either more neutron rich or smaller, with the same neutron-to-proton ratio, than the source with the velocity of the projectile. The observations of this work suggest that the intermediate mass fragments are, to a large extent, formed dynamically by a multiple neck rupture or a proximity-fission type mechanism. Though it remains unexplained, this process enhances the neutron- to-proton ratio of the emitted fragments. This scenario is reminiscent of low-energy ternary fission and one predicted by Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations. However, these calculations predict too much velocity damping of the projectile remnant and do not produce a mid-velocity neutron

  12. Electronic emission produced by light projectiles at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two aspects of the electronic emission produced by light projectiles of intermediate energies have been studied experimentally. In the first place, measurements of angular distributions in the range from θ = 0 deg -50 deg induced by collisions of 50-200 keV H + incident on He have been realized. It was found that the double differential cross section of electron emission presents a structure focussed in the forward direction and which extends up to relatively large angles. Secondly, the dependence of the double differential cross section on the projectile charge was studied using H + and He 3 2+ projectiles of 50 and 100 keV/amu incident on He. Strong deviations from a constant scaling factor were found for increasing projectile charge. The double differential cross sections and the single differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle, and the ratios of the emissions induced by He 3 2+ and H + at equal incident projectile velocities are compared with the 'Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal Initial State' (CDW-EIS) approximation and the 'Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo' (CTMC) method. Both approximations, in which the potential of the projectile exercises a relevant role, reproduce the general aspects of the experimental results. An electron analyzer and the corresponding projectile beam line has been designed and installed; it is characterized by a series of properties which are particularly appropriate for the study of double differential electronic emission in gaseous as well as solid targets. The design permits to assure the conditions to obtain a well localized gaseous target and avoid instrumental distortions of the measured distributions. (Author) [es

  13. Labelling and determination of the energy in reactive intermediates in solution enabled by energy-dependent reaction selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Singleton, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Any long-lived chemical structure in solution is subject to statistical energy equilibration, so the history of any specific structure does not affect its subsequent reactions. This is not true for very short-lived intermediates because energy equilibration takes time. Here, this idea is applied to achieve the 'energy labelling' of a reactive intermediate. The selectivity of the ring-opening α-cleavage reaction of the 1-methylcyclobutoxy radical is found here to vary broadly depending on how the radical was formed. Reactions that provide little excess energy to the intermediate lead to a high selectivity in the subsequent cleavage (measured as a kinetic isotope effect), whereas reactions that provide more excess energy to the intermediate exhibit a lower selectivity. Accounting for the expected excess energy allows the prediction of the observed product ratios and, in turn, the product ratios can be used to determine the energy present in an intermediate.

  14. Proton-carbon elastic scattering in the intermediate energy range based on the. alpha. -particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qingrun (CCAST (World Lab.), Beijing (China) Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics); Zhou Jinli (Guangxi Normal Univ., Guilin (China). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-05-01

    The {alpha}-particle model of {sup 12}C is examined by means of proton-{sup 12}C elastic scattering in the intermediate energy range. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory account of the experimental data. The parametrized proton-{sup 4}He amplitudes in the intermediate energy region are presented. (author).

  15. Role of compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-05-01

    Hot compound nuclei are frequently produced in intermediate-energy reactions through a variety of processes. Their decay is shown to be an important and at times dominant source of complex fragments, high energy-gamma rays, and even pions

  16. Carbon emission, energy consumption and intermediate goods trade: A regional study of East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Using country level panel data from East Asia over the period 1998–2011, this paper examines the implications of international production fragmentation-induced intermediate goods trade on the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution. The paper focuses on the interaction effect between energy consumption and trade in intermediate goods on carbon emission. The empirical results presented suggest that international trade in intermediate goods decreases the positive impact on carbon emission of energy consumption. When compared with the trade in final goods, intermediate goods trade contributes to a greater decrease in carbon pollution resulting from energy consumption. These results confirm that the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution in East Asia is significantly affected by international production fragmentation-induced trade in intermediate goods. The results presented in this paper have some important policy implications. - Highlights: • This paper tests the role of intermediates trade in energy-development nexus. • Empirical study is based on data of East Asia. • International trade can reduce the carbon pollution caused by energy use. • Intermediates trade has higher moderating effect than non-intermediate trade.

  17. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  18. Spanish experience in managing low and intermediate activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Spanish experience in management of low and intermediated level radioactive wastes is presented. The radioactive wastes stored come from research reactors, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle, scientific research, radiodiagnostic and medical applications. The commonest method is incorporation in cement inside special drums, even though some facilities use processes based on urea formal dehyde and on asphalt. Transport of the wastes is carried out by private undertakings and the Nuclear Energy Board. The sites used for storing are temporary in nature. The wastes produced by nuclear power plants are stored on site, with those processed by the Nuclear Energy Board are taken to a province of Cordoba. The National Company ENRESA for managing of all kinds of wastes was created. The Spanish legislation on this subject and the research being carried out by Spain itself and in cooperation with other States, are described. (Author) [pt

  19. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed

  20. Compound nuclei, binary decay, and multifragmentation in intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-07-01

    Hot compound nuclei, frequently produced in intermediate-energy reactions through a variety of processes, are shown to be an important and at times dominant source of complex fragments. 13 refs., 12 figs

  1. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gikal, K. B., E-mail: kgikal@mail.ru; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Piasecki, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University (Poland); Rubchenya, V. A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Sahiev, S. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Trzaska, W. H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Vardaci, E. [INFN Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell’Università di Napoli (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  2. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  3. Alpha-nucleus elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Alamanos, N.; Berthier, B.; Bruge, G.; Faraggi, H.; Lugol, J.C.; Mittig, W.; Papineau, L.; Yavin, A.I.; Buenerd, M.; Bauhoff, W.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 288, 340, 480 and 699 MeV Alpha-particles was measured on 208 Pb, 116 Sn and 58 Ni. The data were analysed in terms of a phenomenological optical model. The optical potentials obtained were found to vary consistently with the target nucleus and the incident energy. The radial zone where the potentials are well determined was studied in detail. The data for 208 Pb were also analysed with a folding model. The energy dependence of the strong-absorption radius and of the reaction cross section shows that the nuclear surface becomes slightly transparent for incident energies above 150 MeV per nucleon. (orig.)

  4. dd →3 Hen Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygina, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    The dd → 3 Hen reaction is considered at the energies between 200 and 520 MeV. The Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas equations are iterated up to the lowest order terms over the nucleon-nucleon t-matrix. The parameterized 3He wave function including five components is used. The angular dependence of the differential cross section and energy dependence of tensor analyzing power T 20 at the zero scattering angle are presented in comparison with the experimental data. (author)

  5. Role of near threshold resonances in intermediate energy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Mayer. Plane wave. Total. On-shell Scattering. Figure 3. The squared amplitude generated using few-body equations for η-3He FSI with the input of ηN t-matrix corresponding to aηN = (0.88+i0.41) fm. Q is the excitation energy given as Q = E − MHe − Mη with E, MHe, Mη being the total energy of the η-3He ...

  6. An analytic solution for energy loss and time-of-flight calculations for intermediate-energy light ions

    CERN Document Server

    Snellings, R; Prendergast, E P; Brink, A V D; Haas, A P D; Habets, J J L; Kamermans, R; Koopmans, M; Kuijer, P G; Laat, C T A; Ostendorf, R W; Peghaire, A; Rossewij, M

    1999-01-01

    Particle identification in intermediate heavy-ion collisions, using a modern 4 pi detector which contains several active layers, relies on a parametrisation or numerical integration of the energy loss in thick layers of detector material for different ions. Here an analytical solution applicable over an energy range of a few MeV up to a 100A MeV and for ions up to at least Z=8 is presented. Also, the consequences for time-of-flight measurements (TOF) in detectors behind several thick layers of detector material are discussed. The solution is applied to the data of the Huygens detector, which uses a TPC (dE/dx) and plastic scintillators for particle identification (E and TOF or dE/dx and TOF).

  7. Intermediate milling energy optimization to enhance the characteristics of barium hexaferrite magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodaei, A.; Ataie, A., E-mail: aataie@ut.ac.ir; Mostafavi, E.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano-sized BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was successfully synthesized via a solid-state reaction. • Intermediate milling energy was optimized to improve BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} properties. • Minimum total energy of 93.7 kJ/g was necessary for formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. • Deviation from the optimum milling energy deteriorates the magnetic properties. - Abstract: Nano-sized barium hexaferrite particles were synthesized by mechanical activation of BaCO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders mixture as starting materials. The effects of mechanical milling energy on the phase composition, morphology, thermal behavior and magnetic properties of the samples were systematically investigated by employing X-ray diffractometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal/thermo gravimetry analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The milling energy was calculated at five different levels using collision model. It was found that there is an optimum milling energy value for obtaining barium hexaferrite phase. The results revealed that applying a minimum total milling energy of 93.7 kJ/g was necessary for formation of almost single barium hexaferrite at a relatively low calcination temperature of 800 °C. FESEM micrograph of the above sample exhibited nano-size particles with a mean particle size of 80 nm. Further increase in milling energy leads to dramatic decrease in phase purity as well as magnetic characteristics of the samples. By increasing the milling energy from 93.7 to 671.9 kJ/g, saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decreased from 22.5 to 0.39 emu/g, and also coercivity (H{sub c}) decreased from 4.28 to 1.46 kOe.

  8. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  9. On intermediate energy heavy ion optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihan, T.H.; Awin, A.M.

    1992-08-01

    We derive in this paper an approximate analytical expression for the heavy ion optical potential by solving the inversion problem based on the McIntyre parametrization of the S-matrix. The quasi-classical limit of high energy approximation is modified in our approach so as to account for the Coulomb distortion of the trajectory. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  10. Study of projectile break-up process at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Harish; Parashari, Siddharth; Tali, Suhail A.

    2016-01-01

    The projectile break-up reactions are explained in terms of incomplete fusion or massive transfer reactions leading to the formation of composite system with less mass, charge and excitation energy, as compared to the complete fusion (CF) process. Since, the existing theoretical models are not applicable to reproduce the experimentally measured ICF, data satisfactory below 10 MeV/nucleon energies; thereby the study of the role of the entrance channel parameters in the fusion reactions is still a relevant problem in establishing the explicit inference regarding the influence of ICF on CF at 4-7 MeV/nucleon energies. Recently reported some studies have also shown that alpha Q-value is also an important parameter which affects the onset of ICF and conflict with the suggestion of Morgenstern et al. Keeping in view the recent aspects, to provide more strength to the aspect of projectile-target mass-asymmetry effect, role of non α-cluster projectile over α-cluster projectile, the present work has been carried out which will be useful to understand a clearer picture about the conflict between mass-asymmetry and projectile structure effect on break-up fusion process. As such, excitation function measurement of residues produced in 13 C + 175 Lu system has been carried out in a series of experiments of comparative study using α-cluster as well as non α-cluster projectiles with deformed heavier target nuclei at lower projectile energies ≈ 4-7 MeV/nucleon

  11. The efficiency of counter telescopes for intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, A.; Gubler, H.P.; Hasell, D.K.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Abegg, R.; Miller, C.A.; Stetz, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of counter telescopes containing a 15.2 cm thick NaI(Tl) crystal for detecting protons with energies in the range 50-350 MeV has been measured. An investigation was made of the dependence of the efficiency on the position of the proton in the counter. The results of the measurements are in close agreement with the calculations of efficiencies using available reaction cross section data. (orig.)

  12. Coherent pion photoproduction from deuterium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Rej, A.K.

    1975-12-01

    The coherent photoproduction of neutral pions on deuterons is studied at energies around the (3,3) resonance and discuss the effects of the Fermi motion, rescattering and kinematical approximations. The results are very dependent upon what kinematical approximations one adopts for the impulse approximation term, which dominates up to very large angles. Allowing for this uncertainty in the kinematics, our results are in good agreement with the most recent experimental data

  13. Magnetic effects in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Li; Li Baoan

    2011-01-01

    The time evolution and space distribution of internal electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion reactions at beam energies between 200 and 2000 MeV/nucleon are studied within an isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck transport model (ibuu11). While the magnetic field can reach about 7x10 16 G, which is significantly higher than the estimated surface magnetic field (∼1x10 15 G) of magnetars, it has almost no effect on nucleon observables because the Lorentz force is normally much weaker than the nuclear force. Very interestingly, however, the magnetic field generated by the projectilelike (targetlike) spectator has a strong focusing and defocusing effect on positive and negative pions at forward (backward) rapidities. Consequently, the differential π - /π + ratio as a function of rapidity is significantly altered by the magnetic field, whereas the total multiplicities of both positive and negative pions remain about the same. At beam energies above about 1 GeV/nucleon, while the integrated ratio of total π - to π + multiplicities is not, the differential π - /π + ratio is sensitive to the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ). Our findings suggest that magnetic effects should be carefully considered in future studies of using the differential π - /π + ratio as a probe of the E sym (ρ) at suprasaturation densities.

  14. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F. P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities.

  15. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F.P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities

  16. Present status of intermediate energy data evaluation for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1994-05-01

    The recent developments in the field of nuclear data evaluation for energies above 20 MeV are outlined. As a particularly interesting application we consider accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste. The most urgent data needs for accelerator-based transmutation have been prioritized and translated in terms of intermediate-energy data libraries. Priorities are assigned to the materials relevant to an incineration system and to the most important associated nuclear reactions (notably reactions involving nucleons). In this contribution, the proposed actions as indicated in previous work are further discussed and a sample intermediate-energy ''starter'' data file is presented. (orig.)

  17. Heavy residue properties in intermediate energy nuclear collisions with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1990-10-01

    We have measured the target fragment production cross sections and angular distributions for the interaction of 32, 44 and 93 MeV/nucleon argon, 35 and 43 MeV/nucleon krypton with gold. The fragment isobaric yield distributions, moving frame angular distributions and velocities have been deduced from these data. This fission cross section decreases with increasing projectile energy and the heavy residue cross section increases. The ratio v parallel /v cn increases approximately linearly with mass removed from the target. 21 refs., 8 figs

  18. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the fifth course of the international school of intermediate energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergere, R.; Costa, S.; Schaerf, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on high energy physics. Topics considered at the conference included total photon absorption, scattering of photons by nuclei, pion photoproduction, nuclear structure investigations, photonuclear reactions and dispersion relations, photon spectra, quark effects, future accelerators for intermediate energy nuclear physics, bag models, polarized photons, and inelastic electron scattering.

  20. Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidal, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this work a model is proposed to simulate the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons ('PI' and K) on the nucleon at high energy. This model is based on the exchange of mesonic or baryonic Regge trajectories, it is gauge invariant and it uses a Feynman diagram formalism inspired from isobaric models. The measurements concerning the following reactions γp → nπ + , γn → pπ - , γp → pπ 0 and γn → nπ 0 are reviewed and the new model is confronted to the experimental results. The model gives a reasonable and coherent description of these 4 reactions. The model has also been applied to the photoproduction of strange mesons and of Λ and Σ baryons and has been extrapolated at low energy to the threshold of the reaction, the model matches the results even up to E γ = 2 GeV for differential cross-sections and recoil polarization. An attempt has been made to associate a Regge based description, which is valid with low transfers, with perturbative quantum chromodynamics which is valid with high transfers. The model relies on the saturation of trajectories in the high transfer region and on the counting laws that give the right variation of the cross-section. It seems that a model based on linear trajectories can be reliable up to 4 GeV. The domain of high transfer has been too little investigated to provide enough experimental data to validate the model. An experiment whose purpose is to study the photoproduction of φ at high transfer, is proposed. This experiment requires an accelerator with high useful cycle because of the smallness of the expected cross-section. The CEBAF (continuous electron beam accelerator facility) as well as the CLAS 4π detector is presented. The study of γp → pφ and γp → KΛ * (1520) requires the discrimination of kaons from pions so the measurement of 180 ps as time resolution allows the feasibility of the experiment. (A.C.)

  1. Spectrometry of doubly charged particles, applied to intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostens, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The detection of 3 He and 4 He at GeV energies is obtained using both magnetic analysis and time-of-flight a methods, and several independent measurements of the specific ionization. This technique was applied to the extrapolation of the neutral resonance spectrum in the p + d → 3 He + X reaction and to the p- 4 He elastic scattering using incident α particles on a hydrogen target. In the first reaction, the data show the production of π 0 , eta 0 , ω 0 and eta'(957). An explanation implying a proton exchange diagram reveals the importance of the 3 He form factor. In the 4 He-p reaction, the 4 He scattered are detected in a magnetic spectrometer. It is possible to extract the elastic peaks from the continuum background corresponding to the empty target up to about 180 0 in the center of mass. The data corresponding to the backward angle reveal an increase of the cross section around 180 0 (cm). This phenomenon is qualitatively reproduced by triton exchange models. The results obtained are compared to theoretical model based on the multiple scattering phenomenon. But the interpreting of the experiments presented imply the knowledge of the wave function of both helium isotopes at momenta that have not been reached through electron scattering measurements up to now [fr

  2. Final Technical Report - Nuclear Studies with Intermediate Energy Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Blaine [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-12-14

    During the almost 20 year period of this grant research was carried out on atomic nuclei and their constituents using both photons and electrons. Research was carried out at the electron accelerator facility of the Netherlands Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEFK, Amsterdam) until the electron accelerator facility was closed in 1998. Subsequently, research was carried out at the Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) until the LEGS was closed at the end of 2006. During the next several years research was carried out at both the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) and the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) of the Tri-Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) located on the campus of Duke University. Since approximately 2010 the principal focus was on research at TUNL, although analysis of data from previous research at other facilities continued. The principal early focus of the research was on the role of pions in nuclei. This was studied by studying the production of pions using both photons (at LEGS) and electrons (at NIKHEF-K and JLAB). Measurements of charged pion photoproduction from deuterium at LEGS resulted in the most interesting result of these two decades of work. By measuring the production of a charged pion (p + ) in coincidence with an emitted photon we observed structures in the residual two-nucleon system. These indicated the existence of long-lived states not explicable by standard nuclear theory; they suggest a set of configurations not explicable in terms of a nucleon-nucleon pair. The existence of such “exotic” structures has formed the foundation for most of the work that has ensued.

  3. Reconstruction of electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic theory of electron current on a probe, enabling essentially broaden the area of application of a probe method for determination of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) onto the areas of intermediate and high pressures. Method of quadrature summs makes it possible to reconstruct EEDF from integral equation for arbitrary energy dependences of diffusion parameter at any given energy interval. High efficiency of the method is demonstrated by solution of model as well as experimental tasks

  4. The measurement of intermediate mass fragments in the fermi energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, G.

    1987-01-01

    Intermediate mass fragments in the Fermi energy domain were studied at GANIL via the Kr84 + Au reaction at 44 MeV/u. The Erel* quantity is used to study correlations between fragments. Fast-fast coincidences; fast-slow coincidences; slow-slow coincidences; and light particles are considered. Reaction mechanisms are discussed. Only qualitative analysis results are available, but they suggest that the quantitative results will be very instructive: light particle spectra will deliver source parameters (velocity, total charge, excitation energy and temperature); the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments will be deduced from the triple coincidences between modules of XYZt detector

  5. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  6. Mechanisms of activation of phenacetin to reactive metabolites by cytochrome P-450 : a theoretical study involving radical intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koymans, L.; Lenthe, J.H.; Donné-op Den Kelder, G M; Vermeulen, N P

    The cytochrome P-450-mediated activation of phenacetin (PHEN) to reactive intermediates by two hypothetical mechanisms has been studied by use of SV 6-31G ab initio energy and spin distribution calculations. In our calculations, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system has been substituted by a singlet

  7. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd→ 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  8. Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: an energy-economic scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation by Thorsten Frank Schulz the intermediate steps necessary to realise the 2000-Watt Society in Switzerland are examined. An analysis of an energy-economic scenario shows that the 2000-Watt Society should be seen as a long-term goal. According to the author, the major changes required to allow the implementation of this project concern energy-transformation and energy-demand technologies. Electricity will, according to the author, play an important role in a service-oriented society in the future. In such a transformation even intermediate steps are associated with considerable expense. The aims of the 2000-Watt Society project are listed. Energy and CO 2 balances for the domestic and transport sectors are presented and discussed. Complementary analyses are presented concerning fuel cells and wood-based fuel technologies. Finally, the implications of the 2000-Watt society and the effects of technological change are summarised and an outlook is presented

  9. Pair production by photons. Screening corrections for intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverboe, I.

    1978-01-01

    The screening correction to the total cross-section for coherent electron pair production by photons is evaluated for intermediate and high energies, by employing the Born-approximation recoil momentum distribution and accurate relativistic form factors. Results are given for all 3<=Z<=92. For each element the results are presented in terms of a seven-parameter formula which is based on a high-energy expansion of the screened cross-section. (author)

  10. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  11. Lessons Learned from Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gansler, Jacques S; Lucyshyn, William; Alarcon-Deza, Benigno

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, active duty sailor resources were in large demand. In an effort to return sailors to the fleet, the operation of the Navy's Heavyweight Torpedo Intermediate Maintenance Activities (IMA...

  12. The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed

  13. Degree of Rate Control: How Much the Energies of Intermediates and Transition States Control Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegelmann, Carsten; Andreasen, Anders; Campbell, Charles T.

    2009-01-01

    recently introduced, via the “degree of rate control” of elementary steps. By extending that idea, we argue that even more useful than identifying the rate-determining step is identifying the rate-controlling transition states and the rate-controlling intermediates. These identify a few distinct chemical...... electronic or steric control on the relative energies of the key species. Since these key species are the ones whose relative energies most strongly influence the net reaction rate, they also identify the species whose energetics must be most accurately measured or calculated to achieve an accurate kinetic...... model for any reaction mechanism. Thus, it is very important to identify these rate-controlling transition states and rate-controlling intermediates for both applied and basic research. Here, we present a method for doing that....

  14. (Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.

  15. Supplement to the report of the Expert Committee 'Intermediate-Energy Physics' 1986-1988/89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In the supplement to the scientitic report of the sponsoring project of the Federal Ministery for Research and Technology 'Intermediate-Energy Physics' the publications are collected, which have come out in the three years of the sponsoring in the single projects. Essentially only journal articles were taken up, in order to keep the extent of this list surveyable. On the taking up of the manifold of dissertations, diploma theses, and talks generally was abandoned. (orig.) [de

  16. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the progress in the following experiments: Λ Spin Transfer Experiment; Σ 0 Spin Transfer Experiment; Strangeness Production in Heavy Ion Collisions; Measurement of the Imaginary Part of the I=1 /bar N/N S-Wave Scattering Length; Single Pion Production in np Scattering; Measurements of the π + d→Δ ++ n at Intermediate Energy; and PhotoJets from Nuclei

  17. Elastic scattering of intermediate energy kaons from nuclei and its Coulomb effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhenqiu; Kong Lingjiang; Liu Xianhui

    1986-04-01

    In the frame of the eikonal multiple scattering theory, using the basic parameters which are given by the different authors, the elastic scattering of the intermediate energy kaon mesons on /sup 12/C and /sup 40/Ca is studied. The Coulomb effect is calculated too. The results are in agreement with the experimental data. The Coulomb effect not only enhances the small angle differential cross section, but also fills up the dip of the differential cross section.

  18. Asymmetry ratio in pair production and the degree of linearly polarized photons at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Asai, J

    1999-01-01

    In order to initiate the experiments using linearly polarized tagged photons at intermediate energies, it is imperative to know and to monitor the degree of polarization. The relationship is re-examined between the linear polarization of photons and the asymmetry ratio in pair production by such photons. An improved method is proposed in which pairs are prohibited from entering the cone region around the incident photon beam. By restricting the directions of pairs, the asymmetry ratio is much improved. (author)

  19. The 2-ID-B intermediate-energy scanning X-ray microscope at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Paterson, D.; Arko, J.; Erdmann, M.; Goetze, K.; Ilinski, P.; Mooney, T.; Vogt, S.; Xu, S.; Frigo, S.P.; Stampfl, A.P.J.; Wang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The intermediate-energy scanning x-ray microscope at beamline 2-ID-B at the Advanced Photon Source is a dedicated instrument for materials and biological research. The microscope uses a zone plate lens to focus coherent 1-4 keV x-rays to a 60 nm focal spot of 10 9 photons/s onto the sample. It records simultaneous transmission and energy-resolved fluorescence images. We have used the microscope for nano-tomography of chips and micro-spectroscopy of cells. (authors)

  20. Unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Iwamoto, Osamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    For an accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation system, it is very important to estimate sub-criticality of core system for feasibility and design study of the system. The fission cross section in the intermediate energy range has an important role. A program FISCAL has been developed to calculate neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections in the energy region from several tens of MeV to 3 GeV. FISCAL adopts the systematics considering experimental data for Ag- 243 Am. It is found that unified description of neutron-, proton- and photon-induced fission cross sections is available. (author)

  1. Intermediate energy proton stopping power for hydrogen molecules and monoatomic helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Stopping power in the intermediate energy region (100 keV to 1 MeV) was investigated, based on the work of Lindhard and Winther, and on the local plasma model. The theory is applied to calculate stopping power of hydrogen molecules and helium gas for protons of energy ranging from 100 keV to 2.5 MeV. Agreement with the experimental data is found to be within 10 percent. Previously announced in STAR as N84-16955

  2. Reconstruction of the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gorbunov et al. have developed a kinetic theory of the electron current drawn by a probe, which substantially extends the region of applicability of the probe method for determining the electron energy distribution function, enabling probes to be used for intermediate and high pressures (up to p ≤ 0.5 atm for monatomic gases). They showed that for λ var-epsilon >> a + d (where a is the probe radius, d is the sheath thickness, and λ var-epsilon is the electron energy relaxation length) the current density j e (V) drawn by the probe is related to the unperturbed distribution function by an integral equation involving the distribution function. The kernal of the integral equation can be written as a function of the diffusion parameter. In the present paper the method of quadrature sums is employed in order to obtain the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures. This technique enables them to recover the distribution function from the integral equation when the diffusion parameter has an arbitrary energy dependence ψ 0 (var-epsilon) in any given energy range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by application to both model problems and experimental data

  3. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy 129Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, Kin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The 129Xe-induced reactions on natCu, 89Y, 165Ho, and 197Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the 129Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  4. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  5. Energy Adventure Center. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Linda L.

    Energy activities are provided in this student activity book. They include: (1) an energy walk; (2) forms of energy in the home; (3) energy conversion; (4) constructing a solar hot dog cooker (with instructions for drawing a parabola); (5) interviewing senior citizens to learn about energy use in the past; (6) packaging materials; (7) insulation;…

  6. [Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy ( 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ''best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon 129 Xe with 197 Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon 12 C with 197 Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated

  7. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on photon and neutral meson physics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.; Crannell, H.; Peterson, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Workshop on ''Photon and Neutral-Meson, Physics at Intermediate Energies,'' held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, January 7 to 9, 1987. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together scientists working in the areas of electromagnetic, heavy-ion, and light hadron physics to discuss both the physics that could be addressed and potential capabilities of new, large intermediate-energy photon detectors. Based on the papers contained in these proceedings, it appears clear that there are a number of important areas that could be addressed with a much higher resolution neutral meson detector. It is also clear that the technical capability for building a neutral meson detector for energies up to 4 GeV with solid angle of approximately 10 mrs and resolution of a few hundred keV now exists. It also appears entirely reasonable to construct such a detector to be easily transportable so that it would become a national facility, available for use at a number of different laboratories. From the many interesting papers presented and from the broad representation of physicists from laboratories in Asia, Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States, there appears to be a strong case for proceeding with the construction of such a detector

  8. Intermediate Activated Sludge. Training Module 2.116.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with operation of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This is the second level of a three module series and considers aeration devices,…

  9. A liquid 3He target system for use at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.; Abegg, R.; Murdoch, B.T.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Postma, H.; Soukup, J.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid 3 He target system, with remote instrumentation and handling capabilities, has been developed for experiments using the 180-525 MeV TRIUMF cyclotron. 3 He gas is liquified, by means of a 4 He cryostat, into a cylindrical target cell (4.4 cm diameter, 1.6 cm thick) and maintained during operation at approx. equal to1.6 K. This provides an areal target density of approx. equal to2.7 x 10 22 3 He nuclei/cm 2 (128 mg/cm 2 ), suitable for intermediate energy proton scattering. (orig.)

  10. Probing in-medium spin–orbit interaction with intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating for the first time both the spin and isospin degrees of freedom explicitly in transport model simulations of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, we observe that a local spin polarization appears during collision process. Most interestingly, it is found that the nucleon spin up–down differential transverse flow is a sensitive probe of the spin–orbit interaction, providing a novel approach to probe both the density and isospin dependence of the in-medium spin–orbit coupling that is important for understanding the structure of rare isotopes and synthesis of superheavy elements

  11. Production of nuclei far from the beta stability line using intermediate-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1986-05-01

    The production of far unstable nuclei using heavy ion accelerators in the intermediate energy domain is reviewed. The various mechanisms responsible for the production of exotic species, mainly the projectile fragmentation and transfer reactions, are discussed, and the first experimental results presented. Results can be summarized as follows: existence of 4 new isotopes 22 C, 23 N, 29 Ne, 30 Ne; indication of bound character of 71 Ni, 72 Ni; clear evidence for bound character of 23 Si, 27 S, 31 Ar, 35 Ca; indications of bound character of 43 V, 46 Mn, 47 Mn, 48 Fe, 50 Co, 52 Co, 52 Ni, 55 Cu, 56 Cu

  12. Glutamyl phosphate is an activated intermediate in actin crosslinking by actin crosslinking domain (ACD toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kudryashova

    Full Text Available Actin Crosslinking Domain (ACD is produced by several life-threatening Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as part of larger toxins and delivered into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells via Type I or Type VI secretion systems. Upon delivery, ACD disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by catalyzing intermolecular amide bond formation between E270 and K50 residues of actin, leading to the formation of polymerization-deficient actin oligomers. Ultimately, accumulation of the crosslinked oligomers results in structural and functional failure of the actin cytoskeleton in affected cells. In the present work, we advanced in our understanding of the ACD catalytic mechanism by discovering that the enzyme transfers the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP to the E270 actin residue, resulting in the formation of an activated acyl phosphate intermediate. This intermediate is further hydrolyzed and the energy of hydrolysis is utilized for the formation of the amide bond between actin subunits. We also determined the pH optimum for the reaction and the kinetic parameters of ACD catalysis for its substrates, ATP and actin. ACD showed sigmoidal, non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for actin (K(0.5 = 30 µM reflecting involvement of two actin molecules in a single crosslinking event. We established that ACD can also utilize Mg(2+-GTP to support crosslinking, but the kinetic parameters (K(M = 8 µM and 50 µM for ATP and GTP, respectively suggest that ATP is the primary substrate of ACD in vivo. The optimal pH for ACD activity was in the range of 7.0-9.0. The elucidated kinetic mechanism of ACD toxicity adds to understanding of complex network of host-pathogen interactions.

  13. Glutamyl phosphate is an activated intermediate in actin crosslinking by actin crosslinking domain (ACD) toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Elena; Kalda, Caitlin; Kudryashov, Dmitri S

    2012-01-01

    Actin Crosslinking Domain (ACD) is produced by several life-threatening Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as part of larger toxins and delivered into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells via Type I or Type VI secretion systems. Upon delivery, ACD disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by catalyzing intermolecular amide bond formation between E270 and K50 residues of actin, leading to the formation of polymerization-deficient actin oligomers. Ultimately, accumulation of the crosslinked oligomers results in structural and functional failure of the actin cytoskeleton in affected cells. In the present work, we advanced in our understanding of the ACD catalytic mechanism by discovering that the enzyme transfers the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP to the E270 actin residue, resulting in the formation of an activated acyl phosphate intermediate. This intermediate is further hydrolyzed and the energy of hydrolysis is utilized for the formation of the amide bond between actin subunits. We also determined the pH optimum for the reaction and the kinetic parameters of ACD catalysis for its substrates, ATP and actin. ACD showed sigmoidal, non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for actin (K(0.5) = 30 µM) reflecting involvement of two actin molecules in a single crosslinking event. We established that ACD can also utilize Mg(2+)-GTP to support crosslinking, but the kinetic parameters (K(M) = 8 µM and 50 µM for ATP and GTP, respectively) suggest that ATP is the primary substrate of ACD in vivo. The optimal pH for ACD activity was in the range of 7.0-9.0. The elucidated kinetic mechanism of ACD toxicity adds to understanding of complex network of host-pathogen interactions.

  14. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of σ(700)-meson exchange in γγ→ππ processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the γΝ-Δ transition; pion photoproduction and the γΝ-Δ amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson's theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p(rvec γ, π o ) reaction; multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies; compton scattering off the proton; connections between compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region; single-pion electroproduction and the transverse one-half and scalar helicity transition form factors; relativistic effects, QCD mixing angles, and Ν → Νγ and Δ → γΝ transition form factors; electroproduction studies of the Ν → Δ transition at bates and CEBAF

  15. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M. [eds.

    1992-10-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of {sigma}(700)-meson exchange in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{pi} processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} transition; pion photoproduction and the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson`s theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}{sup o}) reaction; multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies; compton scattering off the proton; connections between compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region; single-pion electroproduction and the transverse one-half and scalar helicity transition form factors; relativistic effects, QCD mixing angles, and {Nu} {yields} {Nu}{gamma} and {Delta} {yields} {gamma}{Nu} transition form factors; electroproduction studies of the {Nu} {yields} {Delta} transition at bates and CEBAF.

  16. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  17. Photon and proton induced fission on heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-II E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of fission induced by intermediate energy protons or photons on actinides. The 660 MeV proton induced reactions are on 241Am, 238U, and 237Np targets and the Bremmstrahlung-photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV are on 232Th and 238U targets. The study was performed by means of the Monte Carlo simulation code CRISP. A multimodal fission extension was added to the code within an approach which accounts for the contribution of symmetric and asymmetric fission. This procedure allowed the investigation of fission cross sections, fissility, number of evaporated nucleons and fission-fragment charge distributions. The comparison with experimental data show a good agreement between calculations and experiments.

  18. Investigation of incomplete linear momentum transfer in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1986-07-01

    At intermediate energies, heavy ion central collisions lead to the incomplete fusion of the incident nuclei while part of the initial linear momentum is carried away by fast light particles. Experiments were performed with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles bombarding heavy targets. Results obtained with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20 MeV per nucleon argon beams are in good agreement with an empirical law established with lighter projectiles. On the contrary, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles do not follow the same law and fission fragments progressively disappear. A simple model explains the evolution of the amount of transferred linear momentum versus incident energy. The disappearance of the fusion products of the composite system observed with argon projectiles beyond 35 MeV per nucleon is explained by a limitation of the excitation energy per nucleon which can be deposited in a nucleus. The limit is evaluated from nucleon binding energy in nuclei and probability to emit clusters and is in good agreement with experimental data. Because of the coupling between intrinsic motion of nucleons and relative motion of nuclei, some nucleons have a kinetic energy high enough to be emitted: a theoretical model is proposed which rather well fits the data concerning fast nucleons but cannot explain the measured amounts of transferred linear momentum. This is attributed to the existence of other mechanisms [fr

  19. Emission of high-energy, light particles from intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Auble, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early surprises in examining reaction products from heavy ion reactions at 10 MeV/nucleon and above was the large yield of light particles emitted and the high energies to which the spectra of these particles extended. The interpretation of the origin of the high energy light ions has evolved from a picture of projectile excitation and subsequent evaporation to one of pre-equilibrium (or nonequilibrium) emission. The time scale for particle emission has thus moved from one that occurs following the initial collision to one that occurs at the very early stages of the collision. Research at ORNL on this phenomenon is reviewed

  20. Neutron-proton bremsstrahlung from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions as a probe of the nuclear symmetry energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, G.-C.; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2008-01-01

    Hard photons from neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions are examined as a potential probe of the nuclear symmetry energy within a transport model. Effects of the symmetry energy on the yields and spectra of hard photons are found to be generally smaller than those due to the currently existing uncertainties of both the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections and the photon production probability in the elementary process pn→pnγ. Very interestingly, nevertheless, the ratio of hard photon spectra R 1/2 (γ) from two reactions using isotopes of the same element is not only approximately independent of these uncertainties but also quite sensitive to the symmetry energy. For the head-on reactions of 132 Sn + 124 Sn and 112 Sn + 112 Sn at E beam /A=50 MeV, for example, the R 1/2 (γ) displays a rise up to 15% when the symmetry energy is reduced by about 20% at ρ=1.3ρ 0 which is the maximum density reached in these reactions

  1. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, 09210-580 São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-14

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  2. Probing core polarization around 78Ni: intermediate energy Coulomb excitation of 74Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2013-12-01

    We have recently measured the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ of the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory of the Michigan State University. The 74Ni secondary beam has been produced by fragmentation of 86Kr at 140 AMeV on a thick Be target. Selected radioactive fragments impinged on a secondary 197Au target where the measurement of the emitted γ-rays allows to extract the Coulomb excitation cross section and related structure information. Preliminary B(E2 values do not point towards an enhancement of the transition matrix element and the comparison to what was already measured by Aoi and co-workers in [1] opens new scenarios in the interpretation of the shell evolution of the Z=28 isotopes.

  3. Study of the neutron rich sulfure isotope 43S through intermediate energy Coulomb excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinescu, S.; Cáceres, L.; Grévy, S.; Sohler, D.; Stanoiu, M.; Negoita, F.; Borcea, C.; Borcea, R.; Bowry, M.; Catford, W.; Dombradi, Z.; Franchoo, S.; Gillibert, R.; Thomas, J. C.; Kuti, I.; Lukyanov, S.; Lepailleur, A.; Mrazek, J.; Niikura, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Petrone, C.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Roger, T.; Rotaru, F.; Sorlin, O.; Stefan, I.; Vajta, Z.; Wilson, E.

    2013-02-01

    The reduced transition probability B(E2: 3/2- 7/2-2) has been measured in 43S using Coulomb excitation at intermediate energy. The nucleus of interest was produced by fragmentation of a 48Ca beam at GANIL. The reaction products were separated in the LISE spectrometer. After Coulomb-excitation of 43S in a 208Pb target, the γ rays emitted inflight were detected by 64 BaF2 detectors of the Chǎteau de Cristal array. The preliminary value deduced for the reduced transition probability B(E2: 3/2-7/2-2) is in agreement with the predictions of the shell model calculations and supports a prolate-spherical shape coexistence in the 43S nucleus.

  4. Inclusive photoproduction and electroproduction of intermediate vector bosons (W+-,Z0) at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Katsuura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Adopting the quark-parton model based on QCD we estimate the cross-sections dσ/dt and σsup(tot) for the inclusive photoproduction of the intermediate vector bosons W + and Z 0 (γ + p → W + , Z 0 + anything) and σsup(tot) for the inclusive electroproduction (e - + p → W + , Z 0 + anything) at very high energies. The typical values of the estimated total cross-sections at √s >= 200 GeV are σsub(rp→W + ) -- 10 -36 cm 2 , σsub(ep→W + ) -- 10 -37 cm 2 , σsub(rp→Z 0 ) -- 10 -37 cm 2 and σsub(ep→Z 0 ) -- 10 -38 cm 2 with the Weinberg angle sin 2 theta sub( w) = 0.22. (author)

  5. Study of halo nuclei breakup on light targets at intermediate and high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Parfenova, Ioulia

    2002-01-01

    The study of exotic nuclei is one of the most important topics in modern nuclear physics. It allows general understanding of the structure and nature of light nuclear systems in the vicinity of the driplines. Most of the leading facilities in the world, CERN, GANIL, GSI in Europe, RIKEN in Japan, and NSCL(MSU) in USA, are involved in these investigations. Recently, new experimental data on the properties of light halo nuclei such as extremely large interaction cross sections, huge electromagnetic dissociation cross sections, narrow momentum distribution of fragments from breakup reactions, unusual modes of the beta-decay of these nuclei on the borders of the stability, were obtained. This Thesis is based on a series of articles devoted to theoretical investigations of nuclear breakup reactions with light halo nuclei at intermediate energies impinging on light target nuclei. Special attention is paid to the question of sensitivity of the calculated breakup cross sections and longitudinal momentum distributions...

  6. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  7. Excited state conformational dynamics in carotenoids: dark intermediates and excitation energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Warren F; Bishop, Michael M; Roscioli, Jerome D; Ghosh, Soumen; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    A consideration of the excited state potential energy surfaces of carotenoids develops a new hypothesis for the nature of the conformational motions that follow optical preparation of the S2 (1(1)Bu(+)) state. After an initial displacement from the Franck-Condon geometry along bond length alternation coordinates, it is suggested that carotenoids pass over a transition-state barrier leading to twisted conformations. This hypothesis leads to assignments for several dark intermediate states encountered in femtosecond spectroscopic studies. The Sx state is assigned to the structure reached upon the onset of torsional motions near the transition state barrier that divides planar and twisted structures on the S2 state potential energy surface. The X state, detected recently in two-dimensional electronic spectra, corresponds to a twisted structure well past the barrier and approaching the S2 state torsional minimum. Lastly, the S(∗) state is assigned to a low lying S1 state structure with intramolecular charge transfer character (ICT) and a pyramidal conformation. It follows that the bent and twisted structures of carotenoids that are found in photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins yield excited-state structures that favor the development of an ICT character and optimized energy transfer yields to (bacterio)chlorophyll acceptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Manganese-Oxygen Intermediates in O-O Bond Activation and Hydrogen-Atom Transfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Derek B; Massie, Allyssa A; Jackson, Timothy A

    2017-11-21

    Biological systems capitalize on the redox versatility of manganese to perform reactions involving dioxygen and its derivatives superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and water. The reactions of manganese enzymes influence both human health and the global energy cycle. Important examples include the detoxification of reactive oxygen species by manganese superoxide dismutase, biosynthesis by manganese ribonucleotide reductase and manganese lipoxygenase, and water splitting by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. Although these enzymes perform very different reactions and employ structurally distinct active sites, manganese intermediates with peroxo, hydroxo, and oxo ligation are commonly proposed in catalytic mechanisms. These intermediates are also postulated in mechanisms of synthetic manganese oxidation catalysts, which are of interest due to the earth abundance of manganese. In this Account, we describe our recent efforts toward understanding O-O bond activation pathways of Mn III -peroxo adducts and hydrogen-atom transfer reactivity of Mn IV -oxo and Mn III -hydroxo complexes. In biological and synthetic catalysts, peroxomanganese intermediates are commonly proposed to decay by either Mn-O or O-O cleavage pathways, although it is often unclear how the local coordination environment influences the decay mechanism. To address this matter, we generated a variety of Mn III -peroxo adducts with varied ligand environments. Using parallel-mode EPR and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption techniques, the decay pathway of one Mn III -peroxo complex bearing a bulky macrocylic ligand was investigated. Unlike many Mn III -peroxo model complexes that decay to oxo-bridged-Mn III Mn IV dimers, decay of this Mn III -peroxo adduct yielded mononuclear Mn III -hydroxo and Mn IV -oxo products, potentially resulting from O-O bond activation of the Mn III -peroxo unit. These results highlight the role of ligand sterics in promoting the formation of mononuclear products and mark an important

  9. Constructing effective one-body dynamics with numerical energy flux for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenbiao; Cao Zhoujian

    2011-01-01

    A new scheme for computing dynamical evolutions and gravitational radiations for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) based on an effective one-body (EOB) dynamics plus Teukolsky perturbation theory is built in this paper. In the EOB framework, the dynamic essentially affects the resulted gravitational waveform for a binary compact star system. This dynamic includes two parts. One is the conservative part, which comes from effective one-body reduction. The other part is the gravitational backreaction, which contributes to the shrinking process of the inspiral of a binary compact star system. Previous works used an analytical waveform to construct this backreaction term. Since the analytical form is based on post-Newtonian expansion, the consistency of this term is always checked by numerical energy flux. Here, we directly use numerical energy flux by solving the Teukolsky equation via the frequency-domain method to construct this backreaction term. The conservative correction to the leading order terms in mass-ratio is included in the deformed-Kerr metric and the EOB Hamiltonian. We try to use this method to simulate not only quasicircular adiabatic inspiral, but also the nonadiabatic plunge phase. For several different spinning black holes, we demonstrate and compare the resulted dynamical evolutions and gravitational waveforms.

  10. Direct processes in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Chariarse, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with direct processes induced by Zp charge ion impact on one or two electron atoms and ions at intermediate energies. At a first step, a one-dimensional collision model is used in order to prove the different theoretical methods available to study collisions at such energy range, such as: perturbative and related variational principles, and distorted wave methods. The best description of both, symmetric and asymmetric collision type, is achieved by the distorted wave methods, particularly the ones using the exact impulsive wave function. As a next step, the appropriate formulations of the wave functions employed in the one-dimensional model to describe the real 3-dimensional Coulomb interaction case are examined by using the Eikonal and impulse hypothesis. In this way, the VPS and Eikonal wave functions are reviewed, and furtherly, the Eikonal form of the extended impulse wave function is derived. The Eikonal impulse approximation (EIA) is introduced. This is a distorted wave method using the Eikonal and extended impulse wave functions. The choice of the EIA prior version, i.e., the one using extended impulse wave function in the final channel for excitation is widely discussed and justified. (Author) [es

  11. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei.

  12. Numerical comparison between deep water and intermediate water depth expressions applied to a wave energy converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beirão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy that can be captured from the sea waves and converted into electricity should be seen as a contribution to decrease the excessive dependency and growing demand of fossil fuels. Devices suitable to harness this kind of renewable energy source and convert it into electricity—wave energy converters (WECs—are not yet commercially competitive. There are several types of WECs, with different designs and working principles. One possible classification is their distance to the shoreline and thus their depth. Near-shore devices are one of them since they are typically deployed at intermediate water depth (IWD. The selection of the WEC deployment site should be a balance between several parameters; water depth is one of them. Another way of classifying WECs is grouping them by their geometry, size and orientation. Considering a near-shore WEC belonging to the floating point category, this paper is focused on the numerical study about the differences arising in the power captured from the sea waves when the typical deep water (DW assumption is compared with the more realistic IWD consideration. Actually, the production of electricity will depend, among other issues, on the depth of the deployment site. The development of a dynamic model including specific equations for the usual DW assumption as well as for IWD is also described. Derived equations were used to build a time domain simulator (TDS. Numerical results were obtained by means of simulations performed using the TDS. The objective is to simulate the dynamic behavior of the WEC due to the action of sea waves and to characterize the wave power variations according with the depth of the deployment site.

  13. Inner-shell excitation in heavy ion collisions up to intermediate incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, T. de.

    1987-04-01

    Electronic excitations in collisions of very heavy ions with a total nuclear charge Z greater than 1/α ≅ 137 at bombarding energies reaching from 3.6 MeV/n up to 100 MeV/n are the subject of this thesis. The dynamical behaviour of the electron-positron-field is described within a semiclassical model, which is reviewed and extended to include electronic interactions via a mean field. A detailed comparison with experimental data of K-vacancy formation, δ-electron and positron emission shows an improved agreement compared with former calculations. Structures in spectra of positrons emitted in sub- and supercritical collision are discussed in two respects: Firstly as a signal of the vacuum decay in supercritical electromagnetic fields which evolve in the vicinity of long living giant nuclear molecules. Secondly as an atomic effect, which might be related to an instaneous formation of molecular 1sσ- and 2p 1/2 σ- levels. However, beyond this speculation the emission spectra of electrons and positrons in deep inelastic reactions have proven to be a powerful tool for measuring nuclear reaction or delay times in the order of 10 -21 s. This property was transfered to the domain of intermediate energy collisions. In first order perturbation theory we derived a scaling law, exhibiting how nuclear stopping times could be extracted from the emission spectra of high energetic δ-electrons. Quantitative calculations within a coupled channel code have been carried out for the system Pb+Pb, yielding cross sections of up to 20 nb for the emission of electrons with a kinetic energy of 50 MeV in 60 MeV/n-collisions. (orig./HSI)

  14. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    We are applying for a three-year grant from the US Department of Energy to New Mexico State University to continue its support of our work on experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies, which has been carried out in collaboration with groups from various laboratories and universities. The nucleon-nucleon work is aimed at making measurements that will contribute to a determination of the isospin-zero amplitudes, as well as continuing our investigations of evidence for dibaryon resonances. It is based at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Current and planned experiments include measurements of total cross-section differences in pure spin states and of spin parameters in neutron-proton scattering. The pion-nucleus work is aimed at improving our understanding both of the nature of the pion-nucleus interaction and of nuclear structure. It consists of two programs, one based at LAMPF and one based principally at the SIN laboratory in Switzerland. The LAMPF-based work involves studies of large-angle scattering, double-charge-exchange scattering, including measurements at a new energy range above 300 MeV, and a new program of experiments with polarized nuclear targets. The SIN-based work involves studies of quasielastic scattering and absorption, including experiments with a new large-acceptance detector system planned for construction there. We are requesting support to continue the LAMPF-based work at its current level and to expand the SIN-based work to allow for increased involvement in experiments with the new detector system. 57 refs

  15. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei

  16. Proceedings of the workshop on program options in intermediate-energy physics. Volume 1. Summary and panel reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.; Talley, B. (comps.)

    1980-05-01

    A Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics sponsored by the US Department of Energy was held at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, August 20 to 31, 1979. The scope of the workshop included all laboratories in intermediate-energy physics, worldwide, and all of these sent representatives to the workshop. The workshop addressed itself to the critical questions on nuclear and particle physics and how they can best be investigated by intermediate-energy accelerators. Among the questions that the workshop members considered were: (1) what are the important physics topics which might be understood through research on these accelerators in the next 10 years. These topics include, but are not restricted to, fundamental interactions and symmetries in particle physics, and nuclear modes of motion, structure, and reaction mechanisms; (2) what experiments should be undertaken to carry out the program. What are the kinematical conditions, accuracies, resolutions, and other parameters required to obtain the desired knowledge; (3) which accelerators are best suited for each experiment. What work at other laboratories (low-, intermediate-, or high-energy) could be undertaken to complement and/or supplement the proposed LAMPF program; and (4) what new facility capabilities should be explored for the long-term future. The workshop was divided into small panels in order to promote effective interchange of ideas. After reports to other panels and plenary sessions, the panelists prepared reports stating the results of their deliberations. These reports comprise the principal part of Volume I.

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on program options in intermediate-energy physics. Volume 1. Summary and panel reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, J.C.; Talley, B.

    1980-05-01

    A Workshop on Program Options in Intermediate-Energy Physics sponsored by the US Department of Energy was held at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, August 20 to 31, 1979. The scope of the workshop included all laboratories in intermediate-energy physics, worldwide, and all of these sent representatives to the workshop. The workshop addressed itself to the critical questions on nuclear and particle physics and how they can best be investigated by intermediate-energy accelerators. Among the questions that the workshop members considered were: (1) what are the important physics topics which might be understood through research on these accelerators in the next 10 years. These topics include, but are not restricted to, fundamental interactions and symmetries in particle physics, and nuclear modes of motion, structure, and reaction mechanisms; (2) what experiments should be undertaken to carry out the program. What are the kinematical conditions, accuracies, resolutions, and other parameters required to obtain the desired knowledge; (3) which accelerators are best suited for each experiment. What work at other laboratories (low-, intermediate-, or high-energy) could be undertaken to complement and/or supplement the proposed LAMPF program; and (4) what new facility capabilities should be explored for the long-term future. The workshop was divided into small panels in order to promote effective interchange of ideas. After reports to other panels and plenary sessions, the panelists prepared reports stating the results of their deliberations. These reports comprise the principal part of Volume I

  18. Chemically activated formation of organic acids in reactions of the Criegee intermediate with aldehydes and ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Amrit; Allen, Joshua W; Green, William H

    2013-10-21

    Reactions of the Criegee intermediate (CI, ˙CH2OO˙) are important in atmospheric ozonolysis models. In this work, we compute the rates for reactions between ˙CH2OO˙ and HCHO, CH3CHO and CH3COCH3 leading to the formation of secondary ozonides (SOZ) and organic acids. Relative to infinitely separated reactants, the SOZ in all three cases is found to be 48-51 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy, formed via 1,3-cycloaddition of ˙CH2OO˙ across the C=O bond. The lowest energy pathway found for SOZ decomposition is intramolecular disproportionation of the singlet biradical intermediate formed from cleavage of the O-O bond to form hydroxyalkyl esters. These hydroxyalkyl esters undergo concerted decomposition providing a low energy pathway from SOZ to acids. Geometries and frequencies of all stationary points were obtained using the B3LYP/MG3S DFT model chemistry, and energies were refined using RCCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12 single-point calculations. RRKM calculations were used to obtain microcanonical rate coefficients (k(E)) and the reservoir state method was used to obtain temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients (k(T, P)) and product branching ratios. At atmospheric pressure, the yield of collisionally stabilized SOZ was found to increase in the order HCHO reactions were found to be the most sensitive parameters determining SOZ and organic acid yield.

  19. Intermediate energies heavy ion collisions : study of the charged particles emission dynamics and emitters characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, E.

    1994-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, reaction processes are ranging from slow processes where equilibrium is achieved between every emission, up to direct processes where nucleon nucleon scattering and phase space availability are the deciding factors. In order to investigate this transition, both the emission dynamics and the characteristics of the emitter have been studied, both theoretically and experimentally in the AMPHORA detector, for the systems 7, 17, 27 and 34 AMeV, 40 Ar+Al, 40 Ar+Cu and 40 Ar+Ag. First, the linear momentum transfer of the most central collisions has been evaluated for these systems, by measuring the velocity of heavy residues. Then, by measuring azimuthal angle correlations functions, and by comparing them with statistical model predictions, the average angular momentum of the emitter has been evaluated. To study the charged particles emission dynamics, experimental azimuthal angle and relative momentum correlation functions have been compared with simulations based on a classical trajectory model. Finally, predictions of an advanced BUU model have been studied for the system 34 AMeV 40 Ar+Al. (authors). 69 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of [sigma](700)-meson exchange in [gamma][gamma][yields][pi][pi] processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the [gamma][Nu]-[Delta] transition; pion photoproduction and the [gamma][Nu]-[Delta] amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson's theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p([rvec [gamma

  1. Modeling interactions of intermediate-energy neutrons in a plastic scintillator array with GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohley, Z., E-mail: zkohley@gmail.com [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lunderberg, E.; DeYoung, P.A. [Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49423 (United States); Roeder, B.T. [LPC-Caen, ENSICAEN, IN2P3/CNRS et Universite de Caen, 14050 Caen cedex (France); Baumann, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Christian, G.; Mosby, S.; Smith, J.K.; Snyder, J.; Spyrou, A.; Thoennessen, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of a large-area neutron time-of-flight detector, built on the GEANT4 framework, has been compared with an experimental measurement of the {sup 16}B{yields}{sup 15}B+n decay produced from a 55 MeV/u{sup 17}C beam. The ability of the Monte Carlo simulation to reproduce the intermediate-energy neutron interactions within the detector has been explored using both the stock GEANT4 physics processes and a custom neutron interaction model, MENATE{sub R}. The stock GEANT4 physics processes were unable to reproduce the experimental observables, while excellent agreement was obtained through the inclusion of the MENATE{sub R} model within GEANT4. The differences between the two approaches are shown to be related to the modeling of the neutron-carbon inelastic reactions. Additionally, the use of MENATE{sub R} provided accurate reproduction of experimental signals associated with neutron scattering within the detector. These results provide validation of the Monte Carlo simulation for modeling measurements of multiple neutrons where the identification and removal of false neutron signals, due to multiple neutron scattering, are required.

  2. Spectral energy distributions of the brightest Palomar-Green quasars at intermediate redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Bechtold, Jill; Green, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    We have combined low-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra with the optical/near-IR spectrophotometry of Neugebauer et al. (1987) in order to study the spectral energy distributions of seven of the brightest Palomar-Green (PG) quasars at intermediate redshifts (Z(sub em) greater than or equal to 0.9 and less than or equal to 1.5). Some of these PG quasars are barely detectable in long IUE exposures, so we have used the Gaussian Extraction (GEX) technique to maximize the signal-to-noise of the IUE data, and we have co-added all spectra available from the IUE archive for each QSO unless the ultraviolet spectra varied significantly from one exposure to the next. We have corrected the spectral energy distributions for Milky Way reddening using the observed neutral hydrogen column densities on each sight line and the gas-to-dust relation recently derived by Diplas & Savage. Six of the seven quasars are detected down to lambda much less than 700 A in the rest frame, and consequently continuum reddening due to dust in the immediate vicinity of the quasar can have a dramatic effect on the spectral energy distributions. In order to explore the possible importance of intrinsic continuum reddening, we have assembled a heuristic extinction curve which extends to lambda much less than 912 A. Using this heuristic extinction curve, we derive reasonable upper limits on the intrinsic E(B-V) for each quasar. We briefly discuss some of the implications of the derived intrinsic continuum reddening limits. We use geometrically thin accretion disk models to derive the black hole masses and accretion rates implied by the spectral energy distributions. Even if we neglect intrinsic reddening, we find that a large fraction of the quasars require super-Eddington accretion rates (which is not consistent with the thin disk assumption). Comparison of the data in this paper to a large body of data from the literature on the accretion disk M(sub BH) - M dot grid calculated

  3. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  4. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd -> sup 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ladygin, V P

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A sub y sub y , A sub x sub x , and A sub x sub z in the dd -> sup 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the sup 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown

  5. Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd → 3Hen reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.; )

    2002-01-01

    The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd → 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown [ru

  6. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus

    2017-08-01

    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  7. Intermediate steps towards the 2000-Watt society in Switzerland: an energy-economic scenario analysis[Dissertation 17314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F

    2007-07-01

    In this dissertation by Thorsten Frank Schulz the intermediate steps necessary to realise the 2000-Watt Society in Switzerland are examined. An analysis of an energy-economic scenario shows that the 2000-Watt Society should be seen as a long-term goal. According to the author, the major changes required to allow the implementation of this project concern energy-transformation and energy-demand technologies. Electricity will, according to the author, play an important role in a service-oriented society in the future. In such a transformation even intermediate steps are associated with considerable expense. The aims of the 2000-Watt Society project are listed. Energy and CO{sub 2} balances for the domestic and transport sectors are presented and discussed. Complementary analyses are presented concerning fuel cells and wood-based fuel technologies. Finally, the implications of the 2000-Watt society and the effects of technological change are summarised and an outlook is presented.

  8. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  9. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  10. Feasibility of using intermediate x-ray energies for highly conformal extracranial radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Yu, Victoria; Nguyen, Dan; Demarco, John; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Woods, Kaley; Boucher, Salime [RadiaBeam Technologies, Santa Monica, California 90404 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using intermediate energy 2 MV x-rays for extracranial robotic intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: Two megavolts flattening filter free x-rays were simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP (v4c). A convolution/superposition dose calculation program was tuned to match the Monte Carlo calculation. The modeled 2 MV x-rays and actual 6 MV flattened x-rays from existing Varian Linacs were used in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for a head and neck, a liver, a lung, and a partial breast treatment. A column generation algorithm was used for the intensity modulation and beam orientation optimization. Identical optimization parameters were applied in three different planning modes for each site: 2, 6 MV, and dual energy 2/6 MV. Results: Excellent agreement was observed between the convolution/superposition and the Monte Carlo calculated percent depth dose profiles. For the patient plans, overall, the 2/6 MV x-ray plans had the best dosimetry followed by 2 MV only and 6 MV only plans. Between the two single energy plans, the PTV coverage was equivalent but 2 MV x-rays improved organs-at-risk sparing. For the head and neck case, the 2MV plan reduced lips, mandible, tongue, oral cavity, brain, larynx, left and right parotid gland mean doses by 14%, 8%, 4%, 14%, 24%, 6%, 30% and 16%, respectively. For the liver case, the 2 MV plan reduced the liver and body mean doses by 17% and 18%, respectively. For the lung case, lung V20, V10, and V5 were reduced by 13%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. V10 of heart with 2 MV plan was reduced by 59%. For the partial breast treatment, the 2 MV plan reduced the mean dose to the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs by 27% and 47%, respectively. The mean body dose was reduced by 16%. Conclusions: The authors showed the feasibility of using flattening filter free 2 MV x-rays for extracranial treatments as evidenced by equivalent or superior dosimetry compared to 6 MV plans

  11. Verification of MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 Data bases at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarenko, Y. E. (Yury E.); Batyaev, V. F. (Vyacheslav F.); Karpikhin, E. I. (Evgeny I.); Zhivun, V. M. (Valery M.); Koldobsky, A. B. (Aleksander B.); Mulambetov, R. D. (Ruslan D.); Mulambetova, S. V.; Trebukhovsky, Y. V. (Yury V.); Zaitsev, S. L.; Lipatov, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Prael, R. E. (Richard E.)

    2004-01-01

    The work presents results on computer simulations of two experiments whose aim was measuring the threshold activation reaction rates in {sup 12}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 93}Nb, {sup 115}In, {sup 169}Tm, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, and {sup 209}Bi thin samples placed inside and outside a 0.8-GeV proton-irradiated 4-cm thick W target and a 92-cm thick W-Na composite target of 15-cm diameter both. In total, more than 1000 values of activation reaction rates were determined in both experiments. The measured data were compared with results by the LAHET code using several nuclear data bases for the respective excitation functions, namely, ENDF/B6 for cross section of neutrons at energies below 20 MeV and MENDL2 together with MENDL2P for cross sections of protons and neutrons of 20 to 100 MeV energies. The recently developed IEAF-2001 data base that provides neutron cross sections up to 150 MeV was used as well. Simulation-to-experiment results obtained using MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 are presented. The agreement between simulation and experiment was found satisfactory for both data bases. Nevertheless; further studies should be conducted to improve simulations of the production of secondary protons and high-energy neutrons, as well as the high-energy neutron elastic scattering. Our results allow drawing some conclusions concerning the reliability of the transport codes and data bases used to simulate Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), particularly with Na-cooled W targets. The high-energy threshold excitation functions to be used in activation-based unfolding of neutron spectra inside the ADS can be also inferred from our results.

  12. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1999-06-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/ dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H ++H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pad

  13. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1999-01-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H + +H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pade

  14. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......, the catalytic activity of Top3 is not required for DNA damage checkpoint activation, but it is required for normal S-phase progression after DNA damage. We also present evidence that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and persistence of X-shaped DNA molecules resulting from overexpression of TOP3(Y356F......) are downstream of Rad51 function. We propose that Top3 functions in S phase to both process homologous recombination intermediates and modulate checkpoint activity....

  15. An experimental investigation on reduced radiological penumbra for intermediate energy x-rays: Implications for small field radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brian Michael

    Current day external beam radiation therapy typically uses x-ray energies in the megavoltage (6--18 MV) or in the superficial/orthovoltage (80--350 kVp) energy ranges. It has been found that intermediate energy x-rays (those greater than orthovoltage but sub-megavoltage) may offer an advantage in the field of high precision radiation therapy such as in radiosurgery. This advantage is a reduction in the radiological penumbra associated with small (less than about 3 cm) radiation dose fields. A consequence of reduced radiological penumbra is a more homogenous, conformal dose distribution in the patient with dose escalation and organ sparing made more feasible. The objectives of this thesis were as follows: to produce and to characterize an intermediate energy x-ray beam, to establish a method of accurate penumbra measurement at the micron level for millimeter size fields, to measure the radiological penumbra of single small intermediate energy x-ray fields, and to show the clinical consequences of a multiple beam irradiation in a stereotactic head phantom. A maximum photon energy of 1.2 +/- 0.1 MeV was determined for the intermediate energy x-ray spectrum at the expense of a low dose rate. A digital microscope with a computer controlled translation stage was investigated for its ability to resolve steep dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film for field sizes as small as 1 mm and for photon energies as low as 100 kVp. The microscope-film system resolved gradients to within about 30 mum, limited by the inherent spatial resolution of the film, the noise of the system, and the uncertainties of measurement. Penumbra widths were compared for 1.2 MV versus 6 MV for identical irradiation conditions. In some instances, there was a five-fold reduction in the radiological penumbra of single 1.2 MV x-ray beams. A multiple beam arc irradiation demonstrated that the advantages seen with single beams carry over to multiple beams. The benefits of reduced radiological penumbra for

  16. Heavy Ion Physics at Low, Intermediate and Relativistic Energies using 4π Detectors. Proceedings of International Research Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, M.; Sandulescu, A.; Pelte, D.; Stoecker, H.; Randrup, J.

    1997-01-01

    This monograph contains 37 communications presented at the International Research Workshop held at Poiana Brasov, Romania on October 7-14, 1996. The main subject was heavy ion reactions at low, intermediate and relativistic energies using 4π detectors. The following topics were focussed on: cold fragmentation of nuclear matter, preequilibrium and thermalization, thermal and chemical equilibrium, fragmentation and correlations in intermediate energy collisions, dynamical properties of hot and dense nuclear matter, in-medium effects, resonance and strange nuclear matter, signals of the deconfined state. The dynamical aspects and their role in triggering the liquid-gas phase transition at intermediate energies and the deconfined quark-gluon plasma at ultra-relativistic energies were of special interest. New experimental and theoretical results, illustrating the progress made during the last years in understanding the properties of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of pressure and temperature produced by heavy ion collisions, were presented and intensively discussed. The round table discussion, the last session of the Workshop, summarized through lively and extensive contributions the main subjects attacked during the Workshop. At the end the discussion focussed on the most important question, what strategy the nuclear physics community should embark on at this turn of the millennium

  17. Distorted wave models applied to electron emission study in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The electron emission from different atoms induced by impact of multicharged bare ions at intermediate and high energies is studied. To perform these studies, the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model is used. With this distorted wave model, analytical expressions are obtained for the transition amplitudes as a function of the transverse momentum transfer for hydrogen targets in an arbitrary initial state and for every any orbital of a multielectronic target represented as a linear combination of Slater type orbitals. With these expressions, the different cross sections which are compared with the experimental data available are numerically calculated. The results obtained for different targets and projectiles and the comparison with other theoretical models and experimental data allows to explain the electron emission spectra and to predict new effects which have not been measured so far. The results of the present work permit to view the ionization process as the evolution of the active electron in the combined field of the target and projectile nuclei. (Author) [es

  18. High energy x-radiographic assessment of conditioned intermediate level waste blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewcock, A.I.; Burch, S.F.; Reynolds, W.N.; Pullen, D.A.W.; Smith, D.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes an effective technique for examining the quality of the solidification matrix material in a 500 litre waste drum, testing for homogeneity and major cracks and the confirmation of set. A high energy x-ray source, (an 8 MeV Linac) and a special x-ray TV system, were used to examine several different types of solidified waste form, with and without background radiation, simulated by the use of an uncollimated radiographic isotope. The system as tested showed no discernable image degradation when the isotope was positioned to give a representative background dose as experienced with active ILW monoliths. (author)

  19. Tissue distribution of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and search for active demethylation intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Globisch

    Full Text Available 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC was recently detected as the sixth base in mammalian tissue at so far controversial levels. The function of the modified base is currently unknown, but it is certain that the base is generated from 5-methylcytosine (mC. This fuels the hypothesis that it represents an intermediate of an active demethylation process, which could involve further oxidation of the hydroxymethyl group to a formyl or carboxyl group followed by either deformylation or decarboxylation. Here, we use an ultra-sensitive and accurate isotope based LC-MS method to precisely determine the levels of hmC in various mouse tissues and we searched for 5-formylcytosine (fC, 5-carboxylcytosine (caC, and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU as putative active demethylation intermediates. Our data suggest that an active oxidative mC demethylation pathway is unlikely to occur. Additionally, we show using HPLC-MS analysis and immunohistochemistry that hmC is present in all tissues and cell types with highest concentrations in neuronal cells of the CNS.

  20. Very backward π0- and eta0-production by proton projectiles on deuterium target at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthet, P.; Frascaria, R.; Didelez, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The production of π 0 and eta 0 mesons in the reactions pd→π 0 tau and pd→eta 0 tau has been studied at very backward angles for kinetic proton energies Tsub(p) ranging from 0.92 to 2.6 GeV. The excitation functions at phisub(π) = phisub(eta) = 180 0 display large structures which might be related to baryonic (Δ and N*) excitations in the intermediate state

  1. Elastic scattering of the intermediate energy kaon mesons on the nuclei and coulomb's effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhenqiu; Kong Lingjiang; Liu Xianhui

    1985-05-01

    In the frame of the eikonal scattering theory, using the basic parameters which are given by the different authors, the elastic scattering of the intermediate energy kaon mesons /sup 12/C and /sup 40/Ca are studied. The Coulomb effect is calculated too. The results are agreement with the experimental data. The Coulombv effect does not only enhance the small angle differential cross section, but also fill up the dip of the differential cross section.

  2. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  3. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, J; Silari, M; Vollaire, J

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H−H− linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling w...

  4. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stubblefield

    Full Text Available We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE.Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG and turbidimetry (A405.Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec. Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  5. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, William B; Alves, Nathan J; Rondina, Matthew T; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT) in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT) was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry (A405). Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec). Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT. The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  6. Development of Si-based detectors for intermediate energy heavy-ion physics at a storage-ring accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J.; Jaworowski, J.; Leandersson, M.; El Bouanani, M. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan Lund, (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Jakobsson, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cosmic and Subatomic Physics; Romanski, J.; Westerberg, L.; Van Veldhuizen, E.J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); The Chicsi Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) compatible Si detectors are being developed by the CELSIUS Heavy lon Collaboration (CHIC) for measuring the energy and identity of Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) with Z {approx} 3 - 12 and energies of 0.7 - I 0 A MeV. Here we give an overview of the development of Si {delta}E-E detector telescopes and investigations on IMF identification based on the pulse shape from Si-detectors where the particles impinge on the rear-face of the detector. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of 238U in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of 238 U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of 238 U

  8. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  9. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly attributed to unsuccessful memory formation, whereas the supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity related to unsuccessful memory formation have been rarely studied. It is still unclear under what circumstances such supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity occur. To clarify this issue, we aimed at creating a condition, in which supra-optimal hippocampal activity is associated with encoding failure. We assumed that such supra-optimal activity occurs when task-relevant information is embedded in task-irrelevant, distracting information, which can be considered as noise. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present fMRI study, we probed neural correlates of associative memory formation in a full-factorial design with associative memory (subsequently remembered versus forgotten and noise (induced by high versus low distraction as factors. Results showed that encoding failure was associated with supra-optimal activity in the high-distraction condition and with sub-optimal activity in the low distraction condition. Thus, we revealed evidence for a bell-shape function relating hippocampal activity with associative encoding success. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that intermediate levels of hippocampal activity are optimal while both too low and too high levels appear detrimental for associative memory formation. Supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity seem to occur when task-irrelevant information is added to task-relevant signal. If such task-irrelevant noise is reduced adequately, hippocampal activity is lower and thus optimal for associative memory formation.

  10. MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 nuclide production yields data bases verification at intermediate energies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titarenko, Y. E. (Yury E.); Batyaev, V. F. (Vyacheslav F.); Zhivun, V. M. (Valery M.); Mulambetov, R. D. (Ruslan D.); Mulambetova, S. V.; Zaitsev, S. L.; Lipatov, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G. (Stepan G.); Prael, R. E. (Richard E.)

    2004-01-01

    The work presents the results of computer simulation of two experiments which aim was measuring the threshold activation reaction rates in {sup 12}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 27}Al, {sup 59}Co, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 93}Nb, {sup 115}In, {sup 169}Tm, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, and {sup 209}Bi thin samples placed inside and outside the 0.8-GeV proton-irradiated 4-cm thick W target and 92-cm thick W-Na composite target of 15-cm diameter both. In total, more than 1000 values of activation reaction were determined in the both experiments. The measured reaction rates were compared with the rates simulated by the LAHET code with the use of several nuclear databases for the respective excitation functions, namely, MENDL2/2P for neutron/proton cross sections up to 100 MeV, and recently developed IEAF-2001 that provides neutron cross sections up to 150 MeV. The comparison between the simulation-to-experiment agreements obtained via the MENDL2 and IEAF-2001 is presented. The agreement between simulation and experiment has been found generally satisfactory for both of the databases. The high-energy threshold excitation functions to be used in the activation-based unfolding of neutron spectra inside the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), particularly with Na-cooled W targets, can be inferred from the results.

  11. Structure and antimicrobial activity of platypus 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Allan M; Bansal, Paramjit; Koh, Jennifer M S; Pagès, Guilhem; Wu, Ming J; Kuchel, Philip W

    2014-05-02

    The three-dimensional structure of a chemically synthesized peptide that we have called 'intermediate' defensin-like peptide (Int-DLP), from the platypus genome, was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. The overall structural fold of Int-DLP was similar to that of the DLPs and β-defensins, however the presence of a third antiparallel β-strand makes its structure more similar to the β-defensins than the DLPs. Int-DLP displayed potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The four arginine residues at the N-terminus of Int-DLP did not affect the overall fold, but were important for its antimicrobial potency. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection system with a large angular acceptance and an energy high dynamics, for heavy ion physics at intermediate energies: M.E.ω. detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, F.

    1985-01-01

    Built for intermediate energy heavy ions nuclear physics, the M.E.ω. detector uses various and complementary detection methods: ionization chamber, parallel plate avalanche counter, plastic scintillators. With these techniques, velocity, energy, mass and charge of nuclei were measured over wide range. From the detailed theoretical study of each method, limitations and perturbation causes are deduced. The solutions used for optimizing the detector, and the main results are exposed. The internal sectorisation of the detector, which permits a modulation in counting rate and electronical adjustments, has been revealed to be very suitable for heavy ions intermediate energy physics. Results of the first experiment realised with M.E.ω. (Ar + Ag at 35 MeV/u) are commented [fr

  13. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Annual progress report, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. The nucleon-nucleon research has involved studies of interactions between polarized neutrons and polarized protons. Its purpose is to help complete the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as part of a program currently in progress at LAMPF, as well as to investigate the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The pion-nucleus research involves studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been adequately explored. These include experiments on elastic and double charge exchange scattering at energies above the /Delta/(1232) resonance, interactions with polarized nuclear targets, and investigations of pion absorption using a detector covering nearly the full solid angle region. 21 refs., 4 figs

  14. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium. [Wave functions, preliminary experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed.

  15. Comparison of hemolytic activity of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar lectins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    Full Text Available Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in rodent models of amoebiasis. Recently, the intermediate subunit of the lectin, Igl1, of E. histolytica has been shown to have hemolytic activity. However, the corresponding lectin is also expressed in a non-virulent species, Entamoeba dispar, and another subunit, Igl2, is expressed in the protozoa. Therefore, in this study, we compared the activities of Igl1 and Igl2 subunits from E. histolytica and E. dispar using various regions of recombinant Igl proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. dispar Igl proteins had comparable hemolytic activities with those of E. histolytica Igl proteins. Furthermore, Igl1 gene-silenced E. histolytica trophozoites showed less hemolytic activity compared with vector-transfected trophozoites, indicating that the expression level of Igl1 protein influences the activity. These results suggest that the lower hemolytic activity in E. dispar compared with E. histolytica reflects the lower expression level of Igl1 in the E. dispar parasite.

  16. Comparison of hemolytic activity of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Makiuchi, Takashi; Cheng, Xunjia; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in rodent models of amoebiasis. Recently, the intermediate subunit of the lectin, Igl1, of E. histolytica has been shown to have hemolytic activity. However, the corresponding lectin is also expressed in a non-virulent species, Entamoeba dispar, and another subunit, Igl2, is expressed in the protozoa. Therefore, in this study, we compared the activities of Igl1 and Igl2 subunits from E. histolytica and E. dispar using various regions of recombinant Igl proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. dispar Igl proteins had comparable hemolytic activities with those of E. histolytica Igl proteins. Furthermore, Igl1 gene-silenced E. histolytica trophozoites showed less hemolytic activity compared with vector-transfected trophozoites, indicating that the expression level of Igl1 protein influences the activity. These results suggest that the lower hemolytic activity in E. dispar compared with E. histolytica reflects the lower expression level of Igl1 in the E. dispar parasite.

  17. Measurement of Fragment Mass Distributions in Neutron-induced Fission of 238U and 232Th at Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simutkin, V.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conceptual analysis of accelerator-driven systems assumes extensive use of nuclear data on neutron-induced reactions at intermediate energies. In particular, information about the fission fragment yields from the 238 U(n,f) and 232 Th(n,f) reactions is of particular interest at neutron energies from 10 to 200 MeV. However, there is a lack of such data for both 238 U and 232 Th. Up to now, the intermediate energy measurements have been performed for 238 U only, and there are no data for the 232 Th(n,f) reaction. The aim of the work is to provide such data. Fission fragment mass distributions for the 232 Th(n,f) and 238 U(n,f) reactions have been measured for the incident neutron energies 32.8 MeV, 45.3 MeV and 59.9 MeV. The experiments have been performed at the neutron beam facility of the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used as a fission fragment detector. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MMRNRM). (authors)

  18. Activated ADI pathway: the initiator of intermediate vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin-Ee; Neoh, Hui-Min; Looi, Mee-Lee; Chin, Siok Fong; Cui, Longzhu; Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Hussin, Salasawati; Jamal, Rahman

    2017-03-01

    Comparative proteomic profiling between 2 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, Mu50Ω-vraSm and Mu50Ω-vraSm-graRm, and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strain Mu50Ω revealed upregulated levels of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB) of the arginine catabolism pathway in VISA strains. Subsequent analyses showed that the VISA strains have higher levels of cellular ATP and ammonia, which are by-products of arginine catabolism, and displayed thicker cell walls. We postulate that elevated cytoplasmic ammonia and ATP molecules, resulting from activated arginine catabolism upon acquisition of vraS and graR mutations, are important requirements facilitating cell wall biosynthesis, thereby contributing to thickened cell wall and consequently reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA strains.

  19. Relative biological efficiency of intermediate energy neutrons and 60Co rays for induction of chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturelid, S.; Bergman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Intermediate energy neutrons are unique in that a considerable fraction of critical interactions and of dose absorbed is not associated with ionization but with atomic collision. It is still unknown to what extent the qualitative difference in primary damage after atomic collision compared to that of ionization and excitation becomes expressed at biological levels. Chromosomal aberrations were studied in Chinese hamster fibroblasts exposed for 5-8 hours at 22 degree C to intermediate energy neutrons, mean energy 8.5 keV, or to 60 Co-gamma rays. RBE at the 10 per cent aberration frequency level in S-phase were 2.2+-0.6 for total aberrations, 2.1+-0.6 for chromatid breaks and 1.8+-0.5 for exchanges. For each chromatid aberration observed after recovery, about 200 bondbreaking atomic collisions besides 3000 primary iniozations should have occured in DNA. However, the extent to which the aberration response is due to atomic collisions is not clear. (author)

  20. Examination of the conditions of a broadening of the general tax for polluting activities to the intermediate energy consumptions. Incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions; Examen des conditions d'un elargissement de la TGAP aux consommations intermediaires d'energie. Mecanismes incitatifs a la reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D

    2000-05-15

    Among the various existing incentive mechanisms for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions, like the pollution regulations and the financial help for energy mastery, this document analyzes the conditions of efficiency of the negotiated voluntary agreements and of the tradable emission quotas and their articulation with the fiscality. (J.S.)

  1. Effector molecules in expression of the antimicrobial activity of macrophages against Mycobacterium avium complex: roles of reactive nitrogen intermediates, reactive oxygen intermediates, and free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, T; Sato, K; Shimizu, T; Sano, C; Kajitani, H; Dekio, S; Tomioka, H

    1997-12-01

    We studied microbicidal activities of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), free fatty acids (FFA), and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and the mode of macrophage (mphi) production of these effectors. (1) Intracellular growth of MAC in murine peritoneal mphis was accelerated by scavengers for ROI or RNI and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase or phospholipase A2, indicating roles of ROI, RNI, and FFA in mphi anti-MAC functions. (2) Acidified NaNO2-derived RNI, FFA (linolenic and arachidonic acids), and the H2O2-mediated halogenation system exhibited a significant anti-MAC bactericidal activity. The combination of RNI with FFA showed a synergistic effect. However, the H2O2-halogenation system in combination with either RNI or FFA showed an antagonism. When Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) was used as a target organism, the combinations of RNI + FFA and RNI + H2O2-halogenation gave a synergistic effect, whereas FFA + H2O2-halogenation showed an antagonism in exerting bactericidal activity. In addition, when ROI generated by the xanthine oxidase-acetaldehyde system was combined with RNI, anti-Lm but not anti-MAC activity was potentiated. (3) ROI production by murine peritoneal mphis was observed immediately after contact with MAC organisms (MAC stimulation) and ceased within 2 h. FFA release was seen 1-24 h after MAC stimulation. RNI production was initiated from 3 h and increased during the first 36 h and continued at least for 4 days. These findings suggest that RNI and FFA rather than ROI are important effectors of anti-MAC functions of mphis, and the collaborating action of RNI with FFA temporarily participates in mphi-mediated killing of MAC in the relatively early phase after MAC stimulation.

  2. Comparative roles of free fatty acids with reactive nitrogen intermediates and reactive oxygen intermediates in expression of the anti-microbial activity of macrophages against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaki, T; Tomioka, H; Shimizu, T; Dekio, S; Sato, K

    2000-01-01

    We assessed the role of free fatty acids (FFA) in the expression of the activity of macrophages against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in relation to the roles of two major anti-microbial effectors, reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). Intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis residing inside macrophages was accelerated by treatments of macrophages with either quinacrine (phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor), arachidonyl trifuloromethylketone (type IV cytosolic PLA2 inhibitor), NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and superoxide dismutase plus catalase (ROI scavengers). In addition, M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages produced and/or secreted these effectors sequentially in the order ROI (0–3 h), FFA (0–48 h), and RNI (3 to at least 72 h). Notably, membranous FFA (arachidonic acid) of macrophages translocated to M. tuberculosis residing in the phagosomes of macrophages in phagocytic ability-and PLA2-dependent fashions during cultivation after M. tuberculosis infection. FFA, RNI and H2O2-mediated halogenation system (H2O2-halogenation system) displayed strong activity against M. tuberculosis in cell-free systems, while ROI alone exerted no such effects. Combinations of ‘FFA + RNI’ and ‘RNI + H2O2-halogenation system’ exhibited synergistic and additive effects against M. tuberculosis, respectively, while ‘FFA + H2O2-halogenation system’ had an antagonistic effect. Moreover, a sequential attack of FFA followed by RNI exerted synergistic activity against M. tuberculosis. Since M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages showed simultaneous production of RNI with FFA secretion for relatively long periods (approx. 45 h) and prolonged RNI production was seen thereafter, RNI in combination with FFA appear to play critical roles in the manifestation of the activity of macrophages against M. tuberculosis. PMID:10931146

  3. Electron capture in low- and intermediate-energy collisions between completely stripped light ions and metastable H(2s) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.A.; Falcon, C.A.; Reinhold, C.O.; Casaubon, J.I.; Piacentini, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron capture from H(2s) targets by He 2+ ions have been computed in the impact velocity range 0.05-0.5 au. Calculations were performed using a molecular close-coupling approach with inclusion of electron translation factors. A ten-state molecular basis set was considered. A comparison is made with Landau-Zener results for the same system. Intermediate projectile energy classical Monte Carlo capture cross sections are also presented for H + , He 2+ , Li 3+ and C 6+ projectiles. (author)

  4. Universal fluctuations: a new approach to the study of ''phase transitions'' in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The universal theory of order parameter fluctuations (Δ-scaling laws) is applied to a wide range of intermediate energy heavy-ion collision data obtained with INDRA. This systematic study confirms that the observed fragment production is compatible with aggregation scenarios for in- or out-of-equilibrium continuous phase transitions, while not showing any sign of critical behaviour or phase coexistence. We stress the importance of the methodology employed in order to gain further insight into the mechanism(s) responsible. (authors)

  5. A Wien filter velocity analyzer for intermediate energy electron impact spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boechat-Roberty, H.M. [Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-09-01

    A new electron velocity analyzer based on the Wien Filter principle, has been developed. In this analyzer an electrical and magnetic field perpendicular to each other, disperse electrons of different energies. Immersion electrostatic lenses are employed, in order to decelerate and accelerate the electrons respectively before and after energy dispersion. This analyzer has demonstrated an excellent capability in the determination of energy-loss spectra in an extended impact energy range (0.2 to 1.5 KeV). The high inherent signal/noise ratio has lead to the acquisition of well-defined and reliable inner-shell excitation spectra. (author). 18 refs.

  6. Nuclear stopping and compression in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Fen; Xiao Zhigang; Zhang, Ya-Peng; Feng Zhaoqing; Jin Genming; Xu Hushan; Yao Nan; Yuan Xiaohua; Zhang Xueying; Zhang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear stopping and the radial flow are investigated with an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model for Ni + Ni and Pb + Pb from 0.4 to and 1.2 GeV/u. The expansion velocity as well as the degree of nuclear stopping are higher in the heavier system at all energies. The ratio between the flow energy and the total available energy in center of mass of the colliding systems exhibits a positive correlation to the degree of nuclear stopping. The maximum density (ρ max ) achieved in the compression is comparable to the hydrodynamics prediction only if the non-zero collision time effect is taken into account in the later. Due to the partial transparency, the growing of the maximum density achieved in the central region of the fireball with the increase of beam energy becomes gradually flat in the 1 GeV/u energy regime

  7. Theory of inelastic ion-atom scattering at low and intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G. B.; Garcia, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are presented of inelastic energy loss and ionization phenomena associated with Ar(+)-Ar collisions at small distances of closest approach and for laboratory collision energies ranging from several keV to several hundred keV. Outer-shell excitations are handled statistically; inner-shell excitations are calculated from the viewpoint of quasidiabatic molecular orbital promotion. Auger electron yield, average state of ionization, and average inelastic energy loss are calculated per collision as a function of distance of closest approach of the collision partners for several laboratory collision energies. Average charge-state probabilities per collision partner are calculated as a function of the average inelastic energy loss per atom. It is shown that the structure in the data is due to the underlying structure in the inner-shell independent-electron quasimolecular promotion probabilities.

  8. A Free Energy Barrier Caused by the Refolding of an Oligomeric Intermediate Controls the Lag Time of Amyloid Formation by hIAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Arnaldo L; Lomont, Justin P; Tu, Ling-Hsien; Raleigh, Daniel P; Zanni, Martin T

    2017-11-22

    Transiently populated oligomers formed en route to amyloid fibrils may constitute the most toxic aggregates associated with many amyloid-associated diseases. Most nucleation theories used to describe amyloid aggregation predict low oligomer concentrations and do not take into account free energy costs that may be associated with structural rearrangements between the oligomer and fiber states. We have used isotope labeling and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to spectrally resolve an oligomeric intermediate during the aggregation of the human islet amyloid protein (hIAPP or amylin), the protein associated with type II diabetes. A structural rearrangement includes the F 23 G 24 A 25 I 26 L 27 region of hIAPP, which starts from a random coil structure, evolves into ordered β-sheet oligomers containing at least 5 strands, and then partially disorders in the fibril structure. The supercritical concentration is measured to be between 150 and 250 μM, which is the thermodynamic parameter that sets the free energy of the oligomers. A 3-state kinetic model fits the experimental data, but only if it includes a concentration independent free energy barrier >3 kcal/mol that represents the free energy cost of refolding the oligomeric intermediate into the structure of the amyloid fibril; i.e., "oligomer activation" is required. The barrier creates a transition state in the free energy landscape that slows fibril formation and creates a stable population of oligomers during the lag phase, even at concentrations below the supercritical concentration. Largely missing in current kinetic models is a link between structure and kinetics. Our experiments and modeling provide evidence that protein structural rearrangements during aggregation impact the populations and kinetics of toxic oligomeric species.

  9. Analysis of α-12C elastic scattering at intermediate energies by the S-matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Pilipenko, V. V.

    The results of calculations of differential cross-sections for α-12C elastic scattering by the S-matrix model are presented for 10 energy values in the energy range 65MeV ≤ Eα ≤ 386MeV in a wide range of scattering angles. The behavior of various scattering characteristics as functions of the projectile energy is analyzed. It is shown that the chosen parametrization of S-matrix allows describing correctly the Fraunhofer oscillations of the cross-sections in the region of small scattering angles and the rainbow scattering pattern in the region of sufficiently large angles.

  10. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of {sup 238}U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of {sup 238}U.

  11. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  12. An investigation into electron scattering from pyrazine at intermediate and high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, A. G.; Fuss, M. C. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gorfinkiel, J. D. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Almeida, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); García, G., E-mail: g.garcia@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2013-11-14

    Total electron scattering cross sections for pyrazine in the energy range 10–500 eV have been measured with a new magnetically confined electron transmission-beam apparatus. Theoretical differential and integral elastic, as well as integral inelastic, cross sections have been calculated by means of a screening-corrected form of the independent-atom representation (IAM-SCAR) from 10 to 1000 eV incident electron energies. The present experimental and theoretical total cross sections show a good level of agreement, to within 10%, in the overlapping energy range. Consistency of these results with previous calculations (i.e., the R-matrix and Schwinger Multichannel methods) and elastic scattering measurements at lower energies, below 10 eV, is also discussed.

  13. Determination of minimum impact parameter by modified touching spheres schemes for intermediate energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)

  14. Intermediate-energy nuclear theory. Final report, July 1, 1976-August 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.A.

    1985-02-01

    We summarize the research accomplishments of the Texas A and M Medium-Energy Theory Group which was funded by the Department of Energy from July 1976 through August 1984. Our research was mainly in the area of nucleon-nucleon and NNπ theory and data analysis, although some effort was also devoted to the elementary-particle aspects of these hadrons in order to better understand the NN force. Publications and reports are listed

  15. Total electron scattering cross section of Fluorocarbons at intermediate electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-10-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) have been measured using the linear transmission technique for impact energies 0.10 -- 4.00 keV. These TCS are compared to existing experimental and theoretical TCS in the literature. Based on the present measurements, an empirical formula is developed to predict the TCS of fluorocarbons as a function of incident electron energy.

  16. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  17. High-energy X-ray diffraction studies of short- and intermediate-range structure in oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2002-01-01

    The feature of high-energy X-ray diffraction method is explained. The oxide glasses studies by using BL04B2, high-energy X-ray diffraction beam line of SPring-8, and the random system materials by high-energy monochromatic X-ray diffraction are introduced. An advantage of third generation synchrotron radiation is summarized. On SPring-8, the high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments of random system are carried out by BL04B2 and BL14B1 beam line. BL04B2 can select Si (111)(E=37.8 keV, λ=0.033 nm) and Si(220)(E=61.7 keV, λ=0.020 nm) as Si monochromator. The intermediate-range structure of (MgO) x (P 2 O 5 ) 1-x glass ,MgP 2 O 6 glass, B 2 O 3 glass, SiO 2 and GeO 2 are explained in detail. The future and application of high-energy X-ray diffraction are stated. (S.Y.)

  18. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  19. Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, R. F. C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais, Campus Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin,’ Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, R. F. da [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, C.P. 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, G.P.O. Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-05-21

    We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.

  20. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.C.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    During the contract year several results of prior LAMPF experiments were completed and prepared for publication. Progress was made in the data analysis of other experiments. Three LAMPF variable energy experiments were carried out with the polarized target PPT-VI: sigma/sub total, transverse/ (p(polarized)p(polarized)) and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) elastic scattering at 14 energies between 300 and 800 MeV, and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) → dπ + at a few energies. Proposals were made for future experiments: two for continued nucleon-nucleon studies and one for a search for neutrino oscillations

  1. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  2. Energetic proton emission in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. Pre-equilibrium and cooperative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Finocchiaro, P.; Migneco, E.; Bellia, G.; Greco, V.; Catania Univ.

    2002-01-01

    Energetic proton emission has been investigated as a function of the centrality in the reaction 58 Ni + 58 Ni at 30 AMeV. Protons with energy extending up to a relevant fraction of the total available energy in the reaction were measured and studied. The dependence on the reaction centrality has been extensively investigated and data have been compared with the results of microscopic transport calculations. The more striking observation concerns the extremely energetic proton (E p NN ≥ 130 MeV) multiplicity which is found to increase almost quadratically with the number of participant nucleons thus indicating the onset of a mechanism beyond one and two-body dynamics. (author)

  3. Towards a better understanding of hard photon emission in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Agodi, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Coniglione, R.; Milazzo, P.M.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; D' Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M.L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Mastinu, P.F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Tonetto, F.; Vannini, G

    1999-07-26

    High energy photon spectra have been measured in several {sup 58}Ni induced reactions at 30A MeV incident energy. A two source analysis of the data has been performed using a two exponential parameterization of the associated gamma spectra. The relative intensity of the two components has been deduced as a function of the total mass of the interacting system and of the impact parameter. To attempt a characterization of the emission sources, correlations between photons and IMF's have been measured for the first time.

  4. Towards a better understanding of hard photon emission in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Agodi, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Coniglione, R.; Milazzo, P. M.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Tonetto, F.; Vannini, G.

    High energy photon spectra have been measured in several 58Ni induced reactions at 30A MeV incident energy. A two source analysis of the data has been performed using a two exponential parameterization of the associated gamma spectra. The relative intensity of the two components has been deduced as a function of the total mass of the interacting system and of the impact parameter. To attempt a characterization of the emission sources, correlations between photons and IMF's have been measured for the first time.

  5. Towards a better understanding of hard photon emission in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Agodi, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Coniglione, R.; Milazzo, P.M.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M.L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Mastinu, P.F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Tonetto, F.; Vannini, G.

    1999-01-01

    High energy photon spectra have been measured in several 58 Ni induced reactions at 30A MeV incident energy. A two source analysis of the data has been performed using a two exponential parameterization of the associated gamma spectra. The relative intensity of the two components has been deduced as a function of the total mass of the interacting system and of the impact parameter. To attempt a characterization of the emission sources, correlations between photons and IMF's have been measured for the first time

  6. Mechanism of bonding and debonding using surface activated bonding method with Si intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kai; Fujino, Masahisa; Matsumoto, Yoshiie; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-04-01

    Techniques of handling thin and fragile substrates in a high-temperature process are highly required for the fabrication of semiconductor devices including thin film transistors (TFTs). In our previous study, we proposed applying the surface activated bonding (SAB) method using Si intermediate layers to the bonding and debonding of glass substrates. The SAB method has successfully bonded glass substrates at room temperature, and the substrates have been debonded after heating at 450 °C, in which TFTs are fabricated on thin glass substrates for LC display devices. In this study, we conducted the bonding and debonding of Si and glass in order to understand the mechanism in the proposed process. Si substrates are also successfully bonded to glass substrates at room temperature and debonded after heating at 450 °C using the proposed bonding process. By the composition analysis of bonding interfaces, it is clarified that the absorbed water on the glass forms interfacial voids and cause the decrease in bond strength.

  7. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, W.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO 3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO 2 -containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu 2 O 3 . By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO 3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  8. Elastic scattering of polarized protons from 3He at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.; Bracco, A.; Gubler, H.P.

    1982-09-01

    Using the polarized proton beam facility of the TRIUMF cyclotron, differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured in the angular range 20 0 - 150 0 c.m. for proton elastic scattering from 3 He at incident proton energies of 200, 300, 415 and 515 MeV. The differential cross sections exhibit a minimum at t = -0.33 (GeV/c) 2 which becomes more pronounced with increasing energy. There is evidence for the onset of a second minimum corresponding to the interference between double and triple scattering amplitudes. Large analyzing powers are observed at the lower energies. The data from the present analysis, together with data obtained from the literature in the energy range 100-1000 MeV, have been analyzed within the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering formalism. Nucleon-nucleon scattering parameters were taken from a global phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering data. Reasonable agreement with the data is obtained

  9. Intermediate energy cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Ellis-Gibbings, L.; García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nixon, K. L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); School of Biology, Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY (United Kingdom); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-07

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) and integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of pyrimidine, at incident electron energies in the range 15–50 eV. The scattered electron angular range for the DCS measurements was 15°–90°. The measurements at the DCS-level are the first to be reported for vibrational-excitation in pyrimidine via electron impact, while for the ICS we extend the results from the only previous condensed-phase study [P. L. Levesque, M. Michaud, and L. Sanche, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094701 (2005)], for electron energies ⩽12 eV, to higher energies. Interestingly, the trend in the magnitude of the lower energy condensed-phase ICSs is much smaller when compared to the corresponding gas phase results. As there is no evidence for the existence of any shape-resonances, in the available pyrimidine total cross sections [Baek et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 032702 (2013); Fuss et al., ibid. 88, 042702 (2013)], between 10 and 20 eV, this mismatch in absolute magnitude between the condensed-phase and gas-phase ICSs might be indicative for collective-behaviour effects in the condensed-phase results.

  10. A hybrid model for the investigation of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The coupling of the Botzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model with Kopenhagen multifragmentation model realising a new hybrid model, application on 197 Au+ 197 Au reactions between 100 and 250 A.MeV, calculation of the chracteristics of the fragmentation system including mass number, excitation energy, angular momenta, two-particle correlation function

  11. Identification of intermediate energy heavy ions in the focal plane of a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Ballon, J.; Chauvin, J.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Bonin, B.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.; Alamanos, N.; Papineau, L.; Roussel, P.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy ions with mass A<14 and E/Aproportional120 MeV have been identified in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometry by means of a simple telescope made of two slabs of plastic scintillator. The method should be applicable up to Aproportional20 in mass and down to E/Aproportional50 MeV in energy per nucleon. (orig.)

  12. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 12C ions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostachy, J.Y.; Buenerd, M.; Chauvin, J.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 12 C ions on 12 C and 208 Pb targets have been measured at the incident energies per nucleon E/A=120 MeV/u and E/A=200 MeV/u. Optical-model analysis is reported and nuclear surface transparency effects are discussed, together with the nuclear potential-energy dependence. The transparency region extends down to a radial internuclear distance of about 3 fm for the 12 C- 12 C system and 8 fm for the 12 C- 208 Pb system. A decrease of the imaginary potential with increasing incident energy is deduced for the two systems. Anomalous collapse of the real potential in the surface region is observed for 12 C- 208 Pb system at 200 MeV/u. DWBA analysis of data on the 2 + , 4.4 MeV state of 12 C is reported and trends for the energy dependence of mean-field excitations are deduced. (orig.)

  13. Experimental measurement of radiological penumbra associated with intermediate energy x-rays (1 MV) and small radiosurgery field sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Brian M.; Beachey, David J.; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is used to treat intracranial lesions with a high degree of accuracy. At the present time, x-ray energies at or above Co-60 gamma rays are used. Previous Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated that intermediate energy x-ray photons or IEPs (defined to be photons in the energy range of 0.2-1.2 MeV), combined with small field sizes, produce a reduced radiological penumbra leading to a sharper dose gradient, improved dose homogeneity and sparing of critical anatomy adjacent to the target volume. This hypothesis is based on the fact that, for small x-ray fields, a dose outside the treatment volume is dictated mainly by the range of electrons set into motion by x-ray photons. The purpose of this work is: (1) to produce intermediate energy x rays using a detuned medical linear accelerator (2) to characterize the energy of this beam (3) to measure the radiological penumbra for IEPs and small fields to compare with that produced by 6 MV x rays or Co-60, and (4) to compare these experimental measurements with Monte Carlo computer simulations. The maximum photon energy of our IEP x-ray spectrum was measured to be 1.2 MeV. Gafchromic EBT films (ISP Technologies, Wayne, NJ) were irradiated and read using a novel digital microscopy imaging system with high spatial resolution. Under identical irradiation conditions the measured radiological penumbra widths (80%-20% distance), for field sizes ranging from 0.3x0.3 to 4.0x4.0 cm 2 , varied from 0.3-0.77 mm (1.2 MV) and from 1.1-2.1 mm (6 MV). Even more dramatic were the differences found when comparing the 90%-10% or the 95%-5% widths, which are in fact more significant in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo simulations agreed well with the experimental findings. The reduction in radiological penumbra could be substantial for specific clinical situations such as in the treatment of an ocular melanoma abutting the macula or for the treatment of functional disorders such as trigeminal neuralgia (a nonlethal

  14. Intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels modulate human placental trophoblast syncytialization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Díaz

    Full Text Available Regulation of human placental syncytiotrophoblast renewal by cytotrophoblast migration, aggregation/fusion and differentiation is essential for successful pregnancy. In several tissues, these events are regulated by intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (IKCa, in part through their ability to regulate cell volume. We used cytotrophoblasts in primary culture to test the hypotheses that IKCa participate in the formation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast and in syncytiotrophoblast volume homeostasis. Cytotrophoblasts were isolated from normal term placentas and cultured for 66 h. This preparation recreates syncytiotrophoblast formation in vivo, as mononucleate cells (15 h fuse into multinucleate syncytia (66 h concomitant with elevated secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Cells were treated with the IKCa inhibitor TRAM-34 (10 µM or activator DCEBIO (100 µM. Culture medium was collected to measure hCG secretion and cells fixed for immunofluorescence with anti-IKCa and anti-desmoplakin antibodies to assess IKCa expression and multinucleation respectively. K+ channel activity was assessed by measuring 86Rb efflux at 66 h. IKCa immunostaining was evident in nucleus, cytoplasm and surface of mono- and multinucleate cells. DCEBIO increased 86Rb efflux 8.3-fold above control and this was inhibited by TRAM-34 (85%; p<0.0001. Cytotrophoblast multinucleation increased 12-fold (p<0.05 and hCG secretion 20-fold (p<0.05, between 15 and 66 h. Compared to controls, DCEBIO reduced multinucleation by 42% (p<0.05 and hCG secretion by 80% (p<0.05. TRAM-34 alone did not affect cytotrophoblast multinucleation or hCG secretion. Hyposmotic solution increased 86Rb efflux 3.8-fold (p<0.0001. This effect was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, inhibited by TRAM-34 and 100 nM charybdotoxin (85% (p<0.0001 and 43% respectively but unaffected by 100 nM apamin. In conclusion, IKCa are expressed in cytotrophoblasts and their activation inhibits the

  15. Myocardial perfusion assessment by dual-energy computed tomography in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zam, M.C.; Capunay, C.; Rodriguez Granillo, G.A.; Deviggiano, A.; Campisi, R.; Munain, M. López de; Vallejos, J.; Carrascosa, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to explore the feasibility and diagnostic performance of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD), and to assess the impact of beam hardening artifacts (HAE). Methods. The present prospective study involved patients with known or suspected CAD referred for myocardial perfusion imaging by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Twenty patients were included in the study protocol, and scanned using DECT imaging (n = 20). The same pharmacological stress was used for DECT and SPECT scans. Results. A total of 680 left ventricular segments were evaluated by DECT and SPECT. The contrast to noise ratio was 8.8±2.9. The diagnostic performance of DECT was very good in identifying perfusion defects [area under ROC curve (AUC) of DECT 0.90 (0.86-0.94)] compared with SPECT, and remained unaffected when including only segments affected by beam hardening artifacts (BHA) [AUC= DECT 0.90 (0.84-0.96)]. Conclusions. In this pilot investigation, myocardial perfusion assessment by DECT imaging in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of CAD was feasible and remained unaffected by the presence of BHA. (authors) [es

  16. Impact of thermal and intermediate energy neutrons on the semiconductor memories for the CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchetto, Matteo; Gerardin, Simone

    A wide quantity of SRAM memories are employed along the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the main CERN accelerator, and they are subjected to high levels of ionizing radiations which compromise the reliability of these devices. The Single Event Effect (SEE) qualification for components to be used in the complex high-energy accelerator at CERN relies on the characterization of two cross sections: 200-MeV protons and thermal neutrons. However, due to cost and time constraints, it is not always possible to characterize the SEE response of components to thermal neutrons, which is often regarded as negligible for components without borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG). Nevertheless, as recent studies show, the sensitivity of deep sub-micron technologies to thermal neutrons has increased owing to the presence of Boron 10 as a dopant and contact contaminant. The very large thermal neutron fluxes relative to high-energy hadron fluxes in some of the heavily shielded accelerator areas imply that even comparatively small therm...

  17. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-01-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  18. Pre-equilibrium particle emission in the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. del; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Peghaire, A.

    1996-01-01

    Hard photons and high energy protons from Ar and Xe induced reactions at 44 MeV/u were analysed in a series of experiments performed with the detector MEDEA. A careful analysis shows a strong correlation between hard γ and fast protons giving an unambiguous signature of the n-p first chance Bremsstrahlung hypothesis. Some preliminary results on the emission of fast protons are reported

  19. Hard Photons:. a Probe of Dynamical Effects in Heavy Ion Collisions at Intermediate Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, R.; Agodi, C.; Maiolino, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Colonna, M.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Vannini, G.; Colonna, N.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Rui, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal photons have been used as a clock to determine the time of IMF emission during the evolution of the nuclear reaction. The method has been applied to the reaction 58Ni + 197Au at 30 and 45 MeV/amu incident energy. The results put in evidence that the relative contribution of the two possible production mechanisms (dynamical and statistical) is quite different in the two cases. A comparison with theoretical calculations strongly supports the experimental findings.

  20. Hard photon and energetic proton emission in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Le Faou, J. H.; Suomijarvi, T.; Frascaria, N.; Roynette, J. C.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Garron, J. P.; Gillibert, A.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Peghaire, A.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1998-02-01

    The emission of hard photons and pre-equilibrium protons has been investigated in exclusive clusive experiments performed with MEDEA detector. The observation of the γ-proton anticorrelation indicate that the dominant production mechanism is the first chance neutron-proton collisions. Very energetic protons, with energy more than twice the kinematical limit for nucleon-nucleon collisions, have been observed in several reactions.

  1. Experimental apparatus for the study of small angle neutron-proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, A.A.; Korolev, G.A.; Dobrovolsky, A.V.; Khanzadeev, A.V.; Petrov, G.E.; Spiridenkov, E.M.; Terrien, Y.; Lugol, J.C.; Saudinos, J.; Silverman, B.H.; Wellers, F.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental setup for measurements of absolute differential cross sections and analyzing powers in small angle elastic np scattering is described. The main part of the apparatus consists of a multielectrode ionization chamber IKAR filled with methane, serving as both a gas target and a recoil detector. The apparatus was used in measurements with a polarized neutron beam from the Saturne synchrotron (Saclay, France) in the energy range from 378 to 1135 MeV. (orig.)

  2. H2@Scale: Technical and Economic Potential of Hydrogen as an Energy Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  3. Theoretical research in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. [Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses progress that has been made on the following seven problems: (1) (e, e'p) at high momentum transfer; (2) post,acceleration effects in two-nucleon interferometry of heavy-ion collisions; (3) pion-nucleus interactions above 0.5 GeV; (4) chiral symmetry breaking in nuclei and picnic atom anomaly; (5) atomic screening on nuclear astronomical reactions; (6) QCD related work (coherent pion production from skyrmion-antiskyrmion annihilation, QCD in 1 + 1 dimensions, and correlation functions in the QCD vacuum), and (7) kaonic hydrogen atom experiment. The problems deal with various topics mostly in intermediate-energy nuclear physics. We place priority on (1) and (2), and describe them somewhat in detail below. Other problems are our on-going projects, but we are placing lower priority on them in the second and third year

  4. Fission of intermediate mass nuclei by bremsstrahlung photons in the energy range 0.8-1.8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de.

    1983-01-01

    The fission of intermediate mass nuclei in the Al-Ta internal induced by bremsstrahlung photons of maximum energies between 0,8 to 1,8 GeV is studied. Thin targets of Nd and Sm and dense targets of Al,Ti,Co,Zr,Nb,Ag,In and Ta are utilized, and all the aspects related with the fission fragment absorption by the targets themselves are considered. The samples are exposed in th 2,5 GeV Electron Synchrotron at Bonn University. Muscovite mica, CR-39 and makrofol are used as fission fragments detectors. Fission cross sections and nuclear fissionabilities of the studied elements are estimated. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Experimental determination of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for p-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.; Aas, B.; Azizi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A complete measurement of the polarization transfer observables has been made for the first time in the (p,p') reaction at intermediate energies. Measurements are reported for the 12 C(p,p') 12 C reaction to the 1 + , T = 0(12.71 MeV) and 1 + , T = 1(15.11 MeV) states at 500 MeV at laboratory scattering angles of 3.5 0 , 5.5 0 , 7.5 0 , and 12.0 0 . Linear combinations of these observables are shown to exhibit a very selective dependence on the isoscalar and isovector spin-dependent components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. To the extent of the validity of the single collision approximation, these amplitudes are compared directly to the free nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at small momentum transfers

  6. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, B.; Mignerey, A.C.; Madani, H.; Marchetti, A.A.; Colonna, M.; DiToro, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in lanthanum-induced reactions utilizing inverse kinematics has been studied from E/A = 35 to 55 MeV. At each bombarding energy studied, the probability for the multiple emission of complex fragments has been found to be independent of target. Global features (total charge, source velocity) of the reaction La + Al at E/A = 45 MeV have been reproduced by coupling a dynamical model to study the collision stage of the reaction to a statistical model of nuclear decay

  7. γ-rays as a probe to study nuclear dynamics and nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of gamma rays in nuclear physics is reviewed, and it is shown how they offer insight into the structure and damping of giant resonances, and how they can be used as an isospin filter. Results from inclusive and exclusive experiments at GANIL are discussed. It is stressed that although the production of high energy gamma rays in heavy ion reactions between 30 MeV/A and 86 MeV/A is understood qualitatively, most models fail in being more quantitative

  8. The (3He,t) and (d,2He)reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockstedt, A.

    1987-09-01

    The ( 3 He,t) reaction has been studied at 0.6-2.3 GeV at small scattering angles, 0-7 degrees, on various nuclei ( 12 C, 13 C, 26 Mg, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, 54 Fe, 90 Zr, 159 Tb, 208 Pb) including a proton target. The reaction is a single-step reaction and selects the spin-isospin channel. Angular distributions for low-lying states in 12 N are well described by DWIA calculations. From 13 C to 13 N transitions the ratio J στ /J τ , at momentum transfer, q, close to zero, is derived. The ratio remains roughly constant in the region 300 - 700 MeV/nucleon. The position of the quasi-free peak is shifted compared with free nucleon-nucleon scattering. The shift is towards higher excitation energies at q approx 1.4 fm -1 , and towards lower excitation energies at q approx 2.5 fm -1 . The p( 3 He,t)Δ ++ reaction is analysed as one-pion exchange and the ( 3 He,t) form factor is extracted. The shape and position of the Δ resonance seem to be independent of target mass for the targets studied. Compared with the p to Δ ++ transition the position is shifted towards lower excitation energy in nuclei. The (d,2p[ 1 S 0 ]) reaction, with the two protons in an 1 S 0 state labelled 2 He, is studied at 0.65 and 2.0 GeV at small angles, 0-4 degrees, on some of the targets used in the ( 3 He,t) experiment (p, 12 C, 40 Ca, 54 Fe). This reaction is also a one-step reaction that can be used for studies of spin-isospin excitations. Cross sections and tensor analysing powers are determined for the p(d, 2 He)n reaction. These results are compared with PWIA calculations. The Δ resonance in carbon is also here shifted down in excitation energy compared with the proton target. (author)

  9. Energy band structure tailoring of vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structure for intermediate-band solar cell application by thermal annealing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chu, Ting-Fu; Huang, Tien-Hao

    2014-12-15

    This study presents an band-alignment tailoring of a vertically aligned InAs/GaAs(Sb) quantum dot (QD) structure and the extension of the carrier lifetime therein by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Arrhenius analysis indicates a larger activation energy and thermal stability that results from the suppression of In-Ga intermixing and preservation of the QD heterostructure in an annealed vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb QD structure. Power-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence were utilized to demonstrate the extended carrier lifetime from 4.7 to 9.4 ns and elucidate the mechanisms of the antimony aggregation resulting in a band-alignment tailoring from straddling to staggered gap after the RTA process. The significant extension in the carrier lifetime of the columnar InAs/GaAsSb dot structure make the great potential in improving QD intermediate-band solar cell application.

  10. Microscopic theory for nucleon-nucleus optical potential in intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guozhu; Cai Chonghai

    1984-01-01

    Based on the scattering theory of KMT and FGH we calculate the nucleon-nucleus optical potentials of 4 He, 16 O and 40 Ca from the Paris N-N potential given by M. Lacombe et al. The real part Vsub(R)(r) of our optential has the form of Woods-Saxon when the kinetic energy E of the incident nucleon is low. The depth of Vsub(R)(r) will decrease as E increases, and it turns into positive in the interior of nucleus when E approx.= 300 MeV. The repulsive effect in the interior of nucleus increases rapidly as E increases even more, butthere always exists some attractive effect at the surface of nucleus. Therefore, Vsub(R)(r) has generally the wine-bottle bottom shape. We also calculate the quatity Jv/N = (4π/N)∫sub(0)sub(infinity)Vsub(R)(r)r 2 dr. Our results are basically in acordance with those of M.Jaminon et al's relativistic Hatree calculation as well as the experimental results. In this work we also calculate the imaginary part of optical potential and its variation with the kinetic energy of the incident nucleon

  11. Intermediate steps towards the 2000 W society in Switzerland: An energy-economic scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Thorsten F.; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo; Wokaun, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In the future, sustainable development under the umbrella of the 2000 W society could be of major interest. Could the target of the 2000 W society, i.e. a primary energy per capita (PEC) consumption of 2000 W, be realized until 2050? Various combinations of PEC and CO 2 targets are tested, and the additional costs to be paid by the society are estimated. The assessment is carried out with the Swiss MARKAL model, a bottom-up energy-system model projecting future technology investments for Switzerland. The analysis reveals that the 2000 W society should be seen as a long-term goal. For all contemplated scenarios, a PEC consumption of 3500 W per capita (w/cap) is feasible in the year 2050. However, strong PEC consumption targets can reduce CO 2 emissions to an equivalent of 5% per decade at maximum. For stronger CO 2 emission reduction goals, corresponding targets must be formulated explicitly. At an oil price of 75 US$ 2000 /bbl in 2050, the additional (cumulative, discounted) costs to reach a 10% CO 2 reduction per decade combined with a 3500 W per capita target amount to about 40 billion US$ 2000 . On the contrary, to reach pure CO 2 reduction targets is drastically cheaper, challenging the vision of the 2000 W society

  12. Status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions for intermediate-energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-11-01

    The present status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions is reviewed, with particular attention to total reaction cross section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section, double-differential particle production cross section, isotope production cross section, and activation cross section. (author)

  13. The role of non-elastic nuclear processes for intermediate-energy protons in silicon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormaza, Joel Mesa; Garcia, Cesar E.; Arruda Neto, Joao D.T.; Rodrigues, Tulio E.; Paschuck, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The transportation of energetic ions in bulk matter is of direct interest in several areas including shielding against ions originating from either space radiations or terrestrial accelerators, cosmic ray propagation studies in galactic medium, or radiobiological effects resulting from the work place or clinical exposures. For carcinogenesis, terrestrial radiation therapy, and radiobiological research, knowledge of beam composition and interactions is necessary to properly evaluate the effects on human and animal tissues. For the proper assessment of radiation exposures both reliable transport codes and accurate input parameters are needed. In the last years efforts have been increasing in order to develop more effective models to describe and predict the damages induced by radiation in electronic devices. In this sense, the interaction of protons with those devices, particularly which operate in space, is a topic of paramount importance, mainly because although the majority of them are made with silicon, experimental data on p+Si nuclear processes is very sparse. In this work we have used a new quite sophisticated Monte Carlo multicollisional intranuclear cascade (MCMC) code for pre-equilibrium emission, plus de-excitation of residual nucleus by two ways: evaporation of particles (mainly nucleons, but also composites) and possibly fragmentation/fission in the case of heavy residues, in order to study some observable of nuclear interaction of protons between 100-200 MeV in a 28 Si target. The code has been developed with very recent improvements that take into account Pauli blocking effects in a novel and more precise way, as well as a more rigorous energy balance, an energy stopping time criterion for pre-equilibrium emission and the inclusion of deuteron, triton and 3He emissions in the evaporation step, which eventually concurs with fragmentation/break-up stage. The fragment mass distributions, as well as the multiplicities and the spectra of secondary particles

  14. 4He(p,2p)3H reaction at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Oers, W.T.H.; Murdoch, B.T.; Koene, B.K.S.; Hasell, D.K.; Abegg, R.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Epstein, M.B.; Moss, G.A.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Greben, J.M.; Cameron, J.M.; Rogers, J.G.; Stetz, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The 4 He(p,2p) 3 He reaction has been studied at 250, 350, and 500 MeV using coplanar symmetric and asymmetric geometries. The data are presented as energy-sharing spectra, coplanar symmetric angular distributions, and quasifree angular distributions. A comparison with distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations indicates reasonable agreement for small recoil momenta (q< or approx. =150 MeV/c). For larger recoil momenta, the distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations increasingly underestimate the data. The discrepancies are substantially reduced by inclusion of a spin-orbit term in the optical potential used to generate the distorted waves. Improvements of the single particle wave function for the struck nucleon influence the calculations to a lesser degree. The remaining discrepancies at large recoil momenta may, in part be ascribed to multiple scattering effects and exchange processes not included in the standard distorted-wave impulse approximation

  15. Salient features of heavy ion reactions in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, B.

    1987-01-01

    In this lecture the attention is focused on the most central and therefore generally also the most violent collisions. It is necessary to remember that the non-participating volumes could be very different for symmetric and asymmetric reactions. The onset of the multifragmentation channel or rather the cease of the fusion process is the first topic to be discussed. This question is directly related to the limitation in energy and momentum transfer and thus to the question about nuclear transparency. Exclusive data on multifragmentation on an event-by-event basis, which may help the model constructors, is presented as the second topic. In lecture the onset of fragmentation, fragment sizes in multifragmentation processes, the origin of light particle correlations and emission of pions and kaons close to the threshold are discussed

  16. Theoretical and experimental studies of the neutron rich fission product yields at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Äystö J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method to measure the fission product independent yields employing the ion guide technique and a Penning trap as a precision mass filter, which allows an unambiguous identification of the nuclides is presented. The method was used to determine the independent yields in the proton-induced fission of 232Th and 238U at 25 MeV. The data were analyzed with the consistent model for description of the fission product formation cross section at the projectile energies up to 100 MeV. Pre-compound nucleon emission is described with the two-component exciton model using Monte Carlo method. Decay of excited compound nuclei is treated within time-dependent statistical model with inclusion of the nuclear friction effect. The charge distribution of the primary fragment isobaric chain was considered as a result of frozen quantal fluctuations of the isovector nuclear density. The theoretical predictions of the independent fission product cross sections are used for normalization of the measured fission product isotopic distributions.

  17. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas

  18. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas. (LEW)

  19. Intermediate energy electron cooling for antiproton sources using a Pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Adney, J.; Ferry, J.; Kells, W.; Larson, D.J.; Mills, F.E.; Sundquist, M.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown at FNAL that the electron cooling of protons is a very efficient method for reaching high luminosity in a proton beam. The emittance of the 120 KeV electron beam used at Fermilab corresponds to a cathode temperature of 0.1 eV. In order to apply cooling techniques to GeV proton beams the electron energies required are in the MeV range. In the experiment reported in this paper the emittance of a 3-MeV Pelletron electron accelerator was measured to determine that its emittance scaled to a value appropriate for electron cooling. The machine tested was jointly owned and operated by the University of California at Santa Barbara and National Electrostatics Corporation for research into free-electron lasers which also require low emittance beams for operation. This paper describes the thermal emittance of the beam to be the area in phase space in which 90% of the beam trajectories lie and goes on to describe the emittance-measurement method both in theory and application

  20. Study of interactions between hadrons and light nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Dominique.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical study of the following reactions: πN→πN, πd→πd and Nd→Nπd, at incident energies of a few hundreds MeV is presented. The amplitudes of the πN→πN reaction are studied when at least one of the external particles is off-mass-shell. This study leads to the selection of a model used subsequently. For the πd→πd reaction, the simple scattering model is analyzed in detail then the Glauber and Brueckner double scattering models are compared. In the simple scattering model, the effect of the Fermi motion is examined in detail: a calculation of this effect, taking into account both the deuteron D wave and the nucleon spins is completed. Several approximations to the Fermi integral are also presented and the deficiencies of the models are discussed. In the inelastic Nd→Nπd reaction, the peak observed around 1150 MeV in the invariant mass spectrum of the Nπ final system is studied. This Nπ(1150) effect is explained using a Deck-type model. Other mechanisms that might contribute to the Nd→Nπd reaction, in particular at high transfers, are analyzed [fr

  1. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  2. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  3. In vitro biosynthesis of human renin and identification of plasma inactive renin as an activation intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, S; Kim, S; Miyazaki, H; Park, Y S; Murakami, K

    1985-12-25

    -Pro 3, indicating that plasma prorenin is a truncated version of intact prorenin, which lacks a large portion of the NH2 terminus of the prosegment and may represent an activation intermediate. This somewhat surprising result may lead to a better understanding of the exact roles and activation mechanisms of plasma prorenin existing in a relatively large amount.

  4. Biophysics of active vesicle transport, an intermediate step that couples excitation and exocytosis of serotonin in the neuronal soma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F De-Miguel

    Full Text Available Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0, calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process/ΔG(ATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a

  5. Energy spectra of protons in diffraction break-up of deuterons on 12C and 40Ca at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Davydovskyy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the diffraction approximation generalized to the case of inelastic processes with longitudinal momentum transfer, the reaction of the deuteron break-up on nuclei at medium energies is studied, taking into account the Coulomb and nuclear interactions. The formulas for the calculation of the energy spectra of the emerging protons are obtained up to the second order with respect to the ratio of the deuteron radius to the nucleus radius. Three types of model wave functions of the deuteron were used in the calculations: Yukawa, exponential and Gaussian. The wave function of np-pair in continuum is built orthogonal to the wave function of deuteron. This allows one to take into account qualitatively the interaction in the final state and avoid false contributions to the cross section at near zero momentum transfer. A comparison with experimental data on the break-up of deuterons with energy of 56 MeV on carbon and calcium with the registration of the emitted neutrons and protons at zero angles is carried out. It is shown that the contribution of the Coulomb mechanism dominates in the cross section. The best description of the spectra of protons is achieved by using the Yukawa form of the wave function of the deuteron. It is also shown that taking into account the transfer of longitudinal momentum to the deuteron nucleons improves the experimental data description. In the case of non-zero nucleon escape angles, the effect of taking into account longitudinal momentum can reach several hundred percent.

  6. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  7. Ag Active Sites, Surface Intermediates and Hydrogen Function at decane-SCR-Nox over Ag/Alumina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sazama, Petr; Wichterlová, Blanka; Sobalík, Zdeněk; Nováková, Jana; Dědeček, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 172, - (2007), s. 501-504 ISSN 0167-2991. [Tokyo Conference in Advanced Catalytic Science and Technology /5./. Tokyo, 23.07.2007-28.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400400413; GA ČR GD203/03/H140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SCR- NOx * Ag active sites * surface intermediates Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.307, year: 2005

  8. SU-E-T-334: Track Structure Simulations of Charged Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies: Cross Sections Needs for Light and Heavy Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dingfelder, M [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) track structure simulations follow the primary as well as all produced secondary particles in an event-by-event manner, from starting or ejection energy down to total stopping. They provide useful information on physics and chemistry of the biological response to radiation. They depend on reliable interaction cross sections and transport models of the considered radiation quality with biologically relevant materials. Most transport models focus on sufficiently fast and bare (i.e., fully ionized) ions and cross sections calculated within the (relativistic) first Born or Bethe approximations. These theories consider the projectile as a point particle and rely on proton cross sections and simple charge-scaling methods; they neglect the atomic nature of the ion and break down at low and intermediate ion energies. Heavier ions are used in particle therapy and slow to intermediate and low energies in the biologically interesting Bragg peak. Lighter and slower fragment ions, including alpha particles, protons, and neutrons are also produced in nuclear and break up reactions of charged particles. Secondary neutrons also produce recoil protons and ions, mainly in the intermediate energy range. Results/Conclusion: This work reviews existing models for track structure simulations and cross section calculations for light and heavy ions focusing on the low and intermediate energy range. It also presents new and updated aspects on cross section calculations and simulation techniques for ions and discusses the need for new models, calculations, and experimental data.

  9. Criteria for the siting, construction, management and evaluation of low and intermediate activity radioactive waste stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired by Spain for the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, is presented. General considerations related to the technology, financing, administrative measures and risk determination are done. The criteria of site selection for construction and management of the waste storage facility are described, evaluating the specific criteria for the licensing procedure, and taking in account the safety and the radiation protection during periods of the system operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. National energy ombudsman. 2013 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, Jean; Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Mialot, Stephane

    2014-06-01

    The National Energy Ombudsman is an independent administrative authority that was created by the law of 7 December 2006 relating to the energy sector, in preparation for the imminent liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. It has two legal roles: participating in the process of informing consumers about their rights, and recommending solutions for settling disputes. The Ombudsman reports directly to the French Parliament. This report summarizes the 2013 national energy ombudsman's activity in the domains of energy transition, conciliation between energy operators and consumers, consumers information, mediation, dispute settlement, markets opening, energy prices, quality of supply, smart meters, fight against energy poverty etc

  11. Effects of retarded electrical fields on observables sensitive to the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gao-Feng; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Ou, Li; Cao, Xin-Wei; Liu, Xu-Yang

    2018-03-01

    Within the isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11, we examine the relativistic retardation effects of electrical fields on the π-/π+ ratio and neutron-proton differential transverse flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Compared to the static Coulomb fields, the retarded electric fields of fast-moving charges are known to be anisotropic and the associated relativistic corrections can be significant. They are found to increase the number of energetic protons in the participant region at the maximum compression by as much as 25% but that of energetic neutrons by less than 10% in 197Au+197Au reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. Consequently, more π+ and relatively fewer π- mesons are produced, leading to an appreciable reduction of the π-/π+ ratio compared to calculations with the static Coulomb fields. Also, the neutron-proton differential transverse flow, as another sensitive probe of high-density symmetry energy, is also decreased appreciably due to the stronger retarded electrical fields in directions perpendicular to the velocities of fast-moving charges compared to calculations using the isotropic static electrical fields. Moreover, the retardation effects on these observables are found to be approximately independent of the reaction impact parameter.

  12. Studies of reaction mechanism in 12C + 12C system at intermediate energy of 28.7 MeV/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magiera, A.

    1996-01-01

    The reaction mechanism in 12 C + 12 C system at intermediate energy of about 30 MeV/nucleon was studied. The contribution of various reaction mechanisms (inelastic scattering, transfer reactions, compound nucleus reactions, sequential decay following inelastic excitation and transfer) to the total reaction cross section were found. The analysis of inclusive and coincidence spectra shows that sequential fragmentation processes dominate

  13. Experimental determination of neutron capture cross sections of fast reactor structure materials integrated in intermediate energy spectra. Vol. 2: description of experimental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassan, S.

    1978-01-01

    A selection of technical documents is given concerning the experimental determination of the neutron capture cross-sections of fast reactor structural materials (Fe, Cr, Ni...) integrated over the intermediate energy spectra. The experimental structure project and modifications of the reactor RB2 for this experiment, together with criticality and safety calculations, are presented

  14. Prediction of the transition energies of atomic No and Lr by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.; Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Measurements of the spectroscopic properties of the superheavy elements present a serious challenge to the experimentalist. Their short lifetimes and the low quantities of their production necessitate reliable prediction of transition energies to avoid the need for broad wavelength scans and to assist in identifying the lines. Thus, reliable high-accuracy calculations are necessary prior and parallel to experimental research. Nobelium and Lawrencium are at present the two most likely candidates for spectroscopic measurements, with the first experiments planned at GSI, Darmstadt. The intermediate Hamiltonian (IH) coupled cluster method is applied to the ionization potentials, electron affinities, and excitation energies of atomic nobelium and lawrencium. Large basis sets are used (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i). All levels of a particular atom are obtained simultaneously by diagonalizing the IH matrix. The matrix elements correspond to all excitations from correlated occupied orbitals to virtual orbitals in a large P space, and are 'dressed' by folding in excitations to higher virtual orbitals (Q space) at the coupled cluster singles-and-doubles level. Lamb-shift corrections are included. The same approach was applied to the lighter homologues of Lr and No, lutetium and ytterbium, for which many transition energies are experimentally known, in order to assess the accuracy of the calculation. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm -1 , and the error limits for Lr are therefore put at 700 cm -1 . Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20,000-30,000 cm -1 , are 7p → 8s at 20,100 cm -1 and 7p →p 7d at 28,100 cm -1 . In case of Yb, the calculated ionization potential was within 20 cm -1 of the experiment, and the average error of the 20 lowest calculated excitations was about 300 cm -1 . Hence, the error limits of nobelium are set to 800 cm -1

  15. Refining prostate seed brachytherapy: Comparing high-, intermediate-, and low-activity seeds for I-125 permanent seed prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delouya, Guila; Bahary, Pascal; Carrier, Jean-François; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Hervieux, Yannick; Béliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Donath, David; Taussky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the difference in prostate coverage and dose to the rectum in men with prostate carcinoma treated with permanent seed brachytherapy with different seed activities. Forty-nine patients treated with iodine-125 permanent seed prostate brachytherapy with low-activity seeds of 0.30-0.37 mCi were identified. For each of these patients, 2 patients with similar prostate volume (±2 cc) were paired: one treated with intermediate seed activity (0.44-0.46 mCi) and one with high seed activity (0.60-0.66 mCi). The doses to prostate and rectum were compared using CT on Day 30. A total of 147 patients divided into the three seed activity groups were analyzed. Mean prostate volume was 35.7 cc (standard deviation [SD], 11.70). Compared with low-activity seeds, implants with high-activity seeds consisted of an average of 22 seeds and 4.7 needles less. The dose to the prostate (prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose [V100], prostate volume receiving 150% of the prescribed dose, and minimal dose covering 90% of the prostate volume expressed in Gy) was not higher on Day 30 (p = 0.58-0.97). The mean volume (in cubic centimeters) of rectal wall receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) increased with activity: low activity, 0.34 cc (SD, 0.49), intermediate activity, 0.47 cc (SD, 0.48), and high activity, 0.72 cc (SD, 0.79) (p = 0.009). There was a trend (p = 0.073) toward a higher frequency of clinically unfavorable rectal dosimetry (V100 > 1.3 cc) in patients with high-activity seeds (16.7%) compared with low-activity (6.3%) or intermediate-activity (4.2%) seeds. High-activity seeds do not result in a higher dose to the prostate but in a higher dose to the rectum. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product...... a PTFE membrane with 28 cm2 of active area. A less challenging separation of water and toluene was achieved at total flow rates as high as 80 mL/min, with potential to achieve even higher flow rates. The operability and flexibility of the membrane separator and a plate coalescer were compared...

  17. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  18. ENERGY DRINKS CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYPERACTIVITY/INATTENTION BEHAVIOUR AMONG THE INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH SCHOOL MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad S. Alsamghan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND New studies has revealed the consumption of energy drinks as a common, linked with potential risky hyperactivity/inattention behaviour among the adolescent and especially college students. To assess the prevalence of the energy drinks consumption and to evaluate hyperactivity/inattention behaviour symptoms among the adolescent intermediate and high school male and female students in Abha city. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students who were studying in the intermediate and high school. Schools were randomly selected and all students (N=602 participated with consent. Total sample size included 602 students, 50% students from intermediate school and 50% students from high school. The tools used in the present study to collect the information from the students were a structured standardised questionnaire includes the basics characteristic, demographic and consumption of energy drinks related information. RESULTS Prevalence of the energy drinks consumption among students studying in intermediate and high school level was 303 (50.3%. Male 162 (53.3% are more consuming energy drinks than female 141 (46.7%. Students who are studying in high school (56.1% drinking more energy drinks than students (43.9% in higher level. Mean score of SDQ was 21.53±5.414 falling in abnormal category. Mean±SD score of the hyperactivity subscale of the SDQ was 3.76±1.980. Female students 66 (21.9%, p=0.162 are more likely to score hyperactivity subscale compared to male students 52 (17.3% (Table 1. Bivariate logistic regression analysis (Table 2 revealed that there was a significance association found with risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.47, 95% Cl=1.61, 3.78 who consumed energy drinks. Most of the types of energy drinks types were associated with hyperactivity as regression analysis results shown. No association observed with study levels. CONCLUSION Energy drinks

  19. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Norma; Corcuera, Roberto; Palacios, Tulio A.; Hey, Alfredo M.; Berte, G.; Trama, L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author) [es

  20. Localized Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Intermediates Inhibit Escape of Listeria monocytogenes from Vacuoles in Activated Macrophages1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jesse T.; Tsang, Albert W.; Swanson, Joel A.

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) evades being killed after phagocytosis by macrophages by escaping from vacuoles into cytoplasm. Activated macrophages are listericidal, in part because they can retain Lm in vacuoles. This study examined the contribution of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to the inhibition of Lm escape from vacuoles. Lm escaped from vacuoles of non-activated macrophages within 30 min of infection. Macrophages activated with IFN-γ, LPS, IL-6, and a neutralizing antibody against IL-10 retained Lm within the vacuoles, and inhibitors of ROI and RNI blocked inhibition of vacuolar escape to varying degrees. Measurements of Lm escape in macrophages from gp91phox−/− and NOS2−/− mice showed that vacuolar retention required ROI and was augmented by RNI. Live-cell imaging with the fluorogenic probe dihydro-2′,4,5,6,7,7′-hexafluorofluorescein coupled to BSA (DHFF-BSA) indicated that oxidative chemistries were generated rapidly and were localized to Lm vacuoles. Chemistries that oxidized DHFF-BSA were similar to those that retained Lm in phagosomes. Fluorescent conversion of DHFF-BSA occurred more efficiently in smaller vacuoles, indicating that higher concentrations of ROI or RNI were generated in more confining volumes. Thus, activated macrophages retained Lm within phagosomes by the combined actions of ROI and RNI in a small space. PMID:14607950

  1. Poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated conformational alteration of α-chymotrypsin prevents inactivation of insulin by stabilizing active intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jibing; Wei, Xiuli; Zhang, Li; Fang, Xiaocui; Yang, Tao; Huang, Feng; Liang, Wei

    2014-10-06

    Proteolytic enzymes in the gut represent one of the biggest barriers against oral delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. In the current study, we explored the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG 400), a commonly used crowding agent, on insulin degradation mediated by α-chymotrypsin (α-CT). Without PEG 400, insulin was quickly cleaved by α-CT to generate inactive degradation products. In comparison, incorporation of PEG 400 resulted in reaction mixtures with retained biological activity. The analysis on the conformation of α-CT and the local environment of the enzyme's active site unraveled that PEG 400 altered the conformation of α-CT to prevent the inactivation of insulin via stabilization of active intermediates. These findings indicated that PEG 400 may provide a promising addition toward oral delivery of insulin.

  2. Structural, photoconductive, thermoelectric and activation energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-21

    s12043-016-1237-3. Structural, photoconductive, thermoelectric and activation energy measurements of V-doped transparent conductive SnO2 films fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. R NASIRAEI, M R FADAVIESLAM. ∗.

  3. Intermediate levels of hippocampal activity appear optimal for associative memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Qin, S.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly

  4. Activated carbon/ZnO composites prepared using hydrochars as intermediate and their electrochemical performance in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yueming; Liu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We report a new methodology to prepare activated carbon and activated carbons/ZnO composites from walnut shell-derived hydrothermal carbons (hydrochars), which were prepared under hydrothermal condition in presence of ZnCl 2 . For this method, activated carbon/ZnO composites were prepared via heat treatment of hydrochars under inert environment and activated carbons were prepared by removing the ZnO in activated carbon/ZnO composites. The chemical structure of walnut shell, hydrochars, activated carbon/ZnO and activated carbon was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements. It is found ZnCl 2 plays multiple roles, i.e., helping to remove the oxygen-containing groups during hydrothermal stage, improving the surface area of activated carbon and acting as the precursor of ZnO in heat-treatment stage. The specific surface areas up to 818.9 and 1072.7 m 2  g −1 have been achieved for activated carbon/ZnO composites and activated carbon, respectively. The activated carbon/ZnO as electrode materials for supercapacitors showed that specific capacitance of up to 117.4 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 in KOH aqueous solution can be achieved and keeps stable in 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Hydrochars as intermediate to prepare activated carbon/ZnO composites. • Activated carbon/ZnO showed excellent electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. • Activated carbon with large surface area can be obtained by removing ZnO

  5. Effects of Intermediates between Vitamins K2 and K3 on Mammalian DNA Polymerase Inhibition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Azuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that vitamin K3 (VK3, but not VK1 or VK2 (=MK-4, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ. In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK2 and VK3, namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols α, κ and λ, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK3 was the strongest inhibitor of human pol γ, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol λ activity was the strongest with an IC50 value of 24.6 μM. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol α, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol λ inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF-κB. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK2 and VK3 intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.

  6. [Studies of target fragmentation in intermediate energy, relativistic and ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions]. Nuclear chemistry progress report, August 1, 1990--August 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland, W.D.

    1991-08-01

    The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ``best`` semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.

  7. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1, 1985-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1985-87. These studies have involved investigations of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions. They have been carried out at the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, at the SIN laboratory near Zurich, Switzerland, and at the TRIUMF accelerator in Vancouver, Canada. 86 refs., 5 figs

  8. National energy ombudsman. 2012 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Mialot, Stephane; Lefeuvre, Katia

    2013-06-01

    The National Energy Ombudsman is an independent administrative authority that was created by the law of 7 December 2006 relating to the energy sector, in preparation for the imminent liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. It has two legal roles: participating in the process of informing consumers about their rights, and recommending solutions for settling disputes. The Ombudsman reports directly to the French Parliament. This 2012 edition of the National energy ombudsman's activity report has adopted a somewhat original, but very informative, format: an abc which allows us to take a look back at the highlights of 2012 and to summarise the great energy challenges that the National Energy Ombudsman has worked on since 2007: Achievements, Activity, Amicable agreement, Billing decree, Consultation, Disconnections, Energy voucher, National debate on energy transition, help to consumers, lowering gas prices, best management of public resources, communicating gas meter project, Peak hours and off-peak hours, Unpaid bills, Commercially sensitive information, Disputes, Mediation, development of the European Network of Independent Energy Ombudsmen, Combat against energy poverty, Consumer protection, Back billing time limit, Supply quality, Complaint, Recommendations, Debt distress, rise in prices etc

  9. Leishmania donovani activates nuclear transcription factor-κB in macrophages through reactive oxygen intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Km Singh, Vandana; Balaraman, Sridevi; Tewary, Poonam; Madhubala, Rentala

    2004-01-01

    Interaction of Leishmania donovani with macrophages antagonizes host defense mechanisms by interfering with a cascade of cell signaling processes in the macrophages. An early intracellular signaling event that follows receptor engagement is the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. It has been reported earlier that NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway regulates proinflammatory cytokine release. We therefore investigated the effect of L. donovani infectivity on this nuclear transcription factor in macrophage cell line J774A.1. Both L. donovani and its surface molecule lipophosphoglycan (LPG) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent activation of NF-κB-DNA binding activity in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We also report the involvement of IκB-α and IκB-β in the persistent activation of NF-κB by L. donovani. We demonstrate that the NF-κB activation was independent of viability of the parasite. Electrophoretic mobility supershift assay indicated that the NF-κB complex consists of p65 and c-rel subunits. The interaction of parasite with the macrophages and not the cellular uptake was important for NF-κB activation. Both p38 and ERK mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) activation appears to be necessary for NF-κB activation by LPG. Preincubation of cells with antioxidants resulted in inhibition of L. donovani induced NF-κB activation, thereby suggesting a potential role of reactive oxygen species in L. donovani induced intracellular signaling. The present data indicate that antioxidants could play an important role in working out various therapeutic modalities to control leishmaniasis

  10. Bulgeless galaxies at intermediate redshift: Sample selection, color properties, and the existence of powerful active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Filho, Mercedes E.; Lobo, Catarina [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Griffith, Roger L. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anton, Sonia [Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henriques, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de astronomía, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ∼30% of the total galaxy population number density at z ≥ 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  11. Renewable energy activities in Senegal: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, I.; Sarr, J.; Kane, M.M.; Sall, M.

    2000-01-01

    Like many countries in Africa, Senegal is facing economical decline, energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. What is required is a strategy to implement renewable energy technologies at large scale. The government and many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper present a review of activities in the field of renewable energy applications in Senegal, which goes back to the mid 1970s and will discuss the socio-economic benefits that the country has derived from these environmentally sound and appropriate sources of energy. The development and trial of systems were mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Among the applications being supported are solar lighting, water pumping and small power plants. Recent efforts have been aimed at restructuring the programmes and giving them a market orientation. Future trends, some suggestion and recommendations for successful dissemination of renewable energy sources are also drawn. The present situation is seen to be much more promising and favourable for renewable energy. (Author)

  12. Macrophages in inflammatory multiple sclerosis lesions have an intermediate activation status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.Y.S.; Vereyken, E.J.F.; Glim, J.E.; Heijnen, D.A.M.; Moeton, M.; van der Valk, P.; Amor, S.; Teunissen, C.E.; van Horssen, J.; Dijkstra, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Macrophages play a dual role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. They can exert neuroprotective and growth promoting effects but also contribute to tissue damage by production of inflammatory mediators. The effector function of macrophages is determined by the way they are activated.

  13. Analysis of active piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang CUI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing piezoelectric traps are designed for a narrow frequency range of vibration, but the surrounding environment has a very wide frequency range, and the frequency may also be subject to change, causing the problem of difficult to achieve energy capture or capture inefficiency. In order to solve problem, a new T-type piezoelectric cantilever is proposed as a capture energy structure in the paper. To begin with the aspects of structural design and circuit design, the static analysis, modal analysis and resonance analysis of the structure are carried out and the natural frequency and excitation frequency of the device are analyzed. The design and calculation of the power consumption and the loss of the components of the circuit are analyzed by the simulation and verification of the active capture energy circuit, and the active and passive techniques are compared and analyzed, the simulation of the active capture circuit is verified by analyzing the power consumption of the circuit and the maximum power obtained by the active technology is 5 times of that of the passive technology. And then the voltage-controlled active boundary control method can be used for interface circuit design, taking the initiative to use each piezoelectric transduction cycle triggered by the electrical boundary conditions to effectively increase the input piezoelectric pump energy, and then increase output power. The way of utilizing the active trapping of piezoelectric materials is innovated, which has a positive effect on the development of piezoelectric traps.

  14. Mechanism-based labeling defines the free energy change for formation of the covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate in a xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piens, Kathleen; Fauré, Régis; Sundqvist, Gustav; Baumann, Martin J; Saura-Valls, Marc; Teeri, Tuula T; Cottaz, Sylvain; Planas, Antoni; Driguez, Hugues; Brumer, Harry

    2008-08-08

    Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) are key enzymes involved in the restructuring of plant cell walls during morphogenesis. As members of glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16), XETs are predicted to employ the canonical retaining mechanism of glycosyl transfer involving a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. Here, we report the accumulation and direct observation of such intermediates of PttXET16-34 from hybrid aspen by electrospray mass spectrometry in combination with synthetic "blocked" substrates, which function as glycosyl donors but are incapable of acting as glycosyl acceptors. Thus, GalGXXXGGG and GalGXXXGXXXG react with the wild-type enzyme to yield relatively stable, kinetically competent, covalent GalG-enzyme and GalGXXXG-enzyme complexes, respectively (Gal=Galbeta(1-->4), G=Glcbeta(1-->4), and X=Xylalpha(1-->6)Glcbeta(1-->4)). Quantitation of ratios of protein and saccharide species at pseudo-equilibrium allowed us to estimate the free energy change (DeltaG(0)) for the formation of the covalent GalGXXXG-enzyme as 6.3-8.5 kJ/mol (1.5-2.0 kcal/mol). The data indicate that the free energy of the beta(1-->4) glucosidic bond in xyloglucans is preserved in the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate and harnessed for religation of the polysaccharide in vivo.

  15. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of amide derivatives of febuxostat intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar Badvel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of new carboxamide derivatives of 3-(4-(5-(ethoxycarbonyl-4-methylthiazol-2-ylphenoxypropionic acid were synthesized by Schotten-Baumann reaction. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis. The target molecules were evaluated for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents in vitro by disc diffusion method. Compounds 4c, 4f, 4g and 4i showed high inhibitory activity.

  17. Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Jordan D. T.; Anderson, Dustin; Asmara, Hadhimulya; Rehak, Renata; Mehaffey, W. Hamish; Hameed, Shahid; McKay, Bruce E.; Kruskic, Mirna; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Turner, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Encoding sensory input requires the expression of postsynaptic ion channels to transform key features of afferent input to an appropriate pattern of spike output. Although Ca2+-activated K+ channels are known to control spike frequency in central neurons, Ca2+-activated K+ channels of intermediate conductance (KCa3.1) are believed to be restricted to peripheral neurons. We now report that cerebellar Purkinje cells express KCa3.1 channels, as evidenced through single-cell RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, pharmacology, and single-channel recordings. Furthermore, KCa3.1 channels coimmunoprecipitate and interact with low voltage-activated Cav3.2 Ca2+ channels at the nanodomain level to support a previously undescribed transient voltage- and Ca2+-dependent current. As a result, subthreshold parallel fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) activate Cav3 Ca2+ influx to trigger a KCa3.1-mediated regulation of the EPSP and subsequent after-hyperpolarization. The Cav3-KCa3.1 complex provides powerful control over temporal summation of EPSPs, effectively suppressing low frequencies of parallel fiber input. KCa3.1 channels thus contribute to a high-pass filter that allows Purkinje cells to respond preferentially to high-frequency parallel fiber bursts characteristic of sensory input. PMID:22308379

  18. Detection of fast light-activated H+ release and M intermediate formation from proteorhodopsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeVita Anne

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteorhodopsin (pR is a light-activated proton pump homologous to bacteriorhodopsin and recently discovered in oceanic γ-proteobacteria. One perplexing difference between these two proteins is the absence in pR of homologues of bR residues Glu-194 and Glu-204. These two residues, along with Arg-82, have been implicated in light-activated fast H+ release to the extracellular medium in bR. It is therefore uncertain that pR carries out its physiological activity using a mechanism that is completely homologous to that of bR. Results A pR purification procedure is described that utilizes Phenylsepharose™ and hydroxylapatite columns and yields 85% (w/w purity. Through SDS-PAGE of the pure protein, the molecular weight of E.-coli-produced pR was determined to be 36,000, approximately 9,000 more than the 27,000 predicted by the DNA sequence. Post-translational modification of one or more of the cysteine residues accounts for 5 kDa of the weight difference as measured on a cys-less pR mutant. At pH 9.5 and in the presence of octylglucoside and diheptanoylphosphotidylcholine, flash photolysis results in fast H+ release and a 400-nm absorbing (M-like photoproduct. Both of these occur with a similar rise time (4–10 μs as reported for monomeric bR in detergent. Conclusions The presence of fast H+ release in pR indicates that either different groups are responsible for fast H+ release in pR and bR (i.e. that the H+ release group is not highly conserved; or, that the H+ release group is conserved and is therefore likely Arg-94 itself in pR (and Arg-82 in bR, correspondingly.

  19. Measurement of Fragment Mass Distributions in Neutron-induced Fission of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simutkin, V.D. [Uppsala University, P.O Box 525, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Conceptual analysis of accelerator-driven systems assumes extensive use of nuclear data on neutron-induced reactions at intermediate energies. In particular, information about the fission fragment yields from the {sup 238}U(n,f) and {sup 232}Th(n,f) reactions is of particular interest at neutron energies from 10 to 200 MeV. However, there is a lack of such data for both {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Up to now, the intermediate energy measurements have been performed for {sup 238}U only, and there are no data for the {sup 232}Th(n,f) reaction. The aim of the work is to provide such data. Fission fragment mass distributions for the {sup 232}Th(n,f) and {sup 238}U(n,f) reactions have been measured for the incident neutron energies 32.8 MeV, 45.3 MeV and 59.9 MeV. The experiments have been performed at the neutron beam facility of the Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium. A multi-section Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used as a fission fragment detector. The data obtained have been interpreted in terms of the multimodal random neck-rupture model (MMRNRM). (authors)

  20. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  1. Modified viscosity in accretion disks. Application to Galactic black hole binaries, intermediate mass black holes, and active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzędzielski, Mikołaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Czerny, Bożena; Wu, Qingwen

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Black holes (BHs) surrounded by accretion disks are present in the Universe at different scales of masses, from microquasars up to the active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Since the work of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973, A&A, 24, 337) and their α-disk model, various prescriptions for the heat-production rate are used to describe the accretion process. The current picture remains ad hoc due the complexity of the magnetic field action. In addition, accretion disks at high Eddington rates can be radiation-pressure dominated and, according to some of the heating prescriptions, thermally unstable. The observational verification of their resulting variability patterns may shed light on both the role of radiation pressure and magnetic fields in the accretion process. Methods: We compute the structure and time evolution of an accretion disk, using the code GLADIS (which models the global accretion disk instability). We supplement this model with a modified viscosity prescription, which can to some extent describe the magnetisation of the disk. We study the results for a large grid of models, to cover the whole parameter space, and we derive conclusions separately for different scales of black hole masses, which are characteristic for various types of cosmic sources. We show the dependencies between the flare or outburst duration, its amplitude, and period, on the accretion rate and viscosity scaling. Results: We present the results for the three grids of models, designed for different black hole systems (X-ray binaries, intermediate mass black holes, and galaxy centres). We show that if the heating rate in the accretion disk grows more rapidly with the total pressure and temperature, the instability results in longer and sharper flares. In general, we confirm that the disks around the supermassive black holes are more radiation-pressure dominated and present relatively brighter bursts. Our method can also be used as an independent tool for the black hole mass determination

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  3. Prediction of activation energies for aromatic oxidation by cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Ryde, Ulf; Olsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We have estimated the activation energy for aromatic oxidation by compound I in cytochrome P450 for a diverse set of 17 substrates using state-of-the-art density functional theory (B3LYP) with large basis sets. The activation energies vary from 60 to 87 kJ/mol. We then test if these results can...... be reproduced by computationally less demanding methods. The best methods (a B3LYP calculation of the activation energy of a methoxy-radical model or a partial least-squares model of the semiempirical AM1 bond dissociation energies and spin densities of the tetrahedral intermediate for both a hydroxyl...... energies with the solvent-accessible surface area of each site....

  4. Direction of Nuclear Energy. Activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This report proposes an overview of the research activities performed by the French DEN (Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Direction of Nuclear Energy) within the CEA. These activities address the future nuclear industrial systems (4. generation reactors, back-end of the future fuel cycle, basic scientific and technological research), the optimization of the industrial nuclear power (fuel cycle front end, second and third generation reactors, back-end of the present fuel cycle), major tools for the development of nuclear energy (simulation tools, Jules Horowitz reactor, value creation), clean up and dismantling of nuclear facilities (present status, the Passage project in Grenoble, the Aladin project in Fontenay-aux-Roses, projects at Marcoule, flow management of radioactive wastes, materials and disused fuels, transport). Three research centres are presented: Marcoule, Cadarache and Saclay

  5. IFP Energies nouvelles. 2016 Activity Report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IFP Energies Nouvelles is a major research and training player in the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities, structured around three strategic priorities: sustainable mobility, new energies and responsible oil and gas. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the transition towards sustainable mobility and the emergence of a more diversified energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. An integral part of IFPEN, its graduate engineering school - IFP School - prepares future generations to take up these challenges. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by its own resources provided by industrial partners. The latter account for over 50% of IFPEN's total budget, a configuration that is quasi unique in France. The aim of IFPEN's R and I programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological challenges in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. IFPEN's fundamental research program aims to create a bedrock of knowledge essential for the development of innovations. The scientific expertise of IFPEN's researchers is internationally recognized and they are regularly consulted by the public authorities to provide their insight in their specific fields to inform the decision-making process. IFPEN's economic model is based on the transfer to industry of the technologies developed by its researchers. This technology transfer to industry generates jobs and business, fostering the economic development of fields and approaches related to the mobility, energy

  6. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting......) were measured before and after WL. Results: Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR...

  7. IFP Energies Nouvelles. 2014 Activity report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix, - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. Despite the current economic environment, 2014 was a good year for IFPEN. In the field of renewable energies, major milestones were reached in two significant projects dedicated to the production of second generation biofuels in which IFPEN is very actively involved: processes developed in Futurol TM are already in the pre-marketing phase, while the construction of the two pilot units for the BioTfueL project has just been launched. In the field of ocean energies, IFPEN research has led to the first partnership agreements relating to floating wind turbines anchor technologies and command control systems for wind energy and wave energy conversion. In the transport sector, game-changing concepts are beginning to emerge, such as smart battery charging and a Rankine cycle system for an internal combustion engine transforming combustion heat into energy. In addition, IFPEN have joined forces with innovative SMEs to boost their research in the fields of electric power-trains and power electronics. Finally, IFPEN launched an eco-driving application that has proved extremely popular with the public. Turning now to oil and gas, IFPEN continued to expand its range of basin and reservoir simulation, modeling and characterization software, and it signed several contracts in the field of chemical enhanced recovery solutions with its EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) Alliance TM partners. IFPEN also developed new generations of high-performance catalysts and improved the conversion rate of its processes to enable refiners to convert increasingly heavy crudes and

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  9. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  10. Activity of the pterophyllins 2 and 4 against postharvest fruit pathogenic fungi. Comparison with a synthetic analog and related intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergomet, Jorgelina L; Di Liberto, Melina G; Derita, Marcos G; Bracca, Andrea B J; Kaufman, Teodoro S

    2018-03-01

    The antifungal activity of pterophyllin 2, pterophyllin 4, a 5-desmethyl analog of the latter and some of their synthetic intermediates, against three postharvest phytopathogenic fungi, was evaluated. The target fungi were Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola, which affect fruits worldwide, causing important economic losses. The tests were carried out with imazalil and carbendazim as positive controls. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined, and the morphology of the colonies was examined microscopically. In liquid medium, it was found that pterophyllin 4 exhibited selective fungicidal activity toward M. fructicola, whereas its congener pterophyllin 2 proved to be less potent and not selective and the 5-desmethyl analog of pterophyllin 4 displayed a different activity profile. Morphological changes were observed in the colonies exposed to pterophyllin 4. The results highlighted the importance of small structural features for the antifungal behavior and also suggested that, in Nature, the pterophyllins may act as plant defenses against pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Active site intermediates in the reduction of O(2) by cytochrome oxidase, and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Mårten

    2012-04-01

    The mechanism of dioxygen activation and reduction in cell respiration, as catalysed by cytochrome c oxidase, has a long history. The work by Otto Warburg, David Keilin and Britton Chance defined the dioxygen-binding heme iron centre, viz. das Atmungsferment, or cytochrome a(3). Chance brought the field further in the mid-1970's by ingenious low-temperature studies that for the first time identified the primary enzyme-substrate (ES) Michaelis complex of cell respiration, the dioxygen adduct of heme a(3), which he termed Compound A. Further work using optical, resonance Raman, EPR, and other sophisticated spectroscopic techniques, some of which with microsecond time resolution, has brought us to the situation today, where major principles of how O(2) reduction occurs in respiration are well understood. Nonetheless, some questions have remained open, for example concerning the precise structures, catalytic roles, and spectroscopic properties of the breakdown products of Compound A that have been called P, F (for peroxy and ferryl), and O (oxidised). This nomenclature has been known to be inadequate for some time already, and an alternative will be suggested here. In addition, the multiple forms of P, F and O states have been confusing, a situation that we endeavour to help clarifying. The P and F states formed artificially by reacting cytochrome oxidase with hydrogen peroxide are especially scrutinised, and some novel interpretations will be given that may account for previously unexplained observations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  13. Molluscicidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium seeds against Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica: Identification of β-solamarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeh, Fatma; Feki, Houda; Koubaa, Imed; Hamed, Nejia; Damak, Mohamed; Ayadi, Ali; Hammami, Hayet; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of fascioliasis in many developing countries urges the search for simple, cheap, and effective substances. In this view, plants provide interesting molluscicidal activities thanks to the secondary metabolites they produce. The genus Solanum is known for its potent effect on vector snails. The molluscicidal activity of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Solanaceae) seeds against Galba truncatula Müll. (Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica L. (Fasciolidae), was evaluated. Solanum elaeagnifolium seeds were powdered and successively extracted using n-hexane, methylene chloride, acetone, and methanol, for 20 h each. After filtration, solvents were evaporated. An acid-base treatment was conducted on seed methanolic extract to isolate total alkaloids and β-solamarine. Total saponins fraction was obtained after successive macerations and evaporations. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails, in groups of 10, for 48 h to 500 mL of extracts, fractions, and pure product aqueous solutions, each containing amounts, ranging from 1 to 50 mg of plant material in 5 mg increments. The methanolic extract of seeds, β-solamarine isolated for the first time from this plant and total saponins fraction showed very potent activities on snails, giving respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 1.18, 0.49, and 0.94 mg/L. Total alkaloids fraction obtained from the methanolic extract was less active giving an LC50 value of 14.67 mg/L. This study emphasizes that glycoalkaloids and saponins of Solanum elaeagnifolium are potent molluscicidal agents. Seed methanolic extract, β-solamarine, and total saponins fraction may be used as molluscicides.

  14. Intermediate energy nuclear physics (Task C) and charge exchange reactions (Task W). Technical progress report, October 1, 1985-October 1, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraushaar, J.J.

    1986-10-01

    This report describes the experimental work in intermediate energy research carried out over the past year at the University of Colorado. The experimental program is very broad in nature, ranging from investigations in pion-nucleus interactions, nucleon charge exchange, inelastic electron scattering, and nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments were largely carried out at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, but important programs were conducted at the Tri-University Meson Facility at the University of British Columbia, the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility and Netherlands Institute for Nuclear Physics Research (NIKHEF-K)

  15. National energy ombudsman - 2010 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the evolutions noticed on the energy market (natural gas and electric power) from the mediator's point of view for the consumer protection: improvement of transparency, struggle against energy precariousness, improvement of the protection of European consumers. Some figures and a description of a typical week of work are given to illustrate the mediator's activity. Solutions are proposed to improve practices: excess payment, index correction, set prices, first necessity tariff, and bill readability. Some social indicators are given and a financial report is provided

  16. Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: Expression in Escherichia coli and improvement of its enzymatic activity detection with FRET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcondes, Marcelo F.; Torquato, Ricardo J.S.; Assis, Diego M.; Juliano, Maria A.; Hayashi, Mirian A.F.; Oliveira, Vitor

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, soluble, functionally-active, recombinant human mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (hMIP), a mitochondrial metalloendoprotease, was expressed in a prokaryotic system. The hMIP fusion protein, with a poly-His-tag (6x His), was obtained by cloning the coding region of hMIP cDNA into the pET-28a expression vector, which was then used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. After isolation and purification of the fusion protein by affinity chromatography using Ni-Sepharose resin, the protein was purified further using ion exchange chromatography with a Hi-trap resource Q column. The recombinant hMIP was characterized by Western blotting using three distinct antibodies, circular dichroism, and enzymatic assays that used the first FRET substrates developed for MIP and a series of protease inhibitors. The successful expression of enzymatically-active hMIP in addition to the FRET substrates will contribute greatly to the determination of substrate specificity of this protease and to the development of specific inhibitors that are essential for a better understanding of the role of this protease in mitochondrial functioning.

  17. An intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel is important for secretion in pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Mikio; Wang, Jing; Hede, Susanne Edeling

    2012-01-01

    the molecular basis of functional K(+) channels in rodent and human pancreatic ducts (Capan-1, PANC-1, and CFPAC-1) using molecular and electrophysiological techniques. RT-PCR analysis revealed mRNAs for KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNH5, KCNT1, and KCNT2, as well as KCNN4 coding for the following channels: KVLQT1; HERG; EAG......2; Slack; Slick; and an intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IK) channel (K(Ca)3.1). The following functional studies were focused on the IK channel. 5,6-Dichloro-1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-one (DC-EBIO), an activator of IK channel, increased equivalent short-circuit current...... revealed IK channels with an average conductance of 80 pS in freshly isolated rodent duct cells. These results indicated that the IK channels may, at least in part, be involved in setting the resting membrane potential. Furthermore, the IK channels are involved in anion and potassium transport...

  18. Nuclear energy Division - 2011 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document reports the activity of the Nuclear Energy Department (DEN) within the CEA. It evokes its international relationship (participation to international initiatives, cooperation with different countries), describes the scientific activity within the DEN, presents the Advanced Material Program, and the activities undertaken in different fields: future nuclear industrial systems (fourth generation reactors, downstream part of the future fuel cycle, fundamental scientific and technological research), optimization of the present nuclear industrial activity (second and third generation reactors, nuclear security, upstream and downstream part of the present fuel cycle), tools for nuclear development (numerical simulation, Jules Horowitz reactor), cleaning up and nuclear dismantling (dismantling strategy, the Passage project in Grenoble, works in Marcoule, the Aladin project in Fontenay, waste and material flow management, nuclear support installations, transports). It finally addresses the specific activities of the Marcoule, Cadarache and Saclay centres

  19. Response functions of 58Ni, 116Sn and 208Pb to the excitation of intermediate-energy α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Alamanos, N.; Berthier, B.; Bruge, G.; Faraggi, H.; Legrand, D.; Lugol, J.C.; Mittig, W.; Papineau, L.; Yavin, A.I.; Scott, D.K.; Levine, M.; Arvieux, J.; Farvacque, L.; Buenerd, M.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of 340 MeV and 480 MeV α-particles has been measured on 58 Ni, 116 Sn and 208 Pb up to 60 MeV excitation energy. Consistent background subtraction and multipole analysis has provided the repartition of multipole strength for all three nuclei. The so-obtained response functions show the already known low-energy giant resonances in a detailed way, as well as new giant resonances at high energy. (orig.)

  20. Determination of scaling factors to estimate the radionuclide inventory in waste with low and intermediate-level activity from the IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo

    2013-01-01

    Regulations regarding transfer and final disposal of radioactive waste require that the inventory of radionuclides for each container enclosing such waste must be estimated and declared. The regulatory limits are established as a function of the annual radiation doses that members of the public could be exposed to from the radioactive waste repository, which mainly depend on the activity concentration of radionuclides, given in Bq/g, found in each waste container. Most of the radionuclides that emit gamma-rays can have their activity concentrations determined straightforwardly by measurements carried out externally to the containers. However, radionuclides that emit exclusively alpha or beta particles, as well as gamma-rays or X-rays with low energy and low absolute emission intensity, or whose activity is very low among the radioactive waste, are generically designated as Difficult to Measure Nuclides (DTMs). The activity concentrations of these DTMs are determined by means of complex radiochemical procedures that involve isolating the chemical species being studied from the interference in the waste matrix. Moreover, samples must be collected from each container in order to perform the analyses inherent to the radiochemical procedures, which exposes operators to high levels of radiation and is very costly because of the large number of radioactive waste containers that need to be characterized at a nuclear facility. An alternative methodology to approach this problem consists in obtaining empirical correlations between some radionuclides that can be measured directly – such as 60 Co and 137 Cs, therefore designated as Key Nuclides (KNs) – and the DTMs. This methodology, denominated Scaling Factor, was applied in the scope of the present work in order to obtain Scaling Factors or Correlation Functions for the most important radioactive wastes with low and intermediate-activity level from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. (author)

  1. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  2. The stopping of heavy ions in the low-to-intermediate energy range: The apparent velocity threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifschitz, A.F. [Laboratoire d’Optique Apliquèe, ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Arista, N.R., E-mail: arista@cab.cnea.gov.ar [División Colisiones Atómicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2013-12-01

    We present a non-linear study of the energy loss of heavy ions in solids, which is based on the transport cross section (TCS) and the extension of the Friedel sum rule (EFSR) for moving ions. We apply this approach to study the velocity dependence of the energy loss of heavy ions in the energy region below the stopping power maximum. With this formulation we are able to explain some striking effects in the energy loss of heavy ions which have been experimentally observed long time ago (Brown and Moak (1972) [14]), but have not been explained so far by the existing theoretical models: the deviations from the proportionality with ion velocity (predicted by alternative models in the low energy range), and the “apparent velocity threshold”.

  3. Mechanism of ({sup 14}N, {sup 12}B) reactions at intermediate energy leading to large spin-polarization of {sup 12}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Shimoda, Tadashi; Miyatake, Hiroari [and others

    1996-05-01

    To study mechanisms of the ({sup 14}N, {sup 12}B) reactions at intermediate energies, double differential cross section and nuclear spin-polarization of the {sup 12}B projectile-like fragments have been measured as a function of longitudinal momentum in the angular range of 0deg - 9deg. Large spin-polarization of the reaction products {sup 12}B has been observed in the {sup 9}Be({sup 14}N, {sup 12}B) reaction at 39.3 MeV/u. The momentum distributions at forward angles exhibit characteristic features which can not be understood by the current projectile fragmentation picture. It is shown that by assuming the existence of direct two-proton transfer process in addition to the fragmentation process, both the cross section and polarization of {sup 12}B fragments are successfully explained. The target and incident energy dependence of the momentum distribution are also explained reasonably. (author)

  4. Detailed EXOSAT and optical observations of the intermediate polar 3A0729+103: discovery of two medium energy X-ray emission regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHardy, I.M.; Pye, J.P.; Fairall, A.P.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    EXOSAT observations of the intermediate polar cataclysmic variable 3A0729+103 reveal a strong orbital modulation, with the 2-4KeV X-rays being significantly more modulated than the 4-6keV X-rays, indicative of photoelectric absorption. The 913 second modulation which is very prominent in the optical light curve, is weakly detected in the medium-energy X-ray light curve, confirming that it represents the white dwarf spin period. These observations are well explained by a combination of two sources of medium-energy X-ray emission. The presence of two emission regions is also clearly seen in the optical spectroscopy, particularly in the intensity of the He II4686 line which has two peaks during the orbit. The authors identify the two optical emission regions with the two X-ray emission regions. (author)

  5. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991-94 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. Most of these studies involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions and nucleon-nucleus charge-exchange reactions. The work was carried out with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the cyclotrons at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland, at Indiana University (IUCF), and at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, as collaborative efforts among several laboratories and universities. We have also worked on plans and preparations for new experiments involving studies of the quark structure of nucleons and nuclei, which would be carried out at Fermilab (FNAL), near Chicago, and at the HERA facility at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany. The NMSU personnel included two faculty members, five postdoctoral research associates, nine graduate students, and one undergraduate student

  6. Daytime descending intermediate layers observed over a sub-tropical Indian station Waltair during low-solar activity period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Study on daytime descending intermediate layer over subtropical Indian station Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E geographic, 6.4° N, 10° E geomagnetic, 20° N dip located in the equatorial anomaly transition region, using an IPS 42 Digital Ionosonde during the low solar activity year 2004 showed that the layers occur in the altitude range of 140–160 km with maximum occurrence during winter solstice. The layers observed during daytime occur with a double peak variation throughout the year with less occurrence probability and shorter duration presence during forenoon hours. The morning layer descent was associated with a density increase where as during afternoon hours a decrease in density was observed. The downward drift velocity was about 8 km/h during morning hours and between 7–11 km/h during afternoon hours, with a low descent rate of around 4.5 km/h during summer morning hours. The results indicate the presence of a 6 h tide at this location as observed from the characteristics of the descending layers, unlike at majority of locations where a significant semi diurnal trend is observed. The study brings out the complex nature of the tidal interaction at different locations.

  7. Formation of Reactive Intermediates, Color, and Antioxidant Activity in the Maillard Reaction of Maltose in Comparison to d-Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Clemens; Schestkowa, Helena; Haase, Paul T; Kroh, Lothar W

    2017-10-11

    In this study, the Maillard reaction of maltose and d-glucose in the presence of l-alanine was investigated in aqueous solution at 130 °C and pH 5. The reactivity of both carbohydrates was compared in regards of their degradation, browning, and antioxidant activity. In order to identify relevant differences in the reaction pathways, the concentrations of selected intermediates such as 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, furans, furanones, and pyranones were determined. It was found, that the degradation of maltose predominantly yields 1,2-dicarbonyls that still carry a glucosyl moiety and thus subsequent reactions to HMF, furfural, and 2-acetylfuran are favored due to the elimination of d-glucose, which is an excellent leaving group in aqueous solution. Consequently, higher amounts of these heterocycles are formed from maltose. 3-deoxyglucosone and 3-deoxygalactosone represent the only relevant C 6 -1,2-dicarbonyls in maltose incubations and are produced in nearly equimolar amounts during the first 60 min of heating as byproducts of the HMF formation.

  8. Electron scattering by Ne, Ar and Kr at intermediate and high energies, 0.5-10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G.; Roteta, M.; Manero, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Departamento de Fusion y Particulas Elementales, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Williart, A. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-04-28

    Semi-empirical total cross sections for electron scattering of noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) in the energy range 0.5-10 keV have been obtained by combining transmission-beam measurements for impact energies up to 6 keV with an asymptotic behaviour at higher energies according to the Born-Bethe approximation. The influence of the forward electron scattering on the experimental system has been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo electron transport simulation. Theoretical values have also been obtained by applying the Born approximation in the case of inelastic processes and by means of an atomic scattering potential for the elastic part. The results of these calculations show an excellent agreement with the semi-empirical values in the above-mentioned energy range. (author)

  9. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) Activities at NREL; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, J.

    2015-04-21

    This presentation provides an overview of hydrogen and energy storage, including hydrogen storage pathways and international power-to-gas activities, and summarizes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's hydrogen energy storage activities and results.

  10. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  11. Small and intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A.; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J. Paul; Michel, Martin C.; Tate, Simon N.; Trezise, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in

  12. Balanced activation of IspG and IspH to eliminate MEP intermediate accumulation and improve isoprenoids production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingyan; Fan, Feiyu; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Chen; Bi, Changhao; Tang, Jinlei; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    The MEP pathway genes were modulated to investigate whether there were new rate-limiting steps and toxic intermediates in this pathway. Activating IspG led to significant decrease of cell growth and β-carotene production. It was found that ispG overexpression led to accumulation of intermediate HMBPP, which seriously interfered with synthesis machinery of nucleotide and protein in Escherichia coli. Activation of the downstream enzyme IspH could solve HMBPP accumulation problem and eliminate the negative effects of ispG overexpression. In addition, intermediate MECPP accumulated in the starting strain, while balanced activation of IspG and IspH could push the carbon flux away from MECPP and led to 73% and 77% increase of β-carotene and lycopene titer respectively. Our work for the first time identified HMBPP to be a cytotoxic intermediate in MEP pathway and demonstrated that balanced activation of IspG and IspH could eliminate accumulation of HMBPP and MECPP and improve isoprenoids production. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...

  14. A review on recent light particle correlation data from heavy ion collisions at intermediate and low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardouin, D.

    1996-01-01

    A review of recent two-particle interferometry data for heavy-ion collisions in the domain of energy between ten and a few hundreds of MeV/nucleon is presented. Not only identical particles but unlike particle correlations have been used successfully as a probe for space-time dynamics of the collision process. Due to the availability of new dedicated charged particles or photon multi-detectors, the field of particle interferometry is moving to a good level of quantitative description: excitation energy and impact parameter dependences are now provided which should stimulate additional theoretical calculations for two-particle cross sections and emission of light fragments. (author)

  15. Reversible potentials for steps in methanol and formic acid oxidation to CO2; adsorption energies of intermediates on the ideal electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation and CO2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alfred B; Asiri, Haleema Aied

    2014-06-14

    Quantum chemical theory is used to identify the reasons for platinum's limitations as an electrocatalyst for oxidizing methanol at fuel cell anodes. The linear Gibbs energy relation (LGER) method is employed to predict reversible potentials for reaction steps for intermediates on the electrode surface. In this procedure, standard reversible potentials are calculated for the reactions in bulk solution phase and then they are perturbed using calculated adsorption bond strengths to the electrode surface, yielding the equilibrium potentials for each electron transfer step for adsorbed intermediates. Adsorption properties of ideal electrocatalysts for the methanol oxidation are found by imposing the condition that the reversible potential of each electron transfer step equals that for the overall reaction. The adsorption bond strengths that provide the ideal properties also apply to formic acid oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction. It is instructive to think of the ideal electrocatalyst as a lens that focusses the reversible potentials for the n individual electron transfer steps to the reversible potential for the n-electron process. It is found that the ideal catalyst will adsorb many intermediates, including HOOC, CO, OCH, HOC, HOCH, HOCH2, and OCH3 more weakly than platinum, and OOCH and OH more strongly. For example, for one possible pathway it is necessary to weaken adsorption bond strengths for HOCH2, HOCH, OCH, HOOC by about 0.5 eV, weaken adsorption CO by about 1.1 eV and strengthen OH adsorption by about 0.6 eV. These results imply a need for developing new multi-component catalysts.

  16. Properties of nuclei and elementary particles at low and intermediate energies. Progress report, July 1992--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, F.

    1993-12-31

    Work reported relate to: a 12 ton low energy neutrino detector for neutrino oscillation studies at the San Onofre Reactor Station; new limits on the 17 keV neutrino; time reversal and parity tests for hindered nuclear gamma transitions; and theory of nuclear structure and its application.

  17. CEA nuclear energy Directorate - Activity report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the activities of the Directorate at the international level, of its scientific activities, and of the consideration given to quality, and a presentation of the transverse program on advanced materials, this report proposes presentations of activities in different domains: future nuclear industrial systems (reactors of 4. generation, back-end of the future cycle, sustainable management of nuclear materials, fundamental scientific and technological research), optimization of the present industrial nuclear activity (reactors of 2. and 3. generation, front-end and back-end of the fuel cycle), the main tools for nuclear development (numerical simulation, the Jules Horowitz reactor), valorisation, economic support of Haute-Marne and Meuse territories (the Syndiese project), nuclear dismantling and decontamination (dismantling projects, projects and works in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Saclay, waste and material flow management, nuclear service facilities, transports). It also presents the activities of some specific CEA centres like Marcoule (R and D in fuel cycle), Cadarache (future energies) and Saclay (nuclear sciences and simulation of reactors and fuel cycle)

  18. Immobilization of simulated low and intermediate level waste in alkali-activated slag-fly ash-metakaolin hydroceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin, E-mail: wjin761026@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Wang, Jun-xia; Zhang, Qin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Li, Yu-xiang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composite and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the suitability of ASFMH for solidifying simulated S-LILW. • The introduction of S-LILW avails forming zeolitic phases of ASFMH waste forms. • The ASFMH waste forms have low leachability and high compressive strength. - Abstract: In the current study, the alkali-activated slag-fly ash-metakaolin hydroceramic (ASFMH) waste forms for immobilizing simulated low and intermediate level waste (S-LILW) were prepared by hydrothermal process. The crystalline phase compositions, morphology, compressive strength and aqueous stability of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms were investigated. The results showed that the main crystalline phases of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms were analcime and zeolite NaP1. The changes of Si/Al molar ratio (from 1.7 to 2.2) and Ca/Al molar ratio (from 0.15 to 0.35) had little effect on the phase compositions of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms. However, the hydrothermal temperature, time as well as the content of S-LILW (from 12.5 to 37.5 wt%) had a major impact on the phase compositions. The compressive strength of S-LILW ASFMH waste forms was not less than 20 MPa when the content of S-LILW reached 37.5 wt%. In addition, the aqueous stability testing was carried out using the standard MCC-1 static leach test method; the normalized elemental leach rates of Sr and Cs were fairly constant in a low value below 5 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} and 3 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} after 28 days, respectively. It is indicated that ASFMH waste form could be a potential host for safely immobilizing LILW.

  19. Intermediate-Conductance-Ca2-Activated K Channel IKCa1 Is Upregulated and Promotes Cell Proliferation in Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhan, Ping; Nie, Dan; Fan, Lingye; Lin, Hairui; Gao, Lanyang; Mao, Xiguang

    2017-03-10

    BACKGROUND Accumulating data point to intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (IKCa1) as a key player in controlling cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer cells. However, the role that IKCa1 plays in the growth of human cervical cancer cells is largely unexplored. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and RT-PCR were first used for IKCa1protein and gene expression assays in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. Then, IKCa1 channel blocker and siRNA were employed to inhibit the functionality of IKCa1 and downregulate gene expression in HeLa cells, respectively. After these treatments, we examined the level of cell proliferation by MTT method and measured IKCa1 currents by conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide (PI) double-staining apoptosis detection kit. RESULTS We demonstrated that IKCa1 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. We also showed that the IKCa1 channel blocker, clotrimazole, and IKCa1 channel siRNA can be used to suppress cervical cancer cell proliferation and decrease IKCa1 channel current. IKCa1 downregulation by specific siRNAs induced a significant increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells in HeLa cells. CONCLUSIONS IKCa1 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, and IKCa1 upregulation in cervical cancer cell linea enhances cell proliferation, partly by reducing the proportion of apoptotic cells.

  20. Theoretical studies in few-body intermediate energy physics: Progress report, March 1, 1986-February 28, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, T.

    1986-10-01

    Research topics include studies with systems of two nucleons above the threshold of single pion production. Efforts have been directed towards πd elastic and NN→NN channels with the field theory of mesons and baryons. Additional research considers deuteron photodisintegration and pion photo-production on deuteron in the delta resonance region and low energy proton-antiproton interactions (proton + antiproton → Lambda + antilambda)

  1. A comparative study of total electron scattering cross sections of plasma processing gasses at intermediate electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-11-01

    A comparison is made between the total electron cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) available in the literature and those recently measured in this laboratory using the linear transmission technique. The present measurements are about 0-20% higher than those in the literature. An empirical formula developed to predict the TCS of plasma processing gases, as a function of incident electron energy, will be presented.

  2. Contribution to the study of the elastic scattering of photons on nucleons at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiasu, I.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic γ-nucleon scattering represents an indirect powerful method for the nucleon structure investigation. Some theoretical aspects of this problem are treated in the presented thesis. After a general introduction into the subject and a short review of the up-to-date literature, the first chapter contains kinematics and dynamical preliminaries of reaction γ+N→γ+N. In chapter II, the low energy theorems are discussed and extended up to six power in the photon laboratory energies, ω; the six structure dependent constants which appear in the differential cross section in this order are defined and computed, and an extraction for the proton electromagnetic polarizabilities α,β from the experimental data is performed. A new dispersive analysis of the γ+N→γ+N process at photon laboratory energies lower than 450 Mev is introduced and used for numerical calculation in chapter III; some improvements are obtained in the comparison with the experimental data, with respect to other previous calculations. In the last chapter, two different sum rules for the difference (α-β) are established and numerically computed - these theoretical predictions agree with the values extracted from experience; based on the analyticity properties of the invariant amplitudes, an inequality is written down connecting an integral over the differential cross section of the process and the static properties of the nucleon (mass, charge, anomalous magnetic moment). (author)

  3. Nuclear Energy Division. 2009 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the future investment programme of the nuclear energy department at the French national Nuclear Research Center (CEA), this report proposes a description of tomorrow's industrial nuclear systems (back-end of future fuel cycle, fourth generation systems, basic scientific and technological research), describes how current nuclear industrial systems are optimized (front-end and back-end of fuel cycle, second and third generation reactors). It presents the main tools for nuclear development: simulation programme, the Jules Horowitz reactor project, maintenance of specific facilities, research valorisation. It reports the activities related to the clean-up and dismantling in different nuclear sites, presents the activities of CEA's nuclear research centres (Saclay, Cadarache, Marcoule), briefly presents the transverse material programme, recalls some events, and gives some key figures

  4. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  5. The Semiclassical distorted wave (SCDW) model for multistep direct processes in (p,px) and (p, nx) reactions at intermediate energies: formalism and application

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, M; Watanabe, Y

    2002-01-01

    The semi-classical distorted wave (SCDW) model for (p,p sup ' x) and (p,nx) reactions at intermediate energies is presented. Simple closed forms with no free adjustable parameter are derived for inclusive double differential cross sections and spin observables. The formulae allow simple intuitive physical interpretations. Applications of the model to analyses of experimental data at 120 to 400 MeV on target nuclei sup 1 sup 2 C, sup 4 sup 0 Ca and sup 9 sup 0 Zr are discussed. Calculations include up to three-step processes with realistic effective nucleon-nucleon interactions modified in the nuclear medium. Good over all agreement with the data is obtained including absolute magnitude of the cross sections. Through the analysis the role of multistep processes is revealed and the possibility of extracting information on nucleon-nucleon interaction in the nuclear medium becomes clear

  6. Reaction-mechanism evolution for the system 20Ne + 60Ni at intermediate energies: from massive transfer to fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, F.; Brondi, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; LaRana, G.; Moro, R.; Perillo, E.; Romano, M.; Terrasi, F.; Dayras, R.; Dumont, H.; Gadi, F.; Gomez del Campo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Mass and charge distributions for heavy residues in the reaction 20 Ne + 60 Ni at 50 MeV/nucleon were measured by in-beam and off-line γ-ray spectrometry. The stacked foil method was used to obtain information about the distribution of the velocity component parallel to the beam direction for target-like residues. The comparison of the data to the predictions of a participant-spectator model indicates that an 8% width for the dissipated energy distribution accounts for the observed projected ranges. (orig.)

  7. An experimental study of the integral properties of U235 and Pu239 in an intermediate energy spectrum, and comparison with theoretical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, W.N.; King, D.C.; MacBean, I.J.; Pitcher, H.H.W.; Sanders, J.E.; Small, V.G.

    1968-03-01

    Present-day methods of calculation for thermal and fast reactors involve the use of multigroup cross-section sets derived from basic nuclear data files. Since the accuracy of the calculations depends ultimately on the accuracy of these data, it is important to test them against results of 'integral experiments' in critical or sub-critical assemblies. The present report describes integral experiments designed to provide a sensitive test of the U235 and Pu239 cross-sections spectrum-averaged over the 'intermediate' energy range from about 10 eV to 10 keV. This is an area where the fissile nuclide cross-section data, particularly that for radiative capture, are still inadequately defined, as evidenced by the considerable discrepancies between various determinations. The difficulties stem from the problems of resolving and analysing the properties of closely spaced resonances and particularly in separating the fission and capture contributions. From the parameters of the resolved resonances, the distributions of the partial widths must be derived in order to provide a sound basis for the calculation of the averaged properties in the unresolved region, which constitute a significant part of the region of interest. The correct assignment of the fission and capture widths and their distributions is also necessary for the calculation of the spectrum-average capture to fission ratio (a), which has an important bearing on conversion and breeding ratios. Unlike the situation for the thermal and fast neutron regions (i.e. those below and above that considered here), where many critical and sub-critical assemblies have been made, very few integral experiments suitable for adequately testing the U235 and Pu239 data in the intermediate energy range have been reported. Hence the decision, in 1965, to undertake the work described here

  8. Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2008-02-01

    Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the modifiable component of total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from all activities, both volitional and nonvolitional. Because AEE may affect health, there is interest in its estimation in free-living people. Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) could be a feasible approach to AEE estimation in large populations, but it is unclear whether or not any PAQ is valid for this purpose. Our aim was to explore the validity of existing PAQs for estimating usual AEE in adults, using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a criterion measure. We reviewed 20 publications that described PAQ-to-DLW comparisons, summarized study design factors, and appraised criterion validity using mean differences (AEE(PAQ) - AEE(DLW), or TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)), 95% limits of agreement, and correlation coefficients (AEE(PAQ) versus AEE(DLW) or TEE(PAQ) versus TEE(DLW)). Only 2 of 23 PAQs assessed most types of activity over the past year and indicated acceptable criterion validity, with mean differences (TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)) of 10% and 2% and correlation coefficients of 0.62 and 0.63, respectively. At the group level, neither overreporting nor underreporting was more prevalent across studies. We speculate that, aside from reporting error, discrepancies between PAQ and DLW estimates may be partly attributable to 1) PAQs not including key activities related to AEE, 2) PAQs and DLW ascertaining different time periods, or 3) inaccurate assignment of metabolic equivalents to self-reported activities. Small sample sizes, use of correlation coefficients, and limited information on individual validity were problematic. Future research should address these issues to clarify the true validity of PAQs for estimating AEE.

  9. Delayed radical prostatectomy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer is associated with biochemical recurrence: possible implications for active surveillance from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abern, Michael R; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Kane, Christopher J; Presti, Joseph C; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly accepted as appropriate management for low-risk prostate cancer (PC) patients. It is unknown whether delaying radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) for men with intermediate-risk PC. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,561 low and intermediate-risk men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database treated with RP between 1988 and 2011. Patients were stratified by interval between diagnosis and RP (≤ 3, 3-6, 6-9, or >9 months) and by risk using the D'Amico classification. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze BCR. Logistic regression was used to analyze positive surgical margins (PSM), extracapsular extension (ECE), and pathologic upgrading. Overall, 813 (52%) men were low-risk, and 748 (48%) intermediate-risk. Median follow-up among men without recurrence was 52.9 months, during which 437 men (38.9%) recurred. For low-risk men, RP delays were unrelated to BCR, ECE, PSM, or upgrading (all P > 0.05). For intermediate-risk men, however, delays >9 months were significantly related to BCR (HR: 2.10, P = 0.01) and PSM (OR: 4.08, P 9 months were associated with BCR in subsets of intermediate-risk men with biopsy Gleason score ≤ 3 + 4 (HR: 2.51, P 9 months predicted greater BCR and PSM risk. If confirmed in future studies, this suggests delayed RP for intermediate-risk PC may compromise outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-03-13

    Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.

  11. Nucleon-induced reactions at intermediate energies: new data at 96 MeV and theoretical status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blideanu, V.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefort, T.; Marie, N.; Ban, G.; Louvel, M. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, IN2P3-CNRS ISMRA, 14 (France); Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Dangtip, S.; Hildebrand, A.; Hohansson, C.; Klug, J.; Nilsson, L.; Ollson, N.; Pomp, S.; Tippawan, U.; Osterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ., Nykoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Tippawan, U. [Chiang Mai University, Fast Neutron Research Facility (Thailand); Elmgren, K.; Olsson, N. [Swedish Defense Research Agency, Stokholm (Sweden); Eudes, Ph.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.; Riviere, G. [Nantes Univ., Subatech, 44 (France); Foucher, Y. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ., Svedberg Laboratory (Sweden); Kerveno, M.; Stuttge, L. [IReS, Strasbourg (France); Le Brun, Ch. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, 38 - Grenoble (France); Nadel-Turonski, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Slypen, I. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2004-04-01

    Double-differential cross sections for light charged particle production (up to A = 4) were measured in 96 MeV neutron-induced reactions, at TSL laboratory cyclotron in Uppsala (Sweden). Measurements for three targets, Fe, Pb, and U, were performed using two independent devices, SCANDAL and MEDLEY. The data were recorded with low energy thresholds and for a wide annular range (20 - 160 degrees). The normalization procedure used to extract the cross sections is based on the np elastic scattering reaction that we measured and for which we present experimental results. A good control of the systematic uncertainties affecting the results is achieved. Calculations using the exciton model are reported. Two different theoretical approaches proposed to improve its predictive power regarding the complex particle emission are tested. The capabilities of each approach is illustrated by comparison with the 96 MeV data that we measured, and with other experimental results available in the literature. (authors)

  12. Isobaric yield curves at A=72 from the spallation of medium mass isotopes by intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.J.; Karol, P.J.; Department of Chemistry, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of radionuclides in the A∼72 mass region produced by the interaction 800 MeV protons with 89 Y, /sup 92,96,100/Mo, and 130 Te were measured. Particular emphasis was paid to the measurement of short-lived products far from β stability. The cross sections were used to generate isobaric yield curves at A=72. Precise characterization of these curves showed that the distribution parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness) vary in a regular fashion with target N/Z. For 89 Y, relative isobaric curves produced by 500 and 800 MeV protons were found to be identical within experimental error. The yield distributions for the /sup 92,96,100/Mo targets also scaled with those from an earlier alpha-induced spallation study. These findings lend strong support to the argument that the spallation mechanism is independent of projectile energy and target composition

  13. Spatial distribution of neutrons in paraffin moderator surrounding a lead target irradiated with protons at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Bradnova, V

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of neutrons emitted during the irradiation with 0.65, 1.0 and 1.5 GeV protons from a lead target (O / = 8 cm, l = 20 cm) and moderated by a surrounding paraffin moderator of 6 cm thick was studied with a radiochemical sensor along the beam axis on top of the moderator. Small sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La-sensors of approximately 1 g were used to measure essentially the thermal neutron fluence at different depths near the surface: i.e., on top of the moderator, in 10 mm deep holes and in 20 mm deep holes. The reaction sup 1 sup 3 sup 9 La(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 4 sup 0 La (tau sub 1 sub / sub 2 = 40.27 h) was studied using standard procedures of gamma spectroscopy and data analysis. The neutron induced activity of sup 1 sup 4 sup 0 La increases strongly with the depth of the hole inside the moderator, its activity distribution along the beam direction on top of the moderator has its maximum about 10 cm downstream the entrance of the protons into the lead and the induced activity increases about linearity ...

  14. Study of nuclear isovector spin responses from polarization transfer in (p,n) reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Tomotsugu

    1997-01-01

    We have measured a complete set of polarization transfer observables has been measured for quasi-free (p vector, n vector) reactions on 2 H, 6 Li, 12 C, 40 Ca, and 208 Pb at a bombarding energy of 346MeV and a laboratory scattering angle of 22deg (q=1.7 fm -1 ). The polarization transfer observables for all five targets are remarkably similar. These polarization observables yield separated spin-longitudinal (σ·q) and spin-transverse (σxq) nuclear responses. These results are compared to the spin-transverse responses measured in deep-inelastic electron scattering as well as to nuclear responses based on the random phase approximation. Such a comparison reveals an enhancement in the (p vector, n vector) spin-transverse channel, which masks the effect of pionic correlations in the response ratio. Second, the double differential cross sections at θ lab between 0deg and 12.3deg and the polarization transfer D NN at 0deg for the 90 Zr(p,n) reaction are measured at a bombarding energy of 295MeV. The Gamow-Teller(GT) strength B(GT) in the continuum deduced from the L=0 cross section is compared both with the perturbative calculation by Bertsch and Hamamoto and with the second-order random phase approximation calculation by Drozdz et al. The sum of B(GT) values up to 50MeV excitation becomes S β- =28.0±1.6 after subtracting the contribution of the isovector spin-monopole strength. This S β- value of 28.0±1.6 corresponds to about (93±5)% of the minimum value of the sum-rule 3(N-Z)=30. Last, first measurements of D NN (0deg) for (p vector, n vector) reactions at 295MeV yield large negative values up to 50MeV excitation for the 6 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C(p vector, n vector) reactions. DWIA calculations using the Franey and Love (FL) 270MeV interaction reproduce differential cross sections and D NN (0deg) values, while the FL 325MeV interaction yield D NN (0deg) values less negative than the experimental values. (J.P.N.)

  15. Cooperative Ge-N Bond activation in aluminium-functionalised aminogermanes and spontaneous imine elimination via an intermediate germyl cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Werner; Tannert, Jens; Honacker, Christian; Layh, Marcus; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Risthaus, Tobias; Grimme, Stefan

    2015-02-02

    Hydrometallation of iPr2 N-Ge(CMe3 )(C≡C-CMe3 )2 with H-M(CMe3 )2 (M=Al, Ga) affords alkenyl-alkynylgermanes in which the Lewis-acidic metal atoms are not coordinated by the amino N atoms but by the α-C atoms of the ethynyl groups. These interactions result in a lengthening of the Ge-C bonds by approximately 10 pm and a comparably strong deviation of the Ge-CC angle from linearity (154.3(1)°). This unusual behaviour may be caused by steric shielding of the N atoms. Coordination of the metal atoms by the amino groups is observed upon hydrometallation of Et2 N-Ge(C6 H5 )(C≡C-CMe3 )2 , bearing a smaller NR2 group. Strong M-N interactions lead to a lengthening of the Ge-N bonds by 10 to 15 pm and a strong deviation of the M atoms from the MC3 plane by 52 and 47 pm, for Al and Ga, respectively. Dual hydrometallation is achieved only with HAl(CMe3 )2 . In the product, there is a strong Al-N bond with converging Al-N and Ge-N distances (208 vs. 200 pm) and an interaction of the second Al atom to the phenyl group. Addition of chloride anions terminates the latter interaction while the activated Ge-N bond undergoes an unprecedented elimination of EtN=C(H)Me at room temperature, leading to a germane with a Ge-H bond. State-of-the-art DFT calculations reveal that the unique mechanism comprises the transfer of the amino group from Ge to Al to yield an intermediate germyl cation as a strong Lewis acid, which induces β-hydride elimination, with chloride binding being crucial for providing the thermodynamic driving force. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Kinetic structure of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels suggests that the gating includes transitions through intermediate or secondary states. A mechanism for flickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, B S; Magleby, K L

    1998-06-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating.

  17. Differential cross sections for intermediate-energy electron scattering from α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol: Excitation of electronic-states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Silva, G. B. da [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Duflot, D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR CNRS 8523, Université Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); and others

    2014-07-14

    We report on measurements of differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). The energy range of these experiments was 20–50 eV, while the scattered electron was detected in the 10°–90° angular range. There are currently no other experimental data or theoretical computations against which we can directly compare the present measured results. Nonetheless, we are able to compare our THFA DCSs with earlier cross section measurements for Rydberg-state electronic excitation for tetrahydrofuran, a similar cyclic ether, from Do et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144302 (2011)]. In addition, “rotationally averaged” elastic DCSs, calculated using our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction approach are also reported. Those latter results give integral cross sections consistent with the optical theorem, and supercede those from the only previous study of Milosavljević et al. [Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 107 (2006)].

  18. Impact of intermediate and high energy nuclear data on the neutronic safety parameters of MYRRHA accelerator driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovskiy, Alexey; Çelik, Yurdunaz; Eynde, Gert Van den

    2017-09-01

    Perturbation of external neutron source can cause significant local power changes transformed into undesired safety-related events in an accelerator driven system. Therefore for the accurate design of MYRRHA sub-critical core it is important to evaluate the uncertainty of power responses caused by the uncertainties in nuclear reaction models describing the particle transport from primary proton energy down to the evaluated nuclear data table range. The calculations with a set of models resulted in quite low uncertainty on the local power caused by significant perturbation of primary neutron yield from proton interactions with lead and bismuth isotopes. The considered accidental event of prescribed proton beam shape loss causes drastic increase in local power but does not practically change the total core thermal power making this effect difficult to detect. In the same time the results demonstrate a correlation between perturbed local power responses in normal operation and misaligned beam conditions indicating that generation of covariance data for proton and neutron induced neutron multiplicities for lead and bismuth isotopes is needed to obtain reliable uncertainties for local power responses.

  19. Impact of intermediate and high energy nuclear data on the neutronic safety parameters of MYRRHA accelerator driven system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovskiy Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation of external neutron source can cause significant local power changes transformed into undesired safety-related events in an accelerator driven system. Therefore for the accurate design of MYRRHA sub-critical core it is important to evaluate the uncertainty of power responses caused by the uncertainties in nuclear reaction models describing the particle transport from primary proton energy down to the evaluated nuclear data table range. The calculations with a set of models resulted in quite low uncertainty on the local power caused by significant perturbation of primary neutron yield from proton interactions with lead and bismuth isotopes. The considered accidental event of prescribed proton beam shape loss causes drastic increase in local power but does not practically change the total core thermal power making this effect difficult to detect. In the same time the results demonstrate a correlation between perturbed local power responses in normal operation and misaligned beam conditions indicating that generation of covariance data for proton and neutron induced neutron multiplicities for lead and bismuth isotopes is needed to obtain reliable uncertainties for local power responses.

  20. Multiple scattering theory and applications for intermediate energy reactions of nuclei. [50 to 1050 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludeking, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interactions of two composite clusters are treated in a multiple scattering framework whereby many-particle operators are decomposed into a systematic and finite series such that there is an ordered sequestering according to particle rank. Thus, an N-body operator is written as the superposition of all distinct groupings of interactions that occur between particle pairs, triplets, quartets, etc., such that all groupings contain at least one particle from each of the composite systems. It is demonstrated how the transition operator, a reaction operator, and an optical potential may be described in this context. The general structure of such decompositions is shown, and the connection to the standard multiple-scattering prescriptions, delineated. The direct reaction amplitude for stripping and pickup is described, and the two potential formula of Gell-Mann and Goldberger is derived. The multiple scattering formalism for direct reactions is constructed in the eikonal approximation. The sensitivity of the transition cross section to the target density and nucleon-nucleon density correlations are examined in this framework. The limitations of the zero-range approximation to the deuteron vertex function are examined by comparison with the finite-range vertex function at a range of energies. 25 figures, 5 tables.

  1. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  2. Production of cephalosporin intermediates by feeding adipic acid to recombinant Penicillium chrysogenum strains expressing ring expansion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L; Stepan, A M; McAda, P C; Rambosek, J A; Conder, M J; Vinci, V A; Reeves, C D

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel and efficient bioprocess for production of the cephalosporin intermediates, 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or 7-amino deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA). The Streptomyces clavuligerus expandase gene or the Cephalosporium acremonium expandase-hydroxylase gene, with and without the acetyltransferase gene, were expressed in a penicillin production strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Growth of these transformants in media containing adipic acid as the side chain precursor resulted in efficient production of cephalosporins having an adipyl side chain, proving that adipyl-6-APA is a substrate for either enzyme in vivo. Strains expressing expandase produced adipyl-7-ADCA, whereas strains expressing expandase-hydroxylase produced both adipyl-7-ADCA and adipyl-7-ADAC (aminodeacetylcephalosporanic acid). Strains expressing expandase-hydroxylase and acetyltransferase produced adipyl-7-ADCA, adipyl-7-ADAC and adipyl-7-ACA. The adipyl side chain of these cephalosporins was easily removed with a Pseudomonas-derived amidase to yield the cephalosporin intermediates.

  3. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Dana Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  4. Discovery and characterization of the first low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lacertae objects in the very high energy γ-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    and resulted in a vastly improved performance of the MAGIC telescope in monitoring campaigns. The detections of low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects are in line with theoretical expectations, but push the models based on electron shock acceleration and inverse-Compton cooling to their limits. The short variability time scales of the order of one day observed at very high energies show that the γ-rays originate rather close to the putative supermassive black holes in the centers of blazars, corresponding to less than 1000 Schwarzschild radii when taking into account relativistic bulk motion. (orig.)

  5. Discovery and characterization of the first low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lacertae objects in the very high energy {gamma}-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Karsten

    2009-12-19

    . This was successfully achieved and resulted in a vastly improved performance of the MAGIC telescope in monitoring campaigns. The detections of low-peaked and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects are in line with theoretical expectations, but push the models based on electron shock acceleration and inverse-Compton cooling to their limits. The short variability time scales of the order of one day observed at very high energies show that the {gamma}-rays originate rather close to the putative supermassive black holes in the centers of blazars, corresponding to less than 1000 Schwarzschild radii when taking into account relativistic bulk motion. (orig.)

  6. Study of nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and intermediate- and high-energy protons and an application in nuclear reactor physics (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuoka, Paula Fernanda Toledo

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, intermediate- and high-energy nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and protons were studied with the Monte Carlo CRISP (Rio - Ilheus - Sao Paulo Collaboration) model. The most relevant nuclear processes studied were intranuclear cascade and fission-evaporation competition. Preliminary studies showed fair agreement between CRISP model calculation and experimental data of multiplicity of evaporated neutrons (E < 20 MeV) from the p(1200 MeV) + 208 Pb reaction and of spallation residues from the p(1000 MeV) + 208 Pb reaction. The investigation of neutron multiplicity from proton-induced fission of 232 Th up to 85 MeV showed that it was being overestimated by CRISP model; on the other hand, fission cross section were being underestimated. This behavior is due to limitations of the intranuclear cascade model for low-energies (around 50 MeV). The p(1200 MeV) + 208 Pb reaction was selected for the study of a spallation neutron source. High-energy neutrons (E > 20 MeV) were emitted mostly in the intranuclear cascade stage, while evaporation presented larger neutron multiplicity. Fission cross section of 209 mb and spallation cross section of 1788 mb were calculated { both in agreement with experimental data. The fission process resulted in a symmetric mass distribution. Another Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used for radiation transport in order to understand the role of a spallation neutron source in a ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor. Initially, a PWR reactor was simulated to study the isotopic compositions in spent nuclear fuel. As a rst attempt, a spallation neutron source was adapted to an industrial size nuclear reactor. The results showed no evidence of incineration of transuranic elements and modifications were suggested. (author)

  7. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  8. p.X654R IDUA variant among Thai individuals with intermediate mucopolysaccharidosis type I and its residual activity as demonstrated in COS-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiwsara, Lukana; Ketudat-Cairns, James R; Sawangareetrakul, Phannee; Charoenwattanasatien, Ratana; Champattanachai, Voraratt; Kuptanon, Chulaluck; Pangkanon, Suthipong; Tim-Aroon, Thipwimol; Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2017-12-28

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder caused by defects in alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA), a lysosomal enzyme encoded by the IDUA gene. Herein, we characterized IDUA mutations underlying mucopolysaccharidosis type I intermediate form (Hurler-Scheie syndrome) and its molecular pathogenic mechanisms. Clinical data, activity of the IDUA enzyme in leukocytes, and a mutation of the IDUA gene were analyzed. Pathogenesis associated with an IDUA mutation was further investigated by evaluating the mutant cDNA sequence, protein expression and activity in COS-7 cells. Five unrelated patients were identified to have clinical diagnosis of intermediate form of MPS I (Hurler-Scheie) and exhibited low-to-absent levels of leukocyte IDUA activity. Genetic analysis revealed homozygous c.*1T>C (p.X654R) mutation in two patients and compound heterozygosity between the c.*1T>C and another allele including c.265G>A (p.R89Q), c.935G>A (p.W312X), or c.1138 C>T (p.Q380X), each in a single patient. Sequencing the 3'RACE product of the c.*1T>C (p.X654R) allele indicated a 38-amino acids elongation of the mutant protein. COS-7 cells expressing IDUA with the mutations exhibited extremely low levels or complete absence of enzyme activity compared to wild-type IDUA. Western blot analysis detected no protein in p.W312X and p.Q380X samples, while an elevated molecular mass and a different pattern of protein bands were found in p.X654R specimen compared with the wild type IDUA. Mutational spectrum underlying intermediate MPS I is expanded. Our data suggest that the p.X654R is an intermediate IDUA mutant allele with residual enzyme activity. It can lead to intermediate or milder form of MPS I depending on another associated allele. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  9. Photonuclear physics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda Neto, J.D.T.

    1984-01-01

    A review and a description of the state of the art in the field of photonuclear reactions is given. Future perspectives for works in this area in the linear accelarator laboratory at USP, Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: antiproton nucleus interactions; strangeness production in heavy ion collisions; search for a J PC exotic hybrid meson; the SMC experiment; pion production in rvec np scattering; spin transfer measurements for rvec np elastic scattering; pion production in rvec n rvec p scattering; radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen; radiative decays of low-lying hyperons; photoproduction of jets in nuclei; cylindrical multiplicity detector; MWPC detectors and electronics; lead glass array; cylindrical wire chamber; beam calorimeter; shower counter; and muon veto hodoscope

  11. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Σdegree C Spin Transfer Experiment; Strangeness Production in Heavy Ion Collisions; Search for a J PC Exotic Hybrid Meson; Antiproton-Nucleus Interactions; Single Pion Production in np Scattering; Two-and Three-Spin Measurements in pp-pp; Proton-Deuteron Elastic Scattering at 800 MeV Two- and Three-Spin Observables; pp Elastic Absolute Cross-Section Measurements; Single Pion Production in np Scattering; Photojets from Nuclei; CCD Development; Computer Acquisition and Computer Software

  12. ExpeCIVE 2013 - 2014. Field study of the agronomic, methanogenic and environmental potentials of Intermediate Crops for Energy Supply. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pislor, Emilie; Thual, Julien

    2015-12-01

    Intermediate Crops for Energy Supply (ICES) are essential for farming anaerobic digestion development. Catch crops into a three crops over two years sequence decrease environmental risks with a long soil cover. However, their use in anaerobic digestion process is conditioned by their cost and their yield variability. Following the results of 2012 on short growth cycle ICES program conducted by ADEME, Caussade Semences and Methaneva, a new program have been done on summer 2013 to test short growth cycle ICES and winter 2013 - 2014 to test long growth cycle ICES. The aim of this project was to evaluate the agronomic, energetic, economic and environmental characteristics of some plant covers marketed by Caussade Semences. Then field experiments have been conducted on 24 sites all over France. The impact of fertilization was studied too because some trial sites has fertilized the half part of experimental field. 9 short growth cycle ICES and 3 long growth cycle ICES have been tested. The harvesting have been done by geometric weighting between middle of October and beginning of November for the first one and in April for the second. The agronomic yields have been determined for each plant cover and for each trial site. The biochemical methane potentials (BMP) have been evaluated in order to determine the energetic yield of each ICES. The production cost in euro/tDM was calculated for each plant cover and the environmental impact determined by Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Finally, 3 short growth cycle ICES and 2 long growth cycle ICES could be identified. More generally, no matter what type of ICES, short or long growth cycle, the more important is to plant at the right time and the right place to obtain the higher biomass, that is the more energy for the lowest production cost. (author)

  13. High final energy of gallium arsenide laser increases MyoD gene expression during the intermediate phase of muscle regeneration after cryoinjury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Caroline Pereira; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Giometti, Ines Cristina; Mariano, Thaoan Bruno; de Freitas, Carlos Eduardo Assumpção; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; de Freitas, Selma Zambelli; Pai-Silva, Maeli Dal; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser on IGF-I, MyoD, MAFbx, and TNF-α gene expression during the intermediate phase of muscle regeneration after cryoinjury 21 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 7 per group): untreated with no injury (control group), cryoinjury without GaAs (injured group), and cryoinjury with GaAs (GaAs-injured group). The cryoinjury was induced in the central region of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA). The region injured was irradiated once a day during 14 days using GaAs laser (904 nm; spot size 0.035 cm 2 , output power 50 mW; energy density 69 J cm -2 ; exposure time 4 s per point; final energy 4.8 J). Twenty-four hours after the last application, the right and left TA muscles were collected for histological (collagen content) and molecular (gene expression of IGF-I, MyoD, MAFbx, and TNF-α) analyses, respectively. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at P  0.05) differences in collagen density and IGF-I gene expression in all experimental groups. There were similar (P < 0.05) decreases in MAFbx and TNF-α gene expression in the injured and GaAs-injured groups, compared to control group. The MyoD gene expression increased (P = 0.008) in the GaAs-injured group, but not in the injured group (P = 0.338), compared to control group. GaAs laser therapy had a positive effect on MyoD gene expression, but not IGF-I, MAFbx, and TNF-α, during intermediary phases (14 days post-injury) of muscle repair.

  14. Commission for energy regulation - 2012 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    After a presentation of the organisation, role and missions of the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and of its relationship with other institutional actors, this report describes and comments the action of the CRE in the fields of dialogue and transparency. It presents and comments key figures regarding the electricity and gas retail markets. It reports and comments the European reaction to the cold peak of February 2012 (historical peak for consumption and prices, inquiry on the causes of these price peaks, need of a European market). The next part addresses the relationship between electricity grids and territories (solidarity between electricity grids as the basis of the Europe of energy, evolution of French grids to face new needs and to take regional and local dimensions into account). Another part addresses gas infrastructures which are considered as the cornerstone of a good operation for the French market and for the integration of the European energy market (gas world market in 2012, definition of a target model for the gas market by European regulators, evolution of the French market in compliance with the European target model, new tariffs for the use of natural gas transport networks). The report then addresses the development of renewable energies: actions of CRE (bidding, opinion of tariffs), influence of renewable energy development on electricity prices on gross markets, needed evolution of electricity grids. A last part addresses the issues of energy cost, demand management, and struggle against energy poverty

  15. Hydrogen energy and UNIDO-ICHET activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtulus, Guelbahar; Tabakoglu, F. Oeznur

    2007-01-01

    Increasing dependence on fossil fuels due to industrialization and increasing population has had many serious consequences such as air pollution, climate change and global warming. Hydrogen energy seems to be the most promising alternative to fossil fuels and Hydrogen Energy System is accepted to be the permanent solution to the depletion of fossil fuels as their reserves are finite and the environmental damage caused by their utilization. With the establishment of United Nations International Hydrogen Energy Technologies Centre (UNIDO-ICHET) in Istanbul, May 2004, Turkey has undertaken a historic mission to help convert the world to Hydrogen Economy. Among the development objectives of the Centre is to develop and strengthen global scientific and technological capabilities by closing the gap between research and development organizations, innovative enterprises and the market place, so as to stimulate appropriate applications of hydrogen energy technologies in industrial development throughout the world in general and in developing countries in particular. For the benefit of developing and developed countries it is also planned to further the application of hydrogen for peaceful aims, as well as the development and transfer of hydrogen energy related technologies, including the associated technology management processes. The Centre also aims to promote the advancement of applied research and development on hydrogen energy, with direct involvement of developing countries scientists and technologists. Additionally the Centre intends to support and strengthen programmes within developing countries for the implementation of hydrogen energy based research, development and technology transfer centers, and provide mechanisms for the support of existing as well as the creation of new industrial enterprises. ICHET achieves its objectives primarily through: studies; the sponsorship and performance of applied research in academic, industrial and governmental sectors; the

  16. Selected cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors produce accumulation of the intermediate FF-MAS that targets nucleus and activates LXRα in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatticchi, Leonardo; Cerra, Bruno; Scarpelli, Paolo; Macchioni, Lara; Sebastiani, Bartolomeo; Gioiello, Antimo; Roberti, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Sterol intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway have drawn attention for novel biological activities. Follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol (FF-MAS) is a LXRα ligand and a potential modulator of physiologic processes regulated by nuclear receptors, such as lipid homeostasis and cell proliferation. In this work, we established a model to selectively accumulate FF-MAS in HepG2 cells, by using a combination of the inhibitors AY9944 and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to block C14-sterol reductases and the downstream C4-demethylase complex. We investigated the effects produced by altered levels of cholesterol biosynthesis intermediates, in order to dissect their influence on LXRα signaling. In particular, endogenously accumulated FF-MAS was able to modulate the expression of key genes in cholesterol metabolism, to activate LXRα nuclear signaling resulting in increased lipogenesis, and to inhibit HepG2 cells proliferation. Moreover, a fluorescent ester derivative of FF-MAS localized in nuclear lipid droplets, suggesting a role for these organelles in the storage of signaling lipids interacting with nuclear partners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which lea...

  18. A compilation of energy costs of physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Karaolis, Nadine; Draper, Alizon; Shetty, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    There were two objectives: first, to review the existing data on energy costs of specified activities in the light of the recommendations made by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation of 1985. Second, to compile existing data on the energy costs of physical activities for an updated annexure of the current Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements. Electronic and manual search of the literature (predominantly English) to obtain published data on the energy costs of physical activities. The majority of the data prior to 1955 were obtained using an earlier compilation of Passmore and Durnin. Energy costs were expressed as physical activity ratio (PAR); the energy cost of the activity divided by either the measured or predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR). The compilation provides PARs for an expanded range of activities that include general personal activities, transport, domestic chores, occupational activities, sports and other recreational activities for men and women, separately, where available. The present compilation is largely in agreement with the 1985 compilation, for activities that are common to both compilations. The present compilation has been based on the need to provide data on adults for a wide spectrum of human activity. There are, however, lacunae in the available data for many activities, between genders, across age groups and in various physiological states.

  19. Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindström, Daniel; Ottosson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Many companies providing energy services are experiencing difficulties. • This research identifies key activities for the provision of energy services. • Findings are aggregated to the business-model level providing managerial insights. • This research identifies two different business model innovation paths. • Energy companies may need to renew parts of, or the entire, business model. - Abstract: Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  20. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  1. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  2. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  3. Assessment of heterologous butyrate and butanol pathway activity by measurement of intracellular pathway intermediates in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Curt R; Tseng, Hsien-Chung; Tai, Mitchell; Prather, Kristala L J; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2010-09-01

    In clostridia, n-butanol production from carbohydrates at yields of up to 76% of the theoretical maximum and at titers of up to 13 g/L has been reported. However, in Escherichia coli, several groups have reported butyric acid or butanol production from recombinant expression of clostridial genes, at much lower titers and yields. To pinpoint deficient steps in the recombinant pathway, we developed an analytical procedure for the determination of intracellular pools of key pathway intermediates and applied the technique to the analysis of three sets of E. coli strains expressing various combinations of butyrate biosynthesis genes. Low expression levels of the hbd-encoded S-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase were insufficient to convert acetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, indicating that hbd was a rate-limiting step in the production of butyryl-CoA. Increasing hbd expression alleviated this bottleneck, but in resulting strains, our pool size measurements and thermodynamic analysis showed that the reaction step catalyzed by the bcd-encoded butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase was rate-limiting. E. coli strains expressing both hbd and ptb-buk produced crotonic acid as a byproduct, but this byproduct was not observed with expression of related genes from non-clostridial organisms. Our thermodynamic interpretation of pool size measurements is applicable to the analysis of other metabolic pathways.

  4. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  5. Research for the energy turnaround. Phase transitions actively shape. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Conference 2014 of the Renewable Energy Research Association was held in Berlin on 6 and 7 November 2014. This book documents the contributions of the conference on research for the energy turnaround, phase transitions actively shape. After an introduction and two contributions to the political framework, the contributions to the economic phases of the energy transition, the phase of the current turn, the phases of social energy revolution, the stages of heat turnaround (Waermewende), and the stages of the mobility turn deal with the stages of development of the energy system. Finally, the Research Association Renewable Energy is briefly presented. [de

  6. International program activities in magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The following areas of our international activities in magnetic fusion are briefly described: (1) policy; (2) background; (3) strategy; (4) strategic considerations and concerns; (5) domestic program inplications, and (6) implementation. The current US activities are reviewed. Some of our present program needs are outlined

  7. An Active Role of Citizens on the Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrlec, D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfil climate and energy goals that EU has set for the period until 2030 and also after 2050, an engagement of the entire society is necessary. The energy sector is entering a transition towards a so called 4D model: decarbonization, decentralisation, distribution and democratisation. Citizens' engagement and responsibility in this transition requires active consumption management, energy generation and application of energy efficiency measures. To be competitive on the energy market, various forms of collective citizen collaborations are needed and to encourage people to participate in those, they have to be further educated so that the energy sector transition can succeed. The expected road transportation electrification posts further challenges on the energy sector. Horizontal connection of more EU policies, climate-energy, circular economy, digital agenda shows that a holistic approach is needed for the transition into a new, resource and energy more efficient, society.(author).

  8. Energy monitoring system based on human activity in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fareq

    2015-05-01

    Human behaviors always related to day routine activities in a smart house directly give the significant factor to manage energy usage in human life. An Addition that, the factor will contribute to the best efficiency of the system. This paper will focus on the monitoring efficiency based on duration time in office hours around 8am until 5pm which depend on human behavior at working place. Besides that, the correlation coefficient method is used to show the relation between energy consumption and energy saving based on the total hours of time energy spent. In future, the percentages of energy monitoring system usage will be increase to manage energy saving based on human behaviors. This scenario will help to see the human activity in the workplace in order to get the energy saving and support world green environment.

  9. Gaining Proficiency through Task-Based Activities in the Portuguese Classroom (Beginning and Intermediate Year Case Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Kellogg, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a task-based activity used at the United States Military Academy, in their first- through third-semester Portuguese language sequence "Proficiencies" (Proficiências). The stand-alone task-based activity can be an effective tool in gaining foreign-language proficiency at even the lowest levels of classroom instruction…

  10. Myelotoxicity after high-dose methotrexate in childhood acute leukemia is influenced by 6-mercaptopurine dosing but not by intermediate thiopurine methyltransferase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Rosthøj, Susanne; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Through enhancement of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) bioavailability and inhibition of purine de novo synthesis, high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) may increase incorporation into DNA of 6-thioguanine nucleotides, the cytotoxic metabolites of 6MP. Patients with intermediate activity of thiopurine...... methyltransferase (TPMTIA) have higher cytosol 6-thioguanine nucleotide levels. We investigated toxicity following HD-MTX during MTX/6MP maintenance therapy in relation to 6MP and TPMT. Methods: Using linear mixed models, we explored myelo- and hepatotoxicity in relation to 6MP dosage and TPMT phenotype following 1......,749 HD-MTX courses to 411 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on maintenance therapy. Results: The degree of myelosuppression following HD-MTX was similar for patients with TPMTIA and patients with high TPMT activity (TPMTHA), when HD-MTX started with same blood counts and 6MP doses. However...

  11. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2006 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  12. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...

  13. Nuclear Energy Agency. 6. activity report. 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    NEA has, as a primary objective, to ensure through international co-operation that the nuclear option is available for consideration in its true worth. The safety and regulatory aspects of nulear development have represented in 1977 about two thirds of NEA's total effort; and a high degree of priority was given to questions of nuclear safety and of radioactive waste management. Similarly, the growing need of Member countries for an integrated appraisal of technical, economic, safety, environmental and political questions influencing the nuclear fuel cycle was increasingly taken into account. Finally, a general effort was made to achieve greater visibility for the positive results of the NEA programme, as a contribution to improved public understanding of the factors underlying nuclear power programmes. As in previous years, the NEA programme continued to involve close collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Within the OECD, close collaboration was maintained with the Combined Energy Staff and the Environment Directorate

  14. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  15. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  16. Energy harvesting with Di-Electro Active Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Jens; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a way of using Di-Electro Active Polymers (D-EAPs) for harvesting mechanical energy sources. The article describes the basics of energy harvesting with D-EAPs, and an electrical model of a D-EAP is suggested. This leads to a converter design which is able to extract...... the electrical energy harvested by the D-EAP. This converter is simulated and realized. Through experimental results both the model of the DEAP and the converter are verified. It is found that it is possible to harvest energy with a D-EAP and build a converter that can extract the harvested energy....

  17. Plasma Renin Activity in Children with Protein Energy Malnutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    renin activity was significantly increased in children with kwashiorkor; and also that the activity was significantly higher in the patients who subsequently died in hospital, than in those who survived. Increased renin activity probably contributes to the retention of water characteris- tic of protein energy malnutrition. 5. Afr. Med.

  18. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2007. Network of solar energy professionals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2007 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  19. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2008. Acting for solar energy promotion and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2008 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of tigecycline against clinical isolates of Linezolid-Intermediate (LIE and Linezolid-Resistant Enterococci (LRE by time-kill assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Enck Sambrano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enterococci have become the third major leading cause of nosocomial bacteraemia, an infection which is significantly associated with the risk of developing infective endocarditis. Linezolid provides high rates of clinical cure and microbiologic success in complicated infections due to Enterococcus spp. However, several instances of emergence of resistance during linezolid treatment have been reported. The aim of this study was evaluate the activity of tigecycline against Linezolid-Intermediate (LIE and Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (LRE by the time-kill assay. Methods: Five isolates of LRE and two isolates of LIE were used in this study. MICs were determined by broth dilution following the CLSI (2014 guidelines. Time-kill assay was employed to access the in vitro response profile of tigecycline. Results: All seven of the isolates presented MIC of 0.125μg/mL. Tigecycline activity was individually evaluated and in three of the five isolates of LRE it presented bactericidal. Against the other isolates, tigecycline showed bacteriostatic activity. The tigecycline activity was measured according to CLSI criteria. Conclusions: Tigecycline presented both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against tested isolates, result not yet described in previous studies. Time and concentrations above MIC were key factors to achieving bactericidal effect. MIC and the tested concentration below it resulted in bacteriostatical effect to enterococci, corroborating previous data.

  1. A study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) leaf extract and its main cucurbitacins against the mollusc Galba truncatula, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawech, Rachid; Njeh, Fatma; Hamed, Nejia; Damak, Mohamed; Ayadi, Ali; Hammami, Hayet; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha

    2017-07-01

    The molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of the medicinal plant Citrullus colocynthis leaf extracts and its main cucurbitacins were tested against the mollusc gastropod Galba truncatula, the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. Our findings proved for the first time that the molluscicidal activity was correlated with the presence of terpenoids. A significant molluscicidal value was found in the ethyl acetate extract (LC50 = 12.6 mg L -1 ). Further fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of two main compounds identified to cucurbitacin E 1 and 2-O-β-d-glucocucurbitacin E 2. Their molluscicidal activities were also investigated and they possessed close activities with LC 50 = 9.55 and 10.61 mg L -1 for compounds 2 and 1, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract and both pure compounds proved the highest larvicidal activities, with a deterioration rate exceeding 89.2% (89.2-100%) and with no toxic effects against associated fauna. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 3. Activity report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The main activities of the Agency are reviewed: study of nuclear power trends; regulatory aspects of nuclear power; technical developments: Eurochemic, Halden, Dragon, food irradiation, gas-cooled fast reactors, direct conversion, isotopic batteries; nuclear energy information

  3. Energy cost of activities in preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute energy cost of activities in children increase with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cos...

  4. Wind Turbine Control with Active Damage Reduction through Energy Dissipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Wisniewski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an active damage reduction control strategy for wind turbines based on dissipated energy. To this end we rely on the equivalences relating both damage in the rainflow counting sense and dissipated energy to the variations of Preisach hysteresis operators. Since dissipation

  5. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Poust

    Full Text Available Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. The ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.

  6. Molluscicidal activities of medicinal plants from eastern China against Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-xing Han

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In a search for natural products that could be used to control schistosomiasis, nineteen extracts of eleven medicinal plants from eastern China have been tested for molluscicidal activity against snail Oncomelania hupensis. The n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from Buddleja lindleyana Fortune, Buddlejaceae, showed significant activity against the snails. Statistical analysis revealed that the LC50 and LC90 values for the n-butanol fraction were 39.91 mg L-1 and 59.28 mg L-1 for 48 h, respectively. Otherwise, the LC50 values for the n-butanol fraction to zebrafish was 403.24 mg L-1 for 48 h. Therefore, the n-butanol fraction of the fresh leaf from B. lindleyana may be a potent and safe molluscicides.

  7. Technical dialogue on High-level and Intermediate-level wastes. Risks during exploitation: co-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Demet, Michel; Jaquet, Benoit; Gueritte, Michel; Rollinger, Francois; Le Bars, Igor; Bauduin, Eloi; Flachet, Margot; Besnus, Francois; Espivent, Camille; Tichauer, Michael; Serres, Christophe; Rocher, Muriel; Michel, Maurice; Perroud, Geraldine; Sauvage, Marite; Stupien, Maurice; Delamare, Thierry; Klajman, Irene; Castel, Cecile; Makhijani, Arjun; Pellegrini, Delphine; Dessaint, Anthony; Proust, Christophe; Gratton, Laura; Vinot, Thierry; Michel, Maurice; Demet, Michel

    2015-04-01

    This publication contains contributions and the content of debates on these contributions. After introduction speeches, a contribution on safety challenges during exploitation, and an overview of questions asked about these risks by the Citizen Conference, the following issues have been addressed: the accident of the American Isolation Pilot Plant with a fire and a radioactive release in 2014 (facts and analysis, other points of view, debate), fire risks in Cigeo as a major challenge which combines constraints related to mining activities and to the exploitation of a nuclear installation (IRSN point of view, debate), risks related to transportation, risks related to parallel surface and underground activities such as storage filling, digging, road traffic and so on (points of view of SNCF and ANDRA, debate), risk of radioactivity dispersion within Cigeo (problem description, IRSN point of view, debate), and exploitation risks within Cigeo (risks of explosion due to heat and hydrogen releases, IRSN point of view, debate)

  8. Ceftaroline Increases Membrane Binding and Enhances the Activity of Daptomycin against Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in a Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Brian J.; Sakoulas, George; Rose, Warren E.; Pogliano, Joseph; Tewhey, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    New antimicrobial agents and novel combination therapies are needed to treat serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin and vancomycin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination of ceftaroline plus daptomycin or vancomycin in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Simulations of ceftaroline-fosamil at 600 mg per kg of body weight every 8 h (q8h) (maximum free-drug concentration in serum [fCmax], 15.2 mg/liter; half-life [t1/2], 2.3 h), daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day (fCmax, 11.3 mg/liter; t1/2, 8 h), vancomycin at 2 g q12h (fCmax, 30 mg/liter; t1/2, 6 h), ceftaroline plus daptomycin, and ceftaroline plus vancomycin were evaluated against a clinical, isogenic MRSA strain pair: D592 (daptomycin susceptible and heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate) and D712 (daptomycin nonsusceptible and vancomycin intermediate) in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model over 96 h. Therapeutic enhancement of combinations was defined as ≥2 log10 CFU/ml reduction over the most active single agent. The effect of ceftaroline on the membrane charge, cell wall thickness, susceptibility to killing by the human cathelicidin LL37, and daptomycin binding were evaluated. Therapeutic enhancement was observed with daptomycin plus ceftaroline in both strains and vancomycin plus ceftaroline against D592. Ceftaroline exposure enhanced daptomycin-induced depolarization (81.7% versus 72.3%; P = 0.03) and killing by cathelicidin LL37 (P ceftaroline-exposed cells. Whole-genome sequencing and mutation analysis of these strains indicated that change in daptomycin susceptibility is related to an fmtC (mprF) mutation. The combination of daptomycin plus ceftaroline appears to be potent, with rapid and sustained bactericidal activity against both daptomycin-susceptible and -nonsusceptible strains of MRSA. PMID:23070161

  9. Risk of the different activities related to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenaglia, G.

    1983-01-01

    After recalling briefly the concept of risk and explaining the relevant terminology currently in use, the paper deals with the application of the concept of risk to the activities related to energy production. Particular emphasis is placed on the necessity of considering the entire cycle of an energy source, the different aspects that the negative consequences of an activity may entail, as well as the context, mainly territorial and socio-economical, in wich an activity is performed. Moreover the paper presents, schematically and in qualitative terms, the main risk of the different activities related to energy production. More details are given about potentially dangerous activities, nowdays emerging, like -for example- transportation and storage of flammable liquids, whether refrigerated or not. Finally, the difficulties of comparing risks having different probabilities and consequences are considered, as well as the meaning to be assigned, in any case, to comparison among riks [fr

  10. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  11. Energy Harvesting Cycles of Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Energy harvesting via Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has attracted much of the scientific interest over the past few years, mainly due to the advantages that these smart materials offer against competing technologies, as electromagnetic generators and piezoelectrics. Their hig......Energy harvesting via Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has attracted much of the scientific interest over the past few years, mainly due to the advantages that these smart materials offer against competing technologies, as electromagnetic generators and piezoelectrics....... Their higher energy density, superior low-speed performance, light-weighted nature as well as their shapely structure have rendered DEAPs candidate solutions for various actuation and energy harvesting applications. In this paper, a thoroughly analysis of all energy harvesting operational cycles of a DEAP...

  12. Upregulation of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCNN4 in porcine coronary smooth muscle requires NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope K A Gole

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase (NOX is the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC and is proposed to play a key role in redox signaling involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Growth factors and cytokines stimulate coronary SMC (CSMC phenotypic modulation, proliferation, and migration during atherosclerotic plaque development and restenosis. We previously demonstrated that increased expression and activity of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels (KCNN4 is necessary for CSMC phenotypic modulation and progression of stenotic lesions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether NOX is required for KCNN4 upregulation induced by mitogenic growth factors.Dihydroethidium micro-fluorography in porcine CSMCs demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF increased superoxide production, which was blocked by the NOX inhibitor apocynin (Apo. Apo also blocked bFGF-induced increases in KCNN4 mRNA levels in both right coronary artery sections and CSMCs. Similarly, immunohistochemistry and whole cell voltage clamp showed bFGF-induced increases in CSMC KCNN4 protein expression and channel activity were abolished by Apo. Treatment with Apo also inhibited bFGF-induced increases in activator protein-1 promoter activity, as measured by luciferase activity assay. qRT-PCR demonstrated porcine coronary smooth muscle expression of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5 isoforms. Knockdown of NOX5 alone prevented both bFGF-induced upregulation of KCNN4 mRNA and CSMC migration.Our findings provide novel evidence that NOX5-derived ROS increase functional expression of KCNN4 through activator protein-1, providing another potential link between NOX, CSMC phenotypic modulation, and atherosclerosis.

  13. Sampangine (a Copyrine Alkaloid) Exerts Biological Activities through Cellular Redox Cycling of Its Quinone and Semiquinone Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Fakhri; Morgan, J Brian; Liu, Wenlong; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Jekabsons, Mika B; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2015-12-24

    The cananga tree alkaloid sampangine (1) has been extensively investigated for its antimicrobial and antitumor potential. Mechanistic studies have linked its biological activities to the reduction of cellular oxygen, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and alterations in heme biosynthesis. Based on the yeast gene deletion library screening results that indicated mitochondrial gene deletions enhanced the sensitivity to 1, the effects of 1 on cellular respiration were examined. Sampangine increased oxygen consumption rates in both yeast and human tumor cells. Mechanistic investigation indicated that 1 may have a modest uncoupling effect, but predominately acts by increasing oxygen consumption independent of mitochondrial complex IV. Sampangine thus appears to undergo redox cycling that may involve respiratory chain-dependent reduction to a semi-iminoquinone followed by oxidation and consequent superoxide production. Relatively high concentrations of 1 showed significant neurotoxicity in studies conducted with rat cerebellar granule neurons, indicating that sampangine use may be associated with potential neurotoxicity.

  14. In vivo detection of brain Krebs cycle intermediate by hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkovsky Mor; Comment Arnaud; Gruetter Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo. This study reports the first direct in vivo observation of a TCA cycle intermediate in intact brain, namely, 2-oxoglutarate, a key biomolecule connecting metabolism to neuronal activity. Our observation reveals important information about in vivo biochemical processes hitherto considered undet...

  15. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  16. An intermediate level of CD161 expression defines a novel activated, inflammatory, and pathogenic subset of CD8+ T cells involved in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Bryan; Salou, Marion; Vogel, Isabel; Garcia, Alexandra; Dugast, Emilie; Morille, Jeremy; Kilens, Stéphanie; Charpentier, Eric; Donnart, Audrey; Nedellec, Steven; Jacq-Foucher, Marylène; Le Frère, Fabienne; Wiertlewski, Sandrine; Bourreille, Arnaud; Brouard, Sophie; Michel, Laure; David, Laurent; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Degauque, Nicolas; Nicot, Arnaud B; Berthelot, Laureline; Laplaud, David-Axel

    2018-03-01

    Several lines of evidence support a key role for CD8 + T cells in central nervous system tissue damage of patients with multiple sclerosis. However, the precise phenotype of the circulating CD8 + T cells that may be recruited from the peripheral blood to invade the CNS remains largely undefined to date. It has been suggested that IL-17 secreting CD8 (Tc17) T cells may be involved, and in humans these cells are characterized by the expression of CD161. We focused our study on a unique and recently described subset of CD8 T cells characterized by an intermediate expression of CD161 as its role in neuroinflammation has not been investigated to date. The frequency, phenotype, and function of CD8 + T cells with an intermediate CD161 expression level were characterized ex-vivo, in vitro, and in situ using RNAseq, RT-PCR, flow cytometry, TCR sequencing, and immunohistofluorescence of cells derived from healthy volunteers (n = 61), MS subjects (n = 90), as well as inflammatory (n = 15) and non-inflammatory controls (n = 6). We report here that CD8 + CD161 int T cells present characteristics of effector cells, up-regulate cell-adhesion molecules and have an increased ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and to secrete IL-17, IFNγ, GM-CSF, and IL-22. We further demonstrate that these cells are recruited and enriched in the CNS of MS subjects where they produce IL-17. In the peripheral blood, RNAseq, RT-PCR, high-throughput TCR repertoire analyses, and flow cytometry confirmed an increased effector and transmigration pattern of these cells in MS patients, with the presence of supernumerary clones compared to healthy controls. Our data demonstrate that intermediate levels of CD161 expression identifies activated and effector CD8 + T cells with pathogenic properties that are recruited to MS lesions. This suggests that CD161 may represent a biomarker and a valid target for the treatment of neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  17. Enzyme activation through the utilization of intrinsic dianion binding energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyes, T L; Malabanan, M M; Zhai, X; Reyes, A C; Richard, J P

    2017-03-01

    We consider 'the proposition that the intrinsic binding energy that results from the noncovalent interaction of a specific substrate with the active site of the enzyme is considerably larger than is generally believed. An important part of this binding energy may be utilized to provide the driving force for catalysis, so that the observed binding energy represents only what is left over after this utilization' [Jencks,W.P. (1975) Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas. Mol. Biol. , , 219-410]. The large ~12 kcal/mol intrinsic substrate phosphodianion binding energy for reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is divided into 4-6 kcal/mol binding energy that is expressed on the formation of the Michaelis complex in anchoring substrates to the respective enzyme, and 6-8 kcal/mol binding energy that is specifically expressed at the transition state in activating the respective enzymes for catalysis. A structure-based mechanism is described where the dianion binding energy drives a conformational change that activates these enzymes for catalysis. Phosphite dianion plays the active role of holding TIM in a high-energy closed active form, but acts as passive spectator in showing no effect on transition-state structure. The result of studies on mutant enzymes is presented, which support the proposal that the dianion-driven enzyme conformational change plays a role in enhancing the basicity of side chain of E167, the catalytic base, by clamping the base between a pair of hydrophobic side chains. The insight these results provide into the architecture of enzyme active sites and the development of strategies for the de novo design of protein catalysts is discussed.

  18. Gibbs Free Energy of Hydrolytic Water Molecule in Acyl-Enzyme Intermediates of a Serine Protease: A Potential Application for Computer-Aided Discovery of Mechanism-Based Reversible Covalent Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yosuke; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the potencies of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors, the relationships between calculated Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule in acyl-trypsin intermediates and experimentally measured catalytic rate constants (k cat ) were investigated. After obtaining representative solution structures by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, hydration thermodynamics analyses using WaterMap™ were conducted. Consequently, we found for the first time that when Gibbs free energy of the hydrolytic water molecule was lower, logarithms of k cat were also lower. The hydrolytic water molecule with favorable Gibbs free energy may hydrolyze acylated serine slowly. Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule might be a useful descriptor for computer-aided discovery of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors of hydrolytic enzymes.

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency highlights of activities. 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The IAEA activities are outlined in the following areas: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, comparative assessment of energy sources, IAEA laboratories, research and technical cooperation, food and agriculture, human health, industry and earth sciences, physical and chemical sciences, safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, safeguards and non-proliferation activities, public and technical information

  20. Assessment of the physical activity, body mass index and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human ...

  1. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Soria Morillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy.

  2. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  3. Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weelden, Susanne W H; Fast, Beate; Vogt, Achim; van der Meer, Pieter; Saas, Joachim; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Boshart, Michael

    2003-04-11

    The importance of a functional Krebs cycle for energy generation in the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated under physiological conditions during logarithmic phase growth of a pleomorphic parasite strain. Wild type procyclic cells and mutants with targeted deletion of the gene coding for aconitase were derived by synchronous in vitro differentiation from wild type and mutant (Delta aco::NEO/Delta aco::HYG) bloodstream stage parasites, respectively, where aconitase is not expressed and is dispensable. No differences in intracellular levels of glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates were found in procyclic wild type and mutant cells, except for citrate that accumulated up to 90-fold in the mutants, confirming the absence of aconitase activity. Surprisingly, deletion of aconitase did not change differentiation nor the growth rate or the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio in those cells. Metabolic studies using radioactively labeled substrates and NMR analysis demonstrated that glucose and proline were not degraded via the Krebs cycle to CO(2). Instead, glucose was degraded to acetate, succinate, and alanine, whereas proline was degraded to succinate. Importantly, there was absolutely no difference in the metabolic products released by wild type and aconitase knockout parasites, and both were for survival strictly dependent on respiration via the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Hence, although the Krebs cycle enzymes are present, procyclic T. brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation, but the mitochondrial respiratory chain is essential for survival and growth. We therefore propose a revised model of the energy metabolism of procyclic T. brucei.

  4. 2011 activity report of the national energy ombudsman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Le Tallec, Marie-Francoise; Ladoucette, Philippe de; Brottes, Francois; Bazot, Alain; Poniatowski, Ladislas; Cohen, Elsa; Loos, Francois; Lapostolet, Bertrand; Kosciusko-Morizet, Nathalie; Besson, Eric; Bellon, Michele; Aldebert, Marc; Chone, Fabien; Herve, Jean-Pierre; Roberton, Alain; Goyens, Monique; Mogg, John

    2012-01-01

    The national energy ombudsman is an independent administrative authority set up by the law of 7 December 2006 governing the liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. Consumers fund its activities by way of a fee levied on electricity bills. The national energy ombudsman is a unique mediation service in France and is the only public institution in the consumer sector to have the remit of seeking alternative settlements to disputes in accordance with European directives. The national energy ombudsman's role is to recommend solutions to disputes 'arising from the execution of supply contracts' between energy market operators and their private consumer or small business clients. The legislator has also invested the ombudsman with the remit of participating in the process of informing consumers of their rights. The ombudsman proposes straightforward and equitable solutions to disputes referred to it and formulates recommendations based on an in-depth legal and technical analysis, during which it may call for comments on the part of the stakeholders involved, within a set deadline. While its recommendations have no binding effect on operators, the latter are obliged to keep the ombudsman informed of their follow-up action within a maximum period of two months. This report summarizes the 2011 national energy ombudsman's activity in the domains of consumer protection, energy markets, Combat against energy poverty, mediation, market improvement, development of smart meters for consumers' real-time information, recommendations to the Minister of Energy etc

  5. Energy policy fundamentals research programme - Activities and projects in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Previdoli, P.

    2003-01-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities and projects carried out within the Swiss Confederation's Energy Policy Fundamentals Research programme during 2002. The programme's main centres of activity are described, including projects involving the acquisition of data on indicators of selected cantonal energy saving measures, the possibility of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by influencing fuel prices, new construction instead of refurbishment of buildings, internalisation of risks involved with nuclear power and the marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures. In the technology monitoring area, the results of studies concerning combined heat and power systems, heat pumps and fuel cells are reviewed. Further projects are described in the building and fuel supply areas and the influence of wind power on European peak power requirements is examined. Marketing aspects concerning the thermal use of solar energy and low energy consumption housing are discussed, as is the promotion of energy efficiency in housing and industry. Also local and regional efforts being made in the energy policy area are described. The report is rounded off with a list of the various projects mentioned in the report and appropriate contact information

  6. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  7. Differential and total excitation cross sections in the collision of protons with He atoms at intermediate and high energies under a three body formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fathi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  A three-body model is devised to study differential and total cross sections for the excitation of helium atom under impact of energetic protons. The actual process is a four body one but in the present model the process is simplified into a three-body one. In this model, an electron of helium atom is assumed to be inactive and only one electron of the atom is active. Therefore, the active electron is assumed to be in an atomic state with a potential of the nucleus, T, being screened by the inactive electron, e, and, thus, an effective charge of Ze. As a result, the ground state, 11S, or the excited states, 21S and 21P, wave function of the active electron is deduced from similar hydrogenic wave functions assuming effective charge, Ze for the combined nucleus (T+e. In this three-body model, the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace formalism for excitation channel is used to calculate the transition amplitude. In the first order approximation, electronic and nuclear interaction is assumed in the collision to be A(1e= and A(1n=, respectively. Here, A(1, Txy, |i> and |f> are the first order transition amplitude, the transition matrix for the interaction between particles x and y, the initial state and the final state, respectively. The transition matrix for the first order electronic interaction implemented into A(1e is approximated as the corresponding two-body interaction, Vxy. In order to calculate first order nuclear amplitude A(1n, the near-the-shell form of transition matrix TPT is used. Calculations are performed in the energy range of 50 keV up to 1MeV. The results are then compared with those of theoretical and experimental works in the literature.

  8. Targeting the Small- and Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channels: The Drug-Binding Pocket at the Channel/Calmodulin Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (SK/IK channels play important roles in the regulation of excitable cells in both the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Evidence from animal models has implicated SK/IK channels in neurological conditions such as ataxia and alcohol use disorders. Further, genome-wide association studies have suggested that cardiovascular abnormalities such as arrhythmias and hypertension are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur within the genes encoding the SK/IK channels. The Ca2+ sensitivity of the SK/IK channels stems from a constitutively bound Ca2+-binding protein: calmodulin. Small-molecule positive modulators of SK/IK channels have been developed over the past decade, and recent structural studies have revealed that the binding pocket of these positive modulators is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. SK/IK channel positive modulators can potentiate channel activity by enhancing the coupling between Ca2+ sensing via calmodulin and mechanical opening of the channel. Here, we review binding pocket studies that have provided structural insight into the mechanism of action for SK/IK channel positive modulators. These studies lay the foundation for structure-based drug discovery efforts that can identify novel SK/IK channel positive modulators. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-02-01

    Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pavan K; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply.

  11. Cellular Links Between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan K Shetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function. Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (ie, development and aging and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste byproducts. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply.

  12. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  13. [Globule size and the activation energy of an enzymatic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtalik, L I

    1979-01-01

    The charge transfer reactions demand the polar medium reorganization the main part in the process energy being contributed by solvent reorganization. Protein globule excludes a part of the solvent from the interaction with the charge being transfered. Thus a strong decrease of the reorganization energy and hence of the activation energy is achieved (the gain of some kcal/mole). The effect rises at first rapidly with the globule radius but it becomes practically constant after some optimal radius is reached. The estimation of the optimal radius gives values of the order of magnitude of the enzymes molecule sizes.

  14. Statistical and off-equilibrium production of fragments in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies; Production statistique et hors-equilibre de fragments dans les collisions d`ions lourdes aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocage, Frederic [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-12-15

    The study of reaction products, fragments and light charged particles, emitted during heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies has shown the dominant binary dissipative character of the reaction, which is persisting for almost all impact parameters. However, in comparison with this purely binary process, an excess of nuclear matter is observed in-between the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. To understand the mechanisms producing such an excess, this work studies more precisely the breakup in two fragments of the quasi-projectile formed in Xe+Sn, from 25 to 50 MeV/u, and Gd+C and Gd+U at 36 MeV/u. The data were obtained during the first INDRA experiment at GANIL. The angular distributions of the two fragments show the competition between statistical fission and non-equilibrated breakup of the quasi-projectile. In the second case, the two fragments are aligned along the separation axis of the two primary partners. The comparison of the fission directions and probabilities with statistical models allows us to measure the fission time, as well as the angular momentum, temperature and size of the fissioning residue. The relative velocities are compatible with Coulomb and thermal effects in the case of statistical fission and are found much higher for the breakup of a non-equilibrated quasi-projectile, which indicates that the projectile was deformed during interaction with the target. Such deformations should be compared with dynamical calculations in order to constrain the viscosity of nuclear matter and the parameters of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, (author) 148 refs., 77 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. TRADING ACTIVITY AND PRICES IN ENERGY FUTURES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ates

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine trading activity and the relationship between futures trading activity by trader type and energy price movements in three energy futures markets –natural gas, crude oil and heating oil. We find that the level of net positions of speculators are positively related to future returns and in contrast net positions of hedgers are negatively related to futures price changes in all three markets. The changes in net positions are relatively more informative compare to the level of net positions in predicting price changes in related markets.

  16. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  17. Evidence for the Inhibition by Temozolomide, an Imidazotetrazine Family Alkylator, of Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels in Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-Shiow Yeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Temozolomide (TMZ, an oral alkylator of the imidazotetrazine family, is used to treat glioma. Whether this drug has any ionic effects in glioma cells remains largely unclear. Methods: With the aid of patch-clamp technology, we investigated the effects of TMZ on the ionic currents in U373 glioma cells. The mRNA expression of KCNN4 (KCa3.1 in U373 glioma cells and TMZ's effect on K+ currents in these KCNN4 siRNA-transfected U373 cells were investigated. Results: In whole-cell recordings, TMZ decreased the amplitude of voltage-dependent K+ currents (IK in U373 cells. TMZ-induced IK inhibition was reversed by ionomycin or 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO. In cell-attached configuration, TMZ concentration-dependently reduced the activity of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IKCa channels with an IC50 value of 9.2 µM. Chlorzoxazone or 1-EBIO counteracted the TMZ-induced inhibition of IKCa channels. Although TMZ was unable to modify single-channel conductance, its inhibition of IKCa channels was weakly voltage-dependent and accompanied by a significant prolongation in the slow component of mean closed time. However, neitherlarge-conductance Ca2+-activated (BKCa nor inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir channels were affected by TMZ. In current-clamp mode, TMZ depolarized the cell membrane and 1-EBIO reversed TMZ-induced depolarization. TMZ had no effect on IK in KCNN4 siRNA-transfected U373 cells. Conclusion: In addition to the DNA damage it does, its inhibitory effect on IKCa channels accompanied by membrane depolarization could be an important mechanism underlying TMZ-induced antineoplastic actions.

  18. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  19. Tracking Photospheric Energy Transport in Active Regions with SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attié, R.; Thompson, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    The solar photosphere presents flow fields at all observable scales. Where energy-bearing magnetic active regions break through the photosphere these flows are particularly strong, as sheared and twisted magnetic fields come into equilibrium with their surroundings while transporting magnetic energy into the corona. A part of this magnetic energy - the so-called `free energy' stored in the magnetic field in the form of "twisted" and shear of the field - is released in flares and eruptions. We can quantify the energy arrival and build-up in the corona by tracking flow fields and magnetic features at the photosphere as magnetic flux emerges and evolves before and after a flare or eruption.To do this reliably requires two things: a long series of photospheric observations at high sensitivity, spatial and temporal resolution, and an efficient, reliable and robust framework that tracks the photospheric plasma flows and magnetic evolution in both the quiet sun and active regions. SDO/HMI provides the observations, and we present here an innovative high resolution tracking framework that involves the `Balltracking' and `Magnetic Balltracking' algorithms. We show the first results of a systematic, quantitative and comprehensive measurements of the flows and transport of magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere and investigate whether this dynamic view can improve predictions of flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).

  20. Enhancement of waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion by means of pre- and intermediate treatments. Technical and economic analysis at a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Giuseppe; Cerutti, Alberto; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Scibilia, Gerardo; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Ruffino, Barbara

    2017-05-16

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments. The efficacy of post- and inter-stage treatments is currently under consideration to overcome the problems due to this unavoidable byproduct. This work compares three scenarios in which low-temperature (WWTP, 2,000,000 p.e.). It was demonstrated that the introduction of thermal or hybrid pre-treatments could increase the revenues from the electricity sale by between 13% and 25%, in comparison with the present scenario (no lysis treatments). Conversely, intermediate treatments on a 7-day digestate could provide a gain of 26% or 32%, depending on the process temperature (70 or 90 °C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  2. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  3. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets, Natural gas

  4. 1996 Activities report on energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity survey of the French General Directory for Energy and Raw Materials, which main objectives are to preserve the competitiveness of French economy, enhance environmental protection, secure the long term supply safety and maintain the public service basis for energy supply, is presented. The main themes of the survey are: the nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the electric power inland market, the evolution of the oil market in 1996, the situation of refining in France, restructuring the BRGM (Mining and Geological Research Bureau), followed by brief facts concerning the sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power, electricity and gas common issues, gas, coal, petroleum products, raw materials and underground materials. A series of global diagrams concludes the survey

  5. Application of Indenting Method for Calculation of Activation Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog; Kim, Tae-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    For the calculation of activation energy of cable materials, we used to apply the break-elongation test in accordance with ASTM D412(Stand Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension). For the cable jacket and insulation which have regular thickness, break-elongation test had been preferred since it showed linear character in the activation energy curve. But, for the cable which has irregular thickness or rugged surface of cable inside, break-elongation test show scattered data which can not be used for the calculation of activation energy. It is not easy to prepare break-elongation specimen for the cable smaller than 13mm diameter in accordance with ASTM D412. In the cases of above, we sometime use TGA method which heat the specimen from 50 .deg. C to 700 .deg. C at heating rates of 10, 15, 20 .deg. C/min. But, TGA is suspected for the representative of natural aging in the plant since it measure the weight decreasing rate during burning which may have different aging mechanism with that of natural aging. To solve above problems, we investigated alternatives such as indenter test. Indenter test is very convenient since it does not ask for a special test specimen as the break-elongation test does. Regular surface of cable outside is the only requirement of indenter test. Experience of activation energy calculation by using the indenter test is described herein

  6. Electrodeposited Magnesium Nanoparticles Linking Particle Size to Activation Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of hydrogen absorption/desorption can be improved by decreasing particle size down to a few nanometres. However, the associated evolution of activation energy remains unclear. In an attempt to clarify such an evolution with respect to particle size, we electrochemically deposited Mg nanoparticles on a catalytic nickel and noncatalytic titanium substrate. At a short deposition time of 1 h, magnesium particles with a size of 68 ± 11 nm could be formed on the nickel substrate, whereas longer deposition times led to much larger particles of 421 ± 70 nm. Evaluation of the hydrogen desorption properties of the deposited magnesium nanoparticles confirmed the effectiveness of the nickel substrate in facilitating the recombination of hydrogen, but also a significant decrease in activation energy from 56.1 to 37.8 kJ·mol−1 H2 as particle size decreased from 421 ± 70 to 68 ± 11 nm. Hence, the activation energy was found to be intrinsically linked to magnesium particle size. Such a reduction in activation energy was associated with the decrease of path lengths for hydrogen diffusion at the desorbing MgH2/Mg interface. Further reduction in particle size to a few nanometres to remove any barrier for hydrogen diffusion would then leave the single nucleation and growth of the magnesium phase as the only remaining rate-limiting step, assuming that the magnesium surface can effectively catalyse the dissociation/recombination of hydrogen.

  7. Socio-economic Impacts—Offshore Activities/Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Drews, Martin; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector has a strong presence in the North Sea and in the surrounding coastal areas. Commercial extraction of offshore oil and gas and related activities (exploration, transportation and distribution; pipelines; oil refining and processing) constitutes the single most important economic...

  8. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 71; Issue 6. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A comparison between MgB2, NbSe2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors. S D Kaushik V Braccini S Patnaik. Research Articles Volume 71 Issue 6 December 2008 pp 1335-1343 ...

  9. Impurity diffusion activation energies in Al from first principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonovic, D.; Sluiter, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Activation energies for vacancy-mediated impurity diffusion in face-centered-cubic aluminum have been computed ab initio for all technologically important alloying elements, as well as for most of the lanthanides. The so-called five-frequency rate model is used to establish the limiting vacancy

  10. Energy and human activity: Steps toward a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improving energy efficiency is enormous, but exploitation of this resource has slowed in recent years. This is regrettable for several reasons. First, not incorporating higher efficiency now often means passing up opportunities that will be more expensive or even impossible to implement in the future. This is especially true for long-lived capital, such as new buildings. Second, reduced research and development into new efficiency options will make it more difficult to accelerate the pace of efficiency improvements in the future. Finally, the flow of more efficient technologies to the non-OECD countries will be hindered by the slowdown in efficiency improvement in the OECD countries. Well-designed policies can help recapture the momentum that has been lost. Some key steps for stimulating more careful use of energy are: rationalize energy pricing and gradually internalize environmental externalities; improve present energy-using capital; implement energy-efficiency standards or agreements for new products and buildings; encourage higher energy efficiency in new products and buildings; promote international cooperation for R ampersand D technology transfer; adjust policies that encourage energy-intensive activities; and promote population restraint worldwide. 25 refs

  11. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  12. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Five - Limits of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fifth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication relate to understanding nature and the natural limits to growth, personal consumption practices, and the social and technological implications of rapidly depleting the world's natural resources. These materials…

  13. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  14. The Effectiveness of Using Linguistic Classroom Activities in Teaching English Language in Developing the Skills of Oral Linguistic Performance and Decision Making Skill among Third Grade Intermediate Students in Makah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Fahd Majed

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the use of certain classroom language activities in teaching English language in the development of oral linguistic performance and decision-making among intermediate third-grade students in Makah, and it revealed a statistically significant correlation relationship between the averages of the study…

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  16. Pion interactions at medium energies. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978. [Summaries of research activities at the University of Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, B.W. II; Hungerford, E.V. III

    1978-09-01

    This report covers the intermediate energy research activity of the University of Houston group during the contract year December 1, 1977 to November 30, 1978. During this period, experiments have been undertaken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). New experiments have been approved and others completed and published. At the present time approximately one half of the research effort of this group is expended in kaon-nucleus problems involving the spectroscopy of hypernuclei and the elastic and inelastic scattering of kaons. The remaining half of the research effort is devoted to the determination of the elastic and inelastic amplitudes in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate energies. The latter activity is interesting due to the strong spin dependence and possible dibaryon resonances that are observed. A list of publications is included.

  17. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3 C/C ) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3 C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3 C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms

  18. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3C/C) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms. PMID:25089666

  19. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camporeale, Annalisa, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Demaria, Marco [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Monteleone, Emanuele [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Giorgi, Carlotta [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Wieckowski, Mariusz R. [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Pasteur Str. 3, Warsaw 02-093 (Poland); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Poli, Valeria, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3{sup C/C}) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms.

  20. Comparison of the Reaction 4He( p,2p)3H at intermediate energies with the distorted-wave impulse approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Simone, J.; Hasell, D.K.; Koene, B.K.S.; Murdoch, B.T.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Cameron, J.M.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Moss, G.A.; Rogers, J.G.; Stetz, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    The 4 He( p,2p) 3 H reaction has been measured at 250, 350, and 500 MeV using symmetric geometries. The energy dependence of the cross section at zero recoil momentum and angular distributions are presented. The data are compared to distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA) calculations. Unlike at lower energies, the zero-recoil-momentum data are well described by the DWIA at these energies. For the angular distributions, the DWIA increasingly underestimates the data as the recoil momentum is increased

  1. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  2. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  3. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  4. Climate change impacts on chosen activities from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The present work, results of a study carried out about the possible impact of climate change on the energy sector in the province Camaguey are shown. First of all, the main activities in companies, utilities, and farms related to the most significant energy consumption were chosen in order to model corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. Impacts were determined taking into account differences between present and future consumptions for each kind of energy. In developed countries, this kind of work is done using well-known empirical-statistical models, which usually require a lot of data at a nation-wide scale, but to attempt it in an undeveloped country demands the use of specific methodology, which in this case was non-existent and required us to create it. This resulted in a carefully posed question since we had to take into consideration that the spatial scale is only that of a province, and so it was necessary, above all, to study specific characteristics of provincial fuel consumption. We used the Magic-Scengen system and SRES scenarios, and outputs of general circulation models like HadCM2 to obtain values of chosen climatic variables for use in energy consumption regression models, previously developed for each kind of activity in the corresponding companies, firm, and facilities included in the present research. It made possible to estimate energy consumption in each activity at the selected time periods centered at 2020, 2050, and 2080. The study shows that impact could rise the consumption by 2,5% of the present energy level in this territory

  5. Atomic energy PR activities in Mitsubishi Electric Corp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. began the research on the peaceful utilization of atomic energy at the beginning of 1955, and while obtaining the technical introduction and aid from Westinghouse of USA, it energetically promoted the domestic production of instrumentation and control systems which are important for the operation and control of nuclear power plants, thus established the independent technology. As the results, the electric facilities such as turbogenerators, transformers and GIS and instrumentation and control systems of 17 PWR power plants in operation and 6 plants under construction were mostly delivered by Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Atomic Energy PR Committee was organized in this company in July, 1988, and the basic policy of the PR activities is those for promoting the correct under-standing and recognition of the necessity and safety of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle for the employees and their families of the associated companies and the cooperation with the PR activities of the government and electric power companies. The Publication of PR bulletins, the making of large posters for atomic energy PR, the inspection tours to atomic energy facilities, the training of persons concerned and so on have been carried out as the concrete activities. The PR policy for the future is shown. (K.I.)

  6. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate Package, Infringement

  7. Energy utilization associated with regular activity breaks and continuous physical activity: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenemor, S P; Homer, A R; Perry, T L; Skeaff, C M; Peddie, M C; Rehrer, N J

    2018-02-13

    To quantify and compare energy utilization associated with prolonged sitting alone, or interrupted with regular activity breaks and/or an additional bout of continuous physical activity. Thirty six adults (11 males, BMI 24.1 ± 4.6) completed four interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with 2-min of walking every 30 min (RAB), (3) prolonged sitting with 30-min of continuous walking at the end of the day (SIT + PA), (4) a combination of the activities in (2) and (3) above (RAB + PA). All walking was at a speed and incline corresponding to 60% V̇O 2max . Energy utilization over 7 h for each intervention was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Compared to SIT, SIT + PA increased total energy utilization by 709 kJ (95% CI 485-933 kJ), RAB by 863 kJ (95% CI 638-1088 kJ), and RAB + PA by 1752 kJ (95% CI 1527-1927 kJ) (all p energy utilization between SIT + PA and RAB, however, post-physical activity energy utilization in RAB was 632 kJ greater than SIT + PA (95% CI 561-704 kJ; p energy utilization compared to a single bout of continuous activity; however the total energy utilization is similar. Combining activity breaks with a longer continuous bout of activity will further enhance energy utilization, and in the longer term, may positively affect weight management of a greater magnitude than either activity pattern performed alone. ANZCTR12614000624684. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Prader–Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G.; Theodoro, Mariana F.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, suck and feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, small hands and feet, developmental delay, hyperphagia and early childhood obesity and a particular facial appearance. The obesity associated with PWS is the result of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) due to hyperphagia, decreased physical activity, reduced metabolic rate and an inability to vomit. EE is affected by body composition as well as exercise. Individuals with PWS have a lower lean body mass (LBM) compared with controls which may contribute to reduced basal level EE. To determine the relationship among body composition, activity levels and metabolic rates, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and a whole-room respiration chamber were used to measure body composition, total EE (TEE), resting EE (REE), physical activity, and mechanical work (MW) during an 8 hr monitoring period. The chamber consisted of a live-in whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform floor to allow simultaneous measurement of EE, physical activity, and work efficiency during spontaneous activities and standardized exercise. Participants with PWS (27 with 15q11–q13 deletion and 21 with maternal disomy 15 with an average age of 23 years) had significantly decreased TEE by 20% and reduced LBM compared to 24 obese subjects. Similarly, REE was significantly reduced by 16% in the individuals with PWS relative to the comparison subjects. Total MW performed during the 8 hr monitoring period was significantly reduced by 35% in the PWS group. The energy cost of physical activity is related to the duration, intensity and type of activity and the metabolic efficiency of the individual. After adjusting group differences in LBM by analysis of variance, TEE and REE were no longer different between the two groups. Our data indicate that there is a significant reduction of EE in individuals with PWS

  9. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  10. Adolescent girls' energy expenditure during dance simulation active computer gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha G; Niven, Alisa; Thin, Alasdair G; Macdonald, Mhairi J; Oakes, Jemma R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy expended and intensity of physical activity achieved by adolescent girls while playing on a dance simulation game. Twenty adolescent girls were recruited from a local secondary school. Resting oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and heart rate were analysed while sitting quietly and subsequently during approximately 30 min of game play, with 10 min at each of three increasing levels of difficulty. Energy expenditure was predicted from VO(2) at rest and during game play at three levels of play, from which the metabolic equivalents (METS) of game playing were derived. Mean +/- standard deviation energy expenditure for levels 1, 2, and 3 was 3.63 +/- 0.58, 3.65 +/- 0.54, and 4.14 +/- 0.71 kcal . min(-1) respectively, while mean activity for each level of play was at least of moderate intensity (>3 METS). Dance simulation active computer games provide an opportunity for most adolescent girls to exercise at moderate intensity. Therefore, regular playing might contribute to daily physical activity recommendations for good health in this at-risk population.

  11. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  12. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  13. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne M; Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila A; Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Kerse, Ngaire M

    2012-12-01

    Tayl To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Cross-sectional study. University research center. Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J Paul; Michel, Martin C; Tate, Simon N; Trezise, Derek J

    2004-06-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in human tissues and their cellular localisation in samples of colon and corpus cavernosum. SK1 mRNA was detected almost exclusively in neuronal tissues. SK2 mRNA distribution was restricted but more widespread than SK1, and was detected in adrenal gland, brain, prostate, bladder, liver and heart. SK3 mRNA was detected in almost every tissue examined. It was highly expressed in brain and in smooth muscle-rich tissues including the clitoris and the corpus cavernosum, and expression in the corpus cavernosum was upregulated up to 5-fold in patients undergoing sex-change operations. IK1 mRNA was present in surface-rich, secretory and inflammatory cell-rich tissues, highest in the trachea, prostate, placenta and salivary glands. In detailed immunohistochemical studies of the colon and the corpus cavernosum, SK1-like immunoreactivity was observed in the enteric neurons. SK3-like immunoreactivity was observed strongly in smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. IK1-like immunoreactivity was mainly observed in inflammatory cells and enteric neurons of the colon, but absent in corpus cavernosum. These distinctive patterns of distribution suggest that these channels are likely to have different biological functions and could be specifically targeted for a number of human diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension and erectile dysfunction.

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant enzymes activities and identification of intermediate products during phytoremediation of an anionic dye (C.I. Acid Blue 92) by pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Fatemeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Khataee, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    The potential of pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris) for phytoremediation of C.I. Acid Blue 92 (AB92) was evaluated. The effects of various experimental parameters including pH, temperature, dye concentration and plant weight on dye removal efficiency were investigated. The results showed that the optimal condition for dye removal were pH 3.5 and temperature 25 degree C. Moreover, the absolute dye removal enhanced with increase in the initial dye concentration and plant weight. Pennywort showed the same removal efficiency in repeated experiments (four runs) as that obtained from the first run (a 6-day period). Therefore, the ability of the plant in consecutive removal of AB92 confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. The effect of treatment on photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in plant roots and leaves were evaluated. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content under dye treatments. Antioxidant enzyme responses showed marked variations with respect to the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activity under AB92 stress in the roots was much higher than that in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in malondialdehyde content was detected in roots or leaves, implying that the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species. Based on these results, pennywort was founded to be a capable species for phytoremediation of AB92-contaminated water, may be effective for phytoremediation dye-contaminated polluted aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Employment in nuclear energy activities, 1977: a highlights report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    In spite of the uncertainties in the nuclear energy field, employment in nuclear activities increased by nearly 15 percent between July 1975 and July 1977, according to the latest Bureau of Labor Statistics survey conducted for the Department of Energy. The survey covers employment in 21 industrial sectors comprised of Government-owned facilities operated by 57 private contractors and 874 privately-owned establishments, including 21 not-for-profit institutions. Not included in the survey are employees of Federal, state, and local governments; uranium mining; construction, except for reactors; medical institutions; or educational institutions not performing work connected with the Department of Energy. Informaion is presented by type of employer, Federal region, industrial sector, and size of establishment. 6 figures, 6 tables

  17. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  18. Body Segment Kinematics and Energy Expenditure in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgit; Hartmann, Michael; Böhm, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-directed game design, it is important to know the contribution of body segments to EE. This knowledge will help to acquire a certain level of exercise intensity during active gaming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the best predictors of EE from body segment energies, acceleration, and heart rate during different game situations. EE and body segment movement of 17 subjects, aged 22.1 ± 2.5 years, were measured in two different AVGs. In randomized order, the subjects played a handheld-controlled Nintendo(®) Wii™ tennis (NWT) game and a whole body-controlled Sony EyeToy(®) waterfall (ETW) game. Body segment movement was analyzed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. From the video data, mean values of mechanical energy change and acceleration of 10 body segments were analyzed. Measured EE was significantly higher in ETW (7.8 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]) than in NWT (3.4 ± 1.0 METs). The best prediction parameter for the more intense ETW game was the energy change of the right thigh and for the less intense hand-controlled NWT game was the energy change of the upper torso. Segment acceleration was less accurate in predicting EE. The best predictors of metabolic EE were the thighs and the upper torso in whole body and handheld-controlled games, respectively. Increasing movement of these body segments would lead to higher physical activity intensity during gaming, reducing sedentary behavior.

  19. Physical activity, energy intake, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Dai, Shifan; Steffen, Lyn M; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Shah, Syed M; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear to what extent factors affecting energy balance contribute to the development of body fatness in youth. The objective of the current study was to describe the relationship of physical activity, energy intake, and sedentary behavior to BMI, fat free-mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI) in children aged 10-18 years. In the subsample studied, participants were 245 girls and 227 boys (aged > or =10 years at entry or during follow-up assessments, or aged 11-14 years at entry) followed for 4 years from entry at ages 8, 11, or 14 years. At baseline and anniversary examinations, trained interviewers used a questionnaire to assess time spent daily in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior, and energy intake (kcal/day). Sexual maturation was assessed by direct observation of pubic-hair development (Tanner Stages 1-5). Triplicate recordings of height and weight were used to estimate BMI by the standard formula (kg/m(2)); bioelectric impedance was used to estimate percent body fat for calculating FFMI and FMI (kg/m(2)). Multilevel models were used to examine the association of MVPA, energy intake, and sedentary behavior with BMI, FFMI, and FMI. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. Energy intake was unrelated to FMI or FFMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation or in any model to BMI. Sedentary behavior was unrelated to FMI in any model or to FFMI or BMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation. MVPA was inversely related to FMI. In children aged 10-18 years, MVPA was inversely associated with fat mass and with BMI. Investigations in youth of dietary intake and physical activity, including interventions to prevent or reverse overweight as represented by BMI, should address its fat and lean components and not BMI alone.

  20. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981. [Bonner Nuclear Labs. , Rice Univ. , 4/1/80-3/31/81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, G.C.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    During the contract year several results of prior LAMPF experiments were completed and prepared for publication. Progress was made in the data analysis of other experiments. Three LAMPF variable energy experiments were carried out with the polarized target PPT-VI: sigma/sub total, transverse/ (p(polarized)p(polarized)) and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) elastic scattering at 14 energies between 300 and 800 MeV, and A/sub YY/ for p(polarized)p(polarized) ..-->.. d..pi../sup +/ at a few energies. Proposals were made for future experiments: two for continued nucleon-nucleon studies and one for a search for neutrino oscillations.

  1. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  2. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.

    1990-05-01

    This program, which has been supported for twenty-four years by the Us Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of chemical activation by nuclear processes; the stereochemistry of radioactivity for solution of specific problems. This program was contributed to the training of approximately seventy scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the areas of research and chronological tabulation of the publications

  3. Definition of apparent activation energy on DTG curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Serikbayeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of sulphidation oxidized copper ores and tailings with sulfur. Defined by the apparent activation energy in the conditions of heating the mixture of substances interacting with a constant speed by differential thermogravimetry (DTG. It was established that the sulfiding may occur in a kinetic mode , since the interaction is charged, in the presence of liquid and gaseous sulfur , i.e. transport of sulfur to the surface of the mineral is not a limiting process.

  4. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy: A comparison between MgB2, NbSe2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 superconductors. S D KAUSHIK1, V BRACCINI2 and S PATNAIK1,∗. 1School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. 2CNR-INFM LAMIA, C.so, Perrone 24, 16152, ...

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1994-09-01

    The document presents the main activities of the IAEA between September 1993-September 1994 in the following fields: Nuclear power, Nuclear fuel cycle, Radioactive waste management, Comparative assessment of energy sources, IAEA laboratories, Food and agriculture, Human health, Industry and earth sciences, Radiation protection, Safety of nuclear installations, Safeguards and non-proliferation activities, Public and technical information, Research and technical co-operation. There are also given information about IAEA secretariat, organization and administration, the 1993 IAEA General Conference, IAEA Member States and IAEA Network

  6. Active Video Games and Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Bryan L; Brandt, Andrea M; Siegel, Shannon R; Wilkin, Linda D; Han, Joung-Kyue

    2008-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has increased significantly in recent years. Frequent television viewing and the playing of video games have often been linked to the high prevalence of overweight. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight children, given access to active video games, will play them at an intensity that will significantly increase energy expenditure. Twenty-three children, classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight," participated in this study. After a 10-minute baseline period in which the children watched a cartoon, the participants played the Jackie Chan Fitness Studio® (Xavix, Hong Kong) games for 30 minutes while rotating through the games as desired and resting whenever needed. Energy expenditure significantly increased from a mean at baseline of 1.15 ± 0.32 kcal/min to 4.08±1.18 kcal/min during the 30-minutes that the participants were given access to the games ( p <.001). The total energy expenditure during the 30-minute time frame was 122.30 ± 35.40 kcal. The energy expenditure varied between individuals, with a low value of 75.00 kcal to a high of 205.86 kcal. Although a modest level of energy expenditure, this level of exertion could contribute to an overall weight control program in children.

  7. Low Energy Surface Activation of Zirconia Based Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of low energy surface activation technique on the biaxial flexure strength of zirconia frameworks. Zirconia discs were prepared by cutting CAD/CAM zirconia blocks. Sintered discs were airborne particle abraded using one of the following particles: 30 μm alumina particles, 50 μm alumina particles, or modified round edges 30 μm alumina particles at low pressure. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, surface roughness, and biaxial flexure strength tests were performed (n = 20). Fractured specimens were fractographically analyzed (α = 0.05). Low energy surface activation resulted in 7% monoclinic crystallographic transformation, increasing surface roughness from 0.05 to 0.3 μm and in significant increase in biaxial flexure strength (1718 MPa) compared 30 μm (1064 MPa), 50 μm (1210 MPa), and as-sintered specimens (1150 MPa). Low energy surface activation of zirconia specimens improved the biaxial flexure strength of zirconia frameworks without creation of surface damage. Clinical implications: by controlling particle size and shape of alumina, the flexure strength of zirconia restorations could be increased usinglow pressure particle abrasion.

  8. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Diaz, M.E.; Aleman-Mateo, H.; Valencia-Julleirat, M.; Salazar, G.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  9. Measurement with a free neutron beam of absolute neutron-proton forward elastic-scattering differential cross section at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, Y.; Lugol, J.C.; Saudinos, J.

    1987-01-01

    The differential cross section in free n-p forward elastic scattering has been measured for incident neutron energies of 378, 481, 582, 683, 784, 884, and 1085 MeV and for momentum transfer 0.01 2 . The experiment used a recoil-detector ionization chamber which served at the same time as a gas target. Special care has been taken to obtain a precise absolute normalization

  10. Critical Intermediate Structure That Directs the Crystalline Texture and Surface Morphology of Organo-Lead Trihalide Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Hao-Chung; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Li, Shao-Sian; Lan, Yi-Kang; Lin, Chung-Yao; Chang, Je-Wei; Kuo, Yen-Chien; Chen, Chia-Hao; Weng, Shih-Chang; Su, Chun-Jen; Su, An-Chung; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jeng, U-Ser

    2017-10-25

    We have identified an often observed yet unresolved intermediate structure in a popular processing with dimethylformamide solutions of lead chloride and methylammonium iodide for perovskite solar cells. With subsecond time-resolved grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, supplemental with ab initio calculation, the resolved intermediate structure (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Cl 2 ·CH 3 NH 3 I features two-dimensional (2D) perovskite bilayers of zigzagged lead-halide octahedra and sandwiched CH 3 NH 3 I layers. Such intermediate structure reveals a hidden correlation between the intermediate phase and the composition of the processing solution. Most importantly, the 2D perovskite lattice of the intermediate phase is largely crystallographically aligned with the [110] planes of the three-dimensional perovskite cubic phase; consequently, with sublimation of Cl ions from the organo-lead octahedral terminal corners in prolonged annealing, the zigzagged octahedral layers of the intermediate phase can merge with the intercalated methylammonium iodide layers for templated growth of perovskite crystals. Regulated by annealing temperature and the activation energies of the intermediate and perovskite, deduced from analysis of temperature-dependent structural kinetics, the intermediate phase is found to selectively mature first and then melt along the layering direction for epitaxial conversion into perovskite crystals. The unveiled epitaxial conversion under growth kinetics controls might be general for solution-processed and intermediate-templated perovskite formation.

  11. Radiation shielding activities at the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Enrico; Vaz, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has devoted considerable effort over the years to radiation shielding issues. The issues are addressed through international working groups. These activities are carried out in close co-ordination and co-operation with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The areas of work include: basic nuclear data activities in support of radiation shielding, computer codes, shipping cask shielding applications, reactor pressure vessel dosimetry, shielding experiments database. The method of work includes organising international code comparison exercises and benchmark studies. Training courses on radiation shielding computer codes are organised regularly including hands-on experience in modelling skills. The scope of the activity covers mainly reactor shields and spent fuel transportation packages, but also fusion neutronics and in particular shielding of accelerators and irradiation facilities. (author)

  12. An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Björn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  13. Possible associations between long term anomalous geomagnetic variations, Vrancea (Romania) intermediate depths earthquakes and the solar activity for the last 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, I. A.; Moldovan, A. S.; Placinta, A. O.; Takla, E. M.; Constantin, A. P.; Popescu, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomagnetic variations associated with earthquakes are widely accepted and several anomalous geomagnetic observations have been interpreted as a result of changing rock magnetic properties under varying tectonic stress (piezomagnetic effect). During the last 15 years of geomagnetic investigations conducted in Vrancea seismogenic zone, period covering more than a complete solar cycle, the solar-terrestrial perturbations have fluctuated from very low to very large values, providing the ideal medium to observe the correlation between the long and short term geomagnetic field perturbations, solar activity and earthquakes. The October 2004 intermediate depth earthquake (Mw=6.0) offered us the opportunity to investigate possible connections between the local geomagnetic field behavior and the occurrence of moderate magnitude Vrancea earthquakes. The comparison between the geomagnetic data obtained at a station inside the epicentral zone with other remote reference stations (outside the epicenter) considers an effective technique to detect the anomalous variation of a lithospheric origin. The working data are: (i) the geomagnetic field records made at Muntele Rosu Observatory (MLR), Surlari (SUA) and/or Tihany (THY) INTERMAGNET Observatories; (ii) the seismic data for Vrancea source zone; (iii) the daily geomagnetic index from NOAA/Space Weather. The one minute and daily averaged geomagnetic data were calculated at these stations for the whole period 1996-2011. The geomagnetic components: X, Y (horizontal North-South and East-West) and Z (vertical) and the normalized vertical component (Bz/Bx and Bz/By) were used in the data analysis processes and also in the comparison of the geomagnetic data between the selected stations. Our results indicate the presence of long term anomalous variations (weeks or months) in the geomagnetic components and in the magnetic impedance at MLR Observatory (close to the epicenter) and no magnetic modifications in the SUA and THY recordings

  14. Nitrification, denitrification, and dephosphatation capability of activated sludge during co-treatment of intermediate-age landfill leachates with municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Kulbat, E; Luczkiewicz, A

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the possible use and efficacy of the co-treatment of landfill leachate (intermediate-age) with municipal wastewater. The nitrification, denitrification, and dephosphatation capability of activated sludge acclimated with a mixture of raw municipal wastewater (RWW) with gradually increasing amounts of raw landfill leachate (RLL) (from 0.5 to 5% v/v) were tested. Biochemical tests were conducted simultaneously in batch reactors (BRs). According to the obtained data, the ammonia utilization rate (AUR) was 3.68 g N/(kg volatile suspended solids (VSS)·h) for RWW, and it increased to 5.78 g N/(kg VSS·h) with the addition of 5% RLL. The nitrate utilization rate under anoxic conditions (NUR AX ) remained at a comparable level of 1.55-1.98 g N/(kg VSS·h). During the anoxic phase, both nitrate utilization and phosphorus uptake occurred, suggesting that denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) utilized N-NO 3 . With the addition of RLL, the rates of anoxic and aerobic phosphate uptake (PUR AX and PUR AE ) and phosphate release rate (PRR) decreased. The PRR was likely negatively influenced by high N-NO 3 concentrations but not completely inhibited due to the availability of a biodegradable fraction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Thus, monitoring the NH 4 -N load in wastewater treatment plant influent before co-treatment is more informative than that using hydraulic-based criteria. σ - standard deviation; AUR - ammonia utilization rate; DPAO - denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms; MLVSS - mixed liquor volatile suspended solids content; MSW - municipal solid waste; NUR AE - nitrate production rate under aerobic conditions; NUR AX - nitrate utilization rate under anoxic conditions; PAO - phosphorus-accumulating organisms; PRR - phosphate release rate under anaerobic conditions; PUR AX - phosphate uptake rate under anoxic conditions; PUR AE - phosphate uptake rate under aerobic conditions; RLL - raw landfill leachates

  15. Fission cross section and fission fragment angular distribution for oriented nucleus fission by intermediate energy neutrons (epsilon < or approximately 1 Mev)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    General analysis is conducted, and formulae for fission cross section and angular distribution of fission fragments of oriented nuclei by fast neutrons are presented. Geometrical coefficients making up the formulae permitting to carry out calculations for target nuclei with spins I=3/2, 5/2, 7/2 at interaction energies epsilon < or approximately 1 MeV are tabulated. Results of demonstrative calculation of fission fragment angular distribution of oriented sup(235)U nuclei by 0.1 <= epsilon <= 1.0 MeV neutrons reveal that angular distribution weakly depends on the set of permeability factors of neutron waves applied in the calculations

  16. Planck intermediate results L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB B-mode analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2017-01-01

    that the decorrelation increases when there is a decrease in the mean column density of the region of the sky being considered, and we propose a simple power-law empirical model for this dependence, which matches what is seen in the Planck data. We explore the effect that this measured decorrelation has on simulations...... of the polarized thermal dust emission at high Galactic latitudes. Here, we specifically study the spatial variability of the dust polarized spectral energy distribution (SED), and its potential impact on the determination of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r. We use the correlation ratio of the CBB `angular power...

  17. Anisotropy of the fission fragments from neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy range of 1-200 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, A. S.; Gagarski, A. M.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Vaishnene, L. A.; Barabanov, A. L.

    2015-08-01

    Angular distributions of fission fragments from the neutron-induced fission of 232Th, 235U, and 238U have been measured in the energy range 1-200 MeV at the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer GNEIS using position sensitive multiwire proportional counters as fission fragment detector. A short description of the experimental equipment and measurement procedure is given. The anisotropy of fission fragments deduced from the data on measured angular distributions is presented in comparison with experimental data of other authors.

  18. Angular distributions and anisotropy of fission fragments from neutron-induced fission in intermediate energy range 1–200 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyev Alexander S.; Gagarski Alexei M.; Shcherbakov Oleg A.; Vaishnene Larisa A.; Barabanov Alexei L.

    2017-01-01

    Angular distributions of fission fragments from the neutron-induced fission of 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U and 209Bi have been measured in the energy range 1–200 MeV at the neutron TOF spectrometer GNEIS based on the spallation neutron source at 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron of the PNPI (Gatchina, Russia). The multiwire proportional counters have been used as a position sensitive fission fragment detector. A description of the experimental equipment and measurement procedure is given. The anisotr...

  19. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  20. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...