WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate developmental forms

  1. Improved Method for In Vitro Secondary Amastigogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi: Morphometrical and Molecular Analysis of Intermediate Developmental Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Hernández-Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes a biphasic life cycle that consists of four alternate developmental stages. In vitro conditions to obtain a synchronic transformation and efficient rates of pure intermediate forms (IFs, which are indispensable for further biochemical, biological, and molecular studies, have not been reported. In the present study, we established an improved method to obtain IFs from secondary amastigogenesis. During the transformation kinetics, we observed progressive decreases in the size of the parasite body, undulating membrane and flagellum that were concomitant with nucleus remodeling and kinetoplast displacement. In addition, a gradual reduction in parasite movement and acquisition of the amastigote-specific Ssp4 antigen were observed. Therefore, our results showed that the in vitro conditions used obtained large quantities of highly synchronous and pure IFs that were clearly distinguished by morphometrical and molecular analyses. Obtaining these IFs represents the first step towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in amastigogenesis.

  2. An Empirical Look at Developmental Interventions and Student Performance in the First Intermediate Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Terry J.; Foote, Rebecca A.; Phillips, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to concerns about student performance in Intermediate Accounting I, our Department of Accounting established an Intermediate Readiness Committee in the spring of 2006 to create a developmental program for students entering Intermediate I, with the goal of improving performance in that course. Over the next two years, the Committee established…

  3. application of chemometric methods to resolve intermediates formed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRIC METHODS TO RESOLVE INTERMEDIATES. FORMED DURING ... Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been proved to be a powerful technique to ..... HPLC/UV-VIS diode array and atmospheric pressure ionization quadrupole ion trap massspectrometry. Int. J. Mass ...

  4. Pion form factor at intermediate momentum transfer in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Smilga, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A general method is proposed for the QCD based calculation of form factors at intermediate Q 2 and of the partial widths of the low-lying meson resonances. The basic idea is to use QCD sum rules for the vertex functions. With this method, the pion form factor at 0.5 2 2 is calculated. The results are in good agreement with experiment

  5. Common Developmental Tasks in Forming Reconstituted Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Developmental tasks common to the formation of a reconstituted family are described, particularly the continued mourning of the old family; the formation of a solid marital relationship despite the difficulties presented by past failures and the presence of children; and the formation of sibling alliances across family lines. (Author)

  6. Biological Reactive Intermediates (BRIs) Formed from Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs. While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes. Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Quinones (sassafras, kava, black cohosh), quinone methides (sassafras), and epoxides (pennyroyal oil) represent BRIs of intermediate reactivity, which could generate both genotoxic and/or chemopreventive effects. The biological targets of BRIs formed from botanical dietary supplements and their resulting toxic and/or chemopreventive effects are closely linked to the reactivity of BRIs as well as dose and time of exposure. PMID:20970412

  7. Pion form factor in QCD at intermediate momentum transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V. M.; Khodjamirian, A.; Maul, M.

    2000-04-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows us to estimate the deviation: [∫du/uφπ(u)]/[∫du/uφasπ(u)]=1.1+/-0.1 at the scale of 1 GeV. Special attention is paid to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to the matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end-point) contribution and power-suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual PQCD result turns out to be of the order of 30% for Q2~1 GeV2.

  8. The two forms of capitalism: developmentalism and economic liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ CARLOS BRESSER-PEREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper argues that the state and the market are the main institutions regulating capitalism, and, correspondingly, that the form of the economic and political coordination of capitalism will be either developmental or liberal. It defines the developmental state, relates it to the formation of a developmental class coalition, and notes that capitalism was born developmental in its mercantilist phase, turned liberal in the nineteenth century, and, after 1929, became once again developmental, but, now, democratic and progressive. All industrial and capitalist revolutions took place within the framework of developmentalism, whereby the state coordinates the non-competitive sector of the economy and the five macroeconomic prices (which the market is unable to make “right”, while the market coordinates the competitive sector. In the 1970s, a crisis opened the way for a short-lived and reactionary form of capitalism, neoliberalism or rentier-financier capitalism. Since the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, the neoliberal hegemony has come to an end, and we are now experiencing a period of transition.

  9. Cognitive precursors of the developmental relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in the intermediate elementary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Jong, P.F. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary

  10. Cognitive precursors of the developmental relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in the intermediate elementary grades.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary

  11. Project Activities of Students as a Form of Developmental Teaching

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    Lazarev V. S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Project activities of students regarded as a form of developmental teaching. Coping with domestic school crisis is possible using the activity-related forms of education. Author believes that initiating of students project activities widely used in the practice of the last decade should be assessed positively. In most cases, what is presented as “project activity”, in fact is not. Project activity contains significant opportunities for the realization of the idea of developmental education developed in the scientific school of cultural-historical psychology. Hypothesizing and experimental confirmation of the leading role of education in the development of the human mentality and working out the theory of developmental education are the biggest achievements of the scientific school. The theory of developmental education determines the educational activity in primary school and poorly designed for its middle and senior levels. It has inner problems that need to solve for further progress in building a new practice of schooling. It is shown how using the features of project activities can expand the boundaries of the implementation of the developmental education ideas

  12. Wearable electronics formed on intermediate layer on textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-07-27

    One manner of producing more desirable clothing with electronic capabilities is to manufacture electronics, such as the charging wires or devices themselves, directly onto the textile materials. Textile materials generally do not support the manufacturing of electronic devices, in part because the surface of the textile is too rough for electronic devices or the processes used to manufacturing electronic devices. An intermediate layer (204) may be placed on the textile material (202) to reduce the roughness of the surface of the textile material and provide other beneficial characteristics for the placement of electronic devices (206) directly on the textile material.

  13. Developmental pattern of the neuronal intermediate filament inaa in the zebrafish retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Lin; Peng, Wei-Hau; Kan, Daphne; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2016-12-15

    α-Internexin is a member of the neuronal intermediate filament (nIF) protein family, which also includes peripherin and neurofilament (NF) triplet proteins. Previous studies found that expression of α-internexin precedes that of the NF triplet proteins in mammals and suggested that α-internexin plays a key role in the neuronal cytoskeleton network during development. In this study, we aimed to analyze the expression patterns and function of internexin neuronal intermediate filament protein-alpha a (inaa), the encoding gene of which is a homolog of the mammalian α-internexin, during retinal development in zebrafish. Via in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrated that zebrafish inaa is an α-internexin homolog that shares characteristics with nIFs. An immunohistochemical analysis of zebrafish revealed that inaa was distributed dynamically in the developing retina. It was widely localized in retinal neuroepithelial cells at 1 day postfertilization (dpf), and was mainly found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner part of the inner nuclear layer (INL) from 3-9 dpf; after 14 dpf, it was restricted to the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that inaa acted distinctively from the cytoskeletal scaffold of zebrafish cone photoreceptors during development. In conclusion, we demonstrated the morphological features of a novel nIF, inaa, and illustrated its developmental expression pattern in the zebrafish retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3810-3826, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Why do alpha-beta parallel proteins, like flavodoxins, form misfolded off-pathway intermediates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The question: “Why do α-β parallel proteins, like flavodoxins, form misfolded off-pathway
    intermediates?" is the main subject of this thesis. A. vinelandii apoflavodoxin is chosen as protein
    of interest as it is a representative of α-β parallel proteins, which are widely prevalent in

  15. Transfer to Intermediate Forms Following Concept Discrimination by Pigeons: Chimeras and Morphs

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    Ghosh, Natasha; Lea, S. E. G.; Noury, Malia

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined pigeons' generalization to intermediate forms following training of concept discriminations. In Experiment 1, the training stimuli were sets of images of dogs and cats, and the transfer stimuli were head/body chimeras, which humans tend to categorize more readily in terms of the head part rather than the body part. In…

  16. Developmental Trajectories of Form Perception: A Story of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovshoff, Hanna; Iarocci, Grace; Shore, David I.; Burack, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of selective and divided attention were examined in relation to the processing of hierarchically integrated stimuli. The participants included children in 4 age groups (6, 8, 10, and 12 years) and a group of young adults (24 years) who completed 2 computer-based attention tasks. In the selective attention task, the…

  17. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

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    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  18. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  19. Numerical Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Lipped Channel Columns with Intermediate Web Stiffeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Arun, N.

    2016-03-01

    This work describes finite element simulation into the ultimate strength and buckling behaviour of cold-formed steel lipped channel columns with intermediate web stiffeners subjected to axial compression. Numerical simulation is performed by using finite element analysis software ANSYS. A reliable finite element model is used for the parametric study of effects of cross section geometries on the ultimate strength and buckling behaviour of cold-formed steel columns are investigated. All the section geometries in this study also satisfied the limitations given for pre-qualified sections in direct strength method. The cross sectional dimensions, section properties and length of the specimen are obtained by using CUFSM software. The ultimate strength predicted by the finite element analysis are compared with the strength calculated using the current direct strength method specifications for cold-formed steel structures, suitable design recommendations are proposed.

  20. PREFACE Physical Aspects of Developmental Biology: 21st Century Perspectives 'On Growth and Form' Physical Aspects of Developmental Biology: 21st Century Perspectives 'On Growth and Form'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, M. Shane

    2008-04-01

    There is a long and circuitous route from an organism_s genome to its steady-state adult form—all of which falls under the wide umbrella of developmental biology. Given this breadth, how does one answer the question: what is the mechanism by which developmental event X takes place? The answer depends strongly on what one considers an acceptable explanation. In some scientific circles, the answer would focus on the regulatory genes involved. In others, the focus would be on the signaling pathways activated, or on the associated cellular movements, or maybe even on the intra- and intercellular forces. In the long term, the goal must be to provide an explanation that connects all of these perspectives. During the last several decades, molecular biology has made enormous progress towards understanding development from the genome-side. Unfortunately, progress has been much slower on the relevant physical biology—which had a huge head start in the late 19th century age of developmental mechanics. It is just a slight exaggeration to claim that we_ve made little progress on the physical side since D_Arcy Thompson_s On Growth and Form in 1917. Hopefully, such statements will be recognized as large exaggerations in years to come as developmental mechanics is now in resurgence. This special issue of Physical Biology brings together current work in developmental mechanics from an international cadre of scientists—including physicists, biologists and engineers. The works include both models and experiments. They span scales from subcellular microrheology to finite element models of entire embryos. I hope that students looking for one of these articles will dive into the rest. The field of developmental mechanics is in the process of training a new generation of students who are comfortable with both the necessary biology and physics. Enormous opportunities are available for those who can work across those traditional disciplinary boundaries.

  1. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, W.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO 3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO 2 -containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu 2 O 3 . By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO 3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  2. The many forms of a pleomorphic bacterial pathogen – The developmental network of Legionella pneumophila

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    Peter eRobertson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a natural intracellular bacterial parasite of free-living freshwater protozoa and an accidental human pathogen that causes Legionnaires’ disease. L. pneumophila differentiates, and does it in style. Recent experimental data on L. pneumophila’s differentiation point at the existence of a complex network that involves many developmental forms. We intend readers to: (i understand the biological relevance of L. pneumophila’s forms found in freshwater and their potential to transmit Legionnaires’ disease, and (ii learn that the common depiction of L. pneumophila’s differentiation as a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a replicative and a transmissive form is but an oversimplification of the actual process. Our specific objectives are to provide updates on the molecular factors that regulate L. pneumophila’s differentiation (section 2, and describe the developmental network of L. pneumophila (section 3, which for clarity’s sake we have dissected into five separate developmental cycles. Finally, since each developmental form seems to contribute differently to the human pathogenic process and the transmission of Legionnaires’ disease, readers are presented with a challenge to develop novel methods to detect the various L. pneumophila forms present in water (section 4, as a means to improve our assessment of risk and more effectively prevent legionellosis outbreaks.

  3. Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive solidified waste forms and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste forms and packages with respect to compliance with quality and safety requirements for transport, interim storage and disposal has become a very important part of the radioactive waste management strategy in many countries. The evaluation of waste forms and packages provides precise basic data for regulatory bodies to establish safety requirements, and implement quality control and quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste management programmes. The requirements depend very much upon the disposal option selected, treatment technology used, waste form characteristics, package quality and other factors. The regulatory requirements can also influence the methodology of waste form/package evaluation together with selection and analysis of data for quality control and safety assurance. A coordinated research programme started at the end of 1985 and brought together 12 participants from 11 countries. The results of the programme and each particular project were discussed at three Research Coordination Meetings held in Cairo, Egypt, in May, 1986; in Beijing, China, in April, 1998; and at Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, in November, 1989. This document summarises the salient features and results achieved during the four year investigation and a recommendation for future work in this area. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Physical properties of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z <1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, J.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2015-05-01

    In this poster we present the physical properties of a sample of low-mass star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts (zstructures that hierarchical models predict to form first in the Universe (Dekel & Silk 1986) and that are responsible for the reionization process (Bouwens et al. 2012); and (2) the way or epoch they form and how they evolve are still open questions of modern astrophysics. We selected the sample on the CDFS field. Photometry (40 bands, from UV to far-IR) and preliminary photometric redshifts and stellar masses were obtained from RAINBOW database (Pérez-González et al. 2008). Morphology fom Griffith et al. (2012). Main selection was done by stellar mass, selecting those galaxies with stellar mass M_*MOS spectroscopy with the VIMOS spectrograph at VLT. The average spectrum is characterized by a faint, blue and flat continuum and strong emission lines, revealing that the systems are dominated by an undergoing star formation burst. SFRs and stellar masses are consistent with the SF main-squence over a 2 dex range. More massive objects show higher SFRs than low-mass objects, following the SF main sequence. Distant dwarfs and BCDs follow the overall star-forming sequence in the excitation-luminosity diagram, populating the high excitation, low metallicity and high strength region.

  5. Triplet excited states and radical intermediates formed in electron pulse radiolysis of amino-substituted fluorenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Vaishali; Singh, A.K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Palit, D.K. E-mail: dkpalit@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-04-01

    Electron pulse radiolysis of four differently substituted amino derivatives of fluorenone, namely, 1-amino-, 2-amino- 3-amino-, and 4-aminofluorenone, has been carried out to study the effect of structure on the spectroscopic and kinetic characteristics of the triplet excited states as well as the transient free radical intermediates formed under reducing and oxidizing conditions. The triplet states of these compounds have been generated in benzene by pulse radiolysis and in other solvents by flash photolysis technique and their spectral and kinetic properties have been investigated. Hydrated electron (e{sub aq}{sup -}) has been found to react with these fluorenone derivatives to form the anion radical species with a diffusion-controlled rate constant. The spectral and kinetic properties of the transient ketyl and anion radicals have been studied by generating them in aqueous solutions of suitable pH. The pK{sub a} values of ketyl[rlhar2]anion radical equilibria are in the range of 6.8-7.7 for these derivatives. The oxidized species have been generated by reaction with the azide radical. Hydrogen atom adducts as well as the cation radicals of these derivatives have also been generated by pulse radiolysis and characterized.

  6. Solidification of intermediate level liquid waste - ILLW, CEMEX waste form qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, V.; Guerra, M.; Pancotti, F.; Maio, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Sogin EUREX Facility about 125 m 3 of intermediate level radioactive waste and about 113 m 3 of low level radioactive waste, produced during the re-processing of MTR and CANDU fuel, are stored. Solidification of these wastes is planned in order to fulfill the specific requirements established by the Safety Authority, taking into account the criteria set up in a Technical Guide on the issue of radioactive waste management. The design of a cementation plant (CEMEX) of all liquid radioactive wastes is currently ongoing. The process requires that the liquid waste is neutralized with NaOH (NaOH 19 M) and metered into 440 liter drum together with the cement, while the mixture is stirred by a lost paddle ('in drum mixing process'). The qualification of the Waste Form consists of all the activities demonstrating that the final cemented product has the minimum requirements (mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics) compliant with all the subsequent management phases: long-term interim storage, transport and long-term disposal of the waste. All tests performed to qualify the conditioning process for immobilizing first extraction cycle (MTR and CANDU) and second extraction cycle liquid wastes, gave results in compliance with the minimum requirements established for disposal

  7. CIAS detection of Fasciola hepatica/F. gigantica intermediate forms in bovines from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Syed Ali; Valero, M Adela; Chowdhury, Emdadul Haque; Islam, Mohammad Taohidul; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Hussain Mondal, Mohammad Motahar; Peixoto, Raquel V; Berinde, Lavinia; Panova, Miroslava; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The characterisation and differentiation of Fasciola populations is crucial to control the disease, given the different transmission, epidemiology and pathology characteristics of the two species. Lineal biometric features of adult liver flukes infecting livestock have been studied to characterise and discriminate fasciolids from Bangladesh. An accurate analysis was conducted to phenotypically discriminate between fasciolids from naturally infected bovines (cattle, buffaloes) throughout the country. Morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (CIAS) applied on the basis of standardised measurements and the logistic model of the body growth and development of fasciolids in the different host groups. Since it is the first ever comprehensive study of this kind undertaken in Bangladesh, the results are compared to pure fasciolid populations of F. hepatica from the European Mediterranean area and F. gigantica from Burkina Faso, geographical areas where both species do not co-exist. Principal component analysis showed that the biometric characteristics of fasciolids from Bangladesh are situated between F. hepatica and F. gigantica standard populations, indicating the presence of phenotypes of intermediate forms in Bangladesh. These results are analysed by considering the present emergence of animal fascioliasis, the local lymnaeid fauna, the impact of climate change, and the risk of human infection in the country.

  8. Phenotypes of intermediate forms of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in buffaloes from Central Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, K; Valero, M A; Qayyum, M; Peixoto, R V; Magraner, A; Mas-Coma, S

    2014-12-01

    Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The phenotypic features of fasciolid adults and eggs infecting buffaloes inhabiting the Central Punjab area, Pakistan, have been studied to characterize fasciolid populations involved. Morphometric analyses were made with a computer image analysis system (CIAS) applied on the basis of standardized measurements. Since it is the first study of this kind undertaken in Pakistan, the results are compared to pure fasciolid populations: (a) F. hepatica from the European Mediterranean area; and (b) F. gigantica from Burkina Faso; i.e. geographical areas where both species do not co-exist. Only parasites obtained from bovines were used. The multivariate analysis showed that the characteristics, including egg morphometrics, of fasciolids from Central Punjab, Pakistan, are between F. hepatica and F. gigantica standard populations. Similarly, the morphometric measurements of fasciolid eggs from Central Punjab are also between F. hepatica and F. gigantica standard populations. These results demonstrate the existence of fasciolid intermediate forms in endemic areas in Pakistan.

  9. An iron-oxygen intermediate formed during the catalytic cycle of cysteine dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesnokov, E P; Faponle, A S; Davies, C G; Quesne, M G; Turner, R; Fellner, M; Souness, R J; Wilbanks, S M; de Visser, S P; Jameson, G N L

    2016-07-07

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a key enzyme in the breakdown of cysteine, but its mechanism remains controversial. A combination of spectroscopic and computational studies provides the first evidence of a short-lived intermediate in the catalytic cycle. The intermediate decays within 20 ms and has absorption maxima at 500 and 640 nm.

  10. Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes embryos were exposed to 0.001–10 µM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha, and β-HgS (Zuotai from stage 10 (6–7 hpf to 10 days post fertilization (dpf. Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2, both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Both α-HgS and β-HgS were less toxic than MeHg and HgCl2. Total RNA was extracted from survivors three days after exposure to MeHg (0.1 µM, HgCl2 (1 µM, α-HgS (10 µM, or β-HgS (10 µM to examine toxicity-related gene expression. MeHg and HgCl2 markedly induced metallothionein (MT and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1, while α-HgS and β-HgS failed to induce either gene. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity.

  11. Relativistic quark model and behaviour of the meson electromagnetic form factors at small and intermediate momentum transfer Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Esaybegyan, S.V.; Ter-Isaakyan, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    In a model of hadrons composed of relativistic quarks a description of meson static characteristics and pion electromagnetic form factor in the range of small and intermediate values of momentum transfer 0 2 2 have obtained. It is shown that in such a model the data available on the pion electromagnetic form factor may be described basing on a simplest quark without gluon exchange. The contribution of a one-gluon exchange diagram in such a model cannot exceed 30%

  12. Effects of developmental exposure to silver in ionic and nanoparticle form: A study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Sipahi, Hande; Ekici, Asiye Işın Doğan; Kaspar, Çiğdem; Culha, Mustafa; Bucurgat, Ülkü Ündeğer; Aydin, Ahmet

    2016-10-06

    Evaluations of silver in both nanoparticle (Ag-NPs) and ionic forms indicate some adverse effects on living organisms, but little is known about their potential for developmental toxicity. In this study, developmental toxicity of Ag-NPs (from 0.2 to 20 mg/kg/day) and ionic Ag (AgNO 3 , 20 mg Ag/kg/day) were investigated in rats. Animals were dosed by gavage from gestation day 7 - 20. The day after parturition, dams and pups were sacrificed and Ag level assessed in several maternal and pup organs. In addition, hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress parameters and histopathology were evaluated. No treatment related effects were found for gestational parameters including pregnancy length, maternal weight gain, implantations, birth weight and litter size at any dose level of Ag-NPs. Maternal weight gain was lower in dams receiving AgNO 3 compared to the other groups, suggesting that the ionic form may exert a higher degree of toxicity compared to the NP form. Tissue contents of Ag were higher in all treated groups compared to control dams and pups, indicating transfer of Ag across the placenta. The findings furthermore suggest that Ag may induce oxidative stress in dams and their offspring, although significant induction was only observed after dosing with AgNO 3 . Histopathological examination of brain tissue revealed a high incidence of hippocampal sclerosis in dams treated with nanoparticle as well as ionic Ag. The difference in offspring deposition patterns between ionic and NP Ag and the observations in dam brain tissue, requires scrutiny, and, if corroborated, indicate that ionic and NP forms maybe need separate risk assessments and that the hazard ratings of silver in both ionic and nanoparticle forms should be increased, respectively. Not applicable. Developmental Toxicity of Ag-NPs.

  13. The effects of radiation on intermediate-level waste forms. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, C.R.; Phillips, D.C.; Burnay, S.G.; Spindler, W.E.; Lyon, C.E.; Winter, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this programme was to determine the effects of radiation on the properties of intermediate-level waste forms relevant to their storage and disposal. It had two overall aims: to provide immediate data on the effect of radiation on important European ILW waste forms through accelerated laboratory tests; and to develop an understanding of the degradation processes so that long-term, low dose rate effects can be predicted with confidence from short-term, high dose rate experiments. The programme included cement waste forms containing inorganic wastes, organic matrix waste forms, and cement waste forms containing a substantial component of organic waste. Irradiations were carried out by external gamma sources and by the incorporation of alpha emitters, such as 238 Pu. Irradiated materials included matrix materials, simulated waste forms and real waste forms. 2 figs.; 3 tabs.; 8 refs

  14. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forming intermediate spatial resolution of microscopy images for continuous zooming on multi-resolution processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Evan H. E.; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Usuki, Shin; Miura, Kenjiro T.

    2017-09-01

    Digital zooming especially on microscopy image has attempted to improve their quality of measurement into a better assessment. However, since the field of view of high-resolution image are not wide despite of the fact that high-resolution image has more information detail and low-resolution image has their merits which is bring a big picture of the whole structure, we need to observe the sample in any scale. This problem was been solved by developing dual-view of high and low images resolution1 but in a single interpolated images. The goal of this research is utilize multi-resolution images to develop smooth zooming magnification of microscopy image. In order to achieve smooth zooming magnification on different condition of the images, scheme process will be needed. First, we took a several spatial images of the same sample based on the different objective lens, author was used 4 objective lens which are 10×, 20×, 50× and 150× magnification. In this synthesize phase, we interpolate lower resolution image for synthesize purpose with the next higher resolution image of the sample. Second, continue to looking for the feature point of both images with SIFT feature point method until we synthesize both images. Third, author treat this synthesized image with discrete fourier transform (DFT) with low-pass filter as the same size with numerical aperture (NA) that was input on the first phase. Then the fourth phase is looping this processes until intermediate images are generated enough to be blend with pyramid blend method. In this article we also try to make a system that can arbitrarily generate intermediate image with hierarchical system.

  16. Behaviour of intermediate-level waste forms in an aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarantos, S.; Batist, R. de; Brodersen, K.; Glasser, F.P.; Pottier, P.E.; Vejmelka, R.; Zamorani, E.

    1986-01-01

    Under Action 1 of the Second Community Programme (1980-1984), study continued of the behaviour of low and medium activity waste matrices using 10 reference waste forms (RWFs) representative of the main waste packages produced in the Community. The aim of this paper is to outline the main results for three types of matrix: cement and derived forms, organic polymers and bitumens. The results include data on diffusion coefficients, leach rates and waste form volume changes and mass losses. They constitute a considerable advance in knowledge of confinement properties but bring to light the need for further study of radionuclide release mechanisms for the purpose of constructing long-term models of waste form behaviour in the presence of water. (author)

  17. Behaviour of intermediate-level waste forms in an aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarantos, S.; DeBatist, R.; Brodersen, K.; Glasser, F.P.; Pottier, P.E.; Vejmelka, R.; Zamorani, E.

    1985-01-01

    Under Action 1 of the Second Community Programme (1980-1984), study continued of the behavoiur of low and medium activity waste matrices using 10 reference waste forms (RWFs) representative of the main waste packages produced in the Community. The aim of this paper is to outline the main results for three types of matrix: cement and derived forms, organic polymers and bitumens. The results include data on diffusion coefficients, leach rates and waste form volume changes and mass losses. They constitute a considerable advance in knowledge of confinement properties but bring to light the need for further study of radionuclide release mechanisms for the purpose of constructing long-term models of waste form behaviour in the presence of water

  18. The Ellipsoid Factor for quantification of rods, plates and intermediate forms in 3D geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eDoube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ellipsoid Factor (EF is a method for the local determination of the rod- or plate-like nature of porous or spongy continua. EF at a point within a 3D structure is defined as the difference in axis ratios of the greatest ellipsoid which fits inside the structure and which contains the point of interest, and ranges from -1 for strongly oblate (discus-shaped ellipsoids, to +1 for strongly prolate (javelin-shaped ellipsoids. For an ellipsoid with axes a ≤ b ≤ c, EF = a/b – b/c. Here, EF is demonstrated in a Java plugin, Ellipsoid Factor for ImageJ, distributed in the BoneJ plugin collection. Ellipsoid Factor utilises an ellipsoid optimisation algorithm which assumes that maximal ellipsoids are centred on the medial axis, then dilates, rotates and translates slightly each ellipsoid until it cannot increase in volume any further. Ellipsoid Factor successfully identifies rods, plates and intermediate structures within trabecular bone, and summarises the distribution of geometries with an overall EF mean and standard deviation, EF histogram and Flinn diagram displaying a/b versus b/c. Ellipsoid Factor is released to the community for testing, use, and improvement.

  19. Developmental-form-specific DNA-binding proteins in Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, E A; Stephens, R S

    1988-01-01

    We identified DNA-binding proteins specific to the elementary body (EB) developmental form of Chlamydia spp. Chlamydial proteins from whole lysates were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with nick-translated chlamydial DNA. By this method, C. trachomatis serovar L2 EBs had three unique protein bands of 58,000, 25,700, and 17,000 molecular weight not seen in the reticulate bodies. The 17,000-molecular-weight protein and the 25,700-molecular-weight protein were identified in an acid-soluble protein fraction and were resistant to high-salt elution, similar to other procaryotic nucleoproteins. The 17,000-molecular-weight protein was also detected in preparations with isolated chromosomes from EBs. Preliminary characterization indicated that the protein-DNA interaction was principally charge related. Images PMID:3384472

  20. PLEKHG5 deficiency leads to an intermediate form of autosomal-recessive Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzedine, Hamid; Zavadakova, Petra; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Vaz Pato, Maria; Pinto, Nuno; Bartesaghi, Luca; Zenker, Jennifer; Poirot, Olivier; Bernard-Marissal, Nathalie; Arnaud Gouttenoire, Estelle; Cartoni, Romain; Title, Alexandra; Venturini, Giulia; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Makowski, Edward; Schöls, Ludger; Claeys, Kristl G.; Stendel, Claudia; Roos, Andreas; Weis, Joachim; Dubourg, Odile; Leal Loureiro, José; Stevanin, Giovanni; Said, Gérard; Amato, Anthony; Baraban, Jay; LeGuern, Eric; Senderek, Jan; Rivolta, Carlo; Chrast, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies characterized by progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities and distal sensory loss. Following the analysis of two consanguineous families affected by a medium to late-onset recessive form of intermediate CMT, we identified overlapping regions of homozygosity on chromosome 1p36 with a combined maximum LOD score of 5.4. Molecular investigation of the genes from this region allowed identification of two homozygous mutations in PLEKHG5 that produce premature stop codons and are predicted to result in functional null alleles. Analysis of Plekhg5 in the mouse revealed that this gene is expressed in neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, and that knockout mice display reduced nerve conduction velocities that are comparable with those of affected individuals from both families. Interestingly, a homozygous PLEKHG5 missense mutation was previously reported in a recessive form of severe childhood onset lower motor neuron disease (LMND) leading to loss of the ability to walk and need for respiratory assistance. Together, these observations indicate that different mutations in PLEKHG5 lead to clinically diverse outcomes (intermediate CMT or LMND) affecting the function of neurons and glial cells. PMID:23777631

  1. The decay of hot nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, B.; Mignerey, A.C.; Madani, H.; Marchetti, A.A.; Colonna, M.; DiToro, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of hot nuclei formed in lanthanum-induced reactions utilizing inverse kinematics has been studied from E/A = 35 to 55 MeV. At each bombarding energy studied, the probability for the multiple emission of complex fragments has been found to be independent of target. Global features (total charge, source velocity) of the reaction La + Al at E/A = 45 MeV have been reproduced by coupling a dynamical model to study the collision stage of the reaction to a statistical model of nuclear decay

  2. A laminar flame investigation of 2-butanone, and the combustion-related intermediates formed through its oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Hemken, Christian

    2016-06-28

    2-Butanone (methyl ethyl ketone) is a high-octane next-generation biofuel candidate synthesized through microbiological pathways from biomass. The flame structure and species formed in 2-butanone combustion are of interest when further considering this compound for use as a fuel. Thus species profiles within a fuel-rich laminar premixed flat flame of 2-butanone were measured. Two experiments which used different facilities and measurement techniques were combined i.e. the first using electron ionization molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) and the second relied on synchrotron-generated vacuum UV photoionization MBMS. Very good agreement between both measurements was obtained. The experiments identified the formation of a number of toxic oxygenated intermediates such as methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. 2- Butanone showed the lowest overall concentrations for species that could contribute to potentially hazardous volatile emissions underlining its attraction as a fuel also from this perspective.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the 'intermediate form' of Fasciola and Fasciola gigantica, and their comparison with F. hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Gasser, Robin B; Young, Neil D; Song, Hui-Qun; Ai, Lin; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-03-31

    Fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form') is unclear. Single specimens inferred to represent Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form'; Heilongjiang) and F. gigantica (Guangxi) from China were genetically identified and characterized using PCR-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these representative specimens were then sequenced. The relationships of these specimens with selected members of the Trematoda were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI). The complete mt genomes of representatives of Fasciola sp. and F. gigantica were 14,453 bp and 14,478 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lack an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction, and the gene order in both mt genomes is the same as that published for F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes showed that the specimen of Fasciola sp. was more closely related to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica. The mt genomes characterized here provide a rich source of markers, which can be used in combination with nuclear markers and imaging techniques, for future comparative studies of the biology of Fasciola sp. from China and other countries.

  4. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Terranova

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development.

  5. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Christopher; Narla, Sridhar T; Lee, Yu-Wei; Bard, Jonathan; Parikh, Abhirath; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Buck, Michael J; Birkaya, Barbara; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development.

  6. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping, E-mail: juarez@ice.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  7. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M.; Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhang, Qizhou; Qiu, Keping

    2017-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s −1 , converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of nicotine-delta 1'(5')-iminium ion, an intermediate formed during the metabolism of nicotine to cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obach, R S; van Vunakis, H

    1990-01-01

    Cotinine, one of the major metabolites of nicotine, is formed by two sequential enzyme reactions: [formula: see text] Chemical and immunological methods of analysis are available to quantify these two compounds (I and III). Study of the intermediate (III) is hampered because of its complex chemistry and lack of simple methods for its assay. Generally, (II) is trapped by addition of cyanide and analyzed as the 5'-cyanonicotine adduct. In order to develop an immunoassay for (II), rabbits were immunized with a 3'-succinylmethyl-5'-cyanonicotine-protein conjugate with the expectation that (II) would, after treatment with cyanide, be quantified as 5'-cyanonicotine. Unexpectedly, however, the antibodies recognized the cyano adduct and (II) to the same extent (limit of deletion = 1.2 pmol). Nicotine, cotinine, and several other metabolites do not significantly inhibit the antigen-antibody reaction. Inhibition studies with 5' substituted nicotine analogs indicate that the 5'-hydroxynicotine tautomer (IIb) is the species recognized by the antibodies. Inin vitro metabolic studies, (II) accumulates in the absence of aldehyde oxidase, but in its presence, is converted to cotinine. As judged by serological activity, dilute solutions (under 15 microM) of (II) are stable when allowed to stand for 6 days at pH 7 and 37 degrees C. However, at high concentrations of iminium ion (where NMR studies showed instability and formation of multiple products) serological activity is also lost. Iminium ions are generated during the metabolism of some tertiary amine xenobiotics. The use of alpha-cyanoamine haptens to elicit antibodies specific for iminium ions and/or their cyano adducts may permit development of immunoassays for these compounds.

  9. Rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Albert Q; Freedman, Benjamin S; Morizane, Ryuji; Lerou, Paul H; Valerius, M Todd; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-06-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can generate a diversity of cell types, but few methods have been developed to derive cells of the kidney lineage. Here, we report a highly efficient system for differentiating human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (referred to collectively as hPSCs) into cells expressing markers of the intermediate mesoderm (IM) that subsequently form tubule-like structures. Treatment of hPSCs with the glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 induced BRACHYURY(+)MIXL1(+) mesendoderm differentiation with nearly 100% efficiency. In the absence of additional exogenous factors, CHIR99021-induced mesendodermal cells preferentially differentiated into cells expressing markers of lateral plate mesoderm with minimal IM differentiation. However, the sequential treatment of hPSCs with CHIR99021 followed by fibroblast growth factor-2 and retinoic acid generated PAX2(+)LHX1(+) cells with 70%-80% efficiency after 3 days of differentiation. Upon growth factor withdrawal, these PAX2(+)LHX1(+) cells gave rise to apically ciliated tubular structures that coexpressed the proximal tubule markers Lotus tetragonolobus lectin, N-cadherin, and kidney-specific protein and partially integrated into embryonic kidney explant cultures. With the addition of FGF9 and activin, PAX2(+)LHX1(+) cells specifically differentiated into cells expressing SIX2, SALL1, and WT1, markers of cap mesenchyme nephron progenitor cells. Our findings demonstrate the effective role of fibroblast growth factor signaling in inducing IM differentiation in hPSCs and establish the most rapid and efficient system whereby hPSCs can be differentiated into cells with features characteristic of kidney lineage cells. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Cross-validation of the structure of a transiently formed and low populated FF domain folding intermediate determined by relaxation dispersion NMR and CS-Rosetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barette, Julia; Velyvis, Algirdas; Religa, Tomasz L; Korzhnev, Dmitry M; Kay, Lewis E

    2012-06-14

    We have recently reported the atomic resolution structure of a low populated and transiently formed on-pathway folding intermediate of the FF domain from human HYPA/FBP11 [Korzhnev, D. M.; Religa, T. L.; Banachewicz, W.; Fersht, A. R.; Kay, L.E. Science 2011, 329, 1312-1316]. The structure was determined on the basis of backbone chemical shift and bond vector orientation restraints of the invisible intermediate state measured using relaxation dispersion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that were subsequently input into the database structure determination program, CS-Rosetta. As a cross-validation of the structure so produced, we present here the solution structure of a mimic of the folding intermediate that is highly populated in solution, obtained from the wild-type domain by mutagenesis that destabilizes the native state. The relaxation dispersion/CS-Rosetta structures of the intermediate are within 2 Å of those of the mimic, with the nonnative interactions in the intermediate also observed in the mimic. This strongly confirms the structure of the FF domain folding intermediate, in particular, and validates the use of relaxation dispersion derived restraints in structural studies of invisible excited states, in general.

  11. The encoding of word forms into memory may be challenging for college students with developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla; Arbisi-Kelm, Tim; Eden, Nichole

    2017-02-01

    To describe the word-learning problems characteristic of developmental language impairment (LI). College students with LI (n = 39) or normal language development (ND, n = 40) attempted to learn novel word forms. Training for half of the words was meaning-focused; training for the other half was form-focused. Form recognition and stem completion tasks administered immediately after training tapped encoding of the lexical configuration and a repetition of the stem completion task one week later tapped consolidation. A visual world paradigm tapped lexical engagement. At the immediate post-test, the LI group was poorer at recognition and completion of word forms than their ND peers, suggesting a deficit in encoding the lexical configuration. However, the gap between the LI and ND groups in stem completion did not grow over the week, suggesting intact consolidation. Form-focused training yielded better performance than meaning-focused training at immediate- and one week tests. For both groups, newly trained words slowed the recognition of familiar English words, revealing lexical engagement. The encoding of word-form configurations is challenging for some, but not all, college students with LI. Training that encourages a focus on the form may be a useful part of vocabulary intervention for those affected.

  12. Application of chemometric methods to resolve intermediates formed during photo- catalytic degradation of methyl orange and textile wastewater from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aregahegn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of two catalysts (TiO2 and TiO2 supported on zeolite for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye and wastewaters from Ethiopian textile industry was evaluated by chemometric methods from UV/Vis data of the reaction mixtures at different times. Multivariate curve resolution statistical analysis combined with an alternating least squares algorithm (MCR-ALS proved to be an efficient method to resolve the different intermediates present during the photocatalytic degradation of the pollutants and to provide information about their evolution with time. Methyl orange photodegradation at pH = 3 showed different intermediate and concentration profiles than at pH = 6. The evolution of intermediates from textile wastewater photodegradation could also be resolved by this method. From the concentration profile or the reactants, a kinetic study was done. Results revealed that all the photodegradation reactions followed a first order kinetics. When TiO2 supported in Zeolite is used, reactions are in general slower, probably due to a mechanism of adsorption/desorption.

  13. A maladaptive intermediate form: a strong trade-off revealed by hybrids between two forms of a snail-feeding beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Junji; Sota, Teiji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    Although trade-off curves between fitness components are essential in theoretical studies of ecological specialization, few empirical studies have actually determined these curves experimentally. Using the snail-feeding carabid beetle Damaster blaptoides, which is endemic to the Japanese archipelago, we estimated the trade-off curve for feeding success with alternative foraging behaviors that are linked to varying morphology. First, we crossed a stout-bodied and a slender-bodied subspecies and produced their F1 and backcross hybrids, which exhibited intermediate body shapes. Then we compared the snail-feeding success of these beetles. Stout beetles could eat small snails by crushing shells, whereas slender beetles could eat large snails by inserting their heads into shells. Although hybrids with intermediate body shapes attempted to employ both strategies, they frequently failed at both. The relationship between feeding success rate and beetle body shape was represented by an inward bending curve, which implies a strong trade-off that can cause disruptive selection, leading to ecological specialization. We suggest that the intermediately shaped beetles were maladapted for snail-feeding and that disruptive selection may have played an important role in the morphological divergence of these beetles.

  14. Bonding analysis of the [C(2)O(4)](2+) intermediate formed in the reaction of CO(2)(2+) with neutral CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feixas, Ferran; Ponec, Robert; Fiser, Jirí; Roithová, Jana; Schröder, Detlef; Price, Stephen D

    2010-06-24

    The bonding patterns of the [C(2)O(4)](2+) dication formed upon interaction of CO(2)(2+) with neutral CO(2) are investigated using the analysis of domain-averaged Fermi holes (DAFHs). The DAFH approach provides an explanation for the previously observed "asymmetry" of the energy deposition in the pair of CO(2)(+) monocations formed in the thermal reaction CO(2)(2+) + CO(2) --> [C(2)O(4)](2+) --> 2 CO(2)(+), specifically that the CO(2)(+) monocation formed from the dication dissociates far more readily than the CO(2)(+) monocation formed from the neutral molecule. The bonding pattern is consistent with a description of intermediate [C(2)O(4)](2+) as a complex between the triplet ground state of CO(2)(2+) with the singlet ground state of neutral CO(2), which can, among other pathways, smoothly proceed to a nondegenerate pair of (4)CO(2)(+) + (2)CO(2)(+) where the former stems from the dication and the latter stems from the neutral reactant. Hence the "electronic history" of the components is retained in the [C(2)O(4)](2+) intermediate. In addition, dissociation of (4)CO(2)(+) is discussed based on CCSD and CASSCF calculations. Equilibrium geometries for the ground electronic states of CO(2)(0/+/2+) and some other relevant structures of CO(2)(+) are determined using the MRCI method.

  15. Developmental History of an Intriguing Peat-Forming Community Along the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Yu, Z.; Beilman, D.; Kaiser, K.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost peatbanks along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) have become valuable high-resolution archives for late-Holocene climatic conditions recently. We recently observed and studied a few water-saturated peatlands that had formed in rocky depressions near Vernadsky Station and in mainland Antarctica (~ 65°S, 64°W). Remarkably, we seem to be the very first ones to analyze these systems for environmental reconstructions. The similarity between these peatlands and fens from the lower latitudes is striking, and the rarity of these systems along the WAP is intriguing. We present a high-resolution, multi-proxy record of ecosystem development and paleoenvironmental conditions for Rasmussen peatland. The ecosystem is ~100 m2 in size and is characterized by a shallow water table depth at 7 cm below the surface. Surface vegetation is dominated by Calliergon spp., a wet-adapted moss found along the WAP. The studied moss deposit is 50 cm thick and has a high organic matter content (> 90% dry weight). Plant macrofossil analysis reveals that the peatland was initially a wet Sanionia spp. carpet and that a sharp transition to Calliergon spp. occurred about half way through the deposit. A distinct layer of highly decomposed organic matter was observed from 32 to 40 cm and could indicate a period of slowed peat formation, potentially due to dry conditions (enhanced peat decay) or perennial snow cover (limited plant growth). Biochemical decomposition indicators such as carbohydrate yields, acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols, and hydroxyproline yields are being determined to better understand the extent of peat decay that has occurred at this site throughout its development, particularly to further address the nature of the observed stratigraphic changes. Preliminary results indicate that carbohydrate yields of the bottom half of the core are about 1/3 smaller than those of the top half, indicating substantial carbon loss due to decomposition. Overall, these peatlands

  16. The C-terminal peptide plays a role in the formation of an intermediate form during the transition between xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoko; Okamoto, Ken; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumura, Tomohiro; Eger, Bryan T; Pai, Emil F; Nishino, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase can exist in both dehydrogenase and oxidase forms. Conversion between the two is implicated in such diverse processes as lactation, anti-bacterial activity, reperfusion injury and a growing number of diseases. We have constructed a variant of the rat liver enzyme that lacks the carboxy-terminal amino acids 1316-1331; it appears to assume an intermediate form, exhibiting a mixture of dehydrogenase and oxidase activities. The purified variant protein retained ~ 50-70% of oxidase activity even after prolonged dithiothreitol treatment, supporting a previous prediction that the C-terminal region plays a role in the dehydrogenase to oxidase conversion. In the crystal structure of the protein variant, most of the enzyme stays in an oxidase conformation. After 15 min of incubation with a high concentration of NADH, however, the corresponding X-ray structures showed a dehydrogenase-type conformation. On the other hand, disulfide formation between Cys535 and Cys992, which can clearly be seen in the electron density map of the crystal structure of the variant after removal of dithiothreitol, goes in parallel with the complete conversion to oxidase, resulting in structural changes identical to those observed upon proteolytic cleavage of the linker peptide. These results indicate that the dehydrogenase-oxidase transformation occurs rather readily and the insertion of the C-terminal peptide into the active site cavity of its subunit stabilizes the dehydrogenase form. We propose that the intermediate form can be generated (e.g. in endothelial cells) upon interaction of the C-terminal peptide portion of the enzyme with other proteins or the cell membrane. Coordinate sets and structure factors for the four crystal structures reported in the present study have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under the identification numbers 4YRW, 4YTZ, 4YSW, and 4YTY. © 2015 The Authors. FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of FEBS.

  17. Mismatch repair protein hMSH2–hMSH6 recognizes mismatches and forms sliding clamps within a D-loop recombination intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masayoshi; Okuno, Yusuke; Hengel, Sarah R.; Martín-López, Juana V.; Cook, Christopher P.; Amunugama, Ravindra; Soukup, Randal J.; Subramanyam, Shyamal; Fishel, Richard; Spies, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High fidelity homologous DNA recombination depends on mismatch repair (MMR), which antagonizes recombination between divergent sequences by rejecting heteroduplex DNA containing excessive nucleotide mismatches. The hMSH2–hMSH6 heterodimer is the first responder in postreplicative MMR and also plays a prominent role in heteroduplex rejection. Whether a similar molecular mechanism underlies its function in these two processes remains enigmatic. We have determined that hMSH2–hMSH6 efficiently recognizes mismatches within a D-loop recombination initiation intermediate. Mismatch recognition by hMSH2–hMSH6 is not abrogated by human replication protein A (HsRPA) bound to the displaced single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or by HsRAD51. In addition, ATP-bound hMSH2–hMSH6 sliding clamps that are essential for downstream MMR processes are formed and constrained within the heteroduplex region of the D-loop. Moreover, the hMSH2–hMSH6 sliding clamps are stabilized on the D-loop by HsRPA bound to the displaced ssDNA. Our findings reveal similarities and differences in hMSH2–hMSH6 mismatch recognition and sliding-clamp formation between a D-loop recombination intermediate and linear duplex DNA. PMID:24395779

  18. Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Japanese version and its short forms for screening normally intelligent persons with pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Osada, Hirokazu

    2005-08-01

    A Japanese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), AQ-J was administered to 25 normally intelligent high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (HPDD) patients (mean age, 24.2 years; 24 male, one female) and 215 controls (mean age, 30.4 years; 86 male, 129 female) randomly selected from the general population. The AQ-J had satisfactory internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha > 0.70 in the two groups), test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity [i.e. the AQ-J score was significantly higher in the HPDD (mean, 29.6) than controls (mean, 22.2)]. At a cut-off of 26, the AQ-J had satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, but it had low positive predictive value (0.24) possibly due to the facts that the 25 mild HPDD patients scored lower and the controls scored higher on the AQ-J than British counterparts on the AQ. The AQ-J-21 (consisting of 21 items significantly associated with HPDD diagnosis) and the AQ-J-10 (consisting of 10 of the 21 items with an effect size > 0.17) had higher, although not satisfactory, positive predictive values of 0.35 and 0.46 at cut-offs of 12 and 7, respectively, than the AQ-J. The AQ-J and two short forms are useful not to predict but to rule out mild HPDD, the most difficult part of HPDD to be distinguished from non-PDD conditions, in persons scoring under the cut-offs and to consider professionals' examination of HPDD in persons scoring over them, because their negative predictive values were satisfactory.

  19. Rates and patterns in the evolution of snake-like body form in squamate reptiles: evidence for repeated re-evolution of lost digits and long-term persistence of intermediate body forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandley, Matthew C; Huelsenbeck, John P; Wiens, John J

    2008-08-01

    An important challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand how major changes in body form arise. The dramatic transition from a lizard-like to snake-like body form in squamate reptiles offers an exciting system for such research because this change is replicated dozens of times. Here, we use morphometric data for 258 species and a time-calibrated phylogeny to explore rates and patterns of body-form evolution across squamates. We also demonstrate how time-calibrated phylogenies may be used to make inferences about the time frame over which major morphological transitions occur. Using the morphometric data, we find that the transition from lizard-like to snake-like body form involves concerted evolution of limb reduction, digit loss, and body elongation. These correlations are similar across squamate clades, despite very different ecologies and >180 million years (My) of divergence. Using the time-calibrated phylogeny and ancestral reconstructions, we find that the dramatic transition between these body forms can occur in 20 My or less, but that seemingly intermediate morphologies can also persist for tens of millions of years. Finally, although loss of digits is common, we find statistically significant support for at least six examples of the re-evolution of lost digits in the forelimb and hind limb.

  20. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3-C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-08-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C(4) photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C(4) plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C(4) enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C(4) species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C(4) species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C(4) species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C(4) species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C(3)-C(4) based on its intermediate CO(2) compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C(4) Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C(3)-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C(4) photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca.

  1. Revealing diversity in structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis and a C3–C4 intermediate in genus Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Elena V.; Koteyeva, Nuria K.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Ocampo, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Portulacaceae is one of 19 families of terrestrial plants in which species having C4 photosynthesis have been found. Representative species from major clades of the genus Portulaca were studied to characterize the forms of photosynthesis structurally and biochemically. The species P. amilis, P. grandiflora, P. molokiniensis, P. oleracea, P. pilosa, and P. umbraticola belong to the subgenus Portulaca and are C4 plants based on leaf carbon isotope values, Kranz anatomy, and expression of key C4 enzymes. Portulaca umbraticola, clade Umbraticola, is NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME)-type C4 species, while P. oleracea and P. molokiniensis in clade Oleracea are NAD-ME-type C4 species, all having different forms of Atriplicoid-type leaf anatomy. In clade Pilosa, P. amilis, P. grandiflora, and P. pilosa are NADP-ME-type C4 species. They have Pilosoid-type anatomy in which Kranz tissues enclose peripheral vascular bundles with water storage in the centre of the leaf. Portulaca cf. bicolor, which belongs to subgenus Portulacella, is an NADP-ME C4 species with Portulacelloid-type anatomy; it has well-developed Kranz chlorenchyma surrounding lateral veins distributed in one plane under the adaxial epidermis with water storage cells underneath. Portulaca cryptopetala (clade Oleracea), an endemic species from central South America, was identified as a C3–C4 based on its intermediate CO2 compensation point and selective localization of glycine decarboxylase of the photorespiratory pathway in mitochondria of bundle sheath cells. The C4 Portulaca species which were examined also have cotyledons with Kranz-type anatomy, while the stems of all species have C3-type photosynthetic cells. The results indicate that multiple structural and biochemical forms of C4 photosynthesis evolved in genus Portulaca. PMID:20591900

  2. A descriptive examination of the types of relationships formed between children with developmental disability and their closest peers in inclusive school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Amanda A; Carter, Mark

    2013-03-01

    One of the most commonly cited rationales for inclusive education is to enable the development of quality relationships with typically developing peers. Relatively few researchers have examined the features of the range of relationships that children with developmental disability form in inclusive school settings. Interviews were conducted with 25 children with developmental disability, aged 5 and 12 years, their 3 closest peers, and parents and teachers to examine 6 types of relationships. Behaviours associated with general friendship and acquaintance were the most commonly reported. Few dyads reported high rates of behaviour associated with special treatment, helping, ignoring, or intimate best friend relationships. The relationships of the majority of dyads were characterised by friendship or acceptance, but evidence of more intimate relationships was limited. An important direction for future research is the examination of ways to encourage more intimate relationships.

  3. LC/MS/MS structure elucidation of reaction intermediates formed during the TiO2 photocatalysis of microcystin-LR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyanotoxin and emerging drinking water contaminant, was treated with TiO(2) photocatalysts immobilized on stainless steel plates as an alternative to nanoparticles in slurry. The reaction intermediates of MC-LR were identified with mass spectrometry (MS)...

  4. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  5. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms.

  6. Homophonic forms of regularly inflected verbs have their own orthographic representations: a developmental perspective on spelling errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Sandra, Dominiek

    2002-01-01

    In previous research (Sandra, Frisson, & Daems, 1999) we demonstrated that experienced writers of Dutch (18-year-olds) make spelling errors on regularly inflected homophonic verb forms. Intrusion errors, i.e., spelling of the homophonic alternative, occurred more often when the low-frequency homophone had to be written. In the present article we report error data for three groups of less experienced spellers, who have not yet fully mastered the rules for verb suffix spelling: 12-year-olds, 13-year-olds, and 14-year-olds. Younger spellers obviously make many more errors than experienced ones. Whereas this is in part due to inadequate rule mastery/application, their error patterns are also clearly influenced by the frequency relationship between the homophonic forms, i.e., the same factor accounting for the errors of experienced spellers. The conclusion of our present and past research is that homophonic forms of regularly inflected verbs have their own orthographic representations in the mental lexicon and that these representations cause interference in writing (spelling errors), whereas they might cause facilitation in reading (a claim made by dual-route models of reading). Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. Novel passive approach to protecting the primary containment barrier formed by the intermediate heat exchanger from the effects of an uncontrolled sodium water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Maurer, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes, in a steam generator utilized with a liquid sodium cooled nuclear reactor, provision is made to vent the violent sodium water reaction emanating from a tube rupture casualty. The steam generator includes a sodium plenum at the bottom thereof containing a conventional rupture disk for venting sodium, steam, and reaction products including hydrogen immediately upon a tube rupture casualty. The invention includes providing an alternative concentric flow path interior to the steam generator and parallel to the tube bundle. This alternative concentric flow path extends from the upper portion of the steam generator down into the lower head or plenum adjacent to the pressure relief diaphragm. This alternate path is partially filled with sodium during normal reactor operation. In the event of a tube bundle break, the alternative flow path dumps its sodium through the conventional rupture disk and then provides an immediate alternate pressure release path in parallel with the tube bundle for steam and water flow from the tube rupture site to the rupture disk. This parallel flow path reduces the pressure differential from the water/steam flow through the tube bundle such that water/steam does not flow back through the intermediate heat transport system to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) where it would react with residual sodium and potentially damage the IHX tube bundle which is part of the reactor primary containment barrier

  8. [Intermediate states formed during discharge separation in the reaction centers of Rhodospirillum rubrum in the presence of a low-redox potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godik, V I; Samuilov, V D; Borisov, A Iu

    1978-01-01

    The intermediate short-lived states arising in reaction centre preparations (RC) of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum are investigated under the conditions of low redox potential. Excitation by 353 and 530 nm laser pulses produced two states characterized by optical absorption changes in the range of 350--650 nm and lifetimes: 10--30 ns for the first state and 2.5 +/- 0.5 microseconds for the second one. The first state is similar to the state PF, described previously by Parson et al. for RC from Rps. sphaeroides. Carotenoid extraction with isooctane resulted in changing the spectrum with tau = 2.5 microseconds and in the appearance of new absorption changes similar to those for the R state observed before in carotenoidless bacterial strains within microsecond time range. The comparison of the microsecond spectra with difference spectra (continuous light minus dark) of RC from R. rubrum in the range of 350--650 nm made it possible to identify the states with tau = 2.5 microseconds as carotenoid triplet states. The ratio of quantum yields of PR and carotenoid triplet states production was determined as being 1 : 1. The conclusion was made that triplet-triplet energy transfer from state PR to carotenoid is responsible for the production of carotenoid triplet states.

  9. Forming Intermediate Phase on the Surface of PbI2Precursor Films by Short-Time DMSO Treatment for High-Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Ding, Xihong; Xu, Pan; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Yao, Jianxi; Ding, Yong; Dai, Songyuan

    2018-01-17

    Morphology regulation is vital to obtain high-performance perovskite films. Vapor-assisted deposition provides a simple approach to prepare perovskite films with controlled vapor-solid reaction. However, dense PbI 2 precursor films with large crystal grains make it difficult for organic molecules to diffuse and interact with inner PbI 2 frame. Here, a surface modification process is developed to optimize the surface layer morphology of PbI 2 precursor films and lower the resistance of the induced period in crystallization. The vapor optimization time is shortened to several seconds, and the intermediate phase forms on the surface layer of PbI 2 films. We achieve porous PbI 2 surface with smaller grains through dimethyl sulfoxide vapor treatment, which promotes the migration and reaction rate between CH 3 NH 3 I vapor and PbI 2 layer. The PbI 2 precursor films undergo dramatic morphological evolution due to the formed intermediate phase on PbI 2 surface layer. Taking advantage of the proposed surface modification process, we achieve high-quality uniform perovskite films with larger crystal grains and without residual PbI 2 . The repeatable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with modified films exhibit power conversion efficiency of up to 18.43% for planar structure. Moreover, the devices show less hysteresis because of improved quality and reduced defect states of the films. Our work expands the application of morphology control through forming intermediate phase and demonstrates an effective way to enhance the performance of the PSCs.

  10. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  11. Excretory/secretory products in the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode: is the intermediate host complacent with infection caused by the larval form of the parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guilherme B Dos; Monteiro, Karina M; da Silva, Edileuza Danieli; Battistella, Maria Eduarda; Ferreira, Henrique B; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2016-12-01

    The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus. The aims of this work were the identification and quantitative comparison of proteins found in hydatid fluid from fertile and infertile cysts from E. granulosus, in order to highlight possible mechanisms involved in cyst fertility or infertility. Hydatid fluid samples containing proteins from both E. granulosus and Bos taurus were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our proteomic analysis of fertile and infertile cysts allowed identification of a total of 498 proteins, of which 153 proteins were exclusively identified in the fertile cyst, 271 in the infertile cyst, and 74 in both. Functional in silico analysis allowed us to highlight some important aspects: (i) clues about the possible existence of an "arms race" involving parasite and host responses in fertile and infertile cysts; (ii) a number of proteins in hydatid fluid without functional annotation or with possible alternative functions; (iii) the presence of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Form-stable crystalline polymer pellets for thermal energy storage: high density polyethylene intermediate products. Final report, October 1, 1977--January 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botham, R.A.; Ball, G.L. III; Jenkins, G.H.; Salyer, I.O.

    1978-01-01

    The primary objectives of this program were to demonstrate: (1) that form-stable high density polyethylene (HDPE), which has been shown to have desirable properties as a phase-change type of thermal energy storage material, could be produced by processing in a polyethylene plant for a projected price near 26 cents/lb; and (2) that the raw material, ethylene, will be available in the very long-term from alternate sources (other than petroleum and natural gas). These objectives were accomplished. Production of useful, form-stable HDPE pellets by radiation cross-linking was demonstrated. Such pellets are estimated to be obtainable at 26 cents/lb, using large-volume (> or equal to 10,000,000 lb/yr) in-plant processing. Well-developed technologies exist for obtaining ethylene from coal and plant (or biomass) sources, thus assuring its long-term availability and therefore that of polyethylene. A cost-benefit analysis of the HDPE thermal energy storage system was conducted over its 120 to 140/sup 0/C optimum operating range which is most suited for absorption air conditioning. The HDPE is more cost effective than either rocks, ethylene glycol, or pressurized water and is even competitive with a hypothetical 5 cents/lb salt-hydrate melting in this temperature range. These results applied, as appropriate, to both air and liquid transfer systems.

  13. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...... also shares in vivo properties of assembly and dynamics with IF proteins by forming stable filamentous structures that continuously incorporate subunits along their length and that grow in a nonpolar fashion. De novo assembly of crescentin is biphasic and involves a cell size-dependent mechanism...... a new function for MreB and providing a parallel to the role of actin in IF assembly and organization in metazoan cells. Additionally, analysis of an MreB localization mutant suggests that cell wall insertion during cell elongation normally occurs along two helices of opposite handedness, each...

  14. Heterologous expression and characterization of a "Pseudomature" form of taxadiene synthase involved in paclitaxel (Taxol) biosynthesis and evaluation of a potential intermediate and inhibitors of the multistep diterpene cyclization reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D C; Wildung, M R; Jin, A Q; Dalal, D; Oliver, J S; Coates, R M; Croteau, R

    2000-07-01

    The diterpene cyclase taxadiene synthase from yew (Taxus) species transforms geranylgeranyl diphosphate to taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene as the first committed step in the biosynthesis of the anti-cancer drug Taxol. Taxadiene synthase is translated as a preprotein bearing an N-terminal targeting sequence for localization to and processing in the plastids. Overexpression of the full-length preprotein in Escherichia coli and purification are compromised by host codon usage, inclusion body formation, and association with host chaperones, and the preprotein is catalytically impaired. Since the transit peptide-mature enzyme cleavage site could not be determined directly, a series of N-terminally truncated enzymes was created by expression of the corresponding cDNAs from a suitable vector, and each was purified and kinetically evaluated. Deletion of up to 79 residues yielded functional protein; however, deletion of 93 or more amino acids resulted in complete elimination of activity, implying a structural or catalytic role for the amino terminus. The pseudomature form of taxadiene synthase having 60 amino acids deleted from the preprotein was found to be superior with respect to level of expression, ease of purification, solubility, stability, and catalytic activity with kinetics comparable to the native enzyme. In addition to the major product, taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene (94%), this enzyme produces a small amount of the isomeric taxa-4(20), 11(12)-diene ( approximately 5%), and a product tentatively identified as verticillene ( approximately 1%). Isotopically sensitive branching experiments utilizing (4R)-[4-(2)H(1)]geranylgeranyl diphosphate confirmed that the two taxadiene isomers, and a third (taxa-3(4),11(12)-diene), are derived from the same intermediate taxenyl C4-carbocation. These results, along with the failure of the enzyme to utilize 2, 7-cyclogeranylgeranyl diphosphate as an alternate substrate, indicate that the reaction proceeds by initial ionization of the

  15. Developmental plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda J; Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Alberts, Susan C

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Early life experiences can have profound and persistent effects on traits expressed throughout the life course, with consequences for later life behavior, disease risk, and mortality rates. The shaping of later life traits by early life environments, known as ‘developmental plasticity’, has been well-documented in humans and non-human animals, and has consequently captured the attention of both evolutionary biologists and researchers studying human health. Importantly, the parallel significance of developmental plasticity across multiple fields presents a timely opportunity to build a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon. We aim to facilitate this goal by highlighting key outstanding questions shared by both evolutionary and health researchers, and by identifying theory and empirical work from both research traditions that is designed to address these questions. Specifically, we focus on: (i) evolutionary explanations for developmental plasticity, (ii) the genetics of developmental plasticity and (iii) the molecular mechanisms that mediate developmental plasticity. In each section, we emphasize the conceptual gains in human health and evolutionary biology that would follow from filling current knowledge gaps using interdisciplinary approaches. We encourage researchers interested in developmental plasticity to evaluate their own work in light of research from diverse fields, with the ultimate goal of establishing a cross-disciplinary understanding of developmental plasticity. PMID:29424834

  16. Chloroacetone photodissociation at 193 nm and the subsequent dynamics of the CH3C(O)CH2 radical--an intermediate formed in the OH + allene reaction en route to CH3 + ketene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Bridget W; FitzPatrick, Benjamin L; Szpunar, David E; Butler, Laurie J

    2011-02-07

    We use a combination of crossed laser-molecular beam experiments and velocity map imaging experiments to investigate the primary photofission channels of chloroacetone at 193 nm; we also probe the dissociation dynamics of the nascent CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals formed from C-Cl bond fission. In addition to the C-Cl bond fission primary photodissociation channel, the data evidence another photodissociation channel of the precursor, C-C bond fission to produce CH(3)CO and CH(2)Cl. The CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radical formed from C-Cl bond fission is one of the intermediates in the OH + allene reaction en route to CH(3) + ketene. The 193 nm photodissociation laser allows us to produce these CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals with enough internal energy to span the dissociation barrier leading to the CH(3) + ketene asymptote. Therefore, some of the vibrationally excited CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals undergo subsequent dissociation to CH(3) + ketene products; we are able to measure the velocities of these products using both the imaging and scattering apparatuses. The results rule out the presence of a significant contribution from a C-C bond photofission channel that produces CH(3) and COCH(2)Cl fragments. The CH(3)C(O)CH(2) radicals are formed with a considerable amount of energy partitioned into rotation; we use an impulsive model to explicitly characterize the internal energy distribution. The data are better fit by using the C-Cl bond fission transition state on the S(1) surface of chloroacetone as the geometry at which the impulsive force acts, not the Franck-Condon geometry. Our data suggest that, even under atmospheric conditions, the reaction of OH with allene could produce a small branching to CH(3) + ketene products, rather than solely producing inelastically stabilized adducts. This additional channel offers a different pathway for the OH-initiated oxidation of such unsaturated volatile organic compounds, those containing a C=C=C moiety, than is currently included in atmospheric models.

  17. A unique, highly conserved secretory invertase is differentially expressed by promastigote developmental forms of all species of the human pathogen, Leishmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, Todd A.; Joshi, Manju B.; Andersen, John F.; Kelada, Andrew Y.; Owings, Joshua P.; Bates, Paul A.; Dwyer, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania are protozoan pathogens of humans that exist as extracellular promastigotes in the gut of their sand fly vectors and as obligate intracellular amastigotes within phagolysosomes of infected macrophages. Between infectious blood meal feeds, sand flies take plant juice meals that contain sucrose and store these sugars in their crop. Such sugars are regurgitated into the sand fly anterior midgut where they impact the developing promastigote parasite population. In this report we showed that promastigotes of all Leishmania species secreted an invertase/sucrase enzyme during their growth in vitro. In contrast, neither L. donovani nor L. mexicana amastigotes possessed any detectable invertase activity. Importantly, no released/secreted invertase activity was detected in culture supernatants from either Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma cruzi. Using HPLC, the L. donovani secretory invertase was isolated and subjected to amino acid sequencing. Subsequently, we used a molecular approach to identify the LdINV and LmexINV genes encoding the ~72 kDa invertases produced by these organisms. Interestingly, we identified high fidelity LdINV-like homologs in the genomes of all Leishmania sp. but none were present in either T. brucei or T. cruzi. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that these genes were developmentally/differentially expressed in promastigotes but not amastigotes of these parasites. Homologous transfection studies demonstrated that these genes in fact encoded the functional secretory invertases produced by these parasites. Cumulatively, our results suggest that these secretory enzymes play critical roles in the survival/growth/development and transmission of all Leishmania parasites within their sand fly vector hosts. PMID:25763714

  18. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  19. Tomato UDP-Glucose Sterol Glycosyltransferases: A Family of Developmental and Stress Regulated Genes that Encode Cytosolic and Membrane-Associated Forms of the Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ramirez-Estrada

    2017-06-01

    acid and methyl jasmonate. Stress-induced SlSGT2 expression largely parallels that of SlSGT4. On the contrary, SlSGT1 and SlSGT3 expression remains almost unaltered under the tested stress conditions. Overall, this study contributes to broaden the current knowledge on plant SGTs and provides support to the view that tomato SGTs play overlapping but not completely redundant biological functions involved in mediating developmental and stress responses.

  20. Forming of professional competence of future teachers of physical culture in the process of study of "Developmental Physiology" the methods of the controlled from distance education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchuk E.V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of creation of informative educational environment is considered on the basis of the controlled from distance departmental teaching. One of progressive forms of preparation of future teachers of physical culture is rotined. It is marked that traditional and innovative methods of teaching must be in permanent intercommunication and constantly to complement or partly replace each other if necessary. Going is developed near interactive influence and teaching quality management in an educational process. Directions of forming the professional competence of future teachers of physical culture are rotined. Possibility of creation of the comfortable for students combined educational environment is well-proven. The necessity of perfection of the controlled from distance departmental teaching, creations of the new controlled from distance courses and electronic interactive textbooks, is set. The methods of the use of modern information, of communication technologies and presentation of educational information are recommended.

  1. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  2. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  3. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  4. Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.

  5. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . As this boundary is gradually defined during development, cells enter into new functional relationships, while, at the same time, are relieved from their physical determinism. The resulting constraints can thus become the driving forces that upgrade embryonic scaffolding from the simple molecular signalling...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  6. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  7. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  8. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  9. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  10. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  11. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  12. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  13. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  14. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  15. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  16. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  17. Dioxin-induced up-regulation of the active form of vitamin D is the main cause for its inhibitory action on osteoblast activities, leading to developmental bone toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Noriko; Nishimura, Hisao; Ito, Tomohiro; Miyata, Chie; Izumi, Keiko; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) is known to cause bone toxicity, particularly during animal development, although its action mechanism to cause this toxicity has yet to be elucidated. Mouse pups were exposed to TCDD via dam's milk that were administered orally with 15 μg TCDD/kg b.w. on postnatal day 1. Here we report that TCDD causes up-regulation of vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase in kidney, resulting in a 2-fold increase in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , in serum. This action of TCDD is not caused by changes in parathyroid hormone, a decrease in vitamin D degrading enzyme, vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, or alterations in serum Ca 2+ concentration. Vitamin D is known to affect bone mineralization. Our data clearly show that TCDD-exposed mice exhibit a marked decrease in osteocalcin and collagen type 1 as well as alkaline phosphatase gene expression in tibia by postnatal day 21, which is accompanied with a mineralization defect in the tibia, lowered activity of osteoblastic bone formation, and an increase in fibroblastic growth factor-23, a sign of increased vitamin D effect. Despite these significant effects of TCDD on osteoblast activities, none of the markers of osteoclast activities was found to be affected. Histomorphometry confirmed that osteoblastic activity, but not bone resorption activity, was altered by TCDD. A prominent lesion commonly observed in these TCDD-treated mice was impaired bone mineralization that is characterized by an increased volume and thickness of osteoids lining both the endosteum of the cortical bone and trabeculae. Together, these data suggest that the impaired mineralization resulting from reduction of the osteoblastic activity, which is caused by TCDD-induced up-regulation of vitamin D, is responsible for its bone developmental toxicity.

  18. Cross-Modal Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Parra, Mario A.; Logie, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based…

  19. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  20. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. © 2013 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2013 Japanese Teratology Society.

  1. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  2. Information acquisition and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchenko, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...

  3. Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-03-13

    Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.

  4. Structure and reactivity of bis(silyl) dihydride complexes (PMe(3))(3)Ru(SiR(3))(2)(H)(2): model compounds and real intermediates in a dehydrogenative C-Si bond forming reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioumaev, Vladimir K; Yoo, Bok R; Procopio, Leo J; Carroll, Patrick J; Berry, Donald H

    2003-07-23

    A series of stable complexes, (PMe(3))(3)Ru(SiR(3))(2)(H)(2) ((SiR(3))(2) = (SiH(2)Ph)(2), 3a; (SiHPh(2))(2), 3b; (SiMe(2)CH(2)CH(2)SiMe(2)), 3c), has been synthesized by the reaction of hydridosilanes with (PMe(3))(3)Ru(SiMe(3))H(3) or (PMe(3))(4)Ru(SiMe(3))H. Compounds 3a and 3c adopt overall pentagonal bipyramidal geometries in solution and the solid state, with phosphine and silyl ligands defining trigonal bipyramids and ruthenium hydrides arranged in the equatorial plane. Compound 3a exhibits meridional phosphines, with both silyl ligands equatorial, whereas the constraints of the chelate in 3c result in both axial and equatorial silyl environments and facial phosphines. Although there is no evidence for agostic Si-H interactions in 3a and 3b, the equatorial silyl group in 3c is in close contact with one hydride (1.81(4) A) and is moderately close to the other hydride (2.15(3) A) in the solid state and solution (nu(Ru.H.Si) = 1740 cm(-)(1) and nu(RuH) = 1940 cm(-)(1)). The analogous bis(silyl) dihydride, (PMe(3))(3)Ru(SiMe(3))(2)(H)(2) (3d), is not stable at room temperature, but can be generated in situ at low temperature from the 16e(-) complex (PMe(3))(3)Ru(SiMe(3))H (1) and HSiMe(3). Complexes 3b and 3d have been characterized by multinuclear, variable temperature NMR and appear to be isostructural with 3a. All four complexes exhibit dynamic NMR spectra, but the slow exchange limit could not be observed for 3c. Treatment of 1 with HSiMe(3) at room temperature leads to formation of (PMe(3))(3)Ru(SiMe(2)CH(2)SiMe(3))H(3) (4b) via a CH functionalization process critical to catalytic dehydrocoupling of HSiMe(3) at higher temperatures. Closer inspection of this reaction between -110 and -10 degrees C by NMR reveals a plethora of silyl hydride phosphine complexes formed by ligand redistribution prior to CH activation. Above ca. 0 degrees C this mixture converts cleanly via silane dehydrogenation to the very stable tris(phosphine) trihydride carbosilyl complex 4b

  5. 77 FR 43335 - Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Agency Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Financial Status Reporting Form for State Councils on Developmental Disabilities AGENCY... hours per Total burden respondents respondent response hours Financial Status Reporting Form for State...

  6. [Developmental venous anomaly (DVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Hagen, T; Ahlhelm, F; Viera, J; Reith, W; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G

    2007-10-01

    As congenital anatomic variants of venous drainage, developmental venous anomalies (DVA) represent up to 60% of all cerebral vascular malformations. The prior term "venous angioma" is a misnomer implicating an abnormal vascular structure with an increased bleeding risk. They are often found incidentally and are hardly ever symptomatic. Their morphologic characteristics are dilated vessels in the white matter, which converge on a greater collector vein, forming the typical caput medusae. They drain into the superficial or deep venous system. The frequent association with other, potentially bleeding-prone vascular malformations is clinically relevant, in particular cavernous angioma, which might require therapeutic action. Therefore, coincident vascular lesions need to be actively sought by appropriate additional imaging techniques.

  7. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  8. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  9. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  10. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  11. The language of dogs: intermediate forms in global culture | Green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It examines their own attitudes towards, and their epistemological stance in, our unsettled primate universe. Levaillant and Marais, in writing of captive and wild baboons, find they are writing more generally of the cost of domestication, of the loss of some original power. In the case of Levaillant, the stance he produces – that ...

  12. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  13. Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.

  14. Assembly of intermediates for rapid membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max; Wickner, William

    2018-01-26

    Membrane fusion is essential for intracellular protein sorting, cell growth, hormone secretion, and neurotransmission. Rapid membrane fusion requires tethering and Sec1-Munc18 (SM) function to catalyze R-, Qa-, Qb-, and Qc-SNARE complex assembly in trans , as well as SNARE engagement by the SNARE-binding chaperone Sec17/αSNAP. The hexameric vacuolar HOPS ( ho motypic fusion and vacuole p rotein s orting) complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae tethers membranes through its affinities for the membrane Rab GTPase Ypt7. HOPS also has specific affinities for the vacuolar SNAREs and catalyzes SNARE complex assembly, but the order of their assembly into a 4-SNARE complex is unclear. We now report defined assembly intermediates on the path to membrane fusion. We found that a prefusion intermediate will assemble with HOPS and the R, Qa, and Qc SNAREs, and that this assembly undergoes rapid fusion upon addition of Qb and Sec17. HOPS-tethered membranes and all four vacuolar SNAREs formed a complex that underwent an even more dramatic burst of fusion upon Sec17p addition. These findings provide initial insights into an ordered fusion pathway consisting of the following intermediates and events: 1) Rab- and HOPS-tethered membranes, 2) a HOPS:R:Qa:Qc trans -complex, 3) a HOPS:4-SNARE trans -complex, 4) an engagement with Sec17, and 5) the rapid lipid rearrangements during fusion. In conclusion, our results indicate that the R:Qa:Qc complex forms in the context of membrane, Ypt7, HOPS, and trans -SNARE assembly and serves as a functional intermediate for rapid fusion after addition of the Qb-SNARE and Sec17 proteins. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanabin, transitin and nestin are type VI intermediate filament (IF proteins that are developmentally regulated in frogs, birds and mammals, respectively. Tanabin is expressed in the growth cones of embryonic vertebrate neurons, whereas transitin and nestin are found in myogenic and neurogenic cells. Another type VI IF protein, synemin, is expressed in undifferentiated and mature muscle cells of birds and mammals. In addition to an IF-typical α-helical core domain, type VI IF proteins are characterized by a long C-terminal tail often containing distinct repeated motifs. The molecular evolution of type VI IF proteins remains poorly studied. Results To examine the evolutionary history of type VI IF proteins, sequence comparisons, BLAST searches, synteny studies and phylogenic analyses were performed. This study provides new evidence that tanabin, transitin and nestin are indeed orthologous type VI IF proteins. It demonstrates that tanabin, transitin and nestin genes share intron positions and sequence identities, have a similar chromosomal context and display closely related positions in phylogenic analyses. Despite this homology, fast evolution rates of their C-terminal extremity have caused the appearance of repeated motifs with distinct biological activities. In particular, our in silico and in vitro analyses of their tail domain have shown that (avian transitin, but not (mammalian nestin, contains a repeat domain displaying nucleotide hydrolysis activity. Conclusion These analyses of the evolutionary history of the IF proteins fit with a model in which type VI IFs form a branch distinct from NF proteins and are composed of two major proteins: synemin and nestin orthologs. Rapid evolution of the C-terminal extremity of nestin orthologs could be responsible for their divergent functions.

  16. The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda B.; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    What are the essential properties of human intelligence, currently unparalleled in its power relative to other biological forms and relative to artificial forms of intelligence? We suggest that answering this question depends critically on understanding developmental process. This paper considers three principles potentially essential to building…

  17. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  18. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  19. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  20. [Developmental sequel of prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwich, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Severe developmental impairment in children born as extremly prematures include cerebral palsy, subnormal cognitive function, deafness and blindness. The rate of severe disabilities range from 5 to 30%. This article reviews what is known about early brain injury and its developmental sequel.

  1. Forma intermediária de síndrome de Foix-Chavany-Marie / síndrome de Worster-Drought associada a movimentos involuntários: aspectos neuropsicológicos e fonoaudiológicos Intermediary form of Foix-Chavany-Marie / Worster-Drought syndromes associated to involuntary movements: neuropsychological and phonoaudiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gadelha Vasconcelos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Foix-Chavany-Marie (SFCM caracteriza-se por apraxia da fala associada à paralisia bilateral da face, palato mole, língua e musculatura da faringe, mas com preservação das funções reflexas e automáticas. Na síndrome de Worster-Drought (SWD, há predomínio da disartria. Descrevemos o caso de uma jovem de 18 anos, que apresenta os achados clínicos e radiológicos compatíveis com a forma intermediária de SFCM/SWD, acompanhados de movimentos involuntários (coréia e distonia, fato de ocorrência rara na descrição destas síndromes.The Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome (FCMS is characterized by apraxia of speech associated to bilateral central facio-linguo-velo-pharyngeal paralysis, with automatic-voluntary dissociation. In Worster-Drought Syndrome (WDS, dysarthria is remarkable. We report an 18-year-old female, with clinical and radiological findings of intermediary form of FCMS/WDS, and showing involuntary movements, an unusual fact.

  2. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  3. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....

  4. Intermediate Infrastructure Analyst | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent conducts research on technologies and tools that might enhance service delivery and where appropriate, makes recommendations to management. The Intermediate Infrastructure System Analyst provides leadership and direction to junior team members and functional direction to consultants and ...

  5. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  6. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  7. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  8. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to maternal infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection ; complications after birth; and head trauma. Some ... an increased risk for many developmental disabilities. Untreated newborn jaundice (high levels of bilirubin in the blood ...

  9. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols. It is also called dyslexia. Causes Developmental reading ... child's early reading skills are based on word recognition. That involves being able to separate out the ...

  10. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  11. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  12. Isolation and characterization of developmentally regulated novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    region of the genome. These target sites control the developmental expression of genes. In the present paper we have ... communicating signals to the general transcription machinery that forms a preinitiation complex (PIC) at ..... (Jonassen et al., 1995, 1997) and derived fuzzy sequence patterns, which included at least five ...

  13. Intermediate-Level Knowledge in Child-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Torgersson, Olof; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of all papers at IDC from 2003 to 2016 this paper urges the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) field to start formulating intermediate-level knowledge, in the form of e.g. strong concepts. Our analysis showed that 40% of all papers at the Interaction Design and Children confere...

  14. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 5 ... The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster ... School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004, India ...

  15. Intermediate obtained from photoionization, serving as precursor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we have introduced an intermediate benzyl carbocation (formed as a result of photoionization) which serves as precursor for the synthesis of Schiff's base. Lifetimes of many carbocations were determined from our laboratory. During the determination of the lifetimes, our endeavor was to obtain a carbocation ...

  16. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Abstract. The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), with refer- ence to various effects such as deformation and orientation, temperature, angular momentum etc. Based on the ...

  17. Gut content studies of aquatic snail intermediate hosts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural diets of Bulinus (P) globosus, Bulinus rohlfsi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, gastropod intermediate hosts of the Schistosoma parasite were investigated by examining their gut content. It was found that the diet of B. globosus consisted of rotifers, various forms of algae, diatoms, macrophytic tissue and spore-like materials ...

  18. Identification of intermediate species in protein-folding by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -states, namely the native (N) and unfolded (U) forms of the protein present at any condition of the solvent, from a situation wherein intermediate state(s) could also be present. This differentiation of a two-state from a multi-state structural ...

  19. Neurodevelopmental disabilities in children with intermediate and premutation range fragile X cytosine-guanine-guanine expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Meredith M; Voigt, Robert G; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Highsmith, W Edward; Vinson, Sherry S; Sadowski, Christine M; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-03-01

    To determine the range of neurodevelopmental diagnoses associated with intermediate (45-54 repeats) and premutation (55-200 repeats) range cytosine-guanine-guanine fragile X expansions, the medical records of children with intermediate or premutation range expansions were retrospectively reviewed, and all neurodevelopmental diagnoses were abstracted. Twenty-nine children (9 female, 20 male; age, 13 months to 17 years) with intermediate (n = 25) or premutation (n = 4) range expansions were identified with neurodevelopmental diagnoses, including global developmental delay/intellectual disability (n = 15), language and learning disorders (n = 9), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 5), epilepsy (n = 5), and motor disorders (n = 12), including 2 boys younger than 4 years of age with tremor and ataxia. Thus, children with intermediate or premutation range fragile X cytosine-guanine-guanine expansions may be more susceptible than children without such expansions to other processes, both genetic and environmental, that contribute to neurodevelopmental disability.

  20. Environmental issues of an intermediate city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Our urban centers present a unique dimension of environmental problems. They are at one and the same time, enormous consumers of natural resources and produces of waste and pollution. In this respect intermediate cities and small towns appear to be more vulnerable to natural catastrophes and ecological accidents caused by human factors. While in large cities there exist pressure groups which attain government attention for the solution of their problems and have well equipped municipalities. However, a vast majority of the population lives in rural areas and depends upon medium sized cities and towns for access to services. These cities and towns form the pivot of economic, social, cultural and political life for a large part of the population. Therefore, it deserves more attention than bigger ones. This paper explores local people perception about urban environmental problems exist in the city. Attempts are also made to shape and guide municipality efforts to overcome such problems with available resources. (author)

  1. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  2. Population changes in Leishmania chagasi promastigote developmental stages due to serial passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Soi Meng; Romine, Nathan M; Beetham, Jeffrey K

    2010-12-01

    Leishmania chagasi causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially fatal disease of humans. Within the sand fly vector, L. chagasi replicates as promastigotes which undergo complex changes in morphology as they progress from early stage procyclic promastigotes, to intermediate stage leptomonad and nectomonad promastigotes, and ultimately to terminal stage metacyclic promastigotes that are highly infective to vertebrates. This developmental progression is largely recapitulated in vitro using axenic promastigote cultures that have been passaged only a few times. Within a single passage (which takes about a week), axenic cultures progress from logarithmic to stationary growth phases; parasites within those growth phases progress from stages that do not have metacyclic cell properties to ones that do. Interestingly, repeated serial passage of promastigote cultures will result in cell populations that exhibit perturbations in developmental progression, in expression levels of surface macromolecules (major surface protease, MSP, and promastigote surface antigen, PSA), and in virulence properties, including resistance to serum lysis. Experiments were performed to determine whether there exists a direct relationship between promastigote developmental form and perturbations associated with repeated serial passage. Passage 2 to passage 4 L. chagasi cultures at stationary growth phase were predominately (>85%) comprised of metacyclic promastigotes and exhibited high resistance to serum lysis and high levels of MSP and PSA. Serial passaging 8, or more, times resulted in a stationary phase population that was largely (>85%) comprised of nectomonad promastigotes, almost completely devoid (PSA. The study suggests that the loss of particular cell properties seen in cells from serially passaged cultures is principally due to a dramatic reduction in the proportion of metacyclic promastigotes. Additionally, the study suggests that serially passaged cultures may be a highly enriched

  3. Parental experiences during the first period at the neonatal unit after two developmental care interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.; Cessie, S. le; Wit, J.; Walther, F.; Bruil, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Developmental care has gained increased attention in the individualized care for preterm infants. This study was designed to explore the effect of a basic form of developmental care and the more extended Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) on parental

  4. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  5. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, A. E.; Lomov, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    We show that calculation of a final fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable both for final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion. The most evident application is related with consistent description of t-quark polarization.

  6. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...

  7. Intermediate neutron detection by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.N. dos; Muccillo, R.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) studies were carried out in cold-pressed CaSO 4 :Dy + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl and CaF 2 + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl polycrystalline samples exposed to mixed neutron-gamma fields, for the detection of intermediate neutrons which is based on the evaluation of the TL signal of the specimens stored for 24 hours after being exposed to a mixed neutron-gamma field and thermally annealed to erase the total radiation-induced TL. The addition of Dy 2 O 3 to CaSO 4 :Dy in the proportion 1:2 increased the neutron response by a factor of 160 relative to that of CaSO 4 :Dy. 180 mg of CaSO 4 :Dy + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl in the proportion 2:1:3 showed to be an appropriate detector of intermediate neutrons; the minimum detectable fluence was estimated to be 3.5 x 10 5 neutrons/cm 2 . (Author) [pt

  8. The developmental trajectory of leaflet morphology in wild tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Headland, Lauren R; Kumar, Ravi; Peng, Jie; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima R

    2012-03-01

    Leaves between species vary in their size, serration, complexity, and shape. However, phylogeny is not the only predictor of leaf morphology. The shape of a leaf is the result of intricate developmental processes, including heteroblastic progression (changes in leaf size and shape at different nodes) and the developmental stage of an organ. The leaflets that arise from complex leaves are additionally modified by their positioning along the proximal-distal axis of a leaf and whether they fall on the left or right side of leaves. Even further, leaves are environmentally responsive, and their final shape is influenced by environmental inputs. Here, we comprehensively describe differences in leaflet shape between wild tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) species using a principal component analysis on elliptical Fourier descriptors arising from >11,000 sampled leaflets. We leverage differences in developmental rate to approximate a developmental series, which allows us to resolve the confounding differences in intrinsic leaflet form and developmental stage along positions of the heteroblastic leaf series and proximal-distal axis of leaves. We find that the resulting developmental trajectory of organs at different positions along these axes are useful for describing the changes in leaflet shape that occur during the shade avoidance response in tomato. We argue that it is the developmental trajectory, the changes in shape that occur over developmental time in organs reiterated at multiple positions, that is the relevant phenotype for discerning differences between populations and species, and to understand the underlying developmental processes that change during evolution.

  9. Intermediation in Open Development: A Knowledge Stewardship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. A. Reilly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open Development (OD is a subset of ICT4D that studies the potential of IT-enabled openness to support social change among poor or marginalized populations. Early OD work examined the potential of IT-enabled openness to decentralize power and enable public engagement by disintermediating knowledge production and dissemination. However, in practice, intermediaries have emerged to facilitate open data and related knowledge production activities in development processes. We identify five models of intermediation in OD work: decentralized, arterial, ecosystem, bridging, and communities of practice and examine the implications of each for stewardship of open processes. We conclude that studying OD through these five forms of intermediation is a productive way of understanding whether and how different patterns of knowledge stewardship influence development outcomes. We also offer suggestions for future research that can improve our understanding of how to sustain openness, facilitate public engagement, and ensure that intermediation contributes to open development.

  10. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  11. Learning Developmental Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James M.; Weintraub, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an educational intervention designed to promote the ability and willingness of MBA students to lead through coaching. MBA leadership students are trained to serve as coaches for undergraduate business students in a developmental assessment center. In this compelling context, their main source of influence is the ability to…

  12. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  13. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  14. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  15. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones On this page: How do speech ... and language developmental milestones? How do speech and language develop? The first 3 years of life, when ...

  16. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy Page Content ​In the spirit of making both ... at the well-defined developmental milestones of early literacy. Younger Than 6 Months: Never Too Young Unlike ...

  17. Developmental Purposes of Commercial Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Listed are 45 table, target, manipulative, active, and creative games with such developmental purposes as associative learning, tactile discrimination, and visual motor integration. Information includes the name of the item, distributor, price, description, and developmental purpose. (JYC)

  18. Developmental Mathematics Students: Who are They and What is Their Mathematics Self-Efficacy?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Baxter; Alan Bates; Adel Tawfig Al-Bataineh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine differences in developmental mathematics students’ self-efficacy within the demographic data from the survey. Data from a sample of 240 Intermediate Algebra students at a single four-year university using the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Results indicate that males possess higher levels of mathematics self-efficacy and confidence with their mathematical abilities than females. Students who completed a lower developmental mathematics course ...

  19. Intermediate processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, M.

    1983-01-01

    The main results presented here cannot be interpreted in terms of the direct reaction model or the statistical models and one can more or less explicitely use some nuclear configurations for their interpretation. The first chapter deals with the so-called second order intermediate structures observed in the elastic and inelastic proton scattering on 66 Zn and 70 Ge targets in the energetic regions of some isobaric analog resonances. A formal theory for their interpretation is developed and the comparison with the experimental data is presented. New experimental results on the resonant structures observed in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 12 C on 24 Mg are presented in the second chapter. Detailed statistical analysis and their interpretation is presented too. Charge equilibration in deep inelastic collisions is the main subject of the third chapter. The experimental results obtained by the 98 Mo + 154 Sm collision at 12 MeV/n, a quantum treatment of a damped harmonic oscillator and the comparison with the experimental data are given. In the last chapter, some results on the existence of two other processes which could candidate to be involved in the main topic are presented. Those processes are: the fast fragmentation and preequilibrium charged particles emission. All these processes originate in the excitation of some simple configurations which can be seen on ''doorway'' states (''Hallway'' in the case of the second intermediate structures). The coupling of these states to other more complicated excitation modes of the nuclei and to outgoing channel=gives the possibility to study the nuclear dynamics. This justifies the interest for their detailed theoretical and experimental investigations. (author)

  20. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    semi-conscious form of existence between death and the resurrection. Jesus' teachings here are not ... thus leading to the conception that it existed in hidden form between the creation and the end (TLevi 18: lOf; TDan 5: ...... Second, Paul claims that God's secret purpose mustërion which has been revealed to him concerns ...

  1. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  2. Structural and kinetic studies on native intermediates and an intermediate analogue in benzoylformate decarboxylase reveal a least motion mechanism with an unprecedented short-lived predecarboxylation intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Marc; Berheide, Marco; Meyer, Danilo; Golbik, Ralph; Bartunik, Hans; Liese, Andreas; Tittmann, Kai

    2009-04-21

    The thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent enzyme benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) catalyzes the nonoxidative decarboxylation of benzoylformic acid to benzaldehyde and carbon dioxide. To date, no structural information for a cofactor-bound reaction intermediate in BFDC is available. For kinetic analysis, a chromophoric substrate analogue was employed that produces various absorbing intermediates during turnover but is a poor substrate with a 10(4)-fold compromised kcat. Here, we have analyzed the steady-state distribution of native intermediates by a combined chemical quench/1H NMR spectroscopic approach and estimated the net rate constants of elementary catalytic steps. At substrate saturation, carbonyl addition of the substrate to the cofactor (k' approximately 500 s-1 at 30 degrees C) and elimination of benzaldehyde (k' approximately 2.400 s-1) were found to be partially rate-determining for catalysis, whereas decarboxylation of the transient 2-mandelyl-ThDP intermediate is 1 order of magnitude faster with k' approximately 16.000 s-1, the largest rate constant of decarboxylation in any thiamin enzyme characterized so far. The X-ray structure of a predecarboxylation intermediate analogue was determined to 1.6 A after cocrystallization of BFDC from Pseudomonas putida with benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester. In contrast to the free acid, for which irreversible phosphorylation of active center Ser26 was reported, the methyl ester forms a covalent adduct with ThDP with a similar configuration at C2alpha as observed for other thiamin enzymes. The C2-C2alpha bond of the intermediate analogue is out of plane by 7degrees, indicating strain. The phosphonate part of the adduct forms hydrogen bonds with Ser26 and His281, and the 1-OH group is held in place by interactions with His70 and the 4'-amino group of ThDP. The phenyl ring accommodates in a hydrophobic pocket formed by Phe464, Phe397, Leu109, and Leu403. A comparison with the previously determined structure of

  3. Structure-dependent reactivity of Criegee intermediates studied with spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr-Min Lin, Jim; Chao, Wen

    2017-12-11

    Criegee intermediates are very reactive carbonyl oxides that are formed in reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons with ozone (ozonolysis). Recently, Criegee intermediates have gained significant attention since a new preparation method has been reported in 2012, which employs the reaction of iodoalkyl radical with molecular oxygen: for instance, CH 2 I + O 2 → CH 2 OO + I. This new synthesis route can produce Criegee intermediates with a high number density, which allows direct detection of the Criegee intermediate via various spectroscopic tools, including vacuum UV photoionization mass spectrometry, absorption and action spectroscopy in the UV and IR regions, and microwave spectroscopy. Criegee intermediates have been thought to play important roles in atmospheric chemistry, such as in OH radical formation as well as oxidation of atmospheric gases such as SO 2 , NO 2 , volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic acids, and even water. These reactions are relevant to acid rain and aerosol formation. Kinetics data including rate coefficients, product yields and their temperature and pressure dependences are important for understanding and modeling relevant atmospheric chemistry. In fundamental physical chemistry, Criegee intermediates have unique and interesting features, which have been partially revealed through spectroscopic, kinetic, and dynamic investigations. Although previous review articles have discussed Criegee intermediates, new data and knowledge on Criegee intermediates are still being accumulated. In this tutorial review, we have focused on structure-dependent reactivity of Criegee intermediates and various spectroscopic tools that have been utilized to probe the kinetics of Criegee intermediates.

  4. Preparation of dispersible graphene through organic functionalization of graphene using a zwitterion intermediate cycloaddition approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2012-01-01

    Highly functionalized graphene were obtained through a zwitterion intermediate cycloaddition onto exfoliated graphene flakes under new reaction conditions. The functionalized graphene obtained formed stable dispersions in common solvents, including dimethylformamide (DMF), CHCl3 and water. Its

  5. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....

  6. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  7. Optimal design of the cable metro with unified intermediate supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article was formulated and solved the problem of conditional nonlinear technical and economic optimization of the distance between intermediate supports, uniform in height, during the design of the cable metro lines in highly urban-ized city environment. The optimization problem involves a single-criterion objective function that expresses the cost of construction of the cable metro line (total cost of intermediate supports and their foundations, traction and carrying steel cables and technical equipment. The specified objective function subject to minimization by finding the optimal combination of the distance between intermediate supports and tension carrying ropes with accounting constructive, modal, structural and planning constraints in the form of nonlinear inequalities. The optimization algorithm was based on the direct method of optimization type, Hooke-Jeeves, which was modified taking into account the need of varying the height of intermediate supports with a constant step equal to the step of unification. When constructing the objective function were considered three possible forms sagging of carrying ropes, which can be implemented for various values of the efforts of their tension. Analysis was done of the influence of the step unification and minimum size of interme-diate supports on their optimum step, the cost of intermediate supports, the cost of 1 km cable metro line for different values of the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief along the cable metro line. The graph of height of uni-fied supports from the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief has discrete-step type. With the increase of the step unify the discreteness increases: the width of the range of angles of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief within which the height of the supports remains constant, increases. The graph of step installation of unified supports along the cable metro line from the angle of the longitudinal

  8. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  9. Fetal intermediate lobe is stimulated by parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, F; Lanzani, A; Genazzani, A R

    1989-11-01

    The fetal pituitary gland secretes beta-endorphin in blood in response to delivery. However, other forms of endorphin have recently been observed in the fetal pituitary, such as N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, which is devoid of opiate activity, and a desacetylated form of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Both endorphins originate in the pituitary intermediate lobe. The sensitivity of this lobe to labor stress was assessed by the evaluation of beta-endorphin, N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in maternal plasma and cord blood in 11 cases of vaginal delivery and 10 cases of elective cesarean section without labor. Plasma peptide levels were determined by specific radioimmunoassays after extraction on Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation. Cord blood samples of infants delivered vaginally showed higher beta-endorphin (8.5 +/- 1.6 pmol/L, mean +/- SE) and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) levels than those delivered by elective cesarean section (3.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.2 +/- 1.1 pmol/L, for beta-endorphin and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, respectively). N-acetyl-beta-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone levels do not differ in relation to the mode of delivery. In maternal circulation beta-endorphin levels were higher in those delivered vaginally (5.2 pm 1) than in women who had cesarean sections (2.5 +/- 0.5 pmol/L), whereas no changes were found for the other peptides. In vaginal deliveries, the level of desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was higher in cord blood (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) than in maternal plasma (6.5 +/- 3 pmol/L); there were no significant differences with regard to the other peptides. Fetal and maternal levels of all the peptides were similar in cases of cesarean section. We conclude that parturition activates proopiomelanocortin peptide release from

  10. Compact Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Yipeng

    2003-01-01

    In Phase I, we demonstrate the feasibility of making supported electronically insulating, proton conducting inorganic thin films on metal hydride foils for intermediate temperature fuel cell electrolytes...

  11. Effect of Internal Factors and External Factors on Learning Achievement Intermediate Financial Accounting Course I

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Syamsul; Diana, Nana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of internal and external factors of students on the achievement of intermediate financial accounting courses 1 partially and simultaneously. This type of research is quantitative, while the data used in this study is primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data in the form of midterm semester exam on intermediate financial accounting 1 semester odd academic year 2016/2017. Hypothesis testing using multiple regression analy...

  12. 236 children with developmental hydrocephalus: causes and clinical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed MRIs and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to one of five subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics, developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth. 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. 53% of surgically-treated patients experienced at least one shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms. PMID:26184484

  13. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.; Samarchenko, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies an...

  14. Intermediate inflation in a generalized induced-gravity scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Carlos [Universidad de Atacama, Departamento de Fisica, Copiapo (Chile); Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-15

    An intermediate inflationary Universe model in the context of non-minimal coupling to the scalar curvature is analyzed. We will conduct our analysis in the slow-roll approximation of the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form F(φ) = κ + ξ{sub n}φ{sup n}. Considering the trajectories in the r-n{sub s} plane from the Planck data, we find the constraints on the parameter space in our model. (orig.)

  15. Early photolysis intermediates of gecko and bovine artificial visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Livnah, N; Kuwata, O; Jäger, S; Kliger, D S

    1997-11-25

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on digitonin extracts of artificial pigments prepared from the cone-type visual pigment, P521, of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina. Artificial pigments were prepared by regeneration of bleached gecko photoreceptor membranes with 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-14-methylretinal, or 9-cis-alpha-retinal. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic data for all three artificial gecko pigments to be best fit by two-exponential processes. These two-exponential decays correspond to similar decays observed after photolysis of P521 itself, with the first process being the decay of the equilibrated P521 BathoP521 BSI mixture to P521 Lumi and the second process being the decay of P521 Lumi to P521 Meta I. In spite of its large blue shift relative to P521, iso-P521 displays a normal chloride depletion induced blue shift. Iso-P521's early intermediates up to Lumi were also blue-shifted, with the P521 BathoP521 BSI equilibrated mixture being 15 nm blue-shifted and P521 Lumi being 8 nm blue-shifted relative to the intermediates formed after P521 photolysis. The blue shift associated with the iso-pigment is reduced or disappears entirely by P521 Meta I. Similar blue shifts were observed for the early intermediates observed after photolysis of bovine isorhodopsin, with the Lumi intermediate blue-shifted 5 nm compared to the Lumi intermediate formed after photolysis of bovine rhodopsin. These shifts indicate that a difference exists between the binding sites of 9- and 11-cis pigments which persists for microseconds at 20 degrees C.

  16. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  17. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  18. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests — Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and CP-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results from previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  19. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  20. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  1. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  2. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  3. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  4. Brazil : Interest Rates and Intermediation Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This study sheds light on the analytical and policy issues regarding the high intermediation spread in Brazil, focusing on its determinants, the reasons for its persistence, and its impact on the real economy, especially on access to finance for Brazilian firms. The key contention of the analysis is that high intermediation spreads are a symptom of underlying problems; as such, spreads constitute ...

  5. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  6. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection.

  7. Why Words Are Hard for Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla K.; Licandro, Ulla; Arenas, Richard; Eden, Nichole; Stiles, Derek; Bean, Allison; Walker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether word learning problems associated with developmental language impairment (LI) reflect deficits in encoding or subsequent remembering of forms and meanings. Method: Sixty-nine 18-to 25-year-olds with LI or without (the normal development [ND] group) took tests to measure learning of 16 word forms and meanings…

  8. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  9. Temporal genetic structure in a poecilogonous polychaete: the interplay of developmental mode and environmental stochasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Kesäniemi, Jenni E; Mustonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    elegans, a poecilogonous polychaete with within-species variation in developmental mode. P. elegans produces either planktonic, benthic, or intermediate larvae, varying both among and within populations, providing a within-species test of the generality of a relationship between temporal genetic variation...

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  11. Developmental coordination disorder - literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Title: Developmental coordination disorder - literature review Objectives: The theoretical part talks about developmental coordination disorder, its diagnosis, investigations, etiology and division during the different ages of the child. The practical part compares the studies relating to atypical development of motor skills in children with developmental coordination disorder. In diploma thesis was often used shortcut CKP and DCD, depending on the source from which it was drawn. DCD is the E...

  12. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  14. A taxometric investigation of developmental dyslexia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W

    2012-02-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with severe reading disorders. Latent characteristics of the sample are assessed in regard to posited subtypes with phonological deficits and naming speed deficits, thus extending prior work by addressing whether these deficits embody separate classes of individuals. Findings support separate taxa of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits. Different latent structure for naming speed deficits was found depending on the definitional criterion used to define dyslexia. Non-phonologically based forms of dyslexia showed particular difficulty with naming speed and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evolution and coevolution of developmental programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian

    1999-09-01

    The developmental processes of single organisms, such as growth and structure formation, can be described by parallel rewrite systems in the form of Lindenmayer systems, which also allow one to generate geometrical structures in 3D space using turtle interpretation. We present examples of L-systems for growth programs of plant-like structures. Evolution-based programming techniques are applied to design L-systems by Genetic L-system Programming (GLP), demonstrating how developmental programs for plants, exhibiting specific morphogenetic properties can be interactively bred or automatically evolved. Finally, we demonstrate coevolutionary effects among plant populations consisting of different species, interacting with each other, competing for resources like sunlight and nutrients, and evolving successful reproduction strategies in their specific environments.

  16. Critical Thinking Skills of U.S. Air Force Senior and Intermediate Developmental Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Bloom’s taxonomy and presenting a case study.45 In short, the guide was only an introduction and insufficient for the development of CT skills. The Army...Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test Preparation Program on the Critical Thinking of Teacher Education Program Applicants,” (PhD diss...research project used the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal to establish a baseline of current CT skills among active duty Air Force (AF) officers

  17. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  18. I. DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY AS A CENTRAL SUBDISCIPLINE OF DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A

    2017-06-01

    This first chapter introduces the main goals of the monograph and previews the remaining chapters. The goals of this monograph are to provide summaries of our current understanding of advanced developmental methodologies, provide information that can advance our understanding of human development, identify shortcomings in our understanding of developmental methodology, and serve as a flagpost for organizing developmental methodology as a subdiscipline within the broader field of developmental science. The remaining chapters in this monograph address issues in design (sampling and big data), longitudinal data analysis, and issues of replication and research accumulation. The final chapter describes the history of developmental methodology, considers how the previous chapters in this monograph fit within this subdiscipline, and offers recommendations for further advancement. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  20. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  1. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age......In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  2. The Leiden Developmental Care Project : effects of developmental care on behavior and quality of life of very preterm infants and parental and staff experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Sylvia Maria van der

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores the effects of a basic form of developmental care (the use of incubator covers and nests) and the more extended Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) on health related quality of life and behavior of very preterm infants. The effects on

  3. The Leiden developmental care project : effects of developmental care on behavior and quality of life of very preterm infants and parental and staff experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores the effects of a basic form of developmental care (the use of incubator covers and nests) and the more extended Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) on health related quality of life and behavior of very preterm infants. The effects on

  4. Intermediate Frequency Digital Receiver Based on Multi-FPGA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengchang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at high-cost, large-size, and inflexibility problems of traditional analog intermediate frequency receiver in the aerospace telemetry, tracking, and command (TTC system, we have proposed a new intermediate frequency (IF digital receiver based on Multi-FPGA system in this paper. Digital beam forming (DBF is realized by coordinated rotation digital computer (CORDIC algorithm. An experimental prototype has been developed on a compact Multi-FPGA system with three FPGAs to receive 16 channels of IF digital signals. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme is able to provide a great convenience for the design of IF digital receiver, which offers a valuable reference for real-time, low power, high density, and small size receiver design.

  5. Structural characterization of an equilibrium unfolding intermediate in cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, Ramil F; Cheng, Hong; Roder, Navid A; Zhang, Jiaru; Roder, Heinrich

    2006-03-31

    Although the denaturant-induced unfolding transition of cytochrome c was initially thought to be a cooperative process, recent spectroscopic studies have shown deviations from two-state behavior consistent with accumulation of an equilibrium intermediate. However, little is known about the structural and thermodynamic properties of this state, and whether it is stabilized by the presence of non-native heme ligands. We monitored the reversible denaturant-induced unfolding equilibrium of oxidized horse cytochrome c using various spectroscopic probes, including fluorescence, near and far-UV CD, heme absorbance bands in the Soret, visible and near-IR regions of the spectrum, as well as 2D NMR. Global fitting techniques were used for a quantitative interpretation of the results in terms of a three-state model, which enabled us to determine the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of the intermediate. A well-populated intermediate was observed in equilibrium experiments at pH 5 using either guanidine-HCl or urea as a denaturant, both for wild-type cytochrome c as well as an H33N mutant chosen to prevent formation of non-native His-heme ligation. For a more detailed structural characterization of the intermediate, we used 2D 1H-15N correlation spectroscopy to follow the changes in peak intensity for individual backbone amide groups. The equilibrium state observed in our optical and NMR studies contains many native-like structural features, including a well-structured alpha-helical sub-domain, a short Trp59-heme distance and solvent-shielded heme environment, but lacks the native Met80 sulfur-iron linkage and shows major perturbations in side-chain packing and other tertiary interactions. These structural properties are reminiscent of the A-state of cytochrome c, a compact denatured form found under acidic high-salt conditions, as well as a kinetic intermediate populated at a late stage of folding. The denaturant-induced intermediate also resembles alkaline forms of

  6. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  8. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  9. Proposed changes in intermediate pipe break criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Bechtel Power Corporation proposed to the US NRC in 1983 that the NRC eliminate from their criteria all intermediate breaks. Bechtel's rationale for the proposal and support for their position are presented

  10. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...

  11. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    The characteristics of directional spread parameters at intermediate water depth are investigated based on a cosine power '2s' directional spreading model. This is based on wave measurements carried out using a Datawell directional waverider buoy...

  12. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  13. Intermediality, Architecture, and the Politics of Urbanity

    OpenAIRE

    Tortosa Garrigós, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Intermediality, Architecture, and the Politics of Urbanity" Virgilio Tortosa Garrigós discusses aspects of the exponential development of large cities, the neoliberal economy, and the "spectacle" of architecture in the context of intermediality. With the connivance between land speculators and politicians — which has led not only to the loss of spatial identity but to irreversible pollution and geographic degradation — urbanity is epitomized on the Mediterranean coast line. In...

  14. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters

  15. Associations of Systemic Diseases with Intermediate Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.

  16. Negative ion photoelectron spectra of ISO3, IS2O3, and IS2O4 intermediates formed in interfacial reactions of ozone and iodide/sulfite aqueous microdroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhengbo; Hou, Gao-Lei; Yang, Zheng; Valiev, Marat; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2016-12-07

    Three short-lived, anionic intermediates, ISO3, IS2O3, and IS2O4, are detected during reactions between ozone and aqueous iodine/sulfur oxides microdroplets. These species may play an important role in ozone-driven inorganic aerosol formation; however their chemical properties remain largely unknown. This is the issue addressed in this work using negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab-initio modeling. The NIPE spectra reveal that all of the three anionic species are characterized by high adiabatic detachment energies (ADEs) - 4.62 ± 0.10, 4.52 ± 0.10, and 4.60 ± 0.10 eV for ISO3, IS2O3, and IS2O4, respectively. Vibrational progressions with frequencies assigned to the S–O symmetric stretching modes are also discernable in the ground state transition features. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show the presence of several low-lying isomers involving different bonding scenarios. Further analysis based on high level CCSD(T) calculations reveal that the lowest energy structures are characterized by formation of I–S and S–S bonds and can be structurally viewed as SO3 linked with I, IS, and ISO for ISO3, IS2O3, and IS2O4, respectively. The calculated ADEs and vertical detachment energies (VDEs) are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, further supporting the identified minimum energy structures. The obtained intrinsic molecular properties of these anionic intermediates and neutral radicals should be useful to help understand their photochemical reactions in the atmosphere.

  17. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-06-01

    This document reports work carried out in 1983/84 under 10 contracts between DoE and AERE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes. Individual summaries are provided for each contract report within the document, under the headings: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; ceramic waste forms; radionuclide release during leaching; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; flowsheeting/systems study. (U.K.)

  18. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  19. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  20. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  1. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quercia P

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Quercia,1 Léonard Feiss,2 Carine Michel31Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Office of Ophthalmology, Beaune, France; 3University of Burgundy, Dijon, INSERM U1093, Cognition, Action et Plasticité Sensorimotrice, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye's visual input.Keywords: reading, ocular motility, dyslexia, neglect, spatial representation

  2. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata) are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian) platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features under a consensus phylogeny

  3. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Durán José

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features

  4. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José María; Egger, Bernhard

    2012-03-19

    Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata) are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian) platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features under a consensus phylogeny

  5. Clinical manifestations of intermediate allele carriers in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Ramos-Arroyo, María A; Martinez-Horta, Saul; Martínez-Descalls, Asunción; Calvo, Sara; Gil-Polo, Cecilia

    2016-08-09

    There is controversy about the clinical consequences of intermediate alleles (IAs) in Huntington disease (HD). The main objective of this study was to establish the clinical manifestations of IA carriers for a prospective, international, European HD registry. We assessed a cohort of participants at risk with Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor, cognitive, and behavior domains, Total Functional Capacity (TFC), and quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36]). This cohort was subdivided into IA carriers (27-35 CAG) and controls (genetic status, IAs might confer a late-onset abnormal motor and cognitive phenotype. These results might have important implications for genetic counseling. NCT01590589. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  7. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  8. Charles Darwin and the Origins of Plant Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E.; Diggle, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form. PMID:21515816

  9. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  10. Developmental Problems and Dental Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, William C., Jr.; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety-five subjects (mean age 55 months) with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction and 47 control subjects (mean age 46 months) were compared to determine the relationship between developmental problems and dental morphology. (Author)

  11. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dislocation of the hip joint; Developmental hip dysplasia; DDH; Congenital dysplasia of the hip; Congenital dislocation of ... during pregnancy can increase a baby's risk of DDH. Other risk factors include: Being the first child ...

  12. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participant...

  13. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...

  14. MALE DIMORPHISMS IN BEETLES AND EARWIGS AND THE QUESTION OF DEVELOPMENTAL CONSTRAINTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, William G; Gutiérrez, Edgar E

    1991-02-01

    Analysis of 17 species from six families indicates that male dimorphisms in weapon design may be common, at least in homed beetles. This flexibility in developmental programs constitutes evidence against the idea that the forms of these animals' weapons are the result of developmental constraints. © 1991 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  16. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  17. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  18. Developmental timing differences underlie armor loss across threespine stickleback populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Mark C; Bassham, Susan; Perry, Stephen; Cresko, William A

    2017-11-01

    Comparing ontogenetic patterns within a well-described evolutionary context aids in inferring mechanisms of change, including heterochronies or deletion of developmental pathways. Because selection acts on phenotypes throughout ontogeny, any within-taxon developmental variation has implications for evolvability. We compare ontogenetic order and timing of locomotion and defensive traits in three populations of threespine stickleback that have evolutionarily divergent adult forms. This analysis adds to the growing understanding of developmental genetic mechanisms of adaptive change in this evolutionary model species by delineating when chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in two derived populations begin to deviate from the developmental pattern in their immediate ancestors. We found that differences in adult defensive morphologies arise through abolished or delayed initiation of these traits rather than via an overall heterochronic shift, that intra-population ontogenetic variation is increased for some derived traits, and that altered armor developmental timing differentiates the derived populations from each other despite parallels in adult lateral plate armor phenotypes. We found that changes in ossified elements of the pelvic armor are linked to delayed and incomplete development of an early-forming pelvic cartilage, and that this disruption likely presages the variable pelvic vestiges documented in many derived populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Developmental Science: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of developmental science is to describe, explain, and optimize intraindividual changes in adaptive developmental regulations and, as well, interindividual differences in such relations, across life. The history of developmental science is reviewed and its current foci, which are framed by relational developmental systems models that…

  20. Introduction: The Golden Triangle for Examining Leadership Developmental Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Bruce J

    2016-01-01

    This introduction includes the history of the leadership field that resulted in the creation of the developmental readiness construct, which represents readiness of the leader as well as followers, peers, and the target leader's leader, and how context is to be developed through some form of leadership intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Alison M.; Kibria, Lisa; Reed, Martin H.

    2010-01-01

    , both anomalies can be seen in different patients with the same genetic diagnosis, further supporting the notion that these defects are developmentally related. Posterior dislocation of the radial head and radioulnar fusion are considered to be related primary developmental anomalies of radioulnar differentiation/segmentation. We speculate that the eventual specific defect of this spectrum is influenced by very subtle differences in developmental timing. This is in contrast to patients with transverse forearm defects who can also display radial head dislocation but in an anterior or lateral direction. This direction of dislocation is seen when an abnormal force is exerted on a normally formed radial head later in development or postnatally in disorders such as multiple osteochondromatosis and various mesomelic dysplasias, or as a result of trauma. (orig.)

  2. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    can occur in the same patient. Furthermore, both anomalies can be seen in different patients with the same genetic diagnosis, further supporting the notion that these defects are developmentally related. Posterior dislocation of the radial head and radioulnar fusion are considered to be related primary developmental anomalies of radioulnar differentiation/segmentation. We speculate that the eventual specific defect of this spectrum is influenced by very subtle differences in developmental timing. This is in contrast to patients with transverse forearm defects who can also display radial head dislocation but in an anterior or lateral direction. This direction of dislocation is seen when an abnormal force is exerted on a normally formed radial head later in development or postnatally in disorders such as multiple osteochondromatosis and various mesomelic dysplasias, or as a result of trauma. (orig.)

  3. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  4. Radical SAM Catalysis via an Organometallic Intermediate with an Fe–[5′-C]-Deoxyadenosyl Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horitani, Masaki; Shisler, Krista; Broderick, William E.; Hutcheson, Rachel U.; Duschene, Kaitlin S.; Marts, Amy R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Broderick, Joan B.

    2016-01-01

    Radical SAM enzymes use a [4Fe-4S] cluster to cleave S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to initiate diverse radical reactions. These are thought to involve the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate, which has not yet been detected. Here we rapid freeze-quench trap a catalytically competent intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by the radical SAM enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. Characterization of the intermediate by electron paramagnetic resonance and 13C, 57Fe electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopies reveals that it contains an organometallic center in which 5′-carbon of a SAM-derived deoxyadenosyl moiety forms a bond to the unique iron of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. Discovery of this intermediate extends the list of enzymatic bio-organometallic centers to the radical SAM enzymes, the largest enzyme superfamily known, and reveals intriguing parallels to B12 radical enzymes. PMID:27174986

  5. Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    New research, funded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Advanced Physical and Chemical Research, NASA and the University of Tokyo, solved the mystery of how a black hole, with the mass more than several hundreds times larger than that of our Sun, could be formed in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82. Recent observations of the Chandra X-ray observatory (Matsumoto et al., 2001 ApJ 547, L25) indicate the presence of an unusually bright source in the star cluster MGG11 in the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of about a thousand times the mass of the Sun, placing it intermediate between the relatively small (stellar mass) black holes in the Milky way Galaxy and the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of galaxies. For comparison, stellar-mass black holes are only a few times more massive than the Sun, whereas the black hole in the center of the Milky-way Galaxy is more than a few million times more massive than the Sun. An international team of researchers, using the world's fastest computer, the GRAPE-6 system in Japan, were engaged in a series of simulations of star clusters that resembled MGG11. They used the GRAPE-6 to perform simulations with two independently developed computer programs (Starlab and NBODY4 developed by Sverre Aarseth in Cambridge), both of which give the same qualitative result. The simulations ware initiated by high resolution observations of the star cluster MGG11 by McCrady et al (2003, ApJ 596, 240) using the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck, and by Harashima et al (2001) using the giant Subaru telescope. M82 Chandra X-ray image of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. The GRAPE's detailed, star-by-star simulations represent the state of the art in cluster modeling. For the first time using the GRAPE, researchers perform simulations of the evolution of young and dense star clusters with up to 600000 stars; they calculate the

  6. Fostering teamwork in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather; Cappleman, Julia

    2011-06-01

    The government has emphasised that, to deliver high quality, integrated care, staff must work across organisational boundaries using a team approach so that everyone works towards the same goals. This article describes how one NHS-managed intermediate care unit has integrated care staff employed by the independent sector.

  7. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of

  8. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic.... Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period covered by the timeline under § 200.15 as follows: (a) The first incremental increase must take effect not...

  9. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical condition...

  10. Financial intermediation with credit constrained agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2007), s. 741-759 ISSN 0164-0704 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial intermediation * occupational choice * general equilibrium Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2007

  11. Interaction between Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control of snail intermediate host of human schistosome parasites has been suggested. In this study, the effect of Indoplanobis exustus a planorbid snail and possible competitor snail of Biomphalaria pfeifferi on the fecundity and growth rate of the later was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in ...

  12. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  13. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  14. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  15. Unraveling Intermediate Filaments : The super resolution solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahidiazar, L.

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate Filaments (IFs) carry out major functions in cells. Several diseases have been associated with malfunctioning IFs in the cells and among them are certain sub types of cancer. To determine the structure and organization of IFs, we have used Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM)

  16. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    transition pathway determined using the string method. The experimental results and computational analysis suggest that the phenotype of I241W may originate in the formation of a hydrogen bond between the indole nitrogen atom and the backbone carbonyl of R2. This work provides new information on intermediate...... states in voltage-gated ion channels with an approach that produces minimum chemical perturbation....

  17. Intuitionistic Rules : Admissible Rules of Intermediate Logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the admissible rules of intermediate logics. On the one hand, one can characterize the admissibility of rules in certain logic, and on the other hand, one can characterize logics through their admissible rules. We take both approaches, and reach new results in both

  18. Intermediate Systems Analyst | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The intermediate Systems Analyst will bring to the System Development Group the necessary skills to understand in depth the architecture of Oracle to allow better design and implementation of new and enhanced information systems and applications. The incumbent will take full responsibility for the ITM division's ...

  19. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  20. Replicative intermediates in UV-irradiated Simian virus 40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used Simian virus 40 (SV40) as a probe to study the replication of UV-damaged DNA in mammalian cells. Viral DNA replication in infected monkey kidney cells was synchronized by incubating a mutant of SV40 (tsA58) temperature-sensitive for the initiation of DNA synthesis at the restrictive temperature and then adding aphidicolin to temporarily inhibit DNA synthesis at the permissive temperature while permitting pre-replicative events to occur. After removal of the drug, the infected cells were irradiated at 100 J/m 2 (254 nm) to produce 6-7 pyrimidine dimers per SV40 genome, and returned to the restrictive temperature to prevent reinitiation of replication from the SV40 origin. Replicative intermediates (RI) were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine. The size distribution of daughter DNA strands in RI isolated shortly after irradiation was skewed towards lengths less than the interdimer spacing in parental DNA; this bias persisted for at least 1 h after irradiation, but disappeared within 3 h by which time the size of the newly-synthesized DNA exceeded the interdimer distance. Evidence was obtained for the generation at late times after irradiation, of Form I molecules in which the daughter DNA strand contain dimers. Thus DNA strand exchange as well as trans-dimer synthesis may be involved in the generation of supercoiled Form I DNA from 0V-damaged SV40 replicative intermediates. (Auth.)

  1. Maternal and developmental toxicity of ayahuasca in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Moreira, Camila Queiroz; de Sá, Lilian Rose Marques; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant beverage initially used by shamans throughout the Amazon region during traditional religious cult. In recent years, ayahuasca has also been used in ceremonies of a number of modern syncretic religious groups, including pregnant women. However, no documented study has been performed to evaluate the risk of developmental toxicity of ayahuasca. In the present work, maternal and developmental toxicity was evaluated in Wistar rats. Ayahuasca was administered to pregnant rats in three different doses [the equivalent typical dose (TD) administered to humans, five-fold TD and 10-fold TD] during the gestational period (6-20 days). Dams treated with the highest ayahuasca dose showed maternal toxicity with decrease of weight gain and food intake. Visceral fetal findings were observed in all treatment groups. Skeletal findings were observed in the intermediate- and high-dose groups. The fetuses deriving from the highest dose group also presented a decrease in body weight. From these results, it is possible to conclude that there is a risk of maternal and developmental toxicity following ayahuasca exposure and that the level of toxicity appears to be dose-dependent.

  2. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  3. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  4. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-11-01

    Reports are presented on work on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes: comparative evaluation of α and β γ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference waste form matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic waste; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action. (U.K.)

  5. [Neuropsychomotor developmental delay: conceptual map, term definitions, uses and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Duarte, Neuza Maria de Castro; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2015-01-01

    To retrieve the origin of the term neuropsychomotor developmental delay" (NPMD), its conceptual evolution over time, and to build a conceptual map based on literature review. A literature search was performed in the SciELO Brazil, Web of Science, Science Direct, OneFile (GALE), Pubmed (Medline), Whiley Online, and Springer databases, from January of 1940 to January of 2013, using the following keywords NPMD delay, NPMD retardation, developmental delay, and global developmental delay. A total of 71 articles were selected, which were used to build the conceptual map of the term. Of the 71 references, 55 were international and 16 national. The terms developmental delay and global developmental delay were the most frequently used in the international literature and, in Brazil, delayed NPMD was the most often used. The term developmental delay emerged in the mid 1940s, gaining momentum in the 1990 s. In Brazil, the term delayed NPMD started to be used in the 1980s, and has been frequently cited and published in the literature. Delayed development was a characteristic of 13 morbidities described in 23 references. Regarding the type of use, 19 references were found, with seven forms of use. Among the references, 34 had definitions of the term, and 16 different concepts were identified. Developmental delay is addressed in the international and national literature under different names, various applications, and heterogeneous concepts. Internationally, ways to improve communication between professionals have been indicated, with standardized definition of the term and use in very specific situations up to the fifth year of life, which was not found in Brazilian publications. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. The renaissance of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.

  7. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şİrİn, Özlem; Alkan, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  8. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    ) and at the interfirm level (between partners and within alliances and associations).The tentative results show that both of these levels are important in defining the intermediating firms' business models and in answering their environmental threats and in building up competitive advantage. The paper ends with a short......This paper attempts to answer how external environmental factors affect intermediating firms within the maritime industry - the middlemen that plays a very important role in the sector. The category encompasses firms such as liner and port agencies, freight forwarders and shipbrokers, who link......, by its global character and by volatility. As such, the industry offers an interesting and generalizable environment for research. Moreover, the choice of the middleman, an intermediary in the value chain, as the object of study, offers additional insights into the complex industry and value chain...

  9. Intermediate storage for the Start accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, N.I.; Tkach, Yu.V.; Stepanenko, I.A.; Kozachek, A.S.; Komarov, A.D.; Gadetskij, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    Usage of the chain of series-connected capacitors, placed near the voltage pulse generator (VPG) cascades, as an intermediate storage (IS) has allowed to reduce the inductance of the PG-IS charging circuit and to reduce storage charging time up to 30 ns. In such cases the electrical strength of the IS capacitor insulation is essentially higher, than at dc voltage, it has allowed to reduce the number of capacitors in the chain and to reduce IS self-inductance. Additional ways to reduce the inductance of the VPG-IS charging circuit are considered. Reduction of storage charging time has allowed to stabilize the operation of the commutator, which connects the intermediate storage with the accelerator shaping line

  10. Developmental Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants From Infancy to Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prachi; Kaciroti, Niko; Richards, Blair; Oh, Wonjung; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    To compare developmental outcomes of late preterm infants (34-36 weeks' gestation) with infants born at early term (37-38 weeks' gestation) and term (39-41 weeks' gestation), from infancy through kindergarten. Sample included 1000 late preterm, 1800 early term, and 3200 term infants ascertained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Direct assessments of development were performed at 9 and 24 months by using the Bayley Short Form-Research Edition T-scores and at preschool and kindergarten using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort reading and mathematics θ scores. Maternal and infant characteristics were obtained from birth certificate data and parent questionnaires. After controlling for covariates, we compared mean developmental outcomes between late preterm and full-term groups in serial cross-sectional analyses at each timepoint using multilinear regression, with pairwise comparisons testing for group differences by gestational age categories. With covariates controlled at all timepoints, at 9 months late preterm infants demonstrated less optimal developmental outcomes (T = 47.31) compared with infants born early term (T = 49.12) and term (T = 50.09) (P kindergarten reading (P = .0007) compared with infants born at term gestation. Although late preterm infants demonstrate comparable developmental outcomes to full-term infants (early term and full-term gestation) at 24 months, they demonstrate less optimal reading outcomes at preschool and kindergarten timepoints. Ongoing developmental surveillance for late preterm infants is warranted into preschool and kindergarten. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Far from the intermediate nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.; Wagner, G.J.; Gregoire, C.; Campi, X.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Platchkov, S.; Mayer, B.; Abgrall, Y.; Bohigas, O.; Grange, P.; Signarbieux, C.

    1988-01-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclear physics; the BCS state and quasi-particles; the layer model; collision effects on nuclear dynamics; the theory of cluster formation (application to nucleus fragmentation); short range correlations (few-particle systems); deuterium electron scattering; dibaryonic resonances; traditional and exotic hadron probes of nuclear structure; spectral fluctuations and chaotic motion; corrections to the intermediate nuclear field (nonrelativistic and other effects); and heavy nuclei splitting and nuclear superfluidity are introduced [fr

  12. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  13. Beyond traditional developmental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Alexander; zu Knyphausen-Aufseß, Dodo; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Opportunity discovery and creation are key areas of research in entrepreneurship literature. Based on the ongoing discussion, this paper proposes an integrative view of a dynamic multi-stage new venture emergence. In particular, the findings of our research show how to match these approaches...... outcome. The implication for entrepreneurs is that, beyond discovering a potential venture idea, substantial development efforts are required to form a sustainable business model. For entrepreneurship research, our model is a first step towards an integrative discussion of new venture emergence aimed...... with the life cycle stages of an emerging venture. This paper contributes to existing entrepreneurship research by acknowledging the value of parallel sequential process combinations, by including customer demand as part of a market participant’s selection criteria, and by recognising failure as valuable...

  14. Transiently populated intermediate functions as a branching point of the FF domain folding pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhnev, Dmitry M; Religa, Tomasz L; Kay, Lewis E

    2012-10-30

    Studies of protein folding and the intermediates that are formed along the folding pathway provide valuable insights into the process by which an unfolded ensemble forms a functional native conformation. However, because intermediates on folding pathways can serve as initiation points of aggregation (implicated in a number of diseases), their characterization assumes an even greater importance. Establishing the role of such intermediates in folding, misfolding, and aggregation remains a major challenge due to their often low populations and short lifetimes. We recently used NMR relaxation dispersion methods and computational techniques to determine an atomic resolution structure of the folding intermediate of a small protein module--the FF domain--with an equilibrium population of 2-3% and a millisecond lifetime, 25 °C. Based on this structure a variant FF domain has been designed in which the native state is selectively destabilized by removing the carboxyl-terminal helix in the native structure to produce a highly populated structural mimic of the intermediate state. Here, we show via solution NMR studies of the designed mimic that the mimic forms distinct conformers corresponding to monomeric and dimeric (K(d) = 0.2 mM) forms of the protein. The conformers exchange on the seconds timescale with a monomer association rate of 1.1 · 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and with a region responsible for dimerization localized to the amino-terminal residues of the FF domain. This study establishes the FF domain intermediate as a central player in both folding and misfolding pathways and illustrates how incomplete folding can lead to the formation of higher-order structures.

  15. The Developmental Trajectory of Leaflet Morphology in Wild Tomato Species[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H.; Headland, Lauren R.; Kumar, Ravi; Peng, Jie; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaves between species vary in their size, serration, complexity, and shape. However, phylogeny is not the only predictor of leaf morphology. The shape of a leaf is the result of intricate developmental processes, including heteroblastic progression (changes in leaf size and shape at different nodes) and the developmental stage of an organ. The leaflets that arise from complex leaves are additionally modified by their positioning along the proximal-distal axis of a leaf and whether they fall on the left or right side of leaves. Even further, leaves are environmentally responsive, and their final shape is influenced by environmental inputs. Here, we comprehensively describe differences in leaflet shape between wild tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) species using a principal component analysis on elliptical Fourier descriptors arising from >11,000 sampled leaflets. We leverage differences in developmental rate to approximate a developmental series, which allows us to resolve the confounding differences in intrinsic leaflet form and developmental stage along positions of the heteroblastic leaf series and proximal-distal axis of leaves. We find that the resulting developmental trajectory of organs at different positions along these axes are useful for describing the changes in leaflet shape that occur during the shade avoidance response in tomato. We argue that it is the developmental trajectory, the changes in shape that occur over developmental time in organs reiterated at multiple positions, that is the relevant phenotype for discerning differences between populations and species, and to understand the underlying developmental processes that change during evolution. PMID:22247269

  16. The Developmental Psychopathology of Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Although childhood generalized anxiety disorder is generally understudied, worry, the cardinal feature of GAD, appears to be relatively common in youth. Despite its prevalence, there are few conceptual models of the development of clinical worry in children. The current review provides a framework for integrating the developmental psychopathology…

  17. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  18. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  19. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  20. Serving the Developmentally Disabled Aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallstrom, Lee A.

    Increasing numbers of aging developmentally disabled individuals have led to a recent emphasis being placed on service provision for this population, the education of professionals working with them, and the assessment of current conditions and needs of these individuals. Through the University Affiliated Program, a project of national…

  1. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-01-01

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about

  2. Vignettes in College Developmental Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri-Gold, Maria T.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses providing developmental learners with the opportunity to hear and respond to vignettes (short, descriptive literary sketches such as those in "The House on Mango Street"). Notes that the activity allowed students to experiment with another writing style and to use figurative language in a creative way. (RS)

  3. Successful Aging: A Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Carol D.

    1982-01-01

    Examines earlier conceptualizations of successful aging and calls for a reformulation that is more responsive to developmental processes and theoretical guidance. Discusses issues of operational definitions, selective sampling, and stage theory. The perspective is illustrated with empirical research in the personality realm. (Author)

  4. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  5. Developmental Entrepreneurship Program : Massachusetts Institute ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Developmental Entrepreneurship Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) helps researchers, students and practitioner from developing countries to investigate private-sector-driven solutions to health, energy and environmental problems. As a premier institution for technological innovation with an ...

  6. Dehydration-induced instabilities at intermediate depths in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, Nicolas; Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2017-08-01

    We formulate a model for coupled deformation and dehydration of antigorite, based on a porosity-dependent yield criterion and including shear-enhanced compaction. A pore pressure and compaction instability can develop when the net volume change associated with the reaction is negative, i.e., at intermediate depth in subduction zones. The instability criterion is derived in terms of the dependence of the yield criterion on porosity: if that dependence is strong, instabilities are more likely to occur. We also find that the instability is associated with strain localization, over characteristic length scales determined by the hydraulic diffusivity, the elasto-plastic parameters of the rock, and the reaction rate. Typical lower bounds for the localization length are of the order of 10 to 100 for antigorite dehydration and deformation at 3 GPa. The fluid pressure and deformation instability is expected to induce stress buildup in the surrounding rocks forming the subducted slab, which provides a mechanism for the nucleation and propagation of intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  7. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  8. Massive, Absorption-selected Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, N.; Prochaska, J. X.; Christensen, L.; Rhodin, N. H. P.; Neeleman, M.; Zwaan, M. A.; Møller, P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Zafar, T.

    2018-04-01

    The nature of absorption-selected galaxies and their connection to the general galaxy population have been open issues for more than three decades, with little information available on their gas properties. Here we show, using detections of carbon monoxide emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, that five of seven high-metallicity, absorption-selected galaxies at intermediate redshifts, z ≈ 0.5–0.8, have large molecular gas masses, M Mol ≈ (0.6–8.2) × 1010 M ⊙ and high molecular gas fractions (f Mol ≡ M Mol/(M * + M Mol) ≈ 0.29–0.87). Their modest star formation rates (SFRs), ≈(0.3–9.5) M ⊙ yr‑1, then imply long gas depletion timescales, ≈(3–120) Gyr. The high-metallicity absorption-selected galaxies at z ≈ 0.5–0.8 appear distinct from populations of star-forming galaxies at both z ≈ 1.3–2.5, during the peak of star formation activity in the Universe, and lower redshifts, z ≲ 0.05. Their relatively low SFRs, despite the large molecular gas reservoirs, may indicate a transition in the nature of star formation at intermediate redshifts, z ≈ 0.7.

  9. Developmental Trends in the Use of Perceptual and Conceptual Attributes in Grouping, Clustering, and Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Rachel; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A grouping task revealed a chronological progression: color and form determined the 4-year-old children's grouping about equally; form dominated in the 5-year-olds; and 9-year-olds grouped primarily by conceptual attributes. Performance on a memory task showed the developmental shift from color to form to concept, while cued recall showed…

  10. Variational methods for eigenvalue problems an introduction to the weinstein method of intermediate problems

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, S H

    1966-01-01

    The first edition of this book gave a systematic exposition of the Weinstein method of calculating lower bounds of eigenvalues by means of intermediate problems. This second edition presents new developments in the framework of the material contained in the first edition, which is retained in somewhat modified form.

  11. Effect of temperature during wood torrefaction on the formation of lignin liquid intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Armando G. McDonald

    2014-01-01

    Torrefaction enhances physical properties of lignocellulosic biomass and improves its grindability. Energy densification, via fuel pellets production, is one of the most promising uses of torrefaction. Lignin contributes to self-bonding of wood particles during pelletization. In biomass thermal pretreatment, part oflignin (in the form of lignin liquid intermediates –...

  12. Virtual Learning Environments through a Different Lens: Potentials of the Intermediate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew G.; Zentgraf, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the concept of Winnicott's intermediate space as a method of understanding the role of learning spaces in the development of technology-enhanced educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of a comparative analysis of interaction within face-to-face and online learning…

  13. Strengthening Student Understanding of Mathematical Language through Verbal and Written Representations of the Intermediate Value Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Vicki; Deshler, Jessica M.; Hazen, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger research study, this paper describes calculus students' reasoning about the Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) in verbal, written, and graphical form. During interviews, students were asked to verbally describe the IVT in their own words. They then provided written descriptions, watched video of their verbal descriptions,…

  14. A Simple Treatment of the Liquidity Trap for Intermediate Macroeconomics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2014-01-01

    Several leading undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics textbooks now include a simple reduced-form New Keynesian model of short-run dynamics (alongside the IS-LM model). Unfortunately, there is no accompanying description of how the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates affects the model. In this article, the authors show how the…

  15. Intermediate stage complex regional pain syndrome type 1 is unrelated to proinflammatory cytokines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Munnikes (Renate); C. Muis (Christel); M. Boersma (Martine); C. Heijmans-Antonissen (Claudia); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to determine the involvement of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 in intermediate CRPS 1 as locally formed mediators of inflammation. In this study, 25 patients with proven CRPS 1 (Bruehl criteria) were included. All patients

  16. Neodymium isotopes and the Neogene evolution of Arctic intermediate water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, B. A.; Frank, M.; Spielhagen, R.

    2006-12-01

    We present the first Nd isotope record of Arctic intermediate water obtained from metal-oxide coatings weakly leached off sediments from the IODP Leg 302 (ACEX) cores drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. The ACEX cores provide the first archive of Arctic Ocean sedimentation covering most of the Cenozoic, and show that detrital sediments dominate the most recent 17 Ma, deposited above a condensed section spanning the period from ~17 to 45 Ma. Comparison of core top sediment leaches to direct seawater measurements demonstrate the Nd isotopic signal of the leaches robustly records the ambient Arctic bottom water Nd isotopic composition (typical Nd of Arctic core top sediment leachates is ~-10.5, compared with measured deep water Nd of ~-11; Andersson, Porcelli, Frank et al., unpublished). This is critical, as the Arctic sediments in the upper 200 m are essentially barren of other authigenic phases- such as carbonates - from which seawater Nd could potentially be extracted. Sampling resolution was generally low (Myr) with the exception of sections showing distinct glacial/interglacial cyclicities during the Late Quaternary, where sampling was increased to kyr resolution. This cyclicity was reproduced in the well-dated nearby piston core PS2185. The Nd isotopic variations are pronounced, for both the glacial-interglacial cycles of the Quaternary (Nd ranges from ~-7.5 to ~-10.5, respectively), and for the Nd on the million year time scale (maxima at ~-6 and minima at ~-8.5). On the long time scale, the Nd isotopic record is argued to reflect tectonically- driven changes in gateways to the Arctic. The Nd isotopic record becomes more positive from 17 to 8 Ma, reflecting the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge with a closed Fram Strait, which increased the hydrological cycle and erosion over N.Europe/ W. Siberia. Opening of the Fram Strait at 8 Ma allowed N. Atlantic-sourced Intermediate water forming in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas to

  17. 29 CFR 1902.33 - Developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of developmental changes by OSHA. Generally, whenever a State completes a developmental step, it must submit the resulting plan change as a supplement to its plan to OSHA for approval. OSHA's approval...

  18. Critical kinetic control of non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transformation for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yaoguang; Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Guo, Rui; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Li, Wenzhi; Fan, Zhiyong; Yao, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTP) have attracted significant attention as a low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell material. Due to the strong coordination between lead iodide (PbI2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, a non-stoichiometric intermediate phase of MA2Pb3I8(DMSO)2 (MA = CH3NH3+) usually forms in the one-step deposition method that plays a critical role in attaining high power conversion efficiency. However, the kinetic understanding of how the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transforms during thermal annealing is currently absent. In this work, we investigated such a phase transformation and provided a clear picture of three phase transition pathways as a function of annealing conditions. The interdiffusion of MAI and DMSO varies strongly with the annealing temperature and time, thus determining the final film composition and morphology. A surprising finding reveals that the best performing cells contain ~18% of the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase, instead of pure phase OTP. The presence of such an intermediate phase enables smooth surface morphology and enhances the charge carrier lifetime. Our results highlight the importance of the intermediate phase growth kinetics that could lead to large-scale production of efficient solution processed perovskite solar cells.Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTP) have attracted significant attention as a low-cost and high-efficiency solar cell material. Due to the strong coordination between lead iodide (PbI2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, a non-stoichiometric intermediate phase of MA2Pb3I8(DMSO)2 (MA = CH3NH3+) usually forms in the one-step deposition method that plays a critical role in attaining high power conversion efficiency. However, the kinetic understanding of how the non-stoichiometric intermediate phase transforms during thermal annealing is currently absent. In this work, we investigated such a phase transformation and provided a clear picture of three phase transition

  19. Labelling and determination of the energy in reactive intermediates in solution enabled by energy-dependent reaction selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurouchi, Hiroaki; Singleton, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Any long-lived chemical structure in solution is subject to statistical energy equilibration, so the history of any specific structure does not affect its subsequent reactions. This is not true for very short-lived intermediates because energy equilibration takes time. Here, this idea is applied to achieve the 'energy labelling' of a reactive intermediate. The selectivity of the ring-opening α-cleavage reaction of the 1-methylcyclobutoxy radical is found here to vary broadly depending on how the radical was formed. Reactions that provide little excess energy to the intermediate lead to a high selectivity in the subsequent cleavage (measured as a kinetic isotope effect), whereas reactions that provide more excess energy to the intermediate exhibit a lower selectivity. Accounting for the expected excess energy allows the prediction of the observed product ratios and, in turn, the product ratios can be used to determine the energy present in an intermediate.

  20. Using Developmental Theory: When Not to Play Telephone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nora Ross

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful way to help understand the behaviors of people and social groupings of all kinds, developmental stage theory attracts attention and use outside of purely academic environments. These uses take the form of written materials and many kinds of interventions. The level of accuracy of developmental theory information generated and used outside of academe demonstrates wide variety. This variety is reflected in materials and interventions. The information used in materials and interventions becomes increasingly distorted as it becomes further removed from original theoretical sources. This has major implications for the ethics and expertise issues that are inherent in applied developmental theory. A classification scheme of information-use behaviors, many of which contribute to distortion processes, is used to code actual cases of creating and disseminating distorted developmental theory information, invoking the metaphor of telephone games. Case evidence indicates that casual, illustrative figures in a 2006 book by Wilber were used by others for various serious and theoretical purposes, and resulted in major distortions of developmental theory. Wilber’s figures represent problematic issues and errors, including distortion of theory, if they are used—as they indeed were—for any purpose more serious than his original purpose. Stemming from those issues and errors, a highly distorted picture of cognitive development and a pseudo-version of Commons and Richards’ Model of Hierarchical Complexity theory emerged, telephone game-like, in the cases discussed. Errors were widely propagated on the internet. Because outside of academe, specialized expertise in developmental theory is difficult to acquire, the sub-field of applied developmental theory requires not only accurate information but also strong communication ethics to govern behaviors of information providers. Such providers need to protect themselves at the same time they protect

  1. Using Developmental Theory: When Not to Play Telephone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nora Ross

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful way to help understand the behaviors of people and socialgroupings of all kinds, developmental stage theory attracts attention and use outside ofpurely academic environments. These uses take the form of written materials and manykinds of interventions. The level of accuracy of developmental theory informationgenerated and used outside of academe demonstrates wide variety. This variety isreflected in materials and interventions. The information used in materials andinterventions becomes increasingly distorted as it becomes further removed from originaltheoretical sources. This has major implications for the ethics and expertise issues that areinherent in applied developmental theory. A classification scheme of information-usebehaviors, many of which contribute to distortion processes, is used to code actual casesof creating and disseminating distorted developmental theory information, invoking themetaphor of telephone games. Case evidence indicates that casual, illustrative figures in a2006 book by Wilber were used by others for various serious and theoretical purposes,and resulted in major distortions of developmental theory. Wilber’s figures representproblematic issues and errors, including distortion of theory, if they are used—as theyindeed were—for any purpose more serious than his original purpose. Stemming fromthose issues and errors, a highly distorted picture of cognitive development and a pseudoversionof Commons and Richards’ Model of Hierarchical Complexity theory emerged,telephone game-like, in the cases discussed. Errors were widely propagated on theinternet. Because outside of academe, specialized expertise in developmental theory isdifficult to acquire, the sub-field of applied developmental theory requires not onlyaccurate information but also strong communication ethics to govern behaviors ofinformation providers. Such providers need to protect themselves at the same time theyprotect and inform consumers of

  2. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  3. Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: an electrophysiological reappraisal and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, José; García, Antonio; Gallardo, Elena; Peeters, Kristien; Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Álvarez-Paradelo, Silvia; Gazulla, José; Martínez-Tames, Miriam; Infante, Jon; Jordanova, Albena

    2017-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most frequent form of inherited neuropathy with great variety of phenotypes, inheritance patterns, and causative genes. According to median motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), CMT is divided into demyelinating (CMT1) with MNCV below 38 m/s, axonal (CMT2) with MNCV above 38 m/s, and intermediate CMT with MNCV between 25 and 45 m/s. In each category, transmission may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. The nosology of intermediate CMT is controversial because of concerns about electrophysiological delimitation. A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted on PubMed, using the following MeSH: (1) intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth; (2) X-linked intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth; and (3) X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth and electrophysiology. We retrieved 225 articles reporting X-linked CMT or intermediate CMT with electrophysiological information. After eligibility, 156 papers were used for this review. In assessing median MNCV, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were taken into account. In cases with attenuated CMAP and wherever possible, proximal median MNCV was used for accurate definition of conduction slowing in the intermediate range. In the vast majority of males with X-linked CMT associated with GJB1 mutation (CMTX1), median MNCV was intermediate. CMT associated with DRP2 mutation is another well-documented X-linked intermediate disorder. Autosomal dominant intermediate CMT (DI-CMT) encompasses 11 different types; six of them with assigned phenotype MIM number and the remaining five being unnumbered. Based on available electrophysiological information, we wonder if DI-CMTA should be reclassified within CMT2. Autosomal recessive intermediate CMT (RI-CMT) covers four numbered MIM phenotypes though, in accordance with reported electrophysiology, two of them (RI-CMTB and RI-CMTD) should probably be reclassified within AR-CMT2. We conclude that intermediate CMT is a complex

  4. Dendritic growth forms of borax crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takoo, R.K.; Patel, B.R.; Joshi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of dendritic forms of borax grown from solutions by the film formation method is given. The changing growth morphology is followed as a function of concentration and temperature. The initial, intermediate and final growth morphologies are described and discussed. Influence of evaporation rate and supersaturation on the mechanism of growth is assessed. It is suggested that under all crystallization conditions, borax crystals have dendritic form in the initial stages of growth. (author)

  5. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....

  6. Developmental Milestones in Toddlers with Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    The attainment of developmental milestones was examined and compared in 162 infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities, including Down Syndrome (n = 26), Cerebral Palsy (n = 19), Global Developmental Delay (n = 22), Premature birth (n = 66), and Seizure Disorder (n = 29). Toddlers in the Seizures Disorder group began crawling at a…

  7. Intermediate Mass Black Holes: Their Motion and Associated Energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sivaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of current astrophysical evidence and interest in intermediate mass black holes (IMBH, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand solar masses. The active galaxy M82 and the globular cluster G1 in M31, for example, are known to host such objects. Here, we discuss several aspects of IMBH such as their expected luminosity, spectral nature of radiation, and associated jets. We also discuss possible scenarios for their formation including the effects of dynamical friction, and gravitational radiation. We also consider their formation in the early universe and also discuss the possibility of supermassive black holes forming from mergers of several IMBH and compare the relevant time scales involved with other scenarios.

  8. Photodissociation dynamics and spectroscopy of free radical combustion intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, David Lewis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals is studied by the technique of fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Photodetachment of internally cold, mass-selected negative ions produces a clean source of radicals, which are subsequently dissociated and detected. The photofragment yield as a function of photon energy is obtained, mapping out the dissociative and predissociative electronic states of the radical. In addition, the photodissociation dynamics, product branching ratios, and bond energies are probed at fixed photon energies by measuring the translational energy, P(ET), and angular distribution of the recoiling fragments using a time- and position-sensitive detector. Ab initio calculations are combined with dynamical and statistical models to interpret the observed data. The photodissociation of three prototypical hydrocarbon combustion intermediates forms the core of this work.

  9. Carbonyl Sulfides as Possible Intermediates in the Photolysis of Oxathiiranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Snyder, J. P.; Holm, A.

    1981-01-01

    Diphenyl oxathiirane, formed by irradiation of thiobenzophenone S-oxide at 77 K, is photochemically converted into a blue, thermally unstable compound which decomposes at ca 100–110 K (λmax 550 nm, (ϵ ca 11,000). Lack of change in magnetic susceptibility during the light induced conversion...... of sulfine to ketone via the oxathiirane and the subsequent blue intermediate implies the absence of triplet and biradical singlet transients. The unknown carbonyl sulfide functionality, R2C&z.dbnd;O&z.dbnd;S, thereby emerges as a strong candidate for producing the visible absorption. Comparison of the wave...... functions for CH2&z.dbnd;S&z.dbnd;O and CH2&z.dbnd;O&z.dbnd;S arising from MNDO limited CI geometry optimizations leads to the conclusion that the carbonyl sulfide structure is best described as a zwitterion rather than as a singlet biradical. The failure to observe cycloaddition products between the blue...

  10. Intertextuality, Transcoding and Intermediality: Tools for an Interartistic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Anceschi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In education, the activation of interdisciplinary strategies still represents an important perspective to support and compare different “views on the world”. In particular, in Arts education (such as Music and Arts, currently the only ones officially recognized in the curriculum the opening of their epistemic frames becomes imperative to consider the aesthetic experience in its purest form: the experience that can break boundaries and amplify the relationship between the senses. By identifying common and divergent features in concepts such as intertextuality, transcoding and intermediality, the paper tries to provide tools in order to activate and interpret the relationship among the arts that can be considered also from an interdisciplinary educational perspective.

  11. One-stage correction of intermediate imperforate anus in males ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This prospective study was designed to assess the safety, cost effectiveness, and advantages of performing posterior sagittal anorectoplasty without colostomy on males with intermediate imperforate anus. Method: Five consecutive males with intermediate imperforate anus were entered into the study.

  12. Behavioural phenotypes in mice after prenatal and early postnatal exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Kajal; Koivisto, Hennariikka; Capstick, Myles; Naarala, Jonne; Viluksela, Matti; Tanila, Heikki; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2018-04-01

    µT group) are likely to be chance findings, as they do not form an internally consistent, dose-dependent pattern indicative of specific developmental effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  14. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  15. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  16. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  17. Initial mass function of intermediate-mass black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A.; Salvadori, S.; Yue, B.; Schleicher, D.

    2014-09-01

    We study the initial mass function (IMF) and hosting halo properties of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 104-6 M⊙) formed inside metal-free, UV-illuminated atomic-cooling haloes (virial temperature Tvir ≥ 104 K) either via the direct collapse of the gas or via an intermediate supermassive star (SMS) stage. These IMBHs have been recently advocated as the seeds of the supermassive black holes observed at z ≈ 6. We achieve this goal in three steps: (a) we derive the gas accretion rate for a proto-SMS to undergo General Relativity instability and produce a direct collapse black hole (DCBH) or to enter the zero-age main sequence and later collapse into an IMBH; (b) we use merger-tree simulations to select atomic-cooling haloes in which either a DCBH or SMS can form and grow, accounting for metal enrichment and major mergers that halt the growth of the proto-SMS by gas fragmentation. We derive the properties of the hosting haloes and the mass distribution of black holes at this stage, and dub it the `birth mass function'; (c) we follow the further growth of the DCBH by accreting the leftover gas in the parent halo and compute the final IMBH mass. We consider two extreme cases in which minihaloes (Tvir populate haloes (a) of mass 7.5 < log (Mh/ M⊙) < 8, (b) in the redshift range 8 < z < 17, (c) with IMBH in the mass range 4.75 < (log M•/ M⊙) < 6.25.

  18. Greigite: a true intermediate on the polysulfide pathway to pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning Liane G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of pyrite (FeS2 from iron monosulfide precursors in anoxic sediments has been suggested to proceed via mackinawite (FeS and greigite (Fe3S4. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms of pyrite formation are not sufficiently understood because solid and dissolved intermediates are oxygen-sensitive and poorly crystalline and therefore notoriously difficult to characterize and quantify. In this study, hydrothermal synchrotron-based energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (ED-XRD methods were used to investigate in situ and in real-time the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite via the polysulfide pathway. The rate of formation and disappearance of specific Bragg peaks during the reaction and the changes in morphology of the solid phases as observed with high resolution microscopy were used to derive kinetic parameters and to determine the mechanisms of the reaction from mackinawite to greigite and pyrite. The results clearly show that greigite is formed as an intermediate on the pathway from mackinawite to pyrite. The kinetics of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite follow a zero-order rate law indicating a solid-state mechanism. The morphology of greigite and pyrite crystals formed under hydrothermal conditions supports this conclusion and furthermore implies growth of greigite and pyrite by oriented aggregation of nanoparticulate mackinawite and greigite, respectively. The activation enthalpies and entropies of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite, and of greigite to pyrite were determined from the temperature dependence of the rate constants according to the Eyring equation. Although the activation enthalpies are uncharacteristic of a solid-state mechanism, the activation entropies indicate a large increase of order in the transition state, commensurate with a solid-state mechanism.

  19. 40 CFR 721.983 - Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic... Substances § 721.983 Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonyl azide intermediate...

  20. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  1. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  2. 42 CFR 54.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54.12... intermediate organizations. If a nongovernmental organization (referred to here as an “intermediate organization”), acting under a contract or other agreement with the Federal Government or a State or local...

  3. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  4. Reactive intermediates revealed in secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Jason D; Chan, Arthur W H; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Chan, ManNin; Loza, Christine L; Kwan, Alan J; Hersey, Scott P; Flagan, Richard C; Wennberg, Paul O; Seinfeld, John H

    2010-04-13

    Isoprene is a significant source of atmospheric organic aerosol; however, the oxidation pathways that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have remained elusive. Here, we identify the role of two key reactive intermediates, epoxydiols of isoprene (IEPOX = beta-IEPOX + delta-IEPOX) and methacryloylperoxynitrate (MPAN), which are formed during isoprene oxidation under low- and high-NO(x) conditions, respectively. Isoprene low-NO(x) SOA is enhanced in the presence of acidified sulfate seed aerosol (mass yield 28.6%) over that in the presence of neutral aerosol (mass yield 1.3%). Increased uptake of IEPOX by acid-catalyzed particle-phase reactions is shown to explain this enhancement. Under high-NO(x) conditions, isoprene SOA formation occurs through oxidation of its second-generation product, MPAN. The similarity of the composition of SOA formed from the photooxidation of MPAN to that formed from isoprene and methacrolein demonstrates the role of MPAN in the formation of isoprene high-NO(x) SOA. Reactions of IEPOX and MPAN in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants (i.e., acidic aerosol produced from the oxidation of SO(2) and NO(2), respectively) could be a substantial source of "missing urban SOA" not included in current atmospheric models.

  5. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  6. Can Morphing Methods Predict Intermediate Structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dahlia R.; Levitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Movement is crucial to the biological function of many proteins, yet crystallographic structures of proteins can give us only a static snapshot. The protein dynamics that are important to biological function often happen on a timescale that is unattainable through detailed simulation methods such as molecular dynamics as they often involve crossing high-energy barriers. To address this coarse-grained motion, several methods have been implemented as web servers in which a set of coordinates is usually linearly interpolated from an initial crystallographic structure to a final crystallographic structure. We present a new morphing method that does not extrapolate linearly and can therefore go around high-energy barriers and which can produce different trajectories between the same two starting points. In this work, we evaluate our method and other established coarse-grained methods according to an objective measure: how close a coarse-grained dynamics method comes to a crystallographically determined intermediate structure when calculating a trajectory between the initial and final crystal protein structure. We test this with a set of five proteins with at least three crystallographically determined on-pathway high-resolution intermediate structures from the Protein Data Bank. For simple hinging motions involving a small conformational change, segmentation of the protein into two rigid sections outperforms other more computationally involved methods. However, large-scale conformational change is best addressed using a nonlinear approach and we suggest that there is merit in further developing such methods. PMID:18996395

  7. Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

  8. Developmental Dynamics of Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Danielle; Banerjee, Abhishek; Sur, Mriganka

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome was long considered to be simply a disorder of postnatal development, with phenotypes that manifest only late in development and into adulthood. A variety of recent evidence demonstrates that the phenotypes of Rett Syndrome are present at the earliest stages of brain development, including developmental stages that define neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. These phenotypes arise from the pleotropic effects of MeCP2, which is expressed very early in neuronal progenitors and continues to be expressed into adulthood. The effects of MeCP2 are mediated by diverse signaling, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms. Attempts to reverse the effects of Rett Syndrome need to take into account the developmental dynamics and temporal impact of MeCP2 loss.

  9. The Developmental Origins of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire L; Stenson, Charlotte; Embleton, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most prevalent skeletal disorders and has enormous public health consequences due to the morbidity and mortality of the resulting fractures. This article discusses the developmental origins of osteoporosis and outlines some of the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors in both intrauterine and postnatal life that contribute to the later onset of osteoporosis. Evidence for the effects of birth size and early growth in both preterm and term born infants are discussed and the role of epigenetics within the programming hypothesis is highlighted. This review provides compelling evidence for the developmental origins of osteoporosis and highlights the importance of osteoporosis prevention at all stages of the life course. PMID:27018386

  10. Mutations of PTPN23 in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

    KAUST Repository

    Sowada, Nadine

    2017-10-31

    Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with poor prognosis. Recent discoveries have greatly expanded the repertoire of genes that are mutated in epileptic encephalopathies and DEE, often in a de novo fashion, but in many patients, the disease remains molecularly uncharacterized. Here, we describe a new form of DEE in patients with likely deleterious biallelic variants in PTPN23. The phenotype is characterized by early onset drug-resistant epilepsy, severe and global developmental delay, microcephaly, and sometimes premature death. PTPN23 encodes a tyrosine phosphatase with strong brain expression, and its knockout in mouse is embryonically lethal. Structural modeling supports a deleterious effect of the identified alleles. Our data suggest that PTPN23 mutations cause a rare severe form of autosomal-recessive DEE in humans, a finding that requires confirmation.

  11. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraher, Jack McCaslin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species like high-valent metal-oxo complexes and carbon and oxygen centered radicals are important intermediates in enzymatic systems, atmospheric chemistry, and industrial processes. Understanding the pathways by which these intermediates form, their relative reactivity, and their fate after reactions is of the utmost importance. Herein are described the mechanistic detail for the generation of several reactive intermediates, synthesis of precursors, characterization of precursors, and methods to direct the chemistry to more desirable outcomes yielding ‘greener’ sources of commodity chemicals and fuels.

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh MIRAFKHAMI; Seyyed Hossein FAKHRAEE; Sina MIRAFKHAMI; Mojtaba YOUSEFI; Mona VARZANDEH FAR

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this article, a motor skill disorder called developmental coordination disorder (DCD), that is usually first diagnosed during childhood, is explained and discussed. In the year 1987, DCD was formally recognized as a distinct disorder in children by the American Psychiatric Association  (APA). DCD is a generalized term for the children who have some degrees of impairment in the development of motor coordination and therefore have difficulties with physical skills which significantl...

  13. Joint Actions of Developmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    applications in aquatic toxicology and experimental teratology [2-15]. A standard ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) guide for FETAX is nearing...in malformation rates). Incidences of each joint action type have been reported in experimental teratology [211. Recent advances in aquatic toxicology offer...action produced; as has been observed in aquatic toxicology studies. Several developmental toxicants were selected for mixture tests based on their

  14. Gestational Hyperandrogenism in Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences. PMID:27967205

  15. The intermediate endpoint effect in logistic and probit regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, DP; Lockwood, CM; Brown, CH; Wang, W; Hoffman, JM

    2010-01-01

    Background An intermediate endpoint is hypothesized to be in the middle of the causal sequence relating an independent variable to a dependent variable. The intermediate variable is also called a surrogate or mediating variable and the corresponding effect is called the mediated, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint effect. Clinical studies are often designed to change an intermediate or surrogate endpoint and through this intermediate change influence the ultimate endpoint. In many intermediate endpoint clinical studies the dependent variable is binary, and logistic or probit regression is used. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe a limitation of a widely used approach to assessing intermediate endpoint effects and to propose an alternative method, based on products of coefficients, that yields more accurate results. Methods The intermediate endpoint model for a binary outcome is described for a true binary outcome and for a dichotomization of a latent continuous outcome. Plots of true values and a simulation study are used to evaluate the different methods. Results Distorted estimates of the intermediate endpoint effect and incorrect conclusions can result from the application of widely used methods to assess the intermediate endpoint effect. The same problem occurs for the proportion of an effect explained by an intermediate endpoint, which has been suggested as a useful measure for identifying intermediate endpoints. A solution to this problem is given based on the relationship between latent variable modeling and logistic or probit regression. Limitations More complicated intermediate variable models are not addressed in the study, although the methods described in the article can be extended to these more complicated models. Conclusions Researchers are encouraged to use an intermediate endpoint method based on the product of regression coefficients. A common method based on difference in coefficient methods can lead to distorted

  16. 20170312 - Computer Simulation of Developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  17. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. 45 CFR 234.130 - Assistance in the form of institutional services in intermediate care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of appropriate frequency and character, and opportunities for participation in community activities as possible and appropriate. (v) Food service. At least three meals a day, constituting a... physician, and the facility provides supervision of the preparation and serving of the meals and their...

  19. Thermal conductivity of 238PuO2 powder, intermediates, and dense fuel forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Crain, B. Jr.

    1975-10-01

    The thermal conductivities of porous 238 PuO 2 powder (calcined oxalate), milled powder, and high-density granules were calculated from direct measurements of steady-state temperature profiles resulting from self-heating. Thermal conductivities varied with density, temperature, and gas content of the pores. Errors caused by thermocouple heat conduction were less than 5 percent when the dimensions of the thermal conductivity cell and the thermocouple were properly selected

  20. Chemical oxidation and metabolism of N-methyl-N-formylhydrazine. Evidence for diazenium and radical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, P M; Garrett, C; Lawson, T; Toth, B

    1991-01-01

    N-Methyl N-formlhydrazine (1), a component of the mushroom Gyromitra esculenta, is a carcinogen. Its mode of action, however, is poorly understood. To determine the intermediates that may form during the metabolism of 1, we examined its oxidative chemistry, identified the products and inferred the intermediates on the basis of these products. The incubation of 1 with rat liver microsomes was also studied and the metabolites determined and quantified. Both the chemical and the microsome-mediated oxidation of 1 yielded formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The formation of acetaldehyde requires (i) the oxidation of 1 to a diazenium ion (I) or diazene (II) and (ii) fragmentation of I/II to formyl and methyl radicals. It is suggested that these radical intermediates may be important in understanding and elucidating carcinogenesis by 1.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime components reveal kinetic intermediate states upon equilibrium denaturation of carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtseva, Elena V; Lashchuk, Olesya O; Gerasimova, Marina A; Melnik, Tatiana N; Nagibina, Galina S; Melnik, Bogdan S

    2017-12-21

    In most cases, intermediate states of multistage folding proteins are not 'visible' under equilibrium conditions but are revealed in kinetic experiments. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used in equilibrium denaturation studies. The technique allows for detecting changes in the conformation and environment of tryptophan residues in different structural elements of carbonic anhydrase II which in its turn has made it possible to study the intermediate states of carbonic anhydrase II under equilibrium conditions. The results of equilibrium and kinetic experiments using wild-type bovine carbonic anhydrase II and its mutant form with the substitution of leucine for alanine at position 139 (L139A) were compared. The obtained lifetime components of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence allowed for revealing that, the same as in kinetic experiments, under equilibrium conditions the unfolding of carbonic anhydrase II ensues through formation of intermediate states.

  2. Solving Developmental Tasks in Adolescents with a Chronic Physical Illness or Physical/Sensory Disability: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic illnesses and disabilities may impair the attainment of age-typical developmental tasks, such as forming relationships with peers and gaining autonomy. Based on a systematic search in electronic databases and cross-referencing, 447 quantitative empirical studies were included which compared the attainment of developmental tasks of…

  3. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Phonological recovery in Spanish developmental dyslexics through the tip-of-the-tongue paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Collazo Alonso, Aida; González-Nosti, María

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexics have difficulties accessing and retrieving the phonological form of words, in the absence of a deficit at the semantic level. The aim of this work was to study, through the Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) paradigm, the problems of lexical access in Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics and the relationship with their phonological awareness. A group of developmental dyslexics (14) and other children without reading difficulties (14), aged 7 to 12, performed a picture naming task of medium and low frequency and a task of phonological awareness. The results indicated that dyslexic children generally show a greater number of TOT phenomena than the control group. Despite being able to provide semantic information of the drawing, they had difficulties retrieving partial phonological information. These results indicate that developmental dyslexic children have particular difficulty in accessing the phonological form of words, which may be interesting for the development of intervention programs for these children.

  5. Retention of intermediate polarization states in ferroelectric materials enabling memories for multi-bit data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Katsouras, Ilias; Asadi, Kamal; Groen, Wilhelm A.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2016-06-01

    A homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal exhibits only two remanent polarization states that are stable over time, whereas intermediate, or unsaturated, polarization states are thermodynamically instable. Commonly used ferroelectric materials however, are inhomogeneous polycrystalline thin films or ceramics. To investigate the stability of intermediate polarization states, formed upon incomplete, or partial, switching, we have systematically studied their retention in capacitors comprising two classic ferroelectric materials, viz. random copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE), and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. Each experiment started from a discharged and electrically depolarized ferroelectric capacitor. Voltage pulses were applied to set the given polarization states. The retention was measured as a function of time at various temperatures. The intermediate polarization states are stable over time, up to the Curie temperature. We argue that the remarkable stability originates from the coexistence of effectively independent domains, with different values of polarization and coercive field. A domain growth model is derived quantitatively describing deterministic switching between the intermediate polarization states. We show that by using well-defined voltage pulses, the polarization can be set to any arbitrary value, allowing arithmetic programming. The feasibility of arithmetic programming along with the inherent stability of intermediate polarization states makes ferroelectric materials ideal candidates for multibit data storage.

  6. Developmental Pathway of the MPER-Directed HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibody 10E8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinque Soto

    Full Text Available Antibody 10E8 targets the membrane-proximal external region (MPER of HIV-1 gp41, neutralizes >97% of HIV-1 isolates, and lacks the auto-reactivity often associated with MPER-directed antibodies. The developmental pathway of 10E8 might therefore serve as a promising template for vaccine design, but samples from time-of-infection-often used to infer the B cell record-are unavailable. In this study, we used crystallography, next-generation sequencing (NGS, and functional assessments to infer the 10E8 developmental pathway from a single time point. Mutational analysis indicated somatic hypermutation of the 2nd-heavy chain-complementarity determining region (CDR H2 to be critical for neutralization, and structures of 10E8 variants with V-gene regions reverted to genomic origin for heavy-and-light chains or heavy chain-only showed structural differences >2 Å relative to mature 10E8 in the CDR H2 and H3. To understand these developmental changes, we used bioinformatic sieving, maximum likelihood, and parsimony analyses of immunoglobulin transcripts to identify 10E8-lineage members, to infer the 10E8-unmutated common ancestor (UCA, and to calculate 10E8-developmental intermediates. We were assisted in this analysis by the preservation of a critical D-gene segment, which was unmutated in most 10E8-lineage sequences. UCA and early intermediates weakly bound a 26-residue-MPER peptide, whereas HIV-1 neutralization and epitope recognition in liposomes were only observed with late intermediates. Antibody 10E8 thus develops from a UCA with weak MPER affinity and substantial differences in CDR H2 and H3 from the mature 10E8; only after extensive somatic hypermutation do 10E8-lineage members gain recognition in the context of membrane and HIV-1 neutralization.

  7. Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D S; Bell, R Q

    1993-10-01

    In view of the increased interest in a developmental approach to psychopathology, and mounting evidence of the importance of parent-child interactions in the etiology of early antisocial behavior, the following questions were posed for this review. What theories of parent-child relationships and family management techniques are available? How developmental are they, how specific and transactional are they relative to parent and child behaviors involved? And how well do they cover the period in which antisocial behavior develops? Six theories have some developmental features but the attachment theories (by L. A. Sroufe, B. Egeland, and M. T. Greenberg) and two social learning theories (by G. R. Patterson and J. Martin) are most clearly developmental. They postulate reciprocal interactions of parent and child, and transformations in the form of normative changes in the child or changes in family processes. The social learning theories of Patterson and Martin are most specific, microanalytic in fact, as to the interaction processes involved, and the attachment theories at least specify kinds of behavior involved and also do not rely on traits or types of influence as their units of analysis. Conceptualization is most weak and overly general between late infancy and the preschool years. This gap makes it difficult to link attachment and social learning theories, both of which have driven a large number of studies. A bridging theory is offered to link the two sets of theories in the critical period involved.

  8. Dust Evolution in Intermediate Velocity Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Martin, P. G.; Blagrave, K.; Miville-Deschenes, M. A.

    We search for evidence of dust evolution in high Galactic latitude regions by looking at variations in the emissivities of dust associated with different velocity clouds. In order to do so, we spatially correlate infrared IRAS/IRIS dust maps with HI column density maps derived from 21-cm radio observations with the GBT. Our findings show that intermediate velocity clouds (IVCs or halo clouds) have a higher 60µm/100µm and lower 12µm/100µm color ratio when compared to dust in local low-velocity gas. This suggests that large thermal dust grains are shattered into smaller ones (VSGs) and that there is a low relative abundance of PAHs in IVCs.

  9. Intermediate normal metal layers in superconducting circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.F.; Gershenson, M.; Fleming, D.L.; Barta, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting device comprising a first superconducting layer, a junction layer on the first superconducting layer, an insulating layer on the first superconducting layer, at least one superconducting area on the junction layer surrounded by the insulator layer, superconducting connector pad means disposed over the superconducting area, and superconducting wire means electrically connected to the superconducting connector pad means. The improvement comprising a first metal layer is disposed over the insulator layer and intermediate the superconducting area. The connector pad means and a second metal layer are disposed between the connector pad means and the superconductor wire means. The first metal layer covers the superconducting area and the first and second metal layers are sufficiently thin to allow quantum mechanical tunneling between the connector pad means and the superconducting area and the connector pad means and the superconducting wire means, respectively

  10. Modernisation of the intermediate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Inkeri; Heino, Olga; Hendolin, Ilkka; Galambosi, Szabolcs

    2018-03-01

    The intermediate laboratory courses at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, were reformed using desired learning outcomes as the basis for design. The reformed laboratory courses consist of weekly workshops and small-group laboratory sessions. Many of the laboratory exercises are open-ended and have several possible ways of execution. They were designed around affordable devices, to allow for the purchase of multiple sets of laboratory equipment. This allowed students to work on the same problems simultaneously. Thus, it was possible to set learning goals which build on each other. Workshop sessions supported the course by letting the students solve problems related to conceptual and technical aspects of each laboratory exercise. The laboratory exercises progressed biweekly to allow for iterative problem solving. Students reached the learning goals well and the reform improved student experiences. Neither positive or negative changes in expert-like attitudes towards experimental physics (measured by E-CLASS questionnaire) were observed.

  11. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety

  12. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  13. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged...... to their home before they have sufficiently recovered, but knowledge within this area is sparse. In particular the experience of older people is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experiences of being back home after a stay in an IC unit. Data were drawn from 12 interviews....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...

  14. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  15. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  16. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  17. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  18. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek P. Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 1011.5 cm−3, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  19. Intermediate storage device of start accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, N.I.; Tkach, Yu.V.; Stepanenko, I.A.; Kozachek, A.S.; Komarov, A.D.; Gadetskii, N.P.

    1989-01-01

    The use as an intermediate storage device (ISD) of a chain of series-connected capacitors near the stages of a voltage-pulse generator (VPG) reduces the inductance of the VPG-ISD charging circuit and reduces the charging time to 330 nsec. For such times, the electric strength of the capacitor insulation is considerably higher than for dc voltage, which makes it possible to reduce the number of capacitors in the chain and the inductance of the ISD. Additional methods for reduction of the inductance of the VPG-ISD charging circuit are examined. Reduction of the charging time of the storage device makes the operation of the switch connecting the ISD to the shaping line more stable

  20. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  1. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  2. Intermediates detected by visible spectroscopy during the reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin: the effect of nitrite concentration and diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagababu, Enika; Ramasamy, Somasundaram; Rifkind, Joseph M

    2007-10-16

    The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) results in the reduction of nitrite to NO, which binds unreacted deoxyHb forming Fe(II)-nitrosylhemoglobin (Hb(II)NO). The tight binding of NO to deoxyHb is, however, inconsistent with reports implicating this reaction with hypoxic vasodilation. This dilemma is resolved by the demonstration that metastable intermediates are formed in the course of the reaction of nitrite with deoxyHb. The level of intermediates is quantitated by the excess deoxyHb consumed over the concentrations of the final products formed. The dominant intermediate has a spectrum that does not correspond to that of Hb(III)NO formed when NO reacts with methemoglobin (MetHb), but is similar to metHb resulting in the spectroscopic determinations of elevated levels of metHb. It is a delocalized species involving the heme iron, the NO, and perhaps the beta-93 thiol. The putative role for red cell reacted nitrite on vasodilation is associated with reactions involving the intermediate. (1) The intermediate is less stable with a 10-fold excess of nitrite and is not detected with a 100-fold excess of nitrite. This observation is attributed to the reaction of nitrite with the intermediate producing N2O3. (2) The release of NO quantitated by the formation of Hb(II)NO is regulated by changes in the distal heme pocket as shown by the 4.5-fold decrease in the rate constant in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. The regulated release of NO or N2O3 as well as the formation of the S-nitroso derivative of hemoglobin, which has also been reported to be formed from the intermediates generated during nitrite reduction, should be associated with any hypoxic vasodilation attributed to the RBC.

  3. Low and intermediate level disposal in Spain (El Cabril Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    1997-01-01

    El Cabril disposal facility is located in Southern Spain and was commissioned in October 1992. The main objective of this facility is the disposal of all low- and intermediate-level waste produced in Spain in a disposal system (Figure 1) consisting of concrete overpacks placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. The facility also includes : 1) A treatment and conditioning shop (with incineration, non-NPP wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection) 2) A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive tests on the waste forms (specimens extractions, unskinning of drums, mechanical strength, leaching tests on specimens and full size packages) 3) A fabrication shop for overpacks construction 4) Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practice and the reception and transport of the wastes from the producers to facilities. (author). 11 figs

  4. Liquefaction processes and systems and liquefaction process intermediate compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.; Maupin, Gary D.; Hallen, Richard T.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2014-07-12

    Liquefaction processes are provided that can include: providing a biomass slurry solution having a temperature of at least 300.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 2000 psig; cooling the solution to a temperature of less than 150.degree. C.; and depressurizing the solution to release carbon dioxide from the solution and form at least part of a bio-oil foam. Liquefaction processes are also provided that can include: filtering the biomass slurry to remove particulates; and cooling and depressurizing the filtered solution to form the bio-oil foam. Liquefaction systems are provided that can include: a heated biomass slurry reaction zone maintained above 300.degree. C. and at least 2000 psig and in continuous fluid communication with a flash cooling/depressurization zone maintained below 150.degree. C. and between about 125 psig and about atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction systems are also provided that can include a foam/liquid separation system. Liquefaction process intermediate compositions are provided that can include a bio-oil foam phase separated from an aqueous biomass solids solution.

  5. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  6. The Developmental Origins of Dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Niamh; Over, Harriet

    2018-01-01

    Dehumanization is a complex social phenomenon, intimately connected to intergroup harm and neglect. However, developmental research has only recently started to investigate this important topic. In this chapter, we review research in areas closely related to dehumanization including children's intergroup preferences, essentialist conceptions of social groups, and understanding of relative status. We then highlight the small number of recent studies that have investigated the development of this social bias more directly. We close by making a series of suggestions for future research that will enable us to better understand the nature and causes of this harmful phenomenon. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary developmental biology its roots and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2011-09-01

    The rise of evolutionary developmental biology was not the progressive isolation and characterization of developmental genes and gene networks. Many obstacles had to be overcome: the idea that all genes were more or less involved in development; the evidence that developmental processes in insects had nothing in common with those of vertebrates. Different lines of research converged toward the creation of evolutionary developmental biology, giving this field of research its present heterogeneity. This does not prevent all those working in the field from sharing the conviction that a precise characterization of evolutionary variations is required to fully understand the evolutionary process. Some evolutionary developmental biologists directly challenge the Modern Synthesis. I propose some ways to reconcile these apparently opposed visions of evolution. The turbulence seen in evolutionary developmental biology reflects the present entry of history into biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of a Math Emporium Course Redesign in Developmental and Introductory Mathematics Courses on Student Achievement and Students' Attitudes toward Mathematics at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Amy Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of computer-based instruction on student mathematics achievement and students' attitudes toward mathematics in developmental and introductory mathematics courses, namely Elementary Algebra, Intermediate Algebra, and College Algebra, at a community college. The researcher also examined the…

  9. Neurogenesis and developmental anesthetic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunchai; Berg, Daniel A; Furmanski, Orion; Jackson, William M; Ryu, Yun Kyoung; Gray, Christy D; Mintz, C David

    The mechanism by which anesthetics might act on the developing brain in order to cause long term deficits remains incompletely understood. The hippocampus has been identified as a structure that is likely to be involved, as rodent models show numerous deficits in behavioral tasks of learning that are hippocampal-dependent. The hippocampus is an unusual structure in that it is the site of large amounts of neurogenesis postnatally, particularly in the first year of life in humans, and these newly generated neurons are critical to the function of this structure. Intriguingly, neurogenesis is a major developmental event that occurs during postulated windows of vulnerability to developmental anesthetic neurotoxicity across the different species in which it has been studied. In this review, we examine the evidence for anesthetic effects on neurogenesis in the early postnatal period and ask whether neurogenesis should be studied further as a putative mechanism of injury. Multiple anesthetics are considered, and both in vivo and in vitro work is presented. While there is abundant evidence that anesthetics act to suppress neurogenesis at several different phases, evidence of a causal link between these effects and any change in learning behavior remains elusive. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Eco-Evo-Devo: developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity as evolutionary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F; Bosch, Thomas C G; Ledón-Rettig, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    The integration of research from developmental biology and ecology into evolutionary theory has given rise to a relatively new field, ecological evolutionary developmental biology (Eco-Evo-Devo). This field integrates and organizes concepts such as developmental symbiosis, developmental plasticity, genetic accommodation, extragenic inheritance and niche construction. This Review highlights the roles that developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity have in evolution. Developmental symbiosis can generate particular organs, can produce selectable genetic variation for the entire animal, can provide mechanisms for reproductive isolation, and may have facilitated evolutionary transitions. Developmental plasticity is crucial for generating novel phenotypes, facilitating evolutionary transitions and altered ecosystem dynamics, and promoting adaptive variation through genetic accommodation and niche construction. In emphasizing such non-genomic mechanisms of selectable and heritable variation, Eco-Evo-Devo presents a new layer of evolutionary synthesis.

  11. Epigenetics and Neural developmental disorders: Washington DC, September 18 and 19, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Pak, ChangHui; Smrt, Richard D; Jin, Peng

    2007-01-01

    Neural developmental disorders, such as autism, Rett Syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and Angelman syndrome manifest during early postnatal neural development. Although the genes responsible for some of these disorders have been identified, how the mutations of these genes affect neural development is currently unclear. Emerging evidence suggest that these disorders share common underlying defects in neuronal morphology, synaptic connectivity and brain plasticity. In particular, alterations in dendritic branching and spine morphology play a central role in the pathophysiology of most mental retardation disorders, suggesting that common pathways regulating neuronal function may be affected. Epigenetic modulations, mediated by DNA methylation, RNA-associated silencing, and histone modification, can serve as an intermediate process that imprints dynamic environmental experiences on the "fixed" genome, resulting in stable alterations in phenotypes. Disturbance in epigenetic regulations can lead to inappropriate expression or silencing of genes, causing an array of multi-system disorders and neoplasias. Rett syndrome, the most common form of mental retardation in young girls, is due to l mutation of MECP2, encoding a methylated DNA binding protein that translates DNA methylation into gene repression. Angelman syndrome is due to faulty genomic imprinting or maternal mutations in UBE3A. Fragile X Syndrome, in most cases, results from the hypermethylation of FMR1 promoter, hence the loss of expression of functional FMRP protein. Autism, with its complex etiology, may have strong epigenetic link. Together, these observations strongly suggest that epigenetic mechanisms may play a critical role in brain development and etiology of related disorders. This report summarizes the scientific discussions and major conclusions from a recent conference that aimed to gain insight into the common molecular pathways affected among these disorders and discover potential therapeutic targets

  12. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  13. Intermediate mass fragments emission in binary fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1991-01-01

    Intermediate mass fragments emission in intermediate-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions has been studied in the framework of a generalized model where the fragments are assumed to be emitted from binary fissionlike decay of the fully equilibrated compound nucleus. The present formulation, with a schematic exit channel shape configuration and simple rotating liquid-drop nuclear potential, has been found to explain most of the intermediate mass fragments emission cross sections reasonably well without incorporating any free parameters in the calculation

  14. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  15. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  16. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Tek P.; Różańska, Agata; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, Bozena [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: tek@camk.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR) by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 10{sup 11.5} cm{sup −3}, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  17. Substrate radical intermediates in soluble methane monooxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aimin; Jin Yi; Zhang Jingyan; Brazeau, Brian J.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2005-01-01

    EPR spin-trapping experiments were carried out using the three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO). Spin-traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), α-4-pyridyl-1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), and nitrosobenzene (NOB) were used to investigate the possible formation of substrate radical intermediates during catalysis. In contrast to a previous report, the NADH-coupled oxidations of various substrates did not produce any trapped radical species when DMPO or POBN was present. However, radicals were detected by these traps when only the MMO reductase component and NADH were present. DMPO and POBN were found to be weak inhibitors of the MMO reaction. In contrast, NOB is a strong inhibitor for the MMO-catalyzed nitrobenzene oxidation reaction. When NOB was used as a spin-trap in the complete MMO system with or without substrate, EPR signals from an NOB radical were detected. We propose that a molecule of NOB acts simultaneously as a substrate and a spin-trap for MMO, yielding the long-lived radical and supporting a stepwise mechanism for MMO

  18. Uranium concentration monitor manual, secondary intermediate evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Slice, R.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and measurement control procedures for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the secondary intermediate evaporator at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration in the return loop of time recirculating evaporator for purposes of process monitoring and control. A detector installed near the bottom of the return loop is used to acquire spectra of gamma rays from the evaporator solutions during operation. Pulse height analysis of each spectrum gives the information required to deduce the concentration of uranium in the evaporator solution in near-real time. The visual readout of concentration is updated at the end of every assay cycle. The readout includes an alphanumeric display of uranium concentration and an illuminated, colored LED (in an array of colored LEDs) indicating whether the measured concentration is within (or above or below) the desired range. An alphanumeric display of evaporator solution acid molarity is also available to the operator. 9 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Dynamical aspects of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, James Francis

    1997-10-01

    The production of neutrons, light charged particles (LCPs), and intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs), from the four reactions 55 MeV/A [124,136Xe] + [112,124Sn], is studied with an experimental apparatus which is highly efficient for the detection of both charged particles and neutrons. The IMFs are found more localized in the mid-velocity region (parallel velocity close to center of mass) than are the LPCs, and the detected multiplicity of IMFs depends linearly on the charge lost from the projectile. IMF multiplicity is found to be largely independent of the neutron excess of the system, aside from a slight increase with increasing neutron excess that is expected from statistical-model simulations. Remnants of the projectile, with very little velocity reduction, are found for most of the reaction cross section. Isotopic and isobaric fragment yields in the projectile-velocity region indicate that charge-to- mass ratio neutralization is generally not achieved but is approached when little remains of the projectile. For all systems, the fragments found in the mid-velocity region are substantially more neutron rich than those found in the velocity region dominated by the emission from the projectile. This observation can be qualitatively accounted for if the mid-velocity source (or sources) is either more neutron rich or smaller, with the same neutron-to-proton ratio, than the source with the velocity of the projectile. The observations of this work suggest that the intermediate mass fragments are, to a large extent, formed dynamically by a multiple neck rupture or a proximity-fission type mechanism. Though it remains unexplained, this process enhances the neutron- to-proton ratio of the emitted fragments. This scenario is reminiscent of low-energy ternary fission and one predicted by Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations. However, these calculations predict too much velocity damping of the projectile remnant and do not produce a mid-velocity neutron

  20. Providing effective and preferred care closer to home: a realist review of intermediate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark; Hunt, Harriet; Cooper, Chris; Shepperd, Sasha; Pawson, Ray; Anderson, Rob

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate care is one of the number of service delivery models intended to integrate care and provide enhanced health and social care services closer to home, especially to reduce reliance on acute care hospital beds. In order for health and social care practitioners, service managers and commissioners to make informed decisions, it is vital to understand how to implement the admission avoidance and early supported discharge components of intermediate care within the context of local care systems. This paper reports the findings of a theory-driven (realist) review conducted in 2011-2012. A broad range of evidence contained in 193 sources was used to construct a conceptual framework for intermediate care. This framework forms the basis for exploring factors at service user, professional and organisational levels that should be considered when designing and delivering intermediate care services within a particular local context. Our synthesis found that involving service users and their carers in collaborative decision-making about the objectives of care and the place of care is central to achieving the aims of intermediate care. This pivotal involvement of the service user relies on practitioners, service managers and commissioners being aware of the impact that organisational structures at the local level can have on enabling or inhibiting collaborative decision-making and care co-ordination. Through all interactions with service users and their care networks, health and social care professionals should establish the meaning which alternative care environments have for different service users. Doing so means decisions about the best place of care will be better informed and gives service users choice. This in turn is likely to support psychological and social stability, and the attainment of functional goals. At an organisational level, integrated working can facilitate the delivery of intermediate care, but there is not a straightforward relationship between

  1. Phantom Limbs, Neuroprosthetics, and the Developmental Origins of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Dooley, James C

    2017-10-01

    Amputees who wish to rid themselves of a phantom limb must weaken the neural representation of the absent limb. Conversely, amputees who wish to replace a lost limb must assimilate a neuroprosthetic with the existing neural representation. Whether we wish to remove a phantom limb or assimilate a synthetic one, we will benefit from knowing more about the developmental process that enables embodiment. A potentially critical contributor to that process is the spontaneous activity - in the form of limb twitches - that occurs exclusively and abundantly during active (REM) sleep, a particularly prominent state in early development. The sensorimotor circuits activated by twitching limbs, and the developmental context in which activation occurs, could provide a roadmap for creating neuroprosthetics that feel as if they are part of the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pollen proteomics: from stress physiology to developmental priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Palak; Ghatak, Arindam; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Pollen development and stress. In angiosperms, pollen or pollen grain (male gametophyte) is a highly reduced two- or three-cell structure which plays a decisive role in plant reproduction. Male gametophyte development takes place in anther locules where diploid sporophytic cells undergo meiotic division followed by two consecutive mitotic processes. A desiccated and metabolically quiescent form of mature pollen is released from the anther which lands on the stigma. Pollen tube growth takes place followed by double fertilization. Apart from its importance in sexual reproduction, pollen is also an interesting model system which integrates fundamental cellular processes like cell division, differentiation, fate determination, polar establishment, cell to cell recognition and communication. Recently, pollen functionality has been studied by multidisciplinary approaches which also include OMICS analyses like transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Here, we review recent advances in proteomics of pollen development and propose the process of developmental priming playing a key role to guard highly sensitive developmental processes.

  3. An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…

  4. Analysing Hessence Intermediate and Logamediate Universe in Loop Quantum Cosmological Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Jyotirmay Das; Debnath, Ujjal

    2017-06-01

    We have discussed here Hessence inflation in Loop Quantum Cosmological background. In this work, we have emphasized on late times, taking into account various slow-roll conditions. This model has been constructed taking intermediate and logamediate scale factors. In both cases the forms of hessence field, potential, number of e-folds, slow-roll parameters are manipulated by taking the dissipative co-efficient Γ =Γ0, where Γ0 > 0 is a constant, in accordance with second law of thermodynamics.

  5. TMI-2 source and intermediate range neutron flux monitors data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    This is a report on the preparation of data from the TMI-2 excore source and intermediate range neutron flux monitors for inclusion into the TMI Data Base. The sources of the as-recorded data are discussed as well as the process of transforming these data into digital form. The corrections to the as-recorded data are given and the data quality classification and uncertainty are established. The identifiers attached to each data set in the TMI Data Base are given

  6. Pair production by photons. Screening corrections for intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverboe, I.

    1978-01-01

    The screening correction to the total cross-section for coherent electron pair production by photons is evaluated for intermediate and high energies, by employing the Born-approximation recoil momentum distribution and accurate relativistic form factors. Results are given for all 3<=Z<=92. For each element the results are presented in terms of a seven-parameter formula which is based on a high-energy expansion of the screened cross-section. (author)

  7. Humor in kinderverhale in die tersiêre en intermediêre fases van taalonderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Niekerk

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Humour in children’s literature in the tertiary and intermediate phases of language education Humour is essential in the development of an individual and in the development of a healthy society in general, and research on humour is currently regarded as important in a variety of disciplines in the humanities. There are various ways in which an individual may be exposed to humour, and one of these is children’s stories. An instrument or model for studying humour in children’s stories is necessary and very useful: an instrument that takes into account developmental psychology, literary theory and the nature of humour. When these are combined, the nature, scope and effect of humour in children’s stories can be determined. This article explores ways in which such a model can be used at tertiary level in undergraduate and graduate studies, in teacher training and at the intermediate level when facilitating reading as one of the learning aims in language teaching to children from eight to twelve years (roughly Grades 4 to 6. Humour can be an instrument in the hands of authors and of adults as mediator or facilitator to sensitise young readers to humour in stories. As a consequence of this process of sensitising, readers’ reading and life skills are developed and their horizon of experience is broadened.

  8. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yoshie

    Full Text Available The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF magnetic field (MF was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST. The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF–MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days or the cell differentiation process (10 days during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF–MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF–MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2, and an early developmental gene, Hba-x, in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH cooktop, etc. in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF–MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect. Keywords: Differentiation, Embryonic stem cell, Gene expression, Intermediate frequency magnetic field

  9. Intermediate Syndrome Following Organophosphate Insecticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chang Yang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate insecticide poisoning can manifest 3 different phases of toxic effects, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS, and delayed neuropathy. Among them, IMS has been considered as a major contributing factor of organophosphate-related morbidity and mortality because of its frequent occurrence and probable consequence of respiratory failure. Despite a high incidence, the pathophysiology that underlies IMS remains unclear. Previously proposed mechanisms of IMS include different susceptibility of various cholinergic receptors, muscle necrosis, prolonged acetylcholinesterase inhibition, inadequate oxime therapy, downregulation or desensitization of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors, failure of postsynaptic acetylcholine release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy. The clinical manifestations of IMS typically occur within 24 to 96 hours, affecting conscious patients without cholinergic signs, and involve the muscles of respiration, proximal limb muscles, neck flexors, and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves. With appropriate therapy that commonly includes artificial respiration, complete recovery develops 5–18 days later. Patients with atypical manifestations of IMS, especially a relapse or a continuum of acute cholinergic crisis, however, were frequently reported in clinical studies of IMS. The treatment of IMS is mainly supportive. Nevertheless, because IMS generally concurs with severe organophosphate toxicity and persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, early aggressive decontamination, appropriate antidotal therapy, and prompt institution of ventilatory support should be helpful in ameliorating the magnitude and/or the incidence of IMS. Although IMS is well recognized as a disorder of neuromuscular junctions, its exact etiology, incidence, and risk factors are not clearly defined because existing studies are largely small-scale case series and do not employ a consistent and rigorous

  10. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  11. [White matter in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea-Hidalgo, Ana; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2011-09-16

    The white matter is the main connection between different regions of the brain and helps them to work in a unified, coordinated way. Diffusion tensor imaging is an ideal technique with which to study it in order to detect the degree of integrity of these fibres. Nowadays, they are considered to play a significant role in the development and pathophysiology of different developmental disorders, and the aim of this study was to examine this role. On reviewing disorders such as autism, dyslexia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, certain fibres were found to be clearly involved. This was especially the case of the (arcuate) superior longitudinal fasciculus and the temporal-parietal network (related with the regulation of motor and attentional behaviour), the corpus callosum (which ensures the efficient and swift exchange of information between the hemispheres of the brain) and cingulate regions (which would be related with social cognition and self-consciousness).

  12. Environment protection and developmental politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schusdziarra, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment protection and development are characterised as two sides of the same medal. The extent of environmental damage in the developing countries is one of the great challenges of our time. Environment protection is therefore one of the main objectives in the current German developmental policy and as a cross-sectional task figures as a standard in all the other sectors of the field. The support offered to developing countries in fulfillment of global agreements for environment protection represents a service rendered in the interest of the world community. In this regard it should be classified under compensation payments rather than under measures of development aid. It is important to strengthen the economic power of and enhance export opportunities for the developing countries because environmentally benign trading is the best aid for a sustainable development. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  14. State of the States in Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    This is the latest edition of the "State of the States in Developmental Disabilities" study--a thorough and the only one of its kind investigation on public spending, revenues, and programmatic trends of intellectual and developmental programs and services within the United States since 1977. Directed by leading researcher, Dr. David…

  15. Static balance and developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, RH

    2003-01-01

    The development of static balance is a basic characteristic of normal motor development. Most of the developmental motor tests include a measure of static balance. Children with a developmental coordination disorder (DCD) often fail this item. Twenty-four children at risk for DCD with balance

  16. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  17. Menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasi, I; Spitzer, R F; Allen, L M; Ornstein, M P

    2009-06-01

    The approach to menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities has evolved considerably over the years due to changing philosophies and evolving treatment options. We review the medical management options available for menstrual suppression with a focus on the needs and treatment of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

  18. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of developmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth order and household size also had significant association with delay in various domains. There was no significant association between socioeconomic class and developmental delay in any of the domains. Conclusion: The study showed that developmental delay was relatively common among under-five children in ...

  19. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  20. Pleiotropic consequences of misexpression of the developmentally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The non-coding hsr gene of Drosophila melanogaster is expressed in nearly all cell types and developmental stages. However, in the absence of conventional mutant alleles of this gene, its developmental functions remain largely unknown. In the present study, we used a variety of GAL4 drivers to overexpress or ablate ...

  1. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  2. Issues Surrounding Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, David; Kirby, Amanda; Dunford, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Like other developmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, specific language impairment and dyslexia, there is no shortage of debate surrounding the condition of Developmental Coordination Disorder. The present article takes a global view of many of these debatable issues, starting with definition and terminology, moving…

  3. Variations in Developmental Patterns across Pragmatic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of longitudinal studies in uninstructed contexts over the last two decades, this synthesis explores variations in developmental patterns across second language (L2) pragmatic features. Two synthesis questions were addressed: (a) What are the variations in developmental patterns across pragmatic features?, and (b) What are…

  4. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience: Origins, Issues, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Snyder, Kelly A.; Roberts, Ralph J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary explains how the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience (DCN) holds the promise of a much wider interdisciplinary integration across sciences concerned with development: psychology, molecular genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary developmental biology. First we present a brief history of DCN, including the key theoretical…

  5. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  6. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing?

  7. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems Methodology and MCDA tools. L Scott. Abstract. This paper presents two different analytical approaches that may be useful in developing an understanding of developmental local government (DLG). DLG implies a significant commitment with respect to ...

  8. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  9. [A Dynamic Developmental Model of Suicide.] Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geert, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Compares differential and developmental approaches to clinical and developmental problems such as suicide. Contends that abstract model variables (such as suicidal tendency), whose meaning depends on the model in which they function, need a translation between the variable and empirical data. Maintains that practitioners need a model allowing for…

  10. Latin and Greek; Intermediate and Senior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Latin and Greek. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into seven chapters, each of which is in straight-text or list form. It is offset printed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: General objectives for the 3-year course are outlined in a brief…

  11. Unification of favourable intermediate-, unfavourable intermediate-, and very high-risk stratification criteria for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Zelefsky, Michael J; Woo, Kaitlin M; Spratt, Daniel E; Kollmeier, Marisa A; McBride, Sean; Pei, Xin; Sandler, Howard M; Zhang, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    To improve on the existing risk-stratification systems for prostate cancer. This was a retrospective investigation including 2 248 patients undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single institution. We separated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk prostate cancer into 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Similarly, NCCN high-risk prostate cancer was stratified into 'standard' and 'very high-risk' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Patients with unfavourable-intermediate-risk (UIR) prostate cancer had significantly inferior prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P prostate cancer. Similarly, patients with very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA-RFS (P prostate cancer. Moreover, patients with FIR and low-risk prostate cancer had similar outcomes, as did patients with UIR and SHR prostate cancer. Consequently, we propose the following risk-stratification system: Group 1, low risk and FIR; Group 2, UIR and SHR; and Group 3, VHR. These groups have markedly different outcomes, with 8-year distant metastasis rates of 3%, 9%, and 29% (P < 0.001) for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 8-year PCSM of 1%, 4%, and 13% (P < 0.001) after EBRT. This modified stratification system was significantly more accurate than the three-tiered NCCN system currently in clinical use for all outcomes. Modifying the NCCN risk-stratification system to group FIR with low-risk patients and UIR with SHR patients, results in modestly improved prediction of outcomes, potentially allowing better personalisation of therapeutic recommendations. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  13. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  14. Developing the Writing Ability of Intermediate Language Learners by Blogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hajiannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the widespread use of blogs during recent years, the present study explored how blogging can affect the writing skill of Iranian language learners. Besides, the learners' perception of blogging was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively to see whether learners showed enthusiasm to blogging and how it motivated them to write. Two intermediate English classes were selected as the Control and Experimental Groups. Six writing topics were selected and were assigned to both groups. The writing activities in the Control Group were done on paper-based method while the Blogging Group used a selected website to do so. To evaluate the writing activities, four criteria were taken into account: a length of the writing activities, b use of verb forms, c use of articles, and d use of prepositions. Based on the results of the chi-square tests, in terms of the frequency of missed articles and prepositions the performances of both groups were significantly different. Also the compositions in the Blogging Group were longer than those of the Control Group. However, the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the learners' perception towards blogging revealed that students believed blogging had encouraged them to write more accurately. They also considered that blogging had remarkably improved their writing ability as compared to the time they did not use blogging.

  15. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E

    2014-01-01

    energy level compared to a relatively minor variation in the short-wave swash energy level. A universally common feature of spectra from all beach-states was an f− 4energy roll-off in the short-wave frequency band. In contrast to the broadly uniform appearance of the short-wave frequency band...... energy level. This extension of the beach-state model to include the swash zone leads to the following propositions for morphodynamic controls on the nature of the swash spectrum. (1) The short-wave part of the swash spectrum is relatively constant in form across all beach-states (f− 4 energy roll-off...... (reflective, intermediate and dissipative), with beach gradients ranging from approximately 1:6 to 1:60 exposed to offshore significant wave heights of 0.5–3.0 m. The ratio of swash energy in the short-wave (f > 0.05 Hz) to long-wave (f

  16. Protons scattering on Li isotopes at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Sanfirova, A.V.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The protons scattering differential cross section on the 6,7,8 Li nuclei are calculated within the framework the Glauber-Sitenko multiple scattering theory at intermediate energies (from 100 to 1000 MeV). In the calculations the multi-cluster wave functions (αt for 7 Li, αnp for 6 Li, and αtn for 8 Li) considering within potential cluster model have been used. Differential cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 8 Li and 9 Li nuclei are similar: absolute cross sections are almost the same, diffraction minimum for large A shifting to the field of the least scattering angles that reflecting increase of the material radius. For the 11 Li the differential cross section absolute value is smaller about in two time than for the rest isotopes. At present it is reliably established, that the 11 Li nucleus has an exotic structure - the nine-nucleon core ( 9 Li) around which the two-neutron halo is rotating. The principal characteristics of the Li nuclei are presented in tabular form

  17. Recoil studies of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, H

    2002-01-01

    A review is given on the recoil studies of photonuclear reactions on complex nuclei at intermediate energies. Recoils of 167 radionuclides formed in the photonuclear reactions of sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup n sup a sup t V, sup n sup a sup t Cu, sup 9 sup 3 Nb, sup n sup a sup t Ag, sup n sup a sup t Ta, and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au, induced by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E sub 0) from 600 to 1100 MeV, have been investigated by the thick-target thick-catcher method. The recoil velocity from the first step and the mean kinetic energy of the residual nuclei in the second step were deduced based on the two-step vector velocity model and discussed by comparing with the reported results on proton-induced reactions. Recoils of sup 2 sup 4 Na produced from sup 2 sup 7 Al, sup n sup a sup t V, sup n sup a sup t Cu, sup n sup a sup t Ag, and sup 1 sup 9 sup 7 Au are of special interest from a viewpoint of a change in the production mechanism with respect to target mass. Reaction yields of 58 and 63 radionuclides produce...

  18. Dynamic Scaling of Colloidal Gel Formation at Intermediate Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingteng; Bahadur, Divya; Dufresne, Eric M; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Leheny, Robert L; Maj, Piotr; Narayanan, Suresh; Szczygiel, Robert; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Sandy, Alec

    2017-10-27

    We have examined the formation and dissolution of gels composed of intermediate volume-fraction nanoparticles with temperature-dependent short-range attractions using small-angle x-ray scattering, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and rheology to obtain nanoscale and macroscale sensitivity to structure and dynamics. Gel formation after temperature quenches to the vicinity of the rheologically determined gel temperature, T_{gel}, was characterized via the slowdown of dynamics and changes in microstructure observed in the intensity autocorrelation functions and structure factor, respectively, as a function of quench depth (ΔT=T_{quench}-T_{gel}), wave vector, and formation time t_{f}. We find the wave-vector-dependent dynamics, microstructure, and rheology at a particular ΔT and t_{f} map to those at other ΔTs and t_{f}s via an effective scaling temperature, T_{s}. A single T_{s} applies to a broad range of ΔT and t_{f} but does depend on the particle size. The rate of formation implied by the scaling is a far stronger function of ΔT than expected from the attraction strength between colloids. We interpret this strong temperature dependence in terms of cooperative bonding required to form stable gels via energetically favored, local structures.

  19. Rat intermediate lobe in culture: a histological and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronwall, B M; Bishop, J F; Gehlert, D R

    1988-01-01

    The histology, immunohistochemistry, peptide synthesis and secretion as well as proliferation rate of rat intermediate lobe (IL) were studied in primary cultures. The cultures contained two populations of cells: melanotrophs either organized in free floating lobules or in lobules which attached to the dishes and formed a monolayer. Both populations retained their in vivo morphology: polyhedral cells with smooth, ovoid nuclei and a large number of cytoplasmic secretory coated vesicles, a well developed Golgi apparatus, abundant mitochondria and extensive areas of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The melanotrophs stained with varying intensity for alpha-MSH and in situ hybridization showed the presence of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA. 35S-methionine incorporation combined with 2-D gel electrophoresis demonstrated POMC peptide synthesis and radioimmunoassay confirmed its secretion into the medium. 3H-thymidine uptake in the attached melanotrophs was considerably higher than that in the free-floating melanotrophs, demonstrating the dependency of proliferation rate on the cytoarchitecture of the explant. The retention of melanotroph morphology, biosynthetic and proliferative capacity in vitro affords a valid model system for studying POMC gene expression.

  20. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new program underway at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate-level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. ILW are defined as those liquid and solid radioactive wastes, other than high-level wastes and fuel cladding hulls, that in packaged form have radiation dose readings greater than 200 millirem/hr at the packaged surface and 10 millirem/hr at three feet from the surface. The IAEA value of 10 4 Ci/m 3 for ILW defines the upper limit. For comparative purposes, reference is also made to certain aspects of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Because of the wide differences in composition (e.g., acids, salt solutions, resins and zeolites, HEPA filters, etc.) the wastes may require different treatments, particularly those wastes containing volatile contaminants. The various types of ILW have been grouped into categories amenable to similar treatment. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contain volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  2. Unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-Tyr of human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When projected along a reaction coordinate these trajectories yield four distinguishable sets of structures that map qualitatively to folding intermediates of this mutant postulated earlier from experiments.We present in this article a detailed analysis of representative structures and proton transfer activity of these intermediates.

  3. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  4. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  5. 42 CFR 54a.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54a.12... CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS RECEIVING... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.12 Treatment of intermediate organizations. If a...

  6. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  7. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  9. giant is a bona fide gap gene in the intermediate germband insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul Z; Patel, Nipam H

    2010-03-01

    Drosophila undergoes a form of development termed long germ segmentation, where all segments are specified nearly simultaneously so that by the blastoderm stage, the entire body plan has been determined. This mode of segmentation is evolutionarily derived. Most insects undergo short or intermediate germ segmentation, where only anterior segments are specified early, and posterior segments are sequentially specified during germband elongation. These embryological differences imply that anterior and posterior segments might rely upon different molecular mechanisms. In Drosophila, embryos mutant for giant show a gap in the anterior as well fusions of several abdominal segments. In Tribolium, a short germ beetle, giant is required for segmental identity, but not formation, in gnathal segments and also for segmentation of the entire abdomen. This raises the possibility that giant might not act as a gap gene in short and intermediate germ insects. Oncopeltus fasciatus is an intermediate germ insect that is an outgroup to the clade containing Drosophila and Tribolium. We cloned the Oncopeltus homolog of giant and determined its expression and function during segmentation. We find that Oncopeltus giant is a canonical gap gene in the maxillary and labial segments and also plays a gap-like role in the first four abdominal segments. Our results suggest that giant was a bona fide gap gene in the ancestor of these insects with this role being lost in the lineage leading towards Tribolium. This highlights the conservation of anterior patterning and evolutionary plasticity of the genetic regulation controlling posterior segmentation, even in short and intermediate germ insects.

  10. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  11. Challenges and opportunities in developmental integrative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, C A; Eme, J; Burggren, W W; Roghair, R D; Rundle, S D

    2015-06-01

    This review explores challenges and opportunities in developmental physiology outlined by a symposium at the 2014 American Physiological Society Intersociety Meeting: Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology. Across animal taxa, adverse embryonic/fetal environmental conditions can alter morphological and physiological phenotypes in juveniles or adults, and capacities for developmental plasticity are common phenomena. Human neonates with body sizes at the extremes of perinatal growth are at an increased risk of adult disease, particularly hypertension and cardiovascular disease. There are many rewarding areas of current and future research in comparative developmental physiology. We present key mechanisms, models, and experimental designs that can be used across taxa to investigate patterns in, and implications of, the development of animal phenotypes. Intraspecific variation in the timing of developmental events can be increased through developmental plasticity (heterokairy), and could provide the raw material for selection to produce heterochrony--an evolutionary change in the timing of developmental events. Epigenetics and critical windows research recognizes that in ovo or fetal development represent a vulnerable period in the life history of an animal, when the developing organism may be unable to actively mitigate environmental perturbations. 'Critical windows' are periods of susceptibility or vulnerability to environmental or maternal challenges, periods when recovery from challenge is possible, and periods when the phenotype or epigenome has been altered. Developmental plasticity may allow survival in an altered environment, but it also has possible long-term consequences for the animal. "Catch-up growth" in humans after the critical perinatal window has closed elicits adult obesity and exacerbates a programmed hypertensive phenotype (one of many examples of "fetal programing"). Grand challenges for developmental physiology include

  12. Challenges and opportunities in developmental integrative physiology☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, C.A.; Eme, J.; Burggren, W.W.; Roghair, R.D.; Rundle, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    This review explores challenges and opportunities in developmental physiology outlined by a symposium at the 2014 American Physiological Society Intersociety Meeting: Comparative Approaches to Grand Challenges in Physiology. Across animal taxa, adverse embryonic/fetal environmental conditions can alter morphological and physiological phenotypes in juveniles or adults, and capacities for developmental plasticity are common phenomena. Human neonates with body sizes at the extremes of perinatal growth are at an increased risk of adult disease, particularly hypertension and cardiovascular disease. There are many rewarding areas of current and future research in comparative developmental physiology. We present key mechanisms, models, and experimental designs that can be used across taxa to investigate patterns in, and implications of, the development of animal phenotypes. Intraspecific variation in the timing of developmental events can be increased through developmental plasticity (heterokairy), and could provide the raw material for selection to produce heterochrony — an evolutionary change in the timing of developmental events. Epigenetics and critical windows research recognizes that in ovo or fetal development represent a vulnerable period in the life history of an animal, when the developing organism may be unable to actively mitigate environmental perturbations. ‘Critical windows’ are periods of susceptibility or vulnerability to environmental or maternal challenges, periods when recovery from challenge is possible, and periods when the phenotype or epigenome has been altered. Developmental plasticity may allow survival in an altered environment, but it also has possible long-term consequences for the animal. “Catch-up growth” in humans after the critical perinatal window has closed elicits adult obesity and exacerbates a programmed hypertensive phenotype (one of many examples of “fetal programing”). Grand challenges for developmental physiology

  13. [Developmental periods and adaptation of parthenites of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Dicrocoeliidae, Trematoda) to environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoriadkin, V A

    1976-01-01

    Data are given on the developmental periods of parthenites of E. pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) from the Far East of the USSR. The growth and formation of parthenites were found to take place from May to October and to coincide with the active period of the intermediate host's life cycle. With the decrease of autumn temperatures to 8 degrees the growth of parthenites slows down and ceases completely in October. The pause in the development of parthenites from October to April causes longer developmental periods of parthenites as compared to those in the regions of tropical and subtropical climate. Under laboratory conditions at a temperature of 8 to 22 degrees the development of parthenites proceeds without any intervals within 6.5 months.

  14. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS bar p experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance

  15. Alternative solidified forms for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, J.L.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive wastes will occur in various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. These wastes have been classified in this paper as high-level waste, intermediate and low-level waste, cladding hulls, and residues. Solidification methods for each type of waste are discussed in a multiple barrier context of primary waste form, applicable coatings or films, matrix encapsulation, canister, engineered structures, and geological storage. The four major primary forms which have been most highly developed are glass for HLW, cement for ILW, organics for LLW, and metals for hulls

  16. Intermediate view synthesis for eye-gazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eu-Ttuem; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication, also known as body language, is an important form of communication. Nonverbal behaviors such as posture, eye contact, and gestures send strong messages. In regard to nonverbal communication, eye contact is one of the most important forms that an individual can use. However, lack of eye contact occurs when we use video conferencing system. The disparity between locations of the eyes and a camera gets in the way of eye contact. The lock of eye gazing can give unapproachable and unpleasant feeling. In this paper, we proposed an eye gazing correction for video conferencing. We use two cameras installed at the top and the bottom of the television. The captured two images are rendered with 2D warping at virtual position. We implement view morphing to the detected face, and synthesize the face and the warped image. Experimental results verify that the proposed system is effective in generating natural gaze-corrected images.

  17. Interaction of bullets with intermediate targets: material transfer and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Rijnders, Marco; Pieper, Pascal; Hermsen, Rob

    2012-11-30

    In complex shooting incidents, it is not always clear which bullet hit or eventually killed the victim and who fired it. The examination of traces of foreign material embedded in or adhered to bullets provides critical information in the trajectory reconstruction of spent bullets. Such a reconstruction can have considerable legal implications because it can prove that it was not someone's intention to kill. However, the microtraces that remain on spent bullets are often ignored. Microtraces on bullets, around bullet-holes and on ricochet marks were investigated using SEM/EDX for two different types of bullets: a relatively hard, full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet and a relatively soft, lead round-nose (LRN) bullet. A total of 179 bullets were fired into intermediate targets, sheets of 5 different materials (MDF, greenboard, gypsum fibreboard, glass and steel), at approximate incident angles of 90°, 10° and 5°. Of the 144 bullets fired at incident angles of 90°, 130 bullets perforated one of the materials, and 14 bullets perforated two of the materials. The 35 bullets fired at incident angles of 10° and 5° ricocheted off the intermediate targets, producing ricochet marks. In the majority of cases, traces from the target materials were found on the bullet, both after perforation and ricochet. The only exceptions were (1) the perforation of 9-mm sheets of MDF by FMJ bullets and (2) ricochet off glass when the glass did not break. Steel targets transfer small, but still detectable traces of iron to the bullet. The order in which targets are hit was reflected in the traces found on the bullets, i.e., materials from a secondary target were deposited on top of deposits from the primary target. This result implies that it is possible to determine the order of impact from the stratification of the material analysed. Traces from the bullets were found around all the bullet holes. Wipe-off from lead bullets is sometimes visible by the naked eye. Ricocheting bullets produce

  18. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  19. Harmonic maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  20. The essential Escherichia coli apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (Lnt) exists as an extracytoplasmic thioester acyl-enzyme intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddelmeijer, Nienke; Young, Ry

    2010-01-19

    Escherichia coli apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (Lnt) transfers an acyl group from sn-1-glycerophospholipid to the free alpha-amino group of the N-terminal cysteine of apolipoproteins, resulting in mature triacylated lipoprotein. Here we report that the Lnt reaction proceeds through an acyl-enzyme intermediate in which a palmitoyl group forms a thioester bond with the thiol of the active site residue C387 that was cleaved by neutral hydroxylamine. Lnt(C387S) also formed a fatty acyl intermediate that was resistant to neutral hydroxylamine treatment, consistent with formation of an oxygen-ester linkage. Lnt(C387A) did not form an acyl-enzyme intermediate and, like Lnt(C387S), did not have any detectable Lnt activity, indicating that acylation cannot occur at other positions in the catalytic domain. The existence of this thioacyl-enzyme intermediate allowed us to determine whether essential residues in the catalytic domain of Lnt affect the first step of the reaction, the formation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate, or the second step in which the acyl chain is transferred to the apolipoprotein substrate. In the catalytic triad, E267 is required for the formation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate, indicating its role in enhancing the nucleophilicity of C387. E343 is also involved in the first step but is not in close proximity to the active site. W237, Y388, and E389 play a role in the second step of the reaction since acyl-Lnt is formed but N-acylation does not occur. The data presented allow discrimination between the functions of essential Lnt residues in catalytic activity and substrate recognition.

  1. Romantic relationship patterns in young adulthood and their developmental antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2013-11-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age 18 through age 25 in a sample of 511 young adults. The developmental antecedents of these different romantic relationship experiences in both distal and proximal family and peer domains were also examined. Analyses included both person-oriented and variable-oriented approaches. Findings show 5 distinct clusters varying in timing, duration, and frequency of participation in romantic relationships that range from those who had only recently entered into a romantic relationship to those who had been in the same relationship from age 18 to age 25. These relationship outcome trajectory clusters were predicted by variations in competence in early relationships with family and peers. Interpersonal experiences in family and peer contexts in early childhood through adolescence thus may form a scaffold on which later competence in romantic relationships develops. Findings shed light on both normative and nonnormative developmental transitions of romantic relationships in young adulthood.

  2. Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola

    2014-01-01

    What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology.

  3. A semiotic framework for evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at constructing a semiotic framework for an expanded evolutionary synthesis grounded on Peirce's universal categories and the six space/time/function relations [Taborsky, E., 2004. The nature of the sign as a WFF--a well-formed formula, SEED J. (Semiosis Evol. Energy Dev.) 4 (4), 5-14] that integrate the Lamarckian (internal/external) and Darwinian (individual/population) cuts. According to these guide lines, it is proposed an attempt to formalize developmental systems theory by using the notion of evolving developing agents (EDA) that provides an internalist model of a general transformative tendency driven by organism's need to cope with environmental uncertainty. Development and evolution are conceived as non-programmed open-ended processes of information increase where EDA reach a functional compromise between: (a) increments of phenotype's uniqueness (stability and specificity) and (b) anticipation to environmental changes. Accordingly, changes in mutual information content between the phenotype/environment drag subsequent changes in mutual information content between genotype/phenotype and genotype/environment at two interwoven scales: individual life cycle (ontogeny) and species time (phylogeny), respectively. Developmental terminal additions along with increment minimization of developmental steps must be positively selected.

  4. Developmental environment, cultural transmission, and mate choice copying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan

    2007-08-01

    Using female mate choice copying as a rudimentary form of cultural transmission, this study provides evidence that social environment during development has a significant effect on the tendency to use culturally acquired information. Groups of newborn guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were raised for 35 days in 1 of 5 “developmental environments”. Groups of 15 newborns were raised in pools with no adults (treatment 1), both adult male and female guppies (treatments 2 and 3), only adult females (treatment 4) or only adult males (treatment 5). Mature females raised in treatments 1 and 2, but not treatments 3, 4, and 5, copied the mate choice of others. Treatments 1 and 2 correspond to social structures that guppies experience during their development in the wild. Newborn guppies swim together in shoals (analogous to treatment 1). As they mature, juveniles join schools of adult males and females (analogous to treatments 2). At no time during the normal developmental process are juveniles found with males, but only unreceptive females (as was the case for long periods in treatment 3) or in the presence of adults of only one sex (analogous to treatments 4 and 5). As such, normal developmental environments prime guppies for cultural transmission, while unnatural environments fail to do so.

  5. Childhood developmental vulnerabilities associated with early life exposure to infectious and noninfectious diseases and maternal mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa J; Kariuki, Maina; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J

    2017-12-26

    vulnerability at age 5 years. Prenatal exposure to infectious or noninfectious diseases appear to influence early childhood physical, social, emotional and cognitive developmental vulnerabilities that may represent intermediate phenotypes for subsequent mental disorders. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Macroevolutionary developmental biology: Embryos, fossils, and phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-10-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental biology is broadly focused on identifying the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying morphological diversity. Connecting the genotype with the phenotype means that evo-devo research often considers a wide range of evidence, from genetics and morphology to fossils. In this commentary, we provide an overview and framework for integrating fossil ontogenetic data with developmental data using phylogenetic comparative methods to test macroevolutionary hypotheses. We survey the vertebrate fossil record of preserved embryos and discuss how phylogenetic comparative methods can integrate data from developmental genetics and paleontology. Fossil embryos provide limited, yet critical, developmental data from deep time. They help constrain when developmental innovations first appeared during the history of life and also reveal the order in which related morphologies evolved. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful statistical approach that allows evo-devo researchers to infer the presence of nonpreserved developmental traits in fossil species and to detect discordant evolutionary patterns and processes across levels of biological organization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  8. Impaired perception of facial emotion in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Cook, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by difficulties recognising faces. Despite severe difficulties recognising facial identity, expression recognition is typically thought to be intact in DP; case studies have described individuals who are able to correctly label photographic displays of facial emotion, and no group differences have been reported. This pattern of deficits suggests a locus of impairment relatively late in the face processing stream, after the divergence of expression and identity analysis pathways. To date, however, there has been little attempt to investigate emotion recognition systematically in a large sample of developmental prosopagnosics using sensitive tests. In the present study, we describe three complementary experiments that examine emotion recognition in a sample of 17 developmental prosopagnosics. In Experiment 1, we investigated observers' ability to make binary classifications of whole-face expression stimuli drawn from morph continua. In Experiment 2, observers judged facial emotion using only the eye-region (the rest of the face was occluded). Analyses of both experiments revealed diminished ability to classify facial expressions in our sample of developmental prosopagnosics, relative to typical observers. Imprecise expression categorisation was particularly evident in those individuals exhibiting apperceptive profiles, associated with problems encoding facial shape accurately. Having split the sample of prosopagnosics into apperceptive and non-apperceptive subgroups, only the apperceptive prosopagnosics were impaired relative to typical observers. In our third experiment, we examined the ability of observers' to classify the emotion present within segments of vocal affect. Despite difficulties judging facial emotion, the prosopagnosics exhibited excellent recognition of vocal affect. Contrary to the prevailing view, our results suggest that many prosopagnosics do experience difficulties

  9. Integrating developmental biology and the fossil record of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skawiński, Tomasz; Tałanda, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous new discoveries and new research techniques have influenced our understanding of reptile development from a palaeontological perspective. They suggest for example that transition from mineralized to leathery eggshells and from oviparity to viviparity appeared much more often in the evolution of reptiles than was previously thought. Most marine reptiles evolved from viviparous terrestrial ancestors and had probably genetic sex determination. Fossil forms often display developmental traits absent or rare among modern ones such as polydactyly, hyperphalangy, the presence of ribcage armour, reduction of head ornamentation during ontogeny, extreme modifications of vertebral count or a wide range of feather-like structures. Thus, they provide an empirical background for many morphogenetic considerations.

  10. Developmental regression in autism: research and conceptual questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lampreia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of developmental regression in autism has gained importance and a growing number of studies have been conducted in recent years. It is a major issue indicating that there is not a unique form of autism onset. However the phenomenon itself and the concept of regression have been the subject of some debate: there is no consensus on the existence of regression, as there is no consensus on its definition. The aim of this paper is to review the research literature in this area and to introduce some conceptual questions about its existence and its definition.

  11. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level waste radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    The influence of organic materials, which are present in some intermediate level wastes, on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents formed as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  12. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  13. Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors contribute to scholastic backwardness in children. Causes include specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills, low intelligence, chronic illnesses, family dysfunction, social problems, attention deficits, and emotional disorders. Children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills experience significant impairment in the acquisition of reading, writing and mathematical skills. If not remedied at the earliest, these children are at risk of developing severe stress related disorders. There is high comorbidity of behaviour disorders and emotional disorders in these children. Hence early intensive remedial education is essential in the management of children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills.

  14. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH+allene reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, K.-C.; Butler, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH 2 CCH 2 OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193 nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl+CH 2 CCH 2 OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl( 2 P 1/2 ):Cl( 2 P 3/2 ) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH 2 CCH 2 OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH 2 CCH 2 OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH+allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C 2 H 3 , H+acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH 3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O+allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates

  15. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH +allene reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.

    2007-10-01

    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl +CH2CCH2OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl(P1/22):Cl(P3/22) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CCH2OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH +allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C2H3, H +acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O +allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates.

  16. Aging, glucocorticoids and developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, E; Reyes-Castro, L A; Nathanielsz, P W

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are pleiotropic regulators of multiple cell types with critical roles in physiological systems that change across the life-course. Although glucocorticoids have been associated with aging, available data on the aging trajectory in basal circulating glucocorticoids are conflicting. A literature search reveals sparse life-course data. We evaluated (1) the profile of basal circulating corticosterone across the life-course from weaning (postnatal day-PND 21), young adult PND 110, adult PND 450, mature adult PND 650 to aged phase PND 850 in a well-characterized homogeneous rat colony to determine existence of significant changes in trajectory in the second half of life; (2) sex differences; and (3) whether developmental programming of offspring by exposure to maternal obesity during development alters the later-life circulating corticosterone trajectory. We identified (1) a fall in corticosterone between PND 450 and 650 in both males and females (p age but from higher levels in male and female offspring of obese mothers. In all four groups studied, there was a second half of life fall in corticosterone. Higher corticosterone levels in offspring of obese mothers may play a role in their shorter life-span, but the age-associated fall occurs at a similar time to control offspring. Although even more life-course time-points would be useful, a five life-course time-point analysis provides important new information on normative and programmed aging of circulating corticosterone.

  17. Developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Noordin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is a spectrum of anatomical abnormalities of the hip joint in which the femoral head has an abnormal relationship with the acetabulum. Most studies report an incidence of 1 to 34 cases per 1,000 live births and differences could be due to different diagnostic methods and timing of evaluation. Risk factors include first born status, female sex, positive family history, breech presentation and oligohydramnios. Clinical presentations of DDH depend on the age of the child. Newborns present with hip instability, infants have limited hip abduction on examination, and older children and adolescents present with limping, joint pain, and/or osteoarthritis. Repeated, careful examination of all infants from birth and throughout the first year of life until the child begins walking is important to prevent late cases. Provocative testing includes the Barlow and Ortolani maneuvers. Other signs, such as shorting of the femur with hips and knees flexed (Galeazzi sign, asymmetry of the thigh or gluteal folds, and discrepancy of leg lengths are potential clues. Treatment depends on age at presentation and outcomes are much better when the child is treated early, particularly during the first six months of life.

  18. Executive Functions in Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVarvara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating different aspects of Executive Functions (EF in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD.A neuropsychological battery tapping verbal fluency, spoonerism, attention, verbal shifting, short-term and working memory was used to assess 60 children with DD and 65 with typical reading abilities.Compared to their controls, children with DD showed deficits in several EF domains such as verbal categorical and phonological fluency, visual-spatial and auditory attention, spoonerism, verbal and visual short-term memory, and verbal working memory. Moreover, exploring predictive relationships between EF measures and reading, we found that spoonerism abilities better explained word and non-word reading deficits. Although to a lesser extent, auditory and visual-spatial attention also explained the increased percentage of variance related to reading deficit.EF deficits found in DD are interpreted as an expression of a deficient functioning of the Central Executive System and are discussed in the context of the recent temporal sampling theory.

  19. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P; Landrigan, P J

    2006-12-16

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy are common, costly, and can cause lifelong disability. Their causes are mostly unknown. A few industrial chemicals (eg, lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], arsenic, and toluene) are recognised causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Exposure to these chemicals during early fetal development can cause brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult brain function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of lead additives in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful, most were initiated only after substantial delays. Another 200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence of systematic testing, many additional chemicals have been shown to be neurotoxic in laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known and they are not regulated to protect children. The two main impediments to prevention of neurodevelopmental deficits of chemical origin are the great gaps in testing chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation. New, precautionary approaches that recognise the unique vulnerability of the developing brain are needed for testing and control of chemicals.

  20. Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-06-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.

  1. Low and intermediate waste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this facility is the final disposal of all L and ILW produced in Spain, mainly in the operating Nuclear Power Reactors, in the Nuclear Power Plant under decommissioning by ENRESA, a fuel fabrication plant and institutional producers, as well as those arising from incidents outside the nuclear industry. The disposal concept consists of so called disposal units, mainly durable concrete overpacks, placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. These vaults are protected from the weather during their operation and sealing by a metallic shelter, which also supports the handling crane. The facility also include: A treatment and conditioning shop, which includes incineration, institutional wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection. A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive test on the waste forms(specimens extractions, unskinning of the drums, mechanical strength, leaching test on specimens and full size packages) to supports the waste acceptance procedures and the verification of the overall quality of the packages. A fabrication shop for overpacks construction. Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practises and the reception of the wastes from the generating facilities. (author)

  2. Language in use intermediate : self-study workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  3. Antarctic Intermediate Water Formation in a High-Resolution OGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, Antonio; Schodlok, Michael; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2010-05-01

    The importance of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), and the Southern Ocean, in the Climate System, has become apparent in the last decades. Water masses formed at these high latitudes are linked to the shallow and deep branches of the meridional overturning circulation. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), as the main water mass ventilating the base of the worlds ocean thermocline, plays a central role not only in the climate system dynamics, but also in the global cycles of carbon dioxide and other bio-geochemical tracers. The mechanisms AAIW formation, as well as, the relationship among the rate of formation of the AAIW, the ACC frontal locations and mesoscale activity at the fronts are investigated in this study. Thus, in this research the output of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project is used. It is a global high-resolution data synthesis in space and time, that is obtained through an orthogonal projection of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) onto available satellite and in-situ data. During winter, deep mixed layers (ML) of up to 600 m are formed as a result of deep convection. In turn, the deep ML are the nursery grounds for the Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), the lighter precursor of the AAIW. Diapycnal transformation of AAIW, due to internal mixing and air-sea interactions, is found to occur mainly in the South Pacific Ocean, which is known to be one of the most important regions for AAIW transformation. However, significant AAIW transformation is also observed in the South Indian Ocean. In ECCO2, AAIW is represented for by the water masses within the 27-27.8 kg m-3 neutral density range. While the heaviest AAIW (27.4-27.8 kg.m-3) is formed in the South Indian Ocean, reaching a peak production of about 40Sv during late July, the lighter version of the AAIW (27-27.4 kg.m-3) is mainly produced in the South Pacific Ocean. We found that eddy fluxes efficiently

  4. AERE contracts with DOE on the treatment and disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1985-07-01

    Individual summaries are provided for each contract report, under the titles: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic wastes; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action; application of gel processes in the treatment of actinide-containing liquid wastes; the role of colloids in the release of radionuclides from nuclear waste. (author)

  5. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert M; Urzua, Sergio S

    2009-09-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest.

  6. Broadband Microwave Study of Reaction Intermediates and Products Through the Pyrolysis of Oxygenated Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Fritz, Sean; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing list of potential plant-derived biofuels creates a challenge for the scientific community to provide a molecular-scale understanding of their combustion. Development of accurate combustion models rests on a foundation of experimental data on the kinetics and product branching ratios of their individual reaction steps. Therefore, new spectroscopic tools are necessary to selectively detect and characterize fuel components and reactive intermediates generated by pyrolysis and combustion. Substituted furans, including furanic ethers, are considered second-generation biofuel candidates. Following the work of the Ellison group, an 8-18 GHz microwave study was carried out on the unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition of the smallest furanic ether, 2-methoxy furan, and it`s pyrolysis intermediate, the 2-furanyloxy radical, formed in a high-temperature pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion. Details of the experimental setup and analysis of the spectrum of the radical will be discussed.

  7. Post-termination Ribosome Intermediate Acts as the Gateway to Ribosome Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Prabhakar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During termination of translation, the nascent peptide is first released from the ribosome, which must be subsequently disassembled into subunits in a process known as ribosome recycling. In bacteria, termination and recycling are mediated by the translation factors RF, RRF, EF-G, and IF3, but their precise roles have remained unclear. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence to track the conformation and composition of the ribosome in real time during termination and recycling. Our results show that peptide release by RF induces a rotated ribosomal conformation. RRF binds to this rotated intermediate to form the substrate for EF-G that, in turn, catalyzes GTP-dependent subunit disassembly. After the 50S subunit departs, IF3 releases the deacylated tRNA from the 30S subunit, thus preventing reassembly of the 70S ribosome. Our findings reveal the post-termination rotated state as the crucial intermediate in the transition from termination to recycling.

  8. Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

    2002-01-30

    In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed

  9. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e + e - resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs

  10. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    . Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...... in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made......The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US...

  11. Developmental and comparative perspectives of contagious yawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Contagious yawning (i.e. yawning triggered by perceiving others' yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about: (1) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing populations, and (2) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that contagious yawning may share a developmental basis with the capacity for theory of mind. Comparative studies have suggested that contagious yawning can be observed in non-primate species, such as domestic dogs. As dogs are known to have exceptional skills in communicating with humans, it has also been suggested that contagious yawning may be related to the capacity for social communication. These results from developmental and comparative studies are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Developmental Competence for Primordial Germ Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günesdogan, Ufuk; Surani, M Azim

    2016-01-01

    During mammalian embryonic development, the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm give rise to extraembryonic tissues, while the epiblast differentiates into all somatic lineages and the germline. Remarkably, only a few classes of signaling pathways induce the differentiation of these progenitor cells into diverse lineages. Accordingly, the functional outcome of a particular signal depends on the developmental competence of the target cells. Thus, developmental competence can be defined as the ability of a cell to integrate intrinsic and extrinsic cues to execute a specific developmental program toward a specific cell fate. Downstream of signaling, there is the combinatorial activity of transcription factors and their cofactors, which is modulated by the chromatin state of the target cells. Here, we discuss the concept of developmental competence, and the factors that regulate this state with reference to the specification of mammalian primordial germ cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  14. The Redesign of Developmental Education in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgecombe, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the structure and implementation of a redesign of developmental education in the Virginia Community College System, discusses preliminary descriptive findings from an evaluation of the redesign, and shares lessons for the field.

  15. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  16. Fate of oxygenated intermediates in solar irradiated diluted bitumen mixed with saltwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeyu; Zhang, Gong; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Lambert, Patrick; Wang, Zhendi; Landriault, Mike; Shah, Keval

    2017-12-01

    Two types of diluted bitumen (dilbit) and a light crude oil spiked onto the surface of saltwater were irradiated with natural solar light in Ottawa to assess the impact of sunlight to the fate of oxygenated intermediates. Oxygenated components, including carbonyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acidic polar fractions (naphthenic acid fraction compounds, NAFCs), were identified after periods of solar exposure under both winter and summer conditions. Carbonyl PAHs and NAFCs were formed in both seasons; however, light crude and summer irradiation produced higher abundance of them than dilbits and winter exposure. The formed NAFCs were abundant with the congeners containing a heteroatom of oxygen only (O o species), accompanied by the minor amounts of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing acids. The produced O o species were predominant with the congeners with light molecular weight, high degree of saturation and heavy oxygen numbers. For both carbonyl PAHs and NAFCs, their abundance continually increased throughout the period of winter exposure. In the summer, some carbonyl PAHs and all O o species increased during the early exposure period; then they decreased with continued exposure for most oils, illustrating their transitional nature. Oxygenated intermediates thus appear to have been created through the photo-oxidation of non-to medium-polar petroleum hydrocarbons or the intermediates of aldehydes or ketones (O 1 ). Oil properties, the duration of exposure, exposure season and the chemical structure of these intermediates are critical factors controlling their fate through photo-oxidation. The observed chemical changes highlight the effects of sunlight on the potential behavior, fate and impact of spilled oil, with the creation of new resin group compounds and the reduction of aromatics and saturates. These results also imply that the ecological effects of spilled oil, after ageing in sunlight, depend on the specific oil involved and the environmental

  17. Adaptive developmental delay in Chagas disease vectors: an evolutionary ecology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Menu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental time of vector insects is important in population dynamics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and in their responses to global climatic change. In the triatomines (Triatominae, Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease, evolutionary ecology concepts, which may allow for a better understanding of their biology, have not been applied. Despite delay in the molting in some individuals observed in triatomines, no effort was made to explain this variability.We applied four methods: (1 an e-mail survey sent to 30 researchers with experience in triatomines, (2 a statistical description of the developmental time of eleven triatomine species, (3 a relationship between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability, (4 a mathematical optimization model of evolution of developmental delay (diapause.85.6% of responses informed on prolonged developmental times in 5(th instar nymphs, with 20 species identified with remarkable developmental delays. The developmental time analysis showed some degree of bi-modal pattern of the development time of the 5(th instars in nine out of eleven species but no trend between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability was observed. Our optimization model predicts that the developmental delays could be due to an adaptive risk-spreading diapause strategy, only if survival throughout the diapause period and the probability of random occurrence of "bad" environmental conditions are sufficiently high.Developmental delay may not be a simple non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity in development time, and could be a form of adaptive diapause associated to a physiological mechanism related to the postponement of the initiation of reproduction, as an adaptation to environmental stochasticity through a spreading of risk (bet-hedging strategy. We identify a series of parameters that can be measured in the field and laboratory to test this hypothesis. The importance of these findings is

  18. Adaptive Developmental Delay in Chagas Disease Vectors: An Evolutionary Ecology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menu, Frédéric; Ginoux, Marine; Rajon, Etienne; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Rabinovich, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The developmental time of vector insects is important in population dynamics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and in their responses to global climatic change. In the triatomines (Triatominae, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, evolutionary ecology concepts, which may allow for a better understanding of their biology, have not been applied. Despite delay in the molting in some individuals observed in triatomines, no effort was made to explain this variability. Methodology We applied four methods: (1) an e-mail survey sent to 30 researchers with experience in triatomines, (2) a statistical description of the developmental time of eleven triatomine species, (3) a relationship between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability, (4) a mathematical optimization model of evolution of developmental delay (diapause). Principal Findings 85.6% of responses informed on prolonged developmental times in 5th instar nymphs, with 20 species identified with remarkable developmental delays. The developmental time analysis showed some degree of bi-modal pattern of the development time of the 5th instars in nine out of eleven species but no trend between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability was observed. Our optimization model predicts that the developmental delays could be due to an adaptive risk-spreading diapause strategy, only if survival throughout the diapause period and the probability of random occurrence of “bad” environmental conditions are sufficiently high. Conclusions/Significance Developmental delay may not be a simple non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity in development time, and could be a form of adaptive diapause associated to a physiological mechanism related to the postponement of the initiation of reproduction, as an adaptation to environmental stochasticity through a spreading of risk (bet-hedging) strategy. We identify a series of parameters that can be measured in the field and laboratory to test

  19. MicroRNAs and Developmental Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Ambros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs regulate temporal transitions in gene expression associated with cell fate progression and differentiation throughout animal development. Genetic analysis of developmental timing in the nematode C. elegans identified two evolutionarily conserved microRNAs, lin-4/mir-125 and let-7, that regulate cell fate progression and differentiation and in C. elegans cell lineages. MicroRNAs perform analogous developmental timing functions in other animals, including mammals. By regulating cell f...

  20. Developmental neurotoxicity of propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    . The overall aim was to provide detailed knowledge on the relationship between effects on thyroid hormone levels and long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity effects. Groups of 16–18 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/(kg day)) from gestation day 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16...... behaviour and hearing function. This supports that exposure to TDC's in general may cause long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity....

  1. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  2. Metal–metal multiple bonded intermediates in catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type structure are exceptional catalysts for a broad range of organic transformations. I review here the recent efforts towards the observation and characterization of intermediates in these reactions that have previously eluded detection.

  3. Supersymmetry and intermediate symmetry breaking in SO(10) superunification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatryan, H.M.; Ioannisyan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    A scheme of simultaneous breakdown of intermediate symmetry SO(10) → SU(3)sub(c) x U(1) x SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) and supersymmetry by means of a single scale parameter is suggested. This intermediate symmetry, which is preferable physically, owing to the broken supersymmetry has a minimum lying lower than SU(4) x SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R). The intermediate symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs superfields. Owing to the quantum corrections the potential minimum turns out to correspond to breakdown of the intermediate symmetry up to the standard group SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(y). The value of the Weinberg angle is less than that in the supersymmetric SU(5) model and agrees with the experiment

  4. Noncovalent Intermediate of Thymidylate Synthase: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodar, Svetlana A; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-07-06

    Thymidylate synthase is an attractive target for antibiotic and anticancer drugs due to its essential role in the de novo biosynthesis of the DNA nucleotide thymine. The enzymatic reaction is initiated by a nucleophilic activation of the substrate via formation of a covalent bond to an active site cysteine. The traditionally accepted mechanism is then followed by a series of covalently bound intermediates, where that bond is only cleaved upon product release. Recent computational and experimental studies suggest that the covalent bond between the protein and substrate is actually quite labile. Importantly, these findings predict the existence of a noncovalently bound bisubstrate intermediate, not previously anticipated, which could be the target of a novel class of drugs inhibiting DNA biosynthesis. Here we report the synthesis of the proposed intermediate and findings supporting its chemical and kinetic competence. These findings substantiate the predicted nontraditional mechanism and the potential of this intermediate as a new drug lead.

  5. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc...

  6. Mechanism of intermediate mass fragment emission at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, A.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Krishan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of intermediate mass fragment emission in fusion-fission processes has been carried out. The average kinetic energies and relative yield ratio of different fragments are calculated and compared with experimental values

  7. Functionalization of the corrole ring: the role of isocorrole intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2011-04-14

    Bromination of 3-nitro-5,10,15-triarylcorrole selectively provides two regioisomers, depending on the reaction pathway. An isocorrole species is the key intermediate to drive the reaction towards the 2-Br-17-nitro regioisomer.

  8. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  9. Proteomics characterization of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinopyrum intermedium, commonly known as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), is a perennial crop with favorable agronomic characteristics and nutritional benefits. IWG lines are deficient in high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG), responsible for dough strength. A detailed characterization of IWG flou...

  10. 39 CFR 3001.38 - Omission of intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermediate decision upon a finding on the record that due and timely execution of its functions imperatively... opportunity for filing briefs or presenting oral argument to the Commission is desired or waived. Failure of...

  11. Nonshorthand Impediments to Trascription at the Intermediate and Advanced Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Mary Jane

    1975-01-01

    The basic purpose of the study was to determine the types and frequency of nonshorthand errors on typewritten transcripts of shorthand dictation of 40 intermediate and 34 advanced stenography students at the University of Missouri in 1970-71. (Author)

  12. Wave directional spreading at shallow and intermediate depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.

    Based on wave measurements carried out at shallow and intermediate water depths variation of directional spread parameter 's' is studied. A comparison of the mean wave directional and principal wave direction shows that the two are the same...

  13. Semiannually alternating exchange of intermediate waters east of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Intermediate water exchange in the northwest tropical Pacific is explored with the temperature, salinity, and current measurements of a mooring system deployed at 8°N, 127.05°E during 2010-2014. For the first time, prominent semiannual variability (SAV; with the maximum power at 187 days) of subthermocline meridional flow along the Mindanao coast is revealed. A significant correlation between meridional flow and salinity is found at intermediate depths. This provides direct evidence for the alternating transports of South Pacific and North Pacific Intermediate Waters by northward and southward undercurrents, respectively. Further analysis with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model demonstrates that the SAV is generated locally near the western boundary, manifesting as large-scale subthermocline recirculation and leading to alternating northward and southward flows near the Mindanao coast, which plays an efficient role in the intermediate water exchange of the northwest tropical Pacific. Mechanisms underlying the observed SAV are discussed

  14. Assessing the need for intermediate diaphragms in prestressed concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Reinforced concrete intermediate diaphragms (IDs) are currently being used in prestressed concrete (PC) girder bridges in Louisiana. Some of the advantages of providing IDs are disputed in the bridge community; the use of IDs increases the cost and t...

  15. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  16. Developmental immunotoxicity testing of 4-methyl anisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Elisa C M; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R; van Loveren, Henk; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-07-01

    The developmental immunotoxicity of 4-methyl anisole (4MA) was investigated in the rat. Four study designs were used, with either premating or post-weaning onset of exposure, continued to postnatal day 50, and with or without additional oral gavage of pups from postnatal day 10 onward. Reduced litter size (benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 80mg/kg bw/day) was the most sensitive developmental parameter, with pup relative organ weight effects observed at similar BMDLs, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Eosinophil numbers were reduced at lower doses (BMDL 16mg/kg bw/day). KLH challenge resulted in increased IL-13 and TNF-α responses, and variably reduced IgG production (BMDL 27mg/kg bw/day). T4 levels were reduced by 11% at maximum with a BMDL of 73mg/kg bw/day. Differences between exposure cohorts were limited and were considered to be without biological significance. This study shows that 4MA induces developmental immunotoxicity at doses below those inducing developmental and general toxicity. These observations being independent of the study designs applied suggest that the post-weaning period, included in all designs, is the most relevant sensitive period for inducing 4MA mediated developmental immunotoxicity. Moreover, this study stresses the importance of including developmental immunotoxicity testing by default in regulatory toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  18. Intermediate-energy neutron beams from reactors for NCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses ways that a beam of intermediate-energy neutrons might be extracted from a nuclear reactor. The challenge is to suppress the fast-neutron component and the gamma-ray component of the flux while leaving enough of the intermediate-energy neutrons in the beam to be able to perform neutron capture therapy in less than an hour exposure time. Moderators, filters, and reflectors are considered. 11 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  19. Thermogravimetric control of intermediate compounds in uranium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1959-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of some intermediate compounds in the metallurgy of the uranium as uranium peroxide, ammonium uranate, uranium and ammonium penta-fluoride, uranium tetrafluoride and uranous oxide has been study by means of the Chevenard's thermo balance. Some data on pyrolysis of synthetic mixtures of intermediate compounds which may occasionally appear during the industrial process, are given. Thermogravimetric methods of control are suggested, usable in interesting products in the uranium metallurgy. (Author) 20 refs

  20. Taxonomic and developmental aspects of radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1996-11-01

    Considerable information is available on the effects of radioactivity on adult and early life stages of organisms. The preponderance of data is on mortality after a single irradiation with relatively high doses. Unfortunately, because experiments were carried out under different conditions and for different time periods, the validity of comparing the results from different laxonomic groups is questionable. In general, the conclusions are that there is a relationship (1) between radioresistance to high doses of acute radiation and taxonomy of the organism, primitive forms being more radioresistant than complex vertebrates and (2) between radiosensitivity and developmental stage, early life stages being more sensitive than later stages. The first conclusion may be related to the capability of the organism to repopulate cells and to differentiate and redifferentiate them; the second to the rate of cellular division and to the degree of differentiation. In question, however, is the relevance of the responses from high levels of acute radiation to that of the responses to long-term exposure to low levels of radiation, which are ecologically of more interest. Data from studies of the effects of acute and chronic exposure on development of gametes and zygotes indicate that, for some fishes and invertebrates, responses at the cellular and molecular levels show effect levels comparable to those observed in some mammals. Acute doses between 0,05 and 0.5Cy and dose rates between 0.02 to 0.2mCy/h appear to define critical ranges in which detrimental effects on fertility are first observed in a variety of radiosensitive organisms. To better understand inherent radiosensitivity, we need more information on the ability of cells to repopulate and differentiate and to prevent or repair damage to biological critical molecules, such as DNA, because these factors may alter significantly organisms'' responses to radiation