Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Intermediate coupling vibrational descriptions of odd mass gold isotopes
Vieu, C; Paar, V
1976-01-01
The theoretical analysis of /sup 193-195/Au levels is semi qualitatively performed in the frame of the intermediate coupling vibrational models of Kisslinger-Sorensen and Alaga. From the comparison between the experimental data and the corresponding predictions of the two models, conclusions are drawn on the influence of the clusters and broken pairs.
The coupled states approximation for scattering of two diatoms
Heil, T. G.; Kouri, D. J.; Green, S.
1978-01-01
The paper presents a detailed development of the coupled-states approximation for the general case of two colliding diatomic molecules. The high-energy limit of the exact Lippman-Schwinger equation is applied, and the analysis follows the Shimoni and Kouri (1977) treatment of atom-diatom collisions where the coupled rotor angular momentum and projection replace the single diatom angular momentum and projection. Parallels to the expression for the differential scattering amplitude, the opacity function, and the nondiagonality of the T matrix are reported. Symmetrized expressions and symmetrized coupled equations are derived. The present correctly labeled coupled-states theory is tested by comparing its calculated results with other computed results for three cases: H2-H2 collisions, ortho-para H2-H2 scattering, and H2-HCl.
A finite range coupled channel Born approximation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagel, P.; Koshel, R.D.
1978-01-01
The computer code OUKID calculates differential cross sections for direct transfer nuclear reactions in which multistep processes, arising from strongly coupled inelastic states in both the target and residual nuclei, are possible. The code is designed for heavy ion reactions where full finite range and recoil effects are important. Distorted wave functions for the elastic and inelastic scattering are calculated by solving sets of coupled differential equations using a Matrix Numerov integration procedure. These wave functions are then expanded into bases of spherical Bessel functions by the plane-wave expansion method. This approach allows the six-dimensional integrals for the transition amplitude to be reduced to products of two one-dimensional integrals. Thus, the inelastic scattering is treated in a coupled channel formalism while the transfer process is treated in a finite range born approximation formalism. (Auth.)
Failure of standard approximations of the exchange coupling in nanostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Asger
2007-01-01
We calculate the exchange coupling for a double dot system using a numerically exact technique based on finite-element methods and an expansion in two-dimensional Gaussians. Specifically, we evaluate the exchange coupling both for a quasi-one- and a two-dimensional system, also including an appli...
Approximating coupled cluster level vibrational frequencies with composite methods.
Fan, Yanping; Ho, Junming; Bettens, Ryan P A
2006-03-02
An extensive study of the harmonic frequencies of a large set of small polyatomic closed-shell molecules computed at both single level ab initio and composite approximations is presented here. Using various combinations of basis sets, composite methods are capable of predicting single level ab initio CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies to within 5 cm(-1) on average, which suggests a computationally affordable means of obtaining highly accurate vibrational frequencies compared to the CCSD(T) level. A general approach for calculating the composite level equilibrium geometries and harmonic frequencies for polyatomic systems that uses the Collin's method of interpolating potential energy surfaces is also described here. This approach is further tested on tetrafluoromethane, and an estimation of the potential CPU time savings that may be obtained is also presented. It is envisaged that the findings here will enable theoretical studies of fundamental frequencies and energetics of significantly larger molecular systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaturvedi, D.K.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.
1980-10-01
An analytic theory is presented for the static structure factor of the one-component classical plasma at strong couplings. The theory combines the hard-core model of Gillan for short-range correlations in the Coulomb fluid with a semiempirical representation of intermediate-range correlations, through which the requirement of thermodynamic consistency on the ''compressibility'' and the known equation of state of the system are satisfied. Excellent agreement is found with the available computer simulation data on the structure of the fluid. The approach becomes inapplicable at intermediate and weak couplings where effects of penetration in the Coulomb hole of each particle become important. (author)
Yang, Dongzheng; Hu, Xixi; Zhang, Dong H.; Xie, Daiqian
2018-02-01
Solving the time-independent close coupling equations of a diatom-diatom inelastic collision system by using the rigorous close-coupling approach is numerically difficult because of its expensive matrix manipulation. The coupled-states approximation decouples the centrifugal matrix by neglecting the important Coriolis couplings completely. In this work, a new approximation method based on the coupled-states approximation is presented and applied to time-independent quantum dynamic calculations. This approach only considers the most important Coriolis coupling with the nearest neighbors and ignores weaker Coriolis couplings with farther K channels. As a result, it reduces the computational costs without a significant loss of accuracy. Numerical tests for para-H2+ortho-H2 and para-H2+HD inelastic collision were carried out and the results showed that the improved method dramatically reduces the errors due to the neglect of the Coriolis couplings in the coupled-states approximation. This strategy should be useful in quantum dynamics of other systems.
Approximations of Quantum-Graph Vertex Couplings by Singularly Scaled Rank-One Operators
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Manko, S. S.
2014-01-01
Roč. 104, č. 9 (2014), s. 1079-1094 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum graph * vertex coupling * approximation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.939, year: 2014
Maitra, Rahul; Nakajima, Takahito
2017-11-28
We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n 5 additional cost. Due to the inclusion of higher rank excitations via the Fock matrix dressing, this method is a natural improvement over conventional coupled cluster theory with singles and doubles approximation, and this method would be demonstrated via applications on some challenging systems. This highly promising scheme has a conceptually simple structure which is also easily generalizable to a multi-reference coupled cluster scheme for treating strong degeneracy. We shall demonstrate that this method is a natural lowest order perturbative approximation to the recently developed iterative n-body excitation inclusive coupled cluster singles and doubles scheme [R. Maitra et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074103 (2017)].
Maitra, Rahul; Nakajima, Takahito
2017-11-01
We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n5 additional cost. Due to the inclusion of higher rank excitations via the Fock matrix dressing, this method is a natural improvement over conventional coupled cluster theory with singles and doubles approximation, and this method would be demonstrated via applications on some challenging systems. This highly promising scheme has a conceptually simple structure which is also easily generalizable to a multi-reference coupled cluster scheme for treating strong degeneracy. We shall demonstrate that this method is a natural lowest order perturbative approximation to the recently developed iterative n-body excitation inclusive coupled cluster singles and doubles scheme [R. Maitra et al., J. Chem. Phys. 147, 074103 (2017)].
Toyoizumi, Taro; Rad, Kamiar Rahnama; Paninski, Liam
2009-05-01
There has recently been a great deal of interest in inferring network connectivity from the spike trains in populations of neurons. One class of useful models that can be fit easily to spiking data is based on generalized linear point process models from statistics. Once the parameters for these models are fit, the analyst is left with a nonlinear spiking network model with delays, which in general may be very difficult to understand analytically. Here we develop mean-field methods for approximating the stimulus-driven firing rates (in both the time-varying and steady-state cases), auto- and cross-correlations, and stimulus-dependent filtering properties of these networks. These approximations are valid when the contributions of individual network coupling terms are small and, hence, the total input to a neuron is approximately gaussian. These approximations lead to deterministic ordinary differential equations that are much easier to solve and analyze than direct Monte Carlo simulation of the network activity. These approximations also provide an analytical way to evaluate the linear input-output filter of neurons and how the filters are modulated by network interactions and some stimulus feature. Finally, in the case of strong refractory effects, the mean-field approximations in the generalized linear model become inaccurate; therefore, we introduce a model that captures strong refractoriness, retains all of the easy fitting properties of the standard generalized linear model, and leads to much more accurate approximations of mean firing rates and cross-correlations that retain fine temporal behaviors.
An approximate solution for a generalized Hirota-Satsom coupled (Kdv equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.A. Wahab
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM, is applied to find the approximate solution of Hirota-Satsuma coupled (KdV equations, which don't need a small parameter for solution. The results obtained by HAM is compared with exact solution, the results divulge that the Homotopy Analysis Method are most accurate, closed and suitable to exact solution of the equation, as compare to Homotopy Perturbation Method. It is predicated that the HAM can be found usually.
The strong running coupling from an approximate gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alkofer, R.; Hauck, A.
1996-01-01
Using Mandelstam's approximation to the gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation we calculate the gluon self-energy in a renormalisation group invariant fashion. We obtain a non-perturbative Β function. The scaling behavior near the ultraviolet stable fixed point is in good agreement with perturbative QCD. No further fixed point for positive values of the coupling is found: α S increases without bound in the infrared
Variational cluster approximation study of Mott transition with strong spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirakawa, Tomonori; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yunoki, Seiji
2011-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on Sr 2 IrO 4 , the ground state magnetic and electronic structures are studied theoretically for a two-dimensional three-band Hubbard model with strong spin-orbit coupling. To treat spin-orbit coupling, local Coulomb interactions, and band structure effects on the same footing, the variational cluster approximation based on the self-energy functional theory is employed. It is found that for a relatively large coupling region, the ground state is an anisotropic antiferromagnetic Mott insulator of an effective local angular momentum J eff = 1/2 with xy plane as an easy plane. This anisotropy is caused by the strong spin-orbit coupling along with the inter-orbital Hund's coupling. The momentum resolved one-particle excitations are also studied for the Mott insulating phase. It is found that the low-energy one-particle excitations consist mostly of the J eff = 1/2 state, a direct evidence of a novel J eff = 1/2 Mott insulator.
The coupled-channel T-matrix: its lowest-order Born + Lanczos approximants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Znojil, M.
1995-01-01
Three iterative methods of solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equations (viz., the method of continued fractions by J.Horacek and T.Sasakawa), its Born-remainder modification and a coupled-channel matrix-continued-fraction generalization are all interpreted as special cases of a common iterative matrix prescription. Firstly, in terms of certain asymmetric projectors P≠P + , we re-derive the three particular older methods as different realizations of the well-known Lanczos inversion. Then, a generalized iteration method is proposed as a Born-like re-arrangement of any intermediate Lanczos iteration step. A maximal flexibility is achieved in the formalism which might compete with the standard Pade re-summations in practice. Its first few truncations are listed, therefore. 26 refs., 1 tab
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Janus Juul; Solanko, Lukasz Michal; Nåbo, Lina J.
2014-01-01
We present an implementation of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) in combination with the Second–Order Polarization Propagator Approximation (SOPPA) electronic structure method. In analogy with the most common way of designing ground state calculations based on a Second–Order Møller-Plesset (MP......2) wave function coupled to PCM, we introduce dynamical PCM solvent effects only in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) part of the SOPPA response equations while the static solvent contribution is kept in both the RPA terms as well as in the higher order correlation matrix components of the SOPPA...... response equations. By dynamic terms, we refer to contributions that describe a change in environmental polarization which, in turn, reflects a change in the core molecular charge distribution upon an electronic excitation. This new combination of methods is termed PCM-SOPPA/RPA. We apply this newly...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Post, O.
2013-01-01
Roč. 322, č. 1 (2013), s. 207-227 ISSN 0010-3616 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701; GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum graph * vertex coupling * tubular network * approximation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.901, year: 2013 http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/685/art%253A10.1007%252Fs00220-013-1699-9.pdf?auth66=1379859821_26f2df9c1c7e0997b290a90ec2fdfc7e&ext=.pdf
Modeling networks of coupled enzymatic reactions using the total quasi-steady state approximation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Ciliberto
2007-03-01
Full Text Available In metabolic networks, metabolites are usually present in great excess over the enzymes that catalyze their interconversion, and describing the rates of these reactions by using the Michaelis-Menten rate law is perfectly valid. This rate law assumes that the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex (C is much less than the free substrate concentration (S0. However, in protein interaction networks, the enzymes and substrates are all proteins in comparable concentrations, and neglecting C with respect to S0 is not valid. Borghans, DeBoer, and Segel developed an alternative description of enzyme kinetics that is valid when C is comparable to S0. We extend this description, which Borghans et al. call the total quasi-steady state approximation, to networks of coupled enzymatic reactions. First, we analyze an isolated Goldbeter-Koshland switch when enzymes and substrates are present in comparable concentrations. Then, on the basis of a real example of the molecular network governing cell cycle progression, we couple two and three Goldbeter-Koshland switches together to study the effects of feedback in networks of protein kinases and phosphatases. Our analysis shows that the total quasi-steady state approximation provides an excellent kinetic formalism for protein interaction networks, because (1 it unveils the modular structure of the enzymatic reactions, (2 it suggests a simple algorithm to formulate correct kinetic equations, and (3 contrary to classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, it succeeds in faithfully reproducing the dynamics of the network both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Ahmed, Raheel; Edwards, Michael G.; Lamine, Sadok; Huisman, Bastiaan A. H.; Pal, Mayur
2017-11-01
Two novel control-volume methods are presented for flow in fractured media, and involve coupling the control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation (CVD-MPFA) constructed with full pressure support (FPS), to two types of discrete fracture-matrix approximation for simulation on unstructured grids; (i) involving hybrid grids and (ii) a lower dimensional fracture model. Flow is governed by Darcy's law together with mass conservation both in the matrix and the fractures, where large discontinuities in permeability tensors can occur. Finite-volume FPS schemes are more robust than the earlier CVD-MPFA triangular pressure support (TPS) schemes for problems involving highly anisotropic homogeneous and heterogeneous full-tensor permeability fields. We use a cell-centred hybrid-grid method, where fractures are modelled by lower-dimensional interfaces between matrix cells in the physical mesh but expanded to equi-dimensional cells in the computational domain. We present a simple procedure to form a consistent hybrid-grid locally for a dual-cell. We also propose a novel hybrid-grid for intersecting fractures, for the FPS method, which reduces the condition number of the global linear system and leads to larger time steps for tracer transport. The transport equation for tracer flow is coupled with the pressure equation and provides flow parameter assessment of the fracture models. Transport results obtained via TPS and FPS hybrid-grid formulations are compared with the corresponding results of fine-scale explicit equi-dimensional formulations. The results show that the hybrid-grid FPS method applies to general full-tensor fields and provides improved robust approximations compared to the hybrid-grid TPS method for fractured domains, for both weakly anisotropic permeability fields and very strong anisotropic full-tensor permeability fields where the TPS scheme exhibits spurious oscillations. The hybrid-grid FPS formulation is extended to compressible flow and the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Utgikar, Vivek [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Christensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-12-29
The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate the models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.
Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio; Miele, Filippo; Carletti, Timoteo
2018-03-01
A normal form approximation for the evolution of a reaction-diffusion system hosted on a directed graph is derived, in the vicinity of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Weak diffusive couplings are assumed to hold between adjacent nodes. Under this working assumption, a Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE) is obtained, whose coefficients depend on the parameters of the model and the topological characteristics of the underlying network. The CGLE enables one to probe the stability of the synchronous oscillating solution, as displayed by the reaction-diffusion system above Hopf bifurcation. More specifically, conditions can be worked out for the onset of the symmetry breaking instability that eventually destroys the uniform oscillatory state. Numerical tests performed for the Brusselator model confirm the validity of the proposed theoretical scheme. Patterns recorded for the CGLE resemble closely those recovered upon integration of the original Brussellator dynamics.
Coupled kinetic equations for fermions and bosons in the relaxation-time approximation
Florkowski, Wojciech; Maksymiuk, Ewa; Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2018-02-01
Kinetic equations for fermions and bosons are solved numerically in the relaxation-time approximation for the case of one-dimensional boost-invariant geometry. Fermions are massive and carry baryon number, while bosons are massless. The conservation laws for the baryon number, energy, and momentum lead to two Landau matching conditions, which specify the coupling between the fermionic and bosonic sectors and determine the proper-time dependence of the effective temperature and baryon chemical potential of the system. The numerical results illustrate how a nonequilibrium mixture of fermions and bosons approaches hydrodynamic regime described by the Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate forms of the kinetic coefficients. The shear viscosity of a mixture is the sum of the shear viscosities of fermion and boson components, while the bulk viscosity is given by the formula known for a gas of fermions, however, with the thermodynamic variables characterising the mixture. Thus, we find that massless bosons contribute in a nontrivial way to the bulk viscosity of a mixture, provided fermions are massive. We further observe the hydrodynamization effect, which takes place earlier in the shear sector than in the bulk one. The numerical studies of the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse pressures show, to a good approximation, that it depends on the ratio of the relaxation and proper times only. This behavior is connected with the existence of an attractor solution for conformal systems.
Multipole giant resonances of 12C nucleus electro excitation in intermediate coupling model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharova, N.G.; Zhivopistsev, F.A.
1977-01-01
Multipole giant resonances in 12 C electroexcitation are considered using the shell model with coupling. Cross sections are calculated for the states of 1 - , 2 - , 3 - , 4 - , at T=1. The distributions of the transverse form factor at transferred momenta equal to q approximately 0.75, 1.04, 1.22 and 1.56 Fm -1 and the longitudinal form factor for q = 0.75, 1.04, 1.56 Fm -1 are presented. For the excitation energies in the range from 18 to 28 MeV positive-parity states have a small contribution in the cross section. The distribution of the total form factor in the excitation energies is given. It is concluded that the multipole giant resonances of anomalous parity levels calculated within the interatomic-coupling shell model show a satisfactorily close agreement with the behavior of experimental form factors in the excitation energy range from 18 to 28 MeV
Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Prokopovich
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with bistatic subsurface probing of a horizontally layered dielectric half-space by means of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves. In particular, the main objective of this work is to present a new method for the solution of the two-dimensional back-scattering problem arising when a pulsed electromagnetic signal impinges on a non-uniform dielectric half-space; this scenario is of interest for ground penetrating radar (GPR applications. For the analytical description of the signal generated by the interaction of the emitted pulse with the environment, we developed and implemented a novel time-domain version of the coupled-wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We compared our solution with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD results, achieving a very good agreement. We then applied the proposed technique to two case studies: in particular, our method was employed for the post-processing of experimental radargrams collected on Lake Chebarkul, in Russia, and for the simulation of GPR probing of the Moon surface, to detect smooth gradients of the dielectric permittivity in lunar regolith. The main conclusions resulting from our study are that our semi-analytical method is accurate, radically accelerates calculations compared to simpler mathematical formulations with a mostly numerical nature (such as the FDTD technique, and can be effectively used to aid the interpretation of GPR data. The method is capable to correctly predict the protracted return signals originated by smooth transition layers of the subsurface dielectric medium. The accuracy and numerical efficiency of our computational approach make promising its further development.
Thermodynamics of dipolar hard spheres with low-to-intermediate coupling constants.
Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Camp, Philip J
2012-08-01
The thermodynamic properties of the dipolar hard-sphere fluid are studied using theory and simulation. A new theory is derived using a convenient mathematical approximation for the Helmholtz free energy relative to that for the hard-sphere fluid. The approximation is designed to give the correct low-density virial expansion. New theoretical and numerical results for the fourth virial coefficient are given. Predictions of thermodynamic functions for dipolar coupling constants λ=1 and 2 show excellent agreement with simulation results, even at the highest value of the particle volume fraction φ. For higher values of λ, there are deviations at high volume fractions, but the correct low-density behavior is retained. The theory is compared critically against the established thermodynamic perturbation theory; it gives significant improvements at low densities and is more convenient in terms of the required numerics. Dipolar hard spheres provide a basic model for ferrofluids, and the theory is accurate for typical experimental parameters λ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, Yohei; Chiba, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
An electron transfer-induced four-membered cyclic intermediate, formed between a radical cation of an enol ether and an unactivated olefin, played a key role in the pathway toward either cross-coupling or cross-metathesis. The presence of an alkoxy group on the phenyl ring of the olefin entirely determined the synthetic outcome of the reaction, which mirrored the efficiency of the intramolecular electron transfer.
Nonlocal electron-phonon coupling in the pentacene crystal: Beyond the Γ-point approximation
Yi, Yuanping
2012-01-01
There is currently increasing interest in understanding the impact of the nonlocal (Peierls-type) electron-phonon mechanism on charge transport in organic molecular semiconductors. Most estimates of the non-local coupling constants reported in the literature are based on the Γ-point phonon modes. Here, the influence of phonon modes spanning the entire Brillouin zone (phonon dispersion) on the nonlocal electron-phonon couplings is investigated for the pentacene crystal. The phonon modes are obtained by using a supercell approach. The results underline that the overall nonlocal couplings are substantially underestimated by calculations taking sole account of the phonons at the Γ point of the unit cell. The variance of the transfer integrals based on Γ-point normal-mode calculations at room temperature is underestimated in some cases by 40% for herringbone-type dimers and by over 80% for cofacial dimers. Our calculations show that the overall coupling is somewhat larger for holes than for electrons. The results also suggest that the interactions of charge carriers (both electrons and holes) with acoustic and optical phonons are comparable. Therefore, an adequate description of the charge-transport properties in pentacene and similar systems requires that these two electron-phonon coupling mechanisms be treated on the same footing. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, X [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); You, J Q; Nori, F [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi 351-0198 (Japan); Zheng, H, E-mail: xfcao@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2011-07-15
We investigate the spontaneous emission (SE) spectrum of a qubit in a lossy resonant cavity. We use neither the rotating-wave approximation nor the Markov approximation. For the weak-coupling case, the SE spectrum of the qubit is a single peak, with its location depending on the spectral density of the qubit environment. Then, the asymmetry (of the location and heights of the two peaks) of the two SE peaks (which are related to the vacuum Rabi splitting) changes as the qubit-cavity coupling increases. Explicitly, for a qubit in a low-frequency intrinsic bath, the height asymmetry of the splitting peaks is enhanced as the qubit-cavity coupling strength increases. However, for a qubit in an Ohmic bath, the height asymmetry of the spectral peaks is inverted compared to the low-frequency bath case. With further increasing the qubit-cavity coupling to the ultra-strong regime, the height asymmetry of the left and right peaks is slightly inverted, which is consistent with the corresponding case of a low-frequency bath. This inversion of the asymmetry arises from the competition between the Ohmic bath and the cavity bath. Therefore, after considering the anti-rotating terms, our results explicitly show how the height asymmetry in the SE spectrum peaks depends on the qubit-cavity coupling and the type of intrinsic noise experienced by the qubit.
Approximations of quantum-graph vertex couplings by singularly scaled potentials
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Manko, S. S.
2013-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 34 (2013), s. 345202 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrödinger operators * vertex coupling Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/46/34/345202/pdf/1751-8121_46_34_345202.pdf
Analysis, approximation, and computation of a coupled solid/fluid temperature control problem
Gunzburger, Max D.; Lee, Hyung C.
1993-01-01
An optimization problem is formulated motivated by the desire to remove temperature peaks, i.e., 'hot spots', along the bounding surfaces of containers of fluid flows. The heat equation of the solid container is coupled to the energy equations for the fluid. Heat sources can be located in the solid body, the fluid, or both. Control is effected by adjustments to the temperature of the fluid at the inflow boundary. Both mathematical analyses and computational experiments are given.
Bochev, Pavel; Cheung, James; Gunzburger, Max; Perego, Mauro
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present a new numerical method for determining the numerical solution of interface problems to optimal accuracy with respect to the polynomial order of the Lagrangian finite element space on polytopial meshes. We introduce the notion of a virtual interface, and on this virtual interface we enforce that "extended" interface conditions are satisfied in the sense of a Dirichlet--Neumann coupling. The virtual interface framework serves to bypass geometric variational crimes incu...
Kwon, Deukwoo; Reis, Isildinha M.
2016-01-01
Background: We proposed approximate Bayesian computation with single distribution selection (ABC-SD) for estimating mean and standard deviation from other reported summary statistics. The ABC-SD generates pseudo data from a single parametric distribution thought to be the true distribution of underlying study data. This single distribution is either an educated guess, or it is selected via model selection using posterior probability criterion for testing two or more candidate distributions. F...
Transport coefficients in the Polyakov quark meson coupling model: A relaxation time approximation
Abhishek, Aman; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Ghosh, Sabyasachi
2018-01-01
We compute the transport coefficients, namely, the coefficients of shear and bulk viscosities, as well as thermal conductivity for hot and dense matter. The calculations are performed within the Polyakov quark meson model. The estimation of the transport coefficients is made using the Boltzmann kinetic equation within the relaxation time approximation. The energy-dependent relaxation time is estimated from meson-meson scattering, quark-meson scattering, and quark-quark scattering within the model. In our calculations, the shear viscosity to entropy ratio and the coefficient of thermal conductivity show a minimum at the critical temperature, while the ratio of bulk viscosity to entropy density exhibits a peak at this transition point. The effect of confinement modeled through a Polyakov loop potential plays an important role both below and above the critical temperature.
Simón-Carballido, Luis; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Alves, Tiago Vinicius; Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2017-08-08
In this work we present the extended two-dimensional torsion (E2DT) method and use it to analyze the performance of several methods that incorporate torsional anharmonicity more approximately for calculating rotational-vibrational partition functions. Twenty molecules having two hindered rotors were studied for temperatures between 100 and 2500 K. These molecules present several kinds of situations; they include molecules with nearly separable rotors, molecules in which the reduced moments of inertia change substantially with the internal rotation, and molecules presenting compound rotation. Partition functions obtained by the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, a method involving global separability of torsions and the multistructural methods without explicit potential coupling [MS-T(U)] and with explicit potential coupling [MS-T(C)] of torsions, are compared to those obtained with a quantized version - called the extended two-dimensional torsion (E2DT) method - of the extended hindered rotor approximation of Vansteenkiste et al. ( Vansteenkiste et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006 , 124 , 044314 ). In the E2DT method, quantum effects due to the torsional modes were incorporated by the two-dimensional nonseparable method, which is a method that is based on the solution of the torsional Schrödinger equation and that includes full coupling in both the kinetic and potential energy. By comparing other methods to the E2DT method and to experimental thermochemical data, this study concludes that the harmonic approximation yields very poor results at high temperatures; the global separation of torsions from the rest of the degrees of freedom is not justified even when an accurate method to treat the torsions is employed; it is confirmed that methods based on less complete potential energy coupling of torsions, such as MS-T(U), are not accurate when dealing with rotors with different barrier heights, and more complete inclusion of torsional coupling to the method in MS
Roy, Susmita; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman
2015-03-28
A self-consistent mode coupling theory (MCT) with microscopic inputs of equilibrium pair correlation functions is developed to analyze electrolyte dynamics. We apply the theory to calculate concentration dependence of (i) time dependent ion diffusion, (ii) intermediate scattering function of the constituent ions, and (iii) ion solvation dynamics in electrolyte solution. Brownian dynamics with implicit water molecules and molecular dynamics method with explicit water are used to check the theoretical predictions. The time dependence of ionic self-diffusion coefficient and the corresponding intermediate scattering function evaluated from our MCT approach show quantitative agreement with early experimental and present Brownian dynamic simulation results. With increasing concentration, the dispersion of electrolyte friction is found to occur at increasingly higher frequency, due to the faster relaxation of the ion atmosphere. The wave number dependence of intermediate scattering function, F(k, t), exhibits markedly different relaxation dynamics at different length scales. At small wave numbers, we find the emergence of a step-like relaxation, indicating the presence of both fast and slow time scales in the system. Such behavior allows an intriguing analogy with temperature dependent relaxation dynamics of supercooled liquids. We find that solvation dynamics of a tagged ion exhibits a power law decay at long times-the decay can also be fitted to a stretched exponential form. The emergence of the power law in solvation dynamics has been tested by carrying out long Brownian dynamics simulations with varying ionic concentrations. The solvation time correlation and ion-ion intermediate scattering function indeed exhibit highly interesting, non-trivial dynamical behavior at intermediate to longer times that require further experimental and theoretical studies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enevoldsen, Thomas; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
1998-01-01
We present correlated calculations of the indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants of HD, HF, H2O, CH4, C2H2, BH, AlH, CO and N2 at the level of the second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA) and the second-order polarization propagator approximation with coupled-cluster sing...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priit Jõers
Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA synthesis is necessary for the normal function of the organelle and for the eukaryotic organism as a whole. Here we demonstrate, using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis to analyse replication intermediates, that unidirectional, strand-coupled DNA synthesis is the prevalent mode of mtDNA replication in Drosophila melanogaster. Commencing within the single, extended non-coding region (NCR, replication proceeds around the circular genome, manifesting an irregular rate of elongation, and pausing frequently in specific regions. Evidence for a limited contribution of strand-asynchronous DNA synthesis was found in a subset of mtDNA molecules, but confined to the ribosomal RNA gene region, just downstream of the NCR. Our findings imply that strand-coupled replication is widespread amongst metazoans, and should inform future research on mtDNA metabolism in D. melanogaster.
Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian
2015-01-01
The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.
Heyde, K.; Brussaard, P.J.
1967-01-01
The energy spectra of the odd-proton nucleides 121, 125Sb, 129, 131I, 143Pr and 147, 149Pm, and of the doubly even nucleides 142Ce, 144Nd and 146Sm are described in terms of the unified model in intermediate coupling. The phonon energy of the core, the coupling strength between phonon excitations
Photovoltaic efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on CdTe/CdMnTe coupled quantum dots
Prado, Silvio J.; Marques, Gilmar E.; Alcalde, Augusto M.
2017-11-01
In this work we show the calculation of optimized efficiencies of intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) based on Mn-doped II-VI CdTe/CdMnTe coupled quantum dot (QD) structures. We focus our attention on the combined effects of geometrical and Mn-doping parameters on optical properties and solar cell efficiency. In the framework of {k \\cdot p} theory, we accomplish detailed calculations of electronic structure, transition energies, optical selection rules and their corresponding intra- and interband oscillator strengths. With these results and by following the intermediate band model, we have developed a strategy which allows us to find optimal photovoltaic efficiency values. We also show that the effects of band admixture which can lead to degradation of optical transitions and reduction of efficiency can be partly minimized by a careful selection of the structural parameters and Mn-concentration. Thus, the improvement of band engineering is mandatory for any practical implementation of QD systems as IBSC hardware. Finally, our calculations show that it is possible to reach significant efficiency, up to ∼26%, by selecting a restricted space of parameters such as quantum dot size and shape and Mn-concentration effects, to improve the modulation of optical absorption in the structures.
Kim, Jin Seok; Hur, Min Young; Kim, Chang Ho; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2018-03-01
A two-dimensional parallelized particle-in-cell simulation has been developed to simulate a capacitively coupled plasma reactor. The parallelization using graphics processing units is applied to resolve the heavy computational load. It is found that the step-ionization plays an important role in the intermediate gas pressure of a few Torr. Without the step-ionization, the average electron density decreases while the effective electron temperature increases with the increase of gas pressure at a fixed power. With the step-ionization, however, the average electron density increases while the effective electron temperature decreases with the increase of gas pressure. The cases with the step-ionization agree well with the tendency of experimental measurement. The electron energy distribution functions show that the population of electrons having intermediate energy from 4.2 to 12 eV is relaxed by the step-ionization. Also, it was observed that the power consumption by the electrons is increasing with the increase of gas pressure by the step-ionization process, while the power consumption by the ions decreases with the increase of gas pressure.
Goings, Joshua J; Caricato, Marco; Frisch, Michael J; Li, Xiaosong
2014-10-28
Methods for fast and reliable computation of electronic excitation energies are in short supply, and little is known about their systematic performance. This work reports a comparison of several low-scaling approximations to the equation of motion coupled cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) and linear-response coupled cluster singles and doubles (LR-CCSD) equations with other single reference methods for computing the vertical electronic transition energies of 11 small organic molecules. The methods, including second order equation-of-motion many-body perturbation theory (EOM-MBPT2) and its partitioned variant, are compared to several valence and Rydberg singlet states. We find that the EOM-MBPT2 method was rarely more than a tenth of an eV from EOM-CCSD calculated energies, yet demonstrates a performance gain of nearly 30%. The partitioned equation-of-motion approach, P-EOM-MBPT2, which is an order of magnitude faster than EOM-CCSD, outperforms the CIS(D) and CC2 in the description of Rydberg states. CC2, on the other hand, excels at describing valence states where P-EOM-MBPT2 does not. The difference between the CC2 and P-EOM-MBPT2 can ultimately be traced back to how each method approximates EOM-CCSD and LR-CCSD. The results suggest that CC2 and P-EOM-MBPT2 are complementary: CC2 is best suited for the description of valence states while P-EOM-MBPT2 proves to be a superior O(N(5)) method for the description of Rydberg states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiruta, D. [Groupe d’Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMAC), UMR 8635, CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45, Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AMNOL), Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Jureschi, C.-M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AMNOL), Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania); Laboratoire d’Ingenierie des Systemes de Versailles (LISV), EA 4048, CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45, Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Linares, J., E-mail: jorge.linares@uvsq.fr [Groupe d’Etude de la Matiere Condensee (GEMAC), UMR 8635, CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45, Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Nasser, J. [Laboratoire d’Ingenierie des Systemes de Versailles (LISV), EA 4048, CNRS, Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin, 45, Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Rotaru, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science & Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AMNOL), Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)
2015-11-01
In this paper the atom–phonon coupling model is applied to explain and illustrate the behavior of a linear chain of molecules in the case of spin crossover (SCO) compounds. It is well known that besides the system's cooperativity which influences the hysteretic behavior of SCO complexes, the size of the system also plays a determinant role. The system's properties are analyzed using a parabolic algorithm as a new method proposed herein for the first time in order to take into account the phonon contribution. Based on exact calculations, this method is closer to the reality and more efficient than the mean-field approximation (MFA). In particular, both the parabolic algorithm and the dynamic-matrix method are tested and compared and it is shown from the analysis of the system's behavior that large size can be handled without generating all the system states. We also analyzed the role of degeneracy, and the thermal variation of both the entropy and heat capacity in the ferromagnetic-like coupling case.
Using a 4D-Variational Method to Optimize Model Parameters in an Intermediate Coupled Model of ENSO
Gao, C.; Zhang, R. H.
2017-12-01
Large biases exist in real-time ENSO prediction, which is attributed to uncertainties in initial conditions and model parameters. Previously, a four dimentional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system was developed for an intermediate coupled model (ICM) and used to improve ENSO modeling through optimized initial conditions. In this paper, this system is further applied to optimize model parameters. In the ICM used, one important process for ENSO is related to the anomalous temperature of subsurface water entrained into the mixed layer (Te), which is empirically and explicitly related to sea level (SL) variation, written as Te=αTe×FTe (SL). The introduced parameter, αTe, represents the strength of the thermocline effect on sea surface temperature (SST; referred as the thermocline effect). A numerical procedure is developed to optimize this model parameter through the 4D-Var assimilation of SST data in a twin experiment context with an idealized setting. Experiments having initial condition optimized only and having initial condition plus this additional model parameter optimized both are compared. It is shown that ENSO evolution can be more effectively recovered by including the additional optimization of this parameter in ENSO modeling. The demonstrated feasibility of optimizing model parameter and initial condition together through the 4D-Var method provides a modeling platform for ENSO studies. Further applications of the 4D-Var data assimilation system implemented in the ICM are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ganopolski
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A new version of the Earth system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2, which includes the three-dimensional polythermal ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS, is used to simulate the last glacial cycle forced by variations of the Earth's orbital parameters and atmospheric concentration of major greenhouse gases. The climate and ice-sheet components of the model are coupled bi-directionally through a physically-based surface energy and mass balance interface. The model accounts for the time-dependent effect of aeolian dust on planetary and snow albedo. The model successfully simulates the temporal and spatial dynamics of the major Northern Hemisphere (NH ice sheets, including rapid glacial inception and strong asymmetry between the ice-sheet growth phase and glacial termination. Spatial extent and elevation of the ice sheets during the last glacial maximum agree reasonably well with palaeoclimate reconstructions. A suite of sensitivity experiments demonstrates that simulated ice-sheet evolution during the last glacial cycle is very sensitive to some parameters of the surface energy and mass-balance interface and dust module. The possibility of a considerable acceleration of the climate ice-sheet model is discussed.
Gao, Chuan; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Wu, Xinrong; Sun, Jichang
2018-04-01
Large biases exist in real-time ENSO prediction, which can be attributed to uncertainties in initial conditions and model parameters. Previously, a 4D variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system was developed for an intermediate coupled model (ICM) and used to improve ENSO modeling through optimized initial conditions. In this paper, this system is further applied to optimize model parameters. In the ICM used, one important process for ENSO is related to the anomalous temperature of subsurface water entrained into the mixed layer ( T e), which is empirically and explicitly related to sea level (SL) variation. The strength of the thermocline effect on SST (referred to simply as "the thermocline effect") is represented by an introduced parameter, α Te. A numerical procedure is developed to optimize this model parameter through the 4D-Var assimilation of SST data in a twin experiment context with an idealized setting. Experiments having their initial condition optimized only, and having their initial condition plus this additional model parameter optimized, are compared. It is shown that ENSO evolution can be more effectively recovered by including the additional optimization of this parameter in ENSO modeling. The demonstrated feasibility of optimizing model parameters and initial conditions together through the 4D-Var method provides a modeling platform for ENSO studies. Further applications of the 4D-Var data assimilation system implemented in the ICM are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.; Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y.
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows: Measurements of the spectroscopic properties of the superheavy elements present a serious challenge to the experimentalist. Their short lifetimes and the low quantities of their production necessitate reliable prediction of transition energies to avoid the need for broad wavelength scans and to assist in identifying the lines. Thus, reliable high-accuracy calculations are necessary prior and parallel to experimental research. Nobelium and Lawrencium are at present the two most likely candidates for spectroscopic measurements, with the first experiments planned at GSI, Darmstadt. The intermediate Hamiltonian (IH) coupled cluster method is applied to the ionization potentials, electron affinities, and excitation energies of atomic nobelium and lawrencium. Large basis sets are used (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i). All levels of a particular atom are obtained simultaneously by diagonalizing the IH matrix. The matrix elements correspond to all excitations from correlated occupied orbitals to virtual orbitals in a large P space, and are 'dressed' by folding in excitations to higher virtual orbitals (Q space) at the coupled cluster singles-and-doubles level. Lamb-shift corrections are included. The same approach was applied to the lighter homologues of Lr and No, lutetium and ytterbium, for which many transition energies are experimentally known, in order to assess the accuracy of the calculation. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm -1 , and the error limits for Lr are therefore put at 700 cm -1 . Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20,000-30,000 cm -1 , are 7p → 8s at 20,100 cm -1 and 7p →p 7d at 28,100 cm -1 . In case of Yb, the calculated ionization potential was within 20 cm -1 of the experiment, and the average error of the 20 lowest calculated excitations was about 300 cm -1 . Hence, the error limits of nobelium are set to 800 cm -1
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epstein, M.B.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Simone, J.; Hasell, D.K.; Koene, B.K.S.; Murdoch, B.T.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Cameron, J.M.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Moss, G.A.; Rogers, J.G.; Stetz, A.W.
1980-01-01
The 4 He( p,2p) 3 H reaction has been measured at 250, 350, and 500 MeV using symmetric geometries. The energy dependence of the cross section at zero recoil momentum and angular distributions are presented. The data are compared to distorted-wave impulse-approximation (DWIA) calculations. Unlike at lower energies, the zero-recoil-momentum data are well described by the DWIA at these energies. For the angular distributions, the DWIA increasingly underestimates the data as the recoil momentum is increased
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.
1985-01-01
General analysis is conducted, and formulae for fission cross section and angular distribution of fission fragments of oriented nuclei by fast neutrons are presented. Geometrical coefficients making up the formulae permitting to carry out calculations for target nuclei with spins I=3/2, 5/2, 7/2 at interaction energies epsilon < or approximately 1 MeV are tabulated. Results of demonstrative calculation of fission fragment angular distribution of oriented sup(235)U nuclei by 0.1 <= epsilon <= 1.0 MeV neutrons reveal that angular distribution weakly depends on the set of permeability factors of neutron waves applied in the calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadhane, U [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Montanari, C C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Tribedi, Lokesh C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)
2003-07-28
K-shell vacancy production in low-atomic-number (Z{sub t} = 17-29) solid targets has been measured in collisions of highly charged carbon ions with energies of 1.5-6 MeV u{sup -1}. The K-shell ionization cross sections of Cl, K, Ti, Fe and Cu are derived from the measured K x-ray cross sections. The present data-set has been used to test the predictions of a theoretical model based on the local plasma approximation (LPA). This theory takes into account the response of solid core electrons working within the dielectric formalism. We find that this ab initio ion-solid model gives very good agreement with the measured data for Fe and Cu targets, while it tends to under-estimate the data for the most symmetric collision systems studied here. We discuss the range of validity of the LPA in terms of the symmetry parameter and the impact velocity. On the other hand, a model based on the perturbed stationary state approximation, designed for ion-atom collisions (ECPSSR) is found to give excellent agreement with the measured data for all target elements over the whole energy range. All the measured cross sections for different targets are found to follow a universal scaling rule predicted by the ECPSSR.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petracca, S. [Salerno Univ. (Italy)
1996-08-01
Debye potentials, the Lorentz reciprocity theorem, and (extended) Leontovich boundary conditions can be used to obtain simple and accurate analytic estimates of the longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances of (piecewise longitudinally uniform) multi-layered pipes with non simple transverse geometry and/or (spatially inhomogeneous) boundary conditions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Renhui; Jing Yuanyuan; Chen Liping; Shi Qiang
2011-01-01
Graphical abstract: An analytically solvable model was employed to study proton coupled electron transfer reactions. Approximated theories are assessed, and vibrational coherence is observed in case of small reorganization energy. Research highlights: → The Duschinsky rotation effect in PCET reactions. → Assessment of the BO approx. for proton motion using an analytically solvable model. → Vibrational coherence in PCET in the case of small reorganization energy. - Abstract: By employing an analytically solvable model including the Duschinsky rotation effect, we investigated the applicability of the commonly used Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation for separating the proton and proton donor-acceptor motions in theories of proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions. Comparison with theories based on the BO approximation shows that, the BO approximation for the proton coordinate is generally valid while some further approximations may become inaccurate in certain range of parameters. We have also investigated the effect of vibrationally coherent tunneling in the case of small reorganization energy, and shown that it plays an important role on the rate constant and kinetic isotope effect.
Bosma, Wieb
1990-01-01
The distribution is determined of some sequences that measure how well a number is approximated by its mediants (or intermediate continued fraction convergents). The connection with a theorem of Fatou, as well as a new proof of this, is given.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas
2017-01-01
The random phase approximation (RPA) for total energies has previously been shown to provide a qualitatively correct description of static correlation in molecular systems, where density functional theory (DFT) with local functionals are bound to fail. This immediately poses the question of whether....... It is found that the RPA can accurately correct the large errors introduced by Hartree- Fock, independent of the input orbitals used for the perturbative expansion. However, in most cases, accuracies similar to RPA can be obtained with DFT+ U, which is significantly simpler from a computational point of view....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.
1985-01-01
The compound nucleus fluctuation cross section in the intermediate absorption regime of γ sup(-)/D sup(-) >= 1 is discussed within the optical background representation of Kawai, Kerman and McVoy. A constraining inequality, involving π γ sup(-)/D sup(-), a relevant parameter in the cross section formula, on the one hand, and other statistical parameters that appear in σ sup(fl) sub(cc), is derived and analyzed. (Author) [pt
Datta, Arjun; Priestley, Keith F.; Roecker, Steve; Chapman, Chris H.
2017-11-01
We employ an empirical approach to study the phenomenon of surface wave mode conversion due to lateral heterogeneity, and, as an example, assess its impact on a specific waveform inversion methodology used for surface wave tomography. Finite difference modelling in 2-D media, using a method that allows modelling of a single surface wave mode at a time, is combined with frequency domain decomposition of the wavefield onto a basis of local mode eigenfunctions, to illuminate mode conversion as a function of frequency and heterogeneity parameters. Synthetic waveforms generated by the modelling are inverted to study the effects of mode conversion on the inversion process. For heterogeneities in the upper mantle depth range of ∼40-300 km, we find that heterogeneity strengths of about 5 per cent (with sharp lateral boundaries), or lateral boundary length scales of 10-15 times the seismic wavelength (with 10 per cent maximum strength) produce significant mode conversion at periods of 30 s and shorter. These are significant in the sense that, depending on source strength, converted mode amplitudes can be well above typical noise levels in seismology. Correspondingly, waveform inversion with higher modes reveals the inadequacy of the path average approximation at these periods, with the potential for errors as large as 7 per cent in inferred group velocities, which will translate into errors in the inverted shear-velocity structure.
Sharma, Surendra P.; Huo, Winifred M.; Park, Chul
1988-01-01
A theoretical study of vibrational excitations and dissociations of nitrogen undergoing a nonequilibrium relaxation process upon heating and cooling is reported. The rate coefficients for collisional induced vibrational transitions and transitions from a bound vibrational state into a dissociative state have been calculated using an extension of the theory originally proposed by Schwarz (SSH) et al. (1952). High-lying vibrational states and dissociative states were explicitly included but rotational energy transfer was neglected. The transition probabilities calculated from the SSH theory were fed into the master equation, which was integrated numerically to determine the population distribution of the vibrational states as well as bulk thermodynamic properties. The results show that: (1) the transition rates have a minimum near the middle of the bound vibrational levels, causing a bottleneck in the vibrational relaxation and dissociation rates; (2) high vibrational states are always in equilibrium with the dissociative state; (3) for the heating case, only the low vibrational states relax according to the Landau-Teller theory; (4) for the cooling case, vibrational relaxation cannot be described by a rate equation; (5) Park's (1985, 1988) two-temperature model is approximately valid; and (6) the average vibrational energy removed in dissociation is about 30 percent of the dissociation energy.
Qian, Youhua; Chen, Shengmin
2010-10-01
In this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is presented to establish the accurate approximate analytical solutions for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) nonlinear coupled oscillators. The periodic solutions for the three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) coupled van der Pol-Duffing oscillators are applied to illustrate the validity and great potential of this method. For given physical parameters of nonlinear systems and with different initial conditions, the frequency ω , displacements x1 (t),x2 (t) and x3 (t) can be explicitly obtained. In addition, comparisons are conducted between the results obtained by the HAM and the numerical integration (i.e. Runge-Kutta) method. It is shown that the analytical solutions of the HAM are in excellent agreement with respect to the numerical integration solutions, even if time t progresses to a certain large domain in the time history responses. Finally, the homotopy Pade technique is used to accelerate the convergence of the solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianfa Gu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The low-mode shell asymmetry and high-mode hot spot mixing appear to be the main reasons for the performance degradation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF implosion experiments. The effects of the mode coupling between low-mode P2 radiation flux asymmetry and intermediate-mode L = 24 capsule roughness on the implosion performance of ignition capsule are investigated by two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. It is shown that the amplitudes of new modes generated by the mode coupling are in good agreement with the second-order mode coupling equation during the acceleration phase. The later flow field not only shows large areal density P2 asymmetry in the main fuel, but also generates large-amplitude spikes and bubbles. In the deceleration phase, the increasing mode coupling generates more new modes, and the perturbation spectrum on the hot spot boundary is mainly from the strong mode interactions rather than the initial perturbation conditions. The combination of the low-mode and high-mode perturbations breaks up the capsule shell, resulting in a significant reduction of the hot spot temperature and implosion performance.
Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James
2016-10-01
Air pollution associated with road transport is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Buildings in urban areas are the artificial obstacles to atmospheric flow and cause reduced ventilation for street canyons. For a deep street canyon, there is evidence of the formation of multiple segregated vortices, which generate flow regimes such that pollutants exhibit a significant contrast between these vortices. This results in poor air ventilation conditions at pedestrian level, thereby leading to elevated pollutant levels and potential breaches of air quality limits. The hypothesis of a well-mixed deep street canyon in the practical one-box model approach is shown to be inappropriate. This study implements a simplified simulation of the canyon volume: a coupled two-box model with a reduced chemical scheme to represent the key photochemical processes with timescales similar to and smaller than the turbulent mixing timescale. The two-box model captures the significant pollutant contrast between the lower and upper parts of a deep street canyon, particularly for NO2. Core important parameters (i.e. heterogeneity coefficient, exchange velocity and box height ratio) in the two-box model approach were investigated through sensitivity tests. The two-box model results identify the emission regimes and the meteorological conditions under which NO2 in the lower canyon (i.e. the region of interest for the assessment of human health effects) is in breach of air quality standards. Higher NO2 levels were observed for the cases with higher heterogeneity coefficients (the two boxes are more segregated), with lower exchange velocities (worse ventilation conditions), or with smaller box height ratios (reduced dilution possibly due to secondary smaller eddies in the lower canyon). The performance of a one-box model using the same chemical scheme is also evaluated against the two-box model. The one-box model was found to systematically underestimate NO2 levels compared with those in
Staszewska, G.
1981-06-01
A new approach to the solution of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering problems is proposed. This method is a combination of iteration and variation procedures. The main advantage of this method is that exchange terms can be calculated in a direct and straightforward manner. The method is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and does not require trial functions satisfying appropriate boundary conditions. Using the Volterra formulation one can find the solution on an interval determined by the range of the exchange potential and the long-range potential terms can be taken into account by a projection procedure giving the asymptotic value of the reactance matrix. The method is tested on the case of electron-hydrogen atom scattering in the 1s-2s and 1s-2s-2p approximation. We have adapted the method proposed originally by Rayski to obtain solutions of coupled equations involved in electron-ion and electron-atom scattering. As mentioned in section 1 the construction of the method secures an automatic fulfilment of the boundary conditions. It allows an easy calculation of the exchange potential as well as an estimation of the introduced approximation. It gives also a possibility of detecting any spurious convergence. Moreover, it is important that this formalism can be applied in the case of normalized as well as unnormalized initial integral equations. This fact is of special importance in the case of long-range interactions. When the method is used for unnormalized (Volterra) equations it allows application of a very convenient projection procedure for treating the long-range terms in the direct potential. Electron-hydrogen atom collisions are investigated as a numerical illustration of the method. In the 1s-2s approximation the normalized equations were solved, while in the 1s-2s-2p approximation the solution was obtained with the help of Volterra equations and the long-range terms of the direct potential were taken into account
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco F De-Miguel
Full Text Available Transmitter exocytosis from the neuronal soma is evoked by brief trains of high frequency electrical activity and continues for several minutes. Here we studied how active vesicle transport towards the plasma membrane contributes to this slow phenomenon in serotonergic leech Retzius neurons, by combining electron microscopy, the kinetics of exocytosis obtained from FM1-43 dye fluorescence as vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, and a diffusion equation incorporating the forces of local confinement and molecular motors. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after stimulation with 1 Hz trains showed cytoplasmic clusters of dense core vesicles at 1.5±0.2 and 3.7±0.3 µm distances from the plasma membrane, to which they were bound through microtubule bundles. By contrast, after 20 Hz stimulation vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, suggesting that transport was induced by electrical stimulation. Consistently, 20 Hz stimulation of cultured neurons induced spotted FM1-43 fluorescence increases with one or two slow sigmoidal kinetics, suggesting exocytosis from an equal number of vesicle clusters. These fluorescence increases were prevented by colchicine, which suggested microtubule-dependent vesicle transport. Model fitting to the fluorescence kinetics predicted that 52-951 vesicles/cluster were transported along 0.60-6.18 µm distances at average 11-95 nms(-1 velocities. The ATP cost per vesicle fused (0.4-72.0, calculated from the ratio of the ΔG(process/ΔG(ATP, depended on the ratio of the traveling velocity and the number of vesicles in the cluster. Interestingly, the distance-dependence of the ATP cost per vesicle was bistable, with low energy values at 1.4 and 3.3 µm, similar to the average resting distances of the vesicle clusters, and a high energy barrier at 1.6-2.0 µm. Our study confirms that active vesicle transport is an intermediate step for somatic serotonin exocytosis by Retzius neurons and provides a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mostafa M.A. Khater
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to construct exact solutions for the time fractional coupled Boussinesq–Burger and approximate long water wave equations by using the generalized Kudryashov method. The fractional differential equation is converted into ordinary differential equations with the help of fractional complex transform and the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative sense. Applying the generalized Kudryashov method through with symbolic computer maple package, numerous new exact solutions are successfully obtained. All calculations in this study have been established and verified back with the aid of the Maple package program. The executed method is powerful, effective and straightforward for solving nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain more and new solutions with the integer and fractional order.
Intermediate inflation in a generalized induced-gravity scenario
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, Carlos [Universidad de Atacama, Departamento de Fisica, Copiapo (Chile); Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)
2017-09-15
An intermediate inflationary Universe model in the context of non-minimal coupling to the scalar curvature is analyzed. We will conduct our analysis in the slow-roll approximation of the inflationary dynamics and the cosmological perturbations considering a coupling of the form F(φ) = κ + ξ{sub n}φ{sup n}. Considering the trajectories in the r-n{sub s} plane from the Planck data, we find the constraints on the parameter space in our model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousaf, Masood; Dalhatu, S.A.; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Sajjad, M.; Musa, A.; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A.; Saeed, M.A.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Highly accurate all-electron FP-LAPW+lo method is used. • New physical parameters are reported, important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. • A comparative study that involves FP-LAPW+lo method and modified approximations. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. • Optoelectronic results of fundamental importance can be utilized for the fabrication of devices. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic and optical properties of the thiospinels XIn 2 S 4 (X = Cd, Mg), using highly accurate all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. In order to calculate the exchange and correlation energies, the method is coupled with modified techniques such as GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, which yield improved results as compared to the previous studies. GGA+SOC approximation is also used for the first time on these compounds to examine the spin orbit coupling effect on the band structure. From the analysis of the structural parameters, robust character is predicted for both materials. Energy band structures profiles are fairly the same for GGA, GGA+SOC, GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, confirming the indirect and direct band gap nature of CdIn 2 S 4 and MgIn 2 S 4 materials, respectively. We report the trend of band gap results as: (mBJ-GGA) > (GGA+U) > (GGA) > (GGA+SOC). Localized regions appearing in the valence bands for CdIn 2 S 4 tend to split up nearly by ≈1 eV in the case of GGA+SOC. Many new physical parameters are reported that can be important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Optical spectra namely, dielectric function (DF), refractive index n(ω), extinction coefficient k(ω), reflectivity R(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), absorption coefficient α(ω) and electron loss function are discussed. Optical’s absorption edge is noted to be 1.401 and 1.782 for CdIn 2 S 4 and MgIn 2 S 4 , respectively. The prominent peaks in the electron energy spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet
2004-01-01
As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works
Trautz, Andrew; Illangasekare, Tissa; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Helmig, Rainer; Heck, Katharina
2016-04-01
Past investigations of coupled land-atmosphere-vegetative processes have been constrained to two extremes, small laboratory bench-scale and field scale testing. In recognition of the limitations of studying the scale-dependency of these fundamental processes at either extreme, researchers have recently begun to promote the use of experimentation at intermediary scales between the bench and field scales. A requirement for employing intermediate scale testing to refine heat and mass transport theory regarding land-atmosphere-vegetative processes is high spatial-temporal resolution datasets generated under carefully controlled experimental conditions in which both small and field scale phenomena can be observed. Field experimentation often fails these criteria as a result of sensor network limitations as well as the natural complexities and uncertainties introduced by heterogeneity and constantly changing atmospheric conditions. Laboratory experimentation, which is used to study three-dimensional (3-D) processes, is often conducted in 2-D test systems as a result of space, instrumentation, and cost constraints. In most flow and transport problems, 2-D testing is not considered a serious limitation because the bypassing of flow and transport due to geo-biochemical heterogeneities can still be studied. Constraining the study of atmosphere-soil-vegetation interactions to 2-D systems introduces a new challenge given that the soil moisture dynamics associated with these interactions occurs in three dimensions. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed as evermore intricate and specialized experimental apparatuses like the climate-controlled wind tunnel-porous media test system at CESEP are being constructed and used for these types of studies. The purpose of this study is to therefore investigate the effects of laboratory experimental dimensionality on observed soil moisture dynamics in the context of bare-soil evaporation and evapotranspiration
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
V S Borkar is the Institute. Chair Professor of. Electrical Engineering at. IIT Bombay. His research interests are stochastic optimization, theory, algorithms and applica- tions. 1 'Markov Chain Monte Carlo' is another one (see [1]), not to mention schemes that combine both. Stochastic approximation is one of the unsung.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grégory Antoni
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study concerns the development of a straightforward numerical technique associated with Classical Newton’s Method for providing a more accurate approximate solution of scalar nonlinear equations. The proposed procedure is based on some practical geometric rules and requires the knowledge of the local slope of the curve representing the considered nonlinear function. Therefore, this new technique uses, only as input data, the first-order derivative of the nonlinear equation in question. The relevance of this numerical procedure is tested, evaluated, and discussed through some examples.
PLASIM-GENIE: a new intermediate complexity AOGCM
Holden, P. B.; Edwards, N. R.; Fraedrich, K.; Kirk, E.; Lunkeit, F.; Zhu, X.
2015-12-01
We describe the development, tuning and climate of PLASIM-GENIE, a new intermediate complexity Atmosphere-Ocean Global Climate Model (AOGCM), built by coupling the Planet Simulator to the GENIE earth system model. PLASIM-GENIE supersedes "GENIE-2", a coupling of GENIE to the Reading IGCM. It has been developed to join the limited number of models that bridge the gap between EMICS with simplified atmospheric dynamics and state of the art AOGCMs. A 1000 year simulation with PLASIM-GENIE requires approximately two weeks on a single node of a 2.1 GHz AMD 6172 CPU. An important motivation for intermediate complexity models is the evaluation of uncertainty. We here demonstrate the tractability of PLASIM-GENIE ensembles by deriving a "subjective" tuning of the model with a 50 member ensemble of 1000 year simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabanov, A.L.
1985-01-01
Experimental data on dependence of fission cross section Σsub(f) (epsilon) and angular anisotropy W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg) of sup(235)U fission fragment escape by neutrons with energy epsilon=100 and 200 keV on orientation of target nuclei are analyzed. 235 U (Isup(πsub(0))=7/2sup(-)) nuclei were orientated at the expense of interaction of quadrupole nucleus momenta with nonuniform electric field of uranyl-rubidium nitrate crystal at crystal cooling to T=0.2 K. The analysis was carried out with three different sets of permeability factors T(epsilon). Results of the analysis weakly depend on T(epsilon) choice. It is shown that a large number of adjusting parameters (six fissionabilities γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and six momenta sub(Jsup(π))) permit to described experimental data on Σsub(f)(epsilon) and W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg), obtained at epsilon=200 keV by introducing essential dependence of γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and sub(Jsup(π)) on Jsup(π). Estimations of fission cross sections Σsub(f)(epsilon) and angular distribution W(epsilon, n vector) up to T approximately equal to 0.01 K in two geometries of the experiment: the orientation axis is parallel and perpendicular to momentum direction p vector of incident neutrons, are conducted
Mounet, Nicolas Frank; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2015-01-01
This note provides general and approximate formulas for the electromagnetic fields created by a passing beam in an axisymmetric infinitely thick resistive pipe made of a single homogeneous layer. The full derivations and their resulting approximate expressions at low and intermediate frequencies are given here, as well as the conditions under which those approximations are valid. Beam-coupling impedances are also computed, and examples are shown.
Beijeren, H. van
1984-01-01
It is conjectured that the large values at intermediate times of the stress tensor autocorrelation function, found in computer simulations, may be caused by a coupling of the stress tensor to pairs of slowly decaying extended heat modes of large wave number. Approximate expressions, amenable to
Kim, Yeongho; Cho, Il-Wook; Ryu, Mee-Yi; Kim, Jun Oh; Lee, Sang Jun; Ban, Keun-Yong; Honsberg, Christiana B.
2017-08-01
The optical properties of the Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) grown InAs/GaAsSb quantum dots (QDs) coupled to sub-monolayer (SML) InAs QD stacks are investigated using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL emission peak of the S-K QDs shifts to shorter wavelengths with increasing the number of SML stacks (NSML) due to the increasing strain fields from the SML QDs. The PL peak energy is linearly increased with increasing the cube root of excitation power, with a different ratio of the absorption coefficient to radiative recombination rate for all the QD samples. The total carrier lifetime for the S-K QDs is increased with increasing NSML, most probably caused by the increase in the ground-state transition energy of the S-K QDs. The nonmonotonic behavior of the thermal activation energy of electrons in the S-K QDs is observed due to the NSML-dependent variation of the strain and Coulombic interaction within the QDs.
The quasilocalized charge approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P
2005-01-01
The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two
Approximate Matching of Hierarchial Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augsten, Nikolaus
The goal of this thesis is to design, develop, and evaluate new methods for the approximate matching of hierarchical data represented as labeled trees. In approximate matching scenarios two items should be matched if they are similar. Computing the similarity between labeled trees is hard...... formally proof that the pq-gram index can be incrementally updated based on the log of edit operations without reconstructing intermediate tree versions. The incremental update is independent of the data size and scales to a large number of changes in the data. We introduce windowed pq...... as in addition to the data values also the structure must be considered. A well-known measure for comparing trees is the tree edit distance. It is computationally expensive and leads to a prohibitively high run time. Our solution for the approximate matching of hierarchical data are pq-grams. The pq...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yousaf, Masood [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Dalhatu, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Islamia College, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Sajjad, M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Musa, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A. [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeed, M.A., E-mail: saeed@utm.my [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)
2015-03-15
Highlights: • Highly accurate all-electron FP-LAPW+lo method is used. • New physical parameters are reported, important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. • A comparative study that involves FP-LAPW+lo method and modified approximations. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. • Optoelectronic results of fundamental importance can be utilized for the fabrication of devices. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic and optical properties of the thiospinels XIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (X = Cd, Mg), using highly accurate all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. In order to calculate the exchange and correlation energies, the method is coupled with modified techniques such as GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, which yield improved results as compared to the previous studies. GGA+SOC approximation is also used for the first time on these compounds to examine the spin orbit coupling effect on the band structure. From the analysis of the structural parameters, robust character is predicted for both materials. Energy band structures profiles are fairly the same for GGA, GGA+SOC, GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, confirming the indirect and direct band gap nature of CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} materials, respectively. We report the trend of band gap results as: (mBJ-GGA) > (GGA+U) > (GGA) > (GGA+SOC). Localized regions appearing in the valence bands for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} tend to split up nearly by ≈1 eV in the case of GGA+SOC. Many new physical parameters are reported that can be important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Optical spectra namely, dielectric function (DF), refractive index n(ω), extinction coefficient k(ω), reflectivity R(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), absorption coefficient α(ω) and electron loss function are discussed. Optical’s absorption edge is noted to be 1.401 and 1.782 for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, respectively. The
Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.
2017-04-01
Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model. As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution (T21), we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution (40 km x 40 km). This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception ( 116 kaBP) and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum ( 21 kaBP). We show that the model performs well in certain areas (e.g. Canadian archipelago) but some model biases are consistent over time periods (e.g. Kara-Barents sector). We explore various model sensitivities (e.g. initial state, vegetation, albedo) and we discuss the importance of the downscaling of precipitation for ice nucleation over elevated area and for the surface mass balance of larger ice sheets.
Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.
2006-01-01
Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m. We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m. We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsburg, C.A.
1980-01-01
In many problems, a desired property A of a function f(x) is determined by the behaviour of f(x) approximately equal to g(x,A) as x→xsup(*). In this letter, a method for resuming the power series in x of f(x) and approximating A (modulated Pade approximant) is presented. This new approximant is an extension of a resumation method for f(x) in terms of rational functions. (author)
Approximate iterative algorithms
Almudevar, Anthony Louis
2014-01-01
Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a
Self-diffusion for a weakly-coupled plasma in a magnetic field
Cohen, J.S.; Suttorp, L.G.
1984-01-01
The longitudinal self-diffusion coefficient for a magnetized plasma with a small plasma parameter is calculated from kinetic theory in the weak-coupling approximation. Asymptotic expressions for this coefficient are derived in the limits of weak and of strong magnetic field. For intermediate
Sparse approximation with bases
2015-01-01
This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications. The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...
Topological approximations of multisets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El-Sayed A. Abo-Tabl
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Rough set theory is a powerful mathematical tool for dealing with inexact, uncertain or vague information. The core concept of rough set theory are information systems and approximation operators of approximation spaces. In this paper, we define and investigate three types of lower and upper multiset approximations of any multiset. These types based on the multiset base of multiset topology induced by a multiset relation. Moreover, the relationships between generalized rough msets and mset topologies are given. In addition, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the relationships between different types of generalized definitions of rough multiset approximations.
Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2005-01-01
We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability...
Approximations of Fuzzy Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinai K. Singh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A fuzzy system can uniformly approximate any real continuous function on a compact domain to any degree of accuracy. Such results can be viewed as an existence of optimal fuzzy systems. Li-Xin Wang discussed a similar problem using Gaussian membership function and Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. He established that fuzzy systems, with product inference, centroid defuzzification and Gaussian functions are capable of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to arbitrary accuracy. In this paper we study a similar approximation problem by using exponential membership functions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Loose-cluster approximation. Continuous curve Our Theory. Dashed curve Our Simulation. Loose cluster approx. not only. captures -the anomalous. qualitative features but is also,. quantitatively, quite accurate. Notes:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knobloch, A.F.
1980-01-01
A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de
Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M
2011-01-01
Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg
Approximation Behooves Calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf
2013-01-01
Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....
Intermediate algebra a textworkbook
McKeague, Charles P
1985-01-01
Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex
Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry
Gondin, William R
1967-01-01
Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system
Static correlation beyond the random phase approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
derived from Hedin's equations (Random Phase Approximation (RPA), Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF), Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), and Time-Dependent GW) all reproduce the correct dissociation limit. We also show that the BSE improves the correlation energies obtained within RPA and TDHF significantly...... for intermediate binding distances. A Hubbard model for the dimer allows us to obtain exact analytical results for the various approximations, which is readily compared with the exact diagonalization of the model. Moreover, the model is shown to reproduce all the qualitative results from the ab initio calculations...
On Convex Quadratic Approximation
den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.
2000-01-01
In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of
Improved Approximation Algorithm for
Byrka, Jaroslaw; Li, S.; Rybicki, Bartosz
2014-01-01
We study the k-level uncapacitated facility location problem (k-level UFL) in which clients need to be connected with paths crossing open facilities of k types (levels). In this paper we first propose an approximation algorithm that for any constant k, in polynomial time, delivers solutions of
Prestack wavefield approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2013-09-01
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Generalized Approximate Message Passing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oxvig, Christian Schou; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben
2017-01-01
This tech report details a collection of results related to the Generalised Approximate Message Passing (GAMP) algorithm. It is a summary of the results that the authors have found critical in understanding the GAMP algorithm. In particular, emphasis is on the details that are crucial in implemen...
Wolff, Hans
This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg
2005-01-01
The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM...
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2011-01-01
Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Topology, calculus and approximation
Komornik, Vilmos
2017-01-01
Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...
Fragments of approximate counting
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L. A.; Thapen, Neil
2014-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376
Optimization and approximation
Pedregal, Pablo
2017-01-01
This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.
Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kárný, Miroslav
2014-01-01
Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0425539.pdf
Topics in Metric Approximation
Leeb, William Edward
This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.
tt in the soft-gluon approximation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
April 2002 physics pp. 575–590. QCD corrections to decay-lepton polar and azimuthal angular distributions in ee+ee- t t in the soft-gluon approximation. SAURABH D RINDANI ... accurate determination of its couplings will have to await the construction of a linear e ·e collider. ..... is the azimuthal angle of the l· momentum.
Mobile communication and intermediality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Helles, Rasmus
2013-01-01
The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Bunmi
Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...
Finite elements and approximation
Zienkiewicz, O C
2006-01-01
A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Sawi, M.
1983-07-01
A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)
Cyclic approximation to stasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stewart D. Johnson
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.
The adiabatic approximation in multichannel scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulte, A.M.
1978-01-01
Using two-dimensional models, an attempt has been made to get an impression of the conditions of validity of the adiabatic approximation. For a nucleon bound to a rotating nucleus the Coriolis coupling is neglected and the relation between this nuclear Coriolis coupling and the classical Coriolis force has been examined. The approximation for particle scattering from an axially symmetric rotating nucleus based on a short duration of the collision, has been combined with an approximation based on the limitation of angular momentum transfer between particle and nucleus. Numerical calculations demonstrate the validity of the new combined method. The concept of time duration for quantum mechanical collisions has also been studied, as has the collective description of permanently deformed nuclei. (C.F.)
Approximate Euclidean Ramsey theorems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Dumitrescu
2011-04-01
Full Text Available According to a classical result of Szemerédi, every dense subset of 1,2,…,N contains an arbitrary long arithmetic progression, if N is large enough. Its analogue in higher dimensions due to Fürstenberg and Katznelson says that every dense subset of {1,2,…,N}d contains an arbitrary large grid, if N is large enough. Here we generalize these results for separated point sets on the line and respectively in the Euclidean space: (i every dense separated set of points in some interval [0,L] on the line contains an arbitrary long approximate arithmetic progression, if L is large enough. (ii every dense separated set of points in the d-dimensional cube [0,L]d in Rd contains an arbitrary large approximate grid, if L is large enough. A further generalization for any finite pattern in Rd is also established. The separation condition is shown to be necessary for such results to hold. In the end we show that every sufficiently large point set in Rd contains an arbitrarily large subset of almost collinear points. No separation condition is needed in this case.
Approximate Bayesian computation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikael Sunnåker
Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.
Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)
2014-10-30
This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.
Three-loop Phi-derivable approximation in QED
Andersen, J.O.; Strickland, M.
2005-01-01
In this paper we examine 9Φ-derivable approximations in QED, General theorems tell us that the gauge dependence of the n-loop Φ-derivable approximation shows up at order g2n where g is the coupling constant. We consider the gauge dependence of the two-loop Φ-derivable approximation to the Debye mass
The Intermediate Neutrino Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, C.; et al.
2015-03-23
The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.
The Intermediate Neutrino Program
Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.
2015-01-01
The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...
The Intermediate Neutrino Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2017-04-03
The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.
1998-01-01
Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)
Intermediate processes in nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrovici, M.
1983-01-01
The main results presented here cannot be interpreted in terms of the direct reaction model or the statistical models and one can more or less explicitely use some nuclear configurations for their interpretation. The first chapter deals with the so-called second order intermediate structures observed in the elastic and inelastic proton scattering on 66 Zn and 70 Ge targets in the energetic regions of some isobaric analog resonances. A formal theory for their interpretation is developed and the comparison with the experimental data is presented. New experimental results on the resonant structures observed in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 12 C on 24 Mg are presented in the second chapter. Detailed statistical analysis and their interpretation is presented too. Charge equilibration in deep inelastic collisions is the main subject of the third chapter. The experimental results obtained by the 98 Mo + 154 Sm collision at 12 MeV/n, a quantum treatment of a damped harmonic oscillator and the comparison with the experimental data are given. In the last chapter, some results on the existence of two other processes which could candidate to be involved in the main topic are presented. Those processes are: the fast fragmentation and preequilibrium charged particles emission. All these processes originate in the excitation of some simple configurations which can be seen on ''doorway'' states (''Hallway'' in the case of the second intermediate structures). The coupling of these states to other more complicated excitation modes of the nuclei and to outgoing channel=gives the possibility to study the nuclear dynamics. This justifies the interest for their detailed theoretical and experimental investigations. (author)
Approximate quantum Markov chains
Sutter, David
2018-01-01
This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple ma...
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-05-01
Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations
Kinsler, Paul
2008-01-01
Propagation equations for optical pulses are needed to assist in describing applications in ever more extreme situations -- including those in metamaterials with linear and nonlinear magnetic responses. Here I show how to derive a single first order propagation equation using a minimum of approximations and a straightforward "factorization" mathematical scheme. The approach generates exact coupled bi-directional equations, after which it is clear that the description can be reduced to a singl...
International Conference Approximation Theory XV
Schumaker, Larry
2017-01-01
These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...
Bacterial intermediate filaments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.
2009-01-01
Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...... also shares in vivo properties of assembly and dynamics with IF proteins by forming stable filamentous structures that continuously incorporate subunits along their length and that grow in a nonpolar fashion. De novo assembly of crescentin is biphasic and involves a cell size-dependent mechanism...... a new function for MreB and providing a parallel to the role of actin in IF assembly and organization in metazoan cells. Additionally, analysis of an MreB localization mutant suggests that cell wall insertion during cell elongation normally occurs along two helices of opposite handedness, each...
Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation
Nouy, Anthony
2016-01-07
Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.
An improved numerical approximation for the first derivative
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor S K Rangarajan. An improved numerical approximation for the first derivative .... (pseudo-random noise plus systematic bias) should be minimized in order to obtain the highest ..... background, without a spreadsheet, we assume that similar steps are taken, and the intermediate ...
Coulomb–Born–Oppenheimer approximation in Ps–H scattering
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
two-dimensional integral using the present Coulomb–Born–Oppenheimer approximation. (CBOA). ... prescribed by Geltman [44] is highly successful [45] for ionization calculation at intermediate to high energy re-. 415 ... The transition amplitude for scattering processes can be calculated using any of the form of post and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flávio Barbosa Justino
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Based on coupled model simulations (ECBilt-Clio, we investigate the atmospheric and oceanic response to sustained freshwater input into the North Atlantic under the glacial maximum background state. The results demonstrate that a weakening of the thermohaline circulation triggered by weaker density flux leads to rapid changes in global sea-ice volume and reduced poleward heat transport in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH, however, the oceanic heat transport increases substantially. This in turn leads to strong cooling over the North Atlantic whereas the SH extratropical region warms up. The suppression of the NADW also drastically changes the atmospheric circulation. The associated northward wind anomalies over the North Atlantic increase the warm air advection from the tropics and induce the transport of tropical saltier water to mid-latitudes. This negative atmospheric-oceanic feedback should play an important role to resume the NADW, after the freshwater forcing ends up.Baseado em simulações numéricas realizadas com um modelo acoplado (ECBilt-Clio, investigam-se as anomalias atmosféricas e oceânicas associadas ao aumento de água doce no Atlântico Norte sob condições glaciais. Os resultados demonstram que um enfraquecimento da corrente termohalina provoca rápidas mudanças no volume global de gelo marinho, bem como uma redução no transporte de calor em direção ao Hemisfério Norte (HN. No Hemisfério Sul (HS, no entanto, o transporte oceânico de calor aumenta substancialmente. Como resultado, ocorre um forte esfriamento ao longo do Atlântico Norte, enquanto que a região extratropical do HS aquece. A inibição da circulação termohalina também muda drasticamente a circulação atmosférica. Intensas anomalias de ventos da região equatorial induzem um transport de águas quentes e salinas, assim como são associadas com um aumento na advecção de ar quente dos trópicos. Esta interação oceano
Comparative Study of Approximate Multipliers
Masadeh, Mahmoud; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiene
2018-01-01
Approximate multipliers are widely being advocated for energy-efficient computing in applications that exhibit an inherent tolerance to inaccuracy. However, the inclusion of accuracy as a key design parameter, besides the performance, area and power, makes the identification of the most suitable approximate multiplier quite challenging. In this paper, we identify three major decision making factors for the selection of an approximate multipliers circuit: (1) the type of approximate full adder...
Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport
Brunner, G
2002-01-01
Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.
International Conference Approximation Theory XIV
Schumaker, Larry
2014-01-01
This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV, held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.
Exact constants in approximation theory
Korneichuk, N
1991-01-01
This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base
Information acquisition and financial intermediation
Boyarchenko, Nina
2012-01-01
This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spencer, B.W.; Thompson, D.H.; Fink, J.K.; Gunther, W.H.; Sehgal, B.R.
1988-01-01
A program of reactor-material molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) tests and related analyses are under way at Argonne National Laboratory under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The particular objective of these tests is to provide data pertaining to the release of nonvolatile fission products such as La, Ba, and Sr, plus other aerosol materials, from the coupled thermal-hydraulic and chemical processes of the MCCI. The first stages of the program involving small and intermediate-scale tests have been completed. Three small-scale tests (/approximately/5 kg corium) and nine intermediate-scale tests (/approximately/30 kg corium) were performed between September 1985 and September 1987. Real reactor materials were used in these tests. Sustained internal heat generation at nominally 1 kW per kg of melt was provided by direct electrical heating of the corium mixture. MCCI tests were performed with both fully and partially oxidized corium mixtures that contained a variety of nonradioactive materials such as La 2 O 3 , BaO, and SrO to represent fission products. Both limestone/common sand and basaltic concrete basemats were used. The system was instrumented for characterization of the thermal hydraulic, chemical, gas release, and aerosol release processes
Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.
Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron
2013-03-13
Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.
Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von
1999-01-01
Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)
A simple approximation for eigenvalues in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitter, H.; Yamazaki, K.
1983-01-01
An approximation method for the determination of energy levels in quantum theory is discussed, which starts from a scaled set of eigenstates of a solvable model. It is shown, that the lowest approximation fulfills certain relations, which hold also exactly. The approximation is tested by comparison with numerically computed eigenvalues in several cases. The errors turn out to be moderate in most of these and depend very little on typical coupling constants. (Author)
Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.
Vincent, Kenneth
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…
application of chemometric methods to resolve intermediates formed ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRIC METHODS TO RESOLVE INTERMEDIATES. FORMED DURING ... Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been proved to be a powerful technique to ..... HPLC/UV-VIS diode array and atmospheric pressure ionization quadrupole ion trap massspectrometry. Int. J. Mass ...
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient-driven...
Anytime classification by ontology approximation
Schlobach, S.; Blaauw, E.; El Kebir, M.; Ten Teije, A.; Van Harmelen, F.; Bortoli, S.; Hobbelman, M.C.; Millian, K.; Ren, Y.; Stam, S.; Thomassen, P.; Van Het Schip, R.; Van Willigem, W.
2007-01-01
Reasoning with large or complex ontologies is one of the bottle-necks of the Semantic Web. In this paper we present an anytime algorithm for classification based on approximate subsumption. We give the formal definitions for approximate subsumption, and show its monotonicity and soundness; we show
Some results in Diophantine approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Steffen Højris
This thesis consists of three papers in Diophantine approximation, a subbranch of number theory. Preceding these papers is an introduction to various aspects of Diophantine approximation and formal Laurent series over Fq and a summary of each of the three papers. The introduction introduces...... the basic concepts on which the papers build. Among other it introduces metric Diophantine approximation, Mahler’s approach on algebraic approximation, the Hausdorff measure, and properties of the formal Laurent series over Fq. The introduction ends with a discussion on Mahler’s problem when considered...... in the formal Laurent series over F3. The first paper is on intrinsic Diophantine approximation in the Cantor set in the formal Laurent series over F3. The summary contains a short motivation, the results of the paper and sketches of the proofs, mainly focusing on the ideas involved. The details of the proofs...
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-08-18
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver J. D. Barrowclough
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.
Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration
Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.
2008-01-01
Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a
Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q
2012-01-01
of such functions. Recently, cartoon-like images were introduced in 2D and 3D as a suitable model class, and approximation properties were measured by considering the decay rate of the $L^2$ error of the best $N$-term approximation. Shearlet systems are to date the only representation system, which provide...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...... to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported shearlet frames as well as a reference for the state-of-the-art of this research field....
Pade approximants for the ground-state energy of closed-shell quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F.M.
1997-08-01
Analytic approximations to the ground-state energy of closed-shell quantum dots (number of electrons from 2 to 210) are presented in the form of two-point Pade approximants. These Pade approximants are constructed from the small- and large-density limits of the energy. We estimated that the maximum error, reached for intermediate densities, is less than ≤ 3%. Within that present approximation the ground-state is found to be unpolarized. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning
Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.
1988-01-01
Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away
Coupled transfers; Transferts couples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)
2005-07-01
This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared
Impulse approximation versus elementary particle method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klieb, L.
1982-01-01
Calculations are made for radiative muon capture in 3 He, both in impulse approximation and with the elementary particle method, and results are compared. It is argued that a diagrammatic method which takes a selected set of Feynman diagrams into account only provides insufficient warrant that effects not included are small. Therefore low-energy theorems are employed, as first given by Adler and Dothan, to determine the amplitude up to and including all terms linear in photon momentum and momentum transfer at the weak vertex. This amplitude is applied to radiative muon capture with the elementary particle method (EPM). The various form factors needed are discussed. It is shown that the results are particularly sensitive to the π- 3 He- 3 H coupling constant of which many contradictory determinations have been described in the literature. The classification of the nuclear wave function employed in the impulse approximation (IA) is summarized. The ν-decay of 3 H and (radiative muon capture in 3 He is treated and numerical results are given. Next, pion photoproduction and radiative pion capture are considered. IA and EPM for radiative muon capture are compared more closely. It is concluded that two-step processes are inherently difficult; the elementary particle method has convergence problems, and unknown parameters are present. In the impulse approximation, which is perhaps conceptually more difficult, the two-step interaction for the nucleon is considered as effectively point-like with small non-local corrections. (Auth.)
Approximate number sense theory or approximate theory of magnitude?
Content, Alain; Velde, Michael Vande; Adriano, Andrea
2017-01-01
Leibovich et al. argue that the evidence in favor of a perceptual mechanism devoted to the extraction of numerosity from visual collections is unsatisfactory and propose to replace it with an unspecific mechanism capturing approximate magnitudes from continuous dimensions. We argue that their representation of the evidence is incomplete and that their theoretical proposal is too vague to be useful.
Approximations to camera sensor noise
Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo
2013-02-01
Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.
Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marso, Karol
Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various diﬀerent ﬁelds for example in security. Throughout the years this ﬁeld evolved and there are many approaches and many diﬀerent algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as eﬀective...... as possible. The use of diﬀerent approaches such as neural networks and machine learning can lead to fast and eﬃcient solutions however, these solutions are expensive in terms of hardware resources and power consumption. A possible solution to this problem can be use of approximate arithmetic. In many image...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....
Diophantine approximation and Dirichlet series
Queffélec, Hervé
2013-01-01
This self-contained book will benefit beginners as well as researchers. It is devoted to Diophantine approximation, the analytic theory of Dirichlet series, and some connections between these two domains, which often occur through the Kronecker approximation theorem. Accordingly, the book is divided into seven chapters, the first three of which present tools from commutative harmonic analysis, including a sharp form of the uncertainty principle, ergodic theory and Diophantine approximation to be used in the sequel. A presentation of continued fraction expansions, including the mixing property of the Gauss map, is given. Chapters four and five present the general theory of Dirichlet series, with classes of examples connected to continued fractions, the famous Bohr point of view, and then the use of random Dirichlet series to produce non-trivial extremal examples, including sharp forms of the Bohnenblust-Hille theorem. Chapter six deals with Hardy-Dirichlet spaces, which are new and useful Banach spaces of anal...
Approximate reasoning in physical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutihac, R.
1991-01-01
The theory of fuzzy sets provides excellent ground to deal with fuzzy observations (uncertain or imprecise signals, wavelengths, temperatures,etc.) fuzzy functions (spectra and depth profiles) and fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. First, the basic ideas of fuzzy set theory are briefly presented. Secondly, stress is put on application of simple fuzzy set operations for matching candidate reference spectra of a spectral library to an unknown sample spectrum (e.g. IR spectroscopy). Thirdly, approximate reasoning is applied to infer an unknown property from information available in a database (e.g. crystal systems). Finally, multi-dimensional fuzzy reasoning techniques are suggested. (Author)
Approximations to the Newton potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warburton, A.E.A.; Hatfield, R.W.
1977-01-01
Explicit expressions are obtained for Newton's (Newton, R.G., J. Math. Phys., 3:75-82 (1962)) solution to the inverse scattering problem in the approximations where up to two phase shifts are treated exactly and the rest to first order. (author)
Approximation properties of haplotype tagging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dreiseitl Stephan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.
Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
2009-01-01
In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...
Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap
Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt
Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and
APPROXIMATE MODELS FOR FLOOD ROUTING
African Journals Online (AJOL)
kinematic model and a nonlinear convection-diffusion model are extracted from a normalized form of the St. Venant equations, and applied to ... normal ﬂow condition is moderate. Keywords: approximate models, nonlinear kinematic ... The concern here is with the movement of an abnormal amount of water along a river or ...
On badly approximable complex numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.
We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...
Rational approximation of vertical segments
Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte
2007-08-01
In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.
All-Norm Approximation Algorithms
Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik
2002-01-01
A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation
Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans
van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.
This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp
Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujin Jang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.
Larval helminths in intermediate hosts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R
2005-01-01
Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....
Terasaki, J.
2018-03-01
The nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) of the neutrinoless and two-neutrino double-β decays of 48Ca are calculated by the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) with emphasis on the consistency examinations of this calculation method. The main new examination points are the consistency of two ways to treat the intermediate-state energies in the two-neutrino double-β NME and comparison with the experimental charge-exchange strength functions obtained from 48Ca(p ,n ) and 48Ti(n ,p ) reactions. No decisive problem preventing use of the QRPA approach is found. The obtained neutrinoless double-β NME adjusted by the ratio of the effective and bare axial-vector current couplings is lowest in those calculated by different groups and close to one of the QRPA values obtained by another group.
Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.
1975-01-01
The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions
Preheating after multifield inflation with nonminimal couplings. II. Resonance structure
DeCross, Matthew P.; Kaiser, David I.; Prabhu, Anirudh; Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.
2018-01-01
This is the second in a series of papers on preheating in inflationary models comprised of multiple scalar fields coupled nonminimally to gravity. In this paper, we work in the rigid-spacetime approximation and consider field trajectories within the single-field attractor, which is a generic feature of these models. We construct the Floquet charts to find regions of parameter space in which particle production is efficient for both the adiabatic and isocurvature modes, and analyze the resonance structure using analytic and semianalytic techniques. Particle production in the adiabatic direction is characterized by the existence of an asymptotic scaling solution at large values of the nonminimal couplings, ξI≫1 , in which the dominant instability band arises in the long-wavelength limit, for comoving wave numbers k →0 . However, the large-ξI regime is not reached until ξI≥O (100 ). In the intermediate regime, with ξI˜O (1 - 10 ) , the resonance structure depends strongly on wave number and couplings. The resonance structure for isocurvature perturbations is distinct and more complicated than its adiabatic counterpart. An intermediate regime, for ξI˜O (1 - 10 ) , is again evident. For large values of ξI, the Floquet chart consists of densely spaced, nearly parallel instability bands, suggesting a very efficient preheating behavior. The increased efficiency arises from features of the nontrivial field-space manifold in the Einstein frame, which itself arises from the fields' nonminimal couplings in the Jordan frame, and has no analog in models with minimal couplings. Quantitatively, the approach to the large-ξI asymptotic solution for isocurvature modes is slower than in the case of the adiabatic modes.
Palladium-Catalysed Coupling Reactions
de Vries, Johannes G.; Beller, M; Blaser, HU
2012-01-01
Palladium-catalysed coupling reactions have gained importance as a tool for the production of pharmaceutical intermediates and to a lesser extent also for the production of agrochemicals, flavours and fragrances, and monomers for polymers. In this review only these cases are discussed where it seems
Intermediate scattering function of an anisotropic Brownian circle swimmer.
Kurzthaler, Christina; Franosch, Thomas
2017-09-27
Microswimmers exhibit noisy circular motion due to asymmetric propulsion mechanisms, their chiral body shape, or by hydrodynamic couplings in the vicinity of surfaces. Here, we employ the Brownian circle swimmer model and characterize theoretically the dynamics in terms of the directly measurable intermediate scattering function. We derive the associated Fokker-Planck equation for the conditional probabilities and provide an exact solution in terms of generalizations of the Mathieu functions. Different spatiotemporal regimes are identified reflecting the bare translational diffusion at large wavenumbers, the persistent circular motion at intermediate wavenumbers and an enhanced effective diffusion at small wavenumbers. In particular, the circular motion of the particle manifests itself in characteristic oscillations at a plateau of the intermediate scattering function for wavenumbers probing the radius.
Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scivetti, Ivan
2003-01-01
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation
Scivetti, I
2003-01-01
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
Theory of inelastic electron tunneling from a localized spin in the impulsive approximation.
Persson, Mats
2009-07-31
A simple expression for the conductance steps in inelastic electron tunneling from spin excitations in a single magnetic atom adsorbed on a nonmagnetic metal surface is derived. The inelastic coupling between the tunneling electron and the spin is via the exchange coupling and is treated in an impulsive approximation using the Tersoff-Hamann approximation for the tunneling between the tip and the sample.
Good points for diophantine approximation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
n=1 of real numbers in the interval [0, 1) and a sequence. (δn)∞ n=1 of positive numbers tending to zero, we consider the size of the set of numbers in [0, 1] which can be 'well approximated' by terms of the first sequence, namely, those y ∈ [0, 1] for which the inequality |y − xn| < δn holds for infinitely many positive integers n ...
Dimensionality Reduction with Adaptive Approximation
Kokiopoulou, Effrosyni; Frossard, Pascal
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose the use of (adaptive) nonlinear approximation for dimensionality reduction. In particular, we propose a dimensionality reduction method for learning a parts based representation of signals using redundant dictionaries. A redundant dictionary is an overcomplete set of basis vectors that spans the signal space. The signals are jointly represented in a common subspace extracted from the redundant dictionary, using greedy pursuit algorithms for simultaneous sparse approx...
Intermediate Infrastructure Analyst | IDRC - International ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
The incumbent conducts research on technologies and tools that might enhance service delivery and where appropriate, makes recommendations to management. The Intermediate Infrastructure System Analyst provides leadership and direction to junior team members and functional direction to consultants and ...
Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap.
Minh, Bui Quang; Nguyen, Minh Anh Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt
2013-05-01
Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test have been introduced to speed up the bootstrap. Here, we suggest an ultrafast bootstrap approximation approach (UFBoot) to compute the support of phylogenetic groups in maximum likelihood (ML) based trees. To achieve this, we combine the resampling estimated log-likelihood method with a simple but effective collection scheme of candidate trees. We also propose a stopping rule that assesses the convergence of branch support values to automatically determine when to stop collecting candidate trees. UFBoot achieves a median speed up of 3.1 (range: 0.66-33.3) to 10.2 (range: 1.32-41.4) compared with RAxML RBS for real DNA and amino acid alignments, respectively. Moreover, our extensive simulations show that UFBoot is robust against moderate model violations and the support values obtained appear to be relatively unbiased compared with the conservative standard bootstrap. This provides a more direct interpretation of the bootstrap support. We offer an efficient and easy-to-use software (available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree) to perform the UFBoot analysis with ML tree inference.
Initially Approximated Quasi Equilibrium Manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahzad, M.; Arif, H.; Gulistan, M.; Sajid, M.
2015-01-01
Most commonly, kinetics model reduction techniques are based on exploiting time scale separation into fast and slow reaction processes. Then, a researcher approximates the system dynamically with dimension reduction for slow ones eliminating the fast modes. The main idea behind the construction of the lower dimension manifold is based on finding its initial approximation using Quasi Equilibrium Manifold (QEM). Here, we provide an efficient numerical method, which allow us to calculate low dimensional manifolds of chemical reaction systems. This computation technique is not restricted to our specific complex problem, but it can also be applied to other reacting flows or dynamic systems provided with the condition that a large number of extra (decaying) components can be eliminated from the system. Through computational approach, we approximate low dimensional manifold for a mechanism of six chemical species to simplify complex chemical kinetics. A reduced descriptive form of slow invariant manifold is obtained from dissipative system. This method is applicable for higher dimensions and is applied over an oxidation of CO/Pt. (author)
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Model of cosmology and particle physics at an intermediate scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastero-Gil, M.; Di Clemente, V.; King, S. F.
2005-01-01
We propose a model of cosmology and particle physics in which all relevant scales arise in a natural way from an intermediate string scale. We are led to assign the string scale to the intermediate scale M * ∼10 13 GeV by four independent pieces of physics: electroweak symmetry breaking; the μ parameter; the axion scale; and the neutrino mass scale. The model involves hybrid inflation with the waterfall field N being responsible for generating the μ term, the right-handed neutrino mass scale, and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale. The large scale structure of the Universe is generated by the lightest right-handed sneutrino playing the role of a coupled curvaton. We show that the correct curvature perturbations may be successfully generated providing the lightest right-handed neutrino is weakly coupled in the seesaw mechanism, consistent with sequential dominance
The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) II: Approximation schemes
Blas, Diego; Tram, Thomas
2011-01-01
Boltzmann codes are used extensively by several groups for constraining cosmological parameters with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure data. This activity is computationally expensive, since a typical project requires from 10'000 to 100'000 Boltzmann code executions. The newly released code CLASS (Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System) incorporates improved approximation schemes leading to a simultaneous gain in speed and precision. We describe here the three approximations used by CLASS for basic LambdaCDM models, namely: a baryon-photon tight-coupling approximation which can be set to first order, second order or to a compromise between the two; an ultra-relativistic fluid approximation which had not been implemented in public distributions before; and finally a radiation streaming approximation taking reionisation into account.
Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.
1986-10-01
A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced
Elimination of intermediate species in multiscale stochastic reaction networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cappelletti, Daniele; Wiuf, Carsten
2016-01-01
We study networks of biochemical reactions modelled by continuoustime Markov processes. Such networks typically contain many molecular species and reactions and are hard to study analytically as well as by simulation. Particularly, we are interested in reaction networks with intermediate species...... such as the substrate-enzyme complex in the Michaelis-Menten mechanism. Such species are virtually in all real-world networks, they are typically short-lived, degraded at a fast rate and hard to observe experimentally. We provide conditions under which the Markov process of a multiscale reaction network...... with intermediate species is approximated by the Markov process of a simpler reduced reaction network without intermediate species. We do so by embedding the Markov processes into a one-parameter family of processes, where reaction rates and species abundances are scaled in the parameter. Further, we show...
''Super-radiant'' states in intermediate energy nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, N.
1994-01-01
A ''super-radiant'' state emerges when, under certain conditions, one or a few ''internal'' states acquire a large collective decay width due to the coupling to one or a few ''external'' decay channels. The rest of the internal states are ''stripped'' of their decay width and become long lived quasistationary states. The essentials of such mechanism and its possible role in intermediate energy nuclear physics are discussed in this work
Approximate Inference for Wireless Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten
to the optimal one, which usually requires an unacceptable high complexity. Some of the treated approximate methods are based on QL-factorization of the channel matrix. In the work presented in this thesis it is proven how the QL-factorization of frequency-selective channels asymptotically provides the minimum......-phase and all-pass filters. This enables us to view Sphere Detection (SD) as an adaptive variant of minimum-phase prefiltered reduced-state sequence estimation. Thus, a novel way of computing the minimum-phase filter and its associated all-pass filter using the numerically stable QL-factorization is suggested...
Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.
1996-01-01
Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Wavelet Approximation in Data Assimilation
Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Estimation of the state of the atmosphere with the Kalman filter remains a distant goal because of high computational cost of evolving the error covariance for both linear and nonlinear systems. Wavelet approximation is presented here as a possible solution that efficiently compresses both global and local covariance information. We demonstrate the compression characteristics on the the error correlation field from a global two-dimensional chemical constituent assimilation, and implement an adaptive wavelet approximation scheme on the assimilation of the one-dimensional Burger's equation. In the former problem, we show that 99%, of the error correlation can be represented by just 3% of the wavelet coefficients, with good representation of localized features. In the Burger's equation assimilation, the discrete linearized equations (tangent linear model) and analysis covariance are projected onto a wavelet basis and truncated to just 6%, of the coefficients. A nearly optimal forecast is achieved and we show that errors due to truncation of the dynamics are no greater than the errors due to covariance truncation.
Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Managan, R. A.
2015-01-01
Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, Fn( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e μ/θ ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for A α (ζ ),A β (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e -μ/θ )F 1/2 (μ/θ), F 1/2 '/F 1/2 , F c α , and F c β . In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.
Bruning, Marc; Berheide, Marco; Meyer, Danilo; Golbik, Ralph; Bartunik, Hans; Liese, Andreas; Tittmann, Kai
2009-04-21
The thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent enzyme benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) catalyzes the nonoxidative decarboxylation of benzoylformic acid to benzaldehyde and carbon dioxide. To date, no structural information for a cofactor-bound reaction intermediate in BFDC is available. For kinetic analysis, a chromophoric substrate analogue was employed that produces various absorbing intermediates during turnover but is a poor substrate with a 10(4)-fold compromised kcat. Here, we have analyzed the steady-state distribution of native intermediates by a combined chemical quench/1H NMR spectroscopic approach and estimated the net rate constants of elementary catalytic steps. At substrate saturation, carbonyl addition of the substrate to the cofactor (k' approximately 500 s-1 at 30 degrees C) and elimination of benzaldehyde (k' approximately 2.400 s-1) were found to be partially rate-determining for catalysis, whereas decarboxylation of the transient 2-mandelyl-ThDP intermediate is 1 order of magnitude faster with k' approximately 16.000 s-1, the largest rate constant of decarboxylation in any thiamin enzyme characterized so far. The X-ray structure of a predecarboxylation intermediate analogue was determined to 1.6 A after cocrystallization of BFDC from Pseudomonas putida with benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester. In contrast to the free acid, for which irreversible phosphorylation of active center Ser26 was reported, the methyl ester forms a covalent adduct with ThDP with a similar configuration at C2alpha as observed for other thiamin enzymes. The C2-C2alpha bond of the intermediate analogue is out of plane by 7degrees, indicating strain. The phosphonate part of the adduct forms hydrogen bonds with Ser26 and His281, and the 1-OH group is held in place by interactions with His70 and the 4'-amino group of ThDP. The phenyl ring accommodates in a hydrophobic pocket formed by Phe464, Phe397, Leu109, and Leu403. A comparison with the previously determined structure of
Approximation by double Walsh polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferenc Móricz
1992-01-01
Full Text Available We study the rate of approximation by rectangular partial sums, Cesàro means, and de la Vallée Poussin means of double Walsh-Fourier series of a function in a homogeneous Banach space X. In particular, X may be Lp(I2, where 1≦p<∞ and I2=[0,1×[0,1, or CW(I2, the latter being the collection of uniformly W-continuous functions on I2. We extend the results by Watari, Fine, Yano, Jastrebova, Bljumin, Esfahanizadeh and Siddiqi from univariate to multivariate cases. As by-products, we deduce sufficient conditions for convergence in Lp(I2-norm and uniform convergence on I2 as well as characterizations of Lipschitz classes of functions. At the end, we raise three problems.
Approximating the minimum cycle mean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnendu Chatterjee
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries I. Direct estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
2004-01-01
We study various approximation classes associated with m-term approximation by elements from a (possibly) redundant dictionary in a Banach space. The standard approximation class associated with the best m-term approximation is compared to new classes defined by considering m-term approximation w...
Hydration thermodynamics beyond the linear response approximation.
Raineri, Fernando O
2016-10-19
The solvation energetics associated with the transformation of a solute molecule at infinite dilution in water from an initial state A to a final state B is reconsidered. The two solute states have different potentials energies of interaction, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], with the solvent environment. Throughout the A [Formula: see text] B transformation of the solute, the solvation system is described by a Hamiltonian [Formula: see text] that changes linearly with the coupling parameter ξ. By focusing on the characterization of the probability density [Formula: see text] that the dimensionless perturbational solute-solvent interaction energy [Formula: see text] has numerical value y when the coupling parameter is ξ, we derive a hierarchy of differential equation relations between the ξ-dependent cumulant functions of various orders in the expansion of the appropriate cumulant generating function. On the basis of this theoretical framework we then introduce an inherently nonlinear solvation model for which we are able to find analytical results for both [Formula: see text] and for the solvation thermodynamic functions. The solvation model is based on the premise that there is an upper or a lower bound (depending on the nature of the interactions considered) to the amplitude of the fluctuations of Y in the solution system at equilibrium. The results reveal essential differences in behavior for the model when compared with the linear response approximation to solvation, particularly with regards to the probability density [Formula: see text]. The analytical expressions for the solvation properties show, however, that the linear response behavior is recovered from the new model when the room for the thermal fluctuations in Y is not restricted by the existence of a nearby bound. We compare the predictions of the model with the results from molecular dynamics computer simulations for aqueous solvation, in which either (1) the solute
ESL intermediate/advanced writing
Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary
2011-01-01
Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL
Lifeworld conflicts and relation rebirth of couple dancing sport participants
Park, Ji-Yeon; Yoon, Yong-Jin
2013-01-01
This study aims to analyze how the conflict factors occur in lifeworld between couples are healed up through participating in the couple dancing sport, that is, how the couples are reborn to recover the relationship, and why they select the dancing sport for such an intermediate instrument. To achieve such research aims, a qualitative research has been conducted subjecting 5 couples, 10 people who both a couple is participating in the dancing sport activity. The results according to this rese...
Intermediate neutron detection by thermoluminescence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, E.N. dos; Muccillo, R.
1979-01-01
Thermoluminescent (TL) studies were carried out in cold-pressed CaSO 4 :Dy + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl and CaF 2 + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl polycrystalline samples exposed to mixed neutron-gamma fields, for the detection of intermediate neutrons which is based on the evaluation of the TL signal of the specimens stored for 24 hours after being exposed to a mixed neutron-gamma field and thermally annealed to erase the total radiation-induced TL. The addition of Dy 2 O 3 to CaSO 4 :Dy in the proportion 1:2 increased the neutron response by a factor of 160 relative to that of CaSO 4 :Dy. 180 mg of CaSO 4 :Dy + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl in the proportion 2:1:3 showed to be an appropriate detector of intermediate neutrons; the minimum detectable fluence was estimated to be 3.5 x 10 5 neutrons/cm 2 . (Author) [pt
Study of quarkonium spectroscopy through the approximated variational method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandao, H.J.A.; Kimel, I.
1982-01-01
The spectroscopy of the qq sup(-) bound states in a non-relativistic approximation using a approximate variational method is studied. Because of its similarity to positronium, a wave function of the hidrogen atom, is used. The 'coulomb-logaritmic-linear' was the potential used to described it. The fitting is done, and relevant coupling constant due to a logaritmic piece is found. All states described in this way furnishes v 2 3 P are reasonably explained and it no occurs with the mass diference between psi and eta sub(c). (Author) [pt
Substrate radical intermediates in soluble methane monooxygenase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Aimin; Jin Yi; Zhang Jingyan; Brazeau, Brian J.; Lipscomb, John D.
2005-01-01
EPR spin-trapping experiments were carried out using the three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO). Spin-traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), α-4-pyridyl-1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), and nitrosobenzene (NOB) were used to investigate the possible formation of substrate radical intermediates during catalysis. In contrast to a previous report, the NADH-coupled oxidations of various substrates did not produce any trapped radical species when DMPO or POBN was present. However, radicals were detected by these traps when only the MMO reductase component and NADH were present. DMPO and POBN were found to be weak inhibitors of the MMO reaction. In contrast, NOB is a strong inhibitor for the MMO-catalyzed nitrobenzene oxidation reaction. When NOB was used as a spin-trap in the complete MMO system with or without substrate, EPR signals from an NOB radical were detected. We propose that a molecule of NOB acts simultaneously as a substrate and a spin-trap for MMO, yielding the long-lived radical and supporting a stepwise mechanism for MMO
Approximate eigenvalue determination of geometrically frustrated magnetic molecules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M. Läuchli
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Geometrically frustrated magnetic molecules have attracted a lot of interest in the field of molecular magnetism as well as frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnets. In this article we demonstrate how an approximate diagonalization scheme can be used in order to obtain thermodynamic and spectroscopic information about frustrated magnetic molecules. To this end we theoretically investigate an antiferromagnetically coupled spin system with cuboctahedral structure modeled by an isotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian.
Intermediate inflation from a non-canonical scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezazadeh, K.; Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, P., E-mail: rezazadeh86@gmail.com, E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: parvin.karimi67@yahoo.com [Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-01
We study the intermediate inflation in a non-canonical scalar field framework with a power-like Lagrangian. We show that in contrast with the standard canonical intermediate inflation, our non-canonical model is compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015. Also, we estimate the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter which is in well agreement with the prediction of Planck 2015. Then, we obtain an approximation for the energy scale at the initial time of inflation and show that it can be of order of the Planck energy scale, i.e. M{sub P} ∼ 10{sup 18}GeV. We will see that after a short period of time, inflation enters in the slow-roll regime that its energy scale is of order M{sub P}/100 ∼ 10{sup 16}GeV and the horizon exit takes place in this energy scale. We also examine an idea in our non-canonical model to overcome the central drawback of intermediate inflation which is the fact that inflation never ends. We solve this problem without disturbing significantly the nature of the intermediate inflation until the time of horizon exit.
GPR91: expanding the frontiers of Krebs cycle intermediates.
de Castro Fonseca, Matheus; Aguiar, Carla J; da Rocha Franco, Joao Antônio; Gingold, Rafael N; Leite, M Fatima
2016-01-12
Since it was discovered, the citric acid cycle has been known to be central to cell metabolism and energy homeostasis. Mainly found in the mitochondrial matrix, some of the intermediates of the Krebs cycle are also present in the blood stream. Currently, there are several reports that indicate functional roles for Krebs intermediates out of its cycle. Succinate, for instance, acts as an extracellular ligand by binding to a G-protein coupled receptor, known as GPR91, expressed in kidney, liver, heart, retinal cells and possibly many other tissues, leading to a wide array of physiological and pathological effects. Through GPR91, succinate is involved in functions such as regulation of blood pressure, inhibition of lipolysis in white adipose tissue, development of retinal vascularization, cardiac hypertrophy and activation of stellate hepatic cells by ischemic hepatocytes. Along the current review, these new effects of succinate through GPR91 will be explored and discussed.
Yang, Yuting; Barnes, Connelly
2017-01-01
This paper introduces a general method to approximate the convolution of an arbitrary program with a Gaussian kernel. This process has the effect of smoothing out a program. Our compiler framework models intermediate values in the program as random variables, by using mean and variance statistics. Our approach breaks the input program into parts and relates the statistics of the different parts, under the smoothing process. We give several approximations that can be used for the different par...
Space-angle approximations in the variational nodal method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, E. E.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T.
1999-01-01
The variational nodal method is formulated such that the angular and spatial approximations maybe examined separately. Spherical harmonic, simplified spherical harmonic, and discrete ordinate approximations are coupled to the primal hybrid finite element treatment of the spatial variables. Within this framework, two classes of spatial trial functions are presented: (1) orthogonal polynomials for the treatment of homogeneous nodes and (2) bilinear finite subelement trial functions for the treatment of fuel assembly sized nodes in which fuel-pin cell cross sections are represented explicitly. Polynomial and subelement trial functions are applied to benchmark water-reactor problems containing MOX fuel using spherical harmonic and simplified spherical harmonic approximations. The resulting accuracy and computing costs are compared
An electromagnetic multipole expansion beyond the long-wavelength approximation
Alaee, Rasoul; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Fernandez-Corbaton, I.
2018-01-01
The multipole expansion is a key tool in the study of light-matter interactions. All the information about the radiation of and coupling to electromagnetic fields of a given charge-density distribution is condensed into few numbers: The multipole moments of the source. These numbers are frequently computed with expressions obtained after the long-wavelength approximation. Here, we derive exact expressions for the multipole moments of dynamic sources that resemble in their simplicity their approximate counterparts. We validate our new expressions against analytical results for a spherical source, and then use them to calculate the induced moments for some selected sources with a non-trivial shape. The comparison of the results to those obtained with approximate expressions shows a considerable disagreement even for sources of subwavelength size. Our expressions are relevant for any scientific area dealing with the interaction between the electromagnetic field and material systems.
RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Л Н Синельникова
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non
The reactive content of the proton-nucleus impulse - approximation Dirac optical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, B.V.; Isidro Filho, M.P.; Hussein, M.S.
1984-01-01
The total reaction cross sections for intermediate energy proton scattering on 40 Ca and 208 Pb are calculated within the Dirac-Eikonal formalism. Comparison with data indicate that the recently proposed impulse-approximation Dirac optical potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering, is not absorptive enough. (Author) [pt
Physical Applications of a Simple Approximation of Bessel Functions of Integer Order
Barsan, V.; Cojocaru, S.
2007-01-01
Applications of a simple approximation of Bessel functions of integer order, in terms of trigonometric functions, are discussed for several examples from electromagnetism and optics. The method may be applied in the intermediate regime, bridging the "small values regime" and the "asymptotic" one, and covering, in this way, an area of great…
Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable dis- crete metric space. Moreover ... Uniform Roe algebras; fine hyperbolic graph; metric invariant translation approximation property. ..... ate Studies in Mathematics, Volume 88 (2008) (Rhode Island: American Mathematical. Society Providence).
Approximate Uniqueness Estimates for Singular Correlation Matrices.
Finkbeiner, C. T.; Tucker, L. R.
1982-01-01
The residual variance is often used as an approximation to the uniqueness in factor analysis. An upper bound approximation to the residual variance is presented for the case when the correlation matrix is singular. (Author/JKS)
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
HE11 radiation patterns and gaussian approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebuffi, L.; Crenn, J.P.
1986-12-01
The possibility of approximating the HE11 radiation pattern with a Gaussian distribution is presented. A numerical comparison between HE11 far-field theoretical patterns and Abrams and Crenn approximations permits an evaluation of the validity of these two approximations. A new numerically optimized HE11 Gaussian approximation for the far-field, extended to great part of the near field, has been found. In particular, the value given for the beam radius at the waist, has been demonstrated to give the best HE11 Gaussian approximation in the far-field. The Crenn approximation is found to be very close to this optimal approximation, while the Abrams approximation is shown to be less precise. Universal curves for intensity, amplitude and power distribution are given for the HE11 radiated mode. These results are of interest for laser waveguide applications and for plasma ECRH transmission systems
Analytical approximations of Chandrasekhar's H-Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simovic, R.; Vukanic, J.
1995-01-01
Analytical approximations of Chandrasekhar's H-function are derived in this paper by using ordinary and modified DPN methods. The accuracy of the approximations is discussed and the energy dependent albedo problem is treated. (author)
On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar
2008-01-01
This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....
Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramesh N. Patel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.
Experiments in intermediate energy physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dehnhard, D.
2003-02-28
Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.
Projected coupled cluster theory.
Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2017-08-14
Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions. The non-orthogonal nature of states resulting from the application of symmetry projection operators furnishes particle-hole excitations to all orders, thus creating an obstacle for the exact evaluation of overlaps. Here we provide a solution via a disentanglement framework theory that can be approximated rigorously and systematically. Results of projected coupled cluster theory are presented for molecules and the Hubbard model, showing that spin projection significantly improves unrestricted coupled cluster theory while restoring good quantum numbers. The energy of projected coupled cluster theory reduces to the unprojected one in the thermodynamic limit, albeit at a much slower rate than projected Hartree-Fock.
Compact Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sun, Yipeng
2003-01-01
In Phase I, we demonstrate the feasibility of making supported electronically insulating, proton conducting inorganic thin films on metal hydride foils for intermediate temperature fuel cell electrolytes...
Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangji Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.
Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics
Douven, Igor; Kelp, Christoph
This paper highlights some connections between work on truth approximation and work in social epistemology, in particular work on peer disagreement. In some of the literature on truth approximation, questions have been addressed concerning the efficiency of research strategies for approximating the
Operator approximant problems arising from quantum theory
Maher, Philip J
2017-01-01
This book offers an account of a number of aspects of operator theory, mainly developed since the 1980s, whose problems have their roots in quantum theory. The research presented is in non-commutative operator approximation theory or, to use Halmos' terminology, in operator approximants. Focusing on the concept of approximants, this self-contained book is suitable for graduate courses.
Approximate Nearest Neighbor Queries among Parallel Segments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Malamatos, Theocharis; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
We develop a data structure for answering efficiently approximate nearest neighbor queries over a set of parallel segments in three dimensions. We connect this problem to approximate nearest neighbor searching under weight constraints and approximate nearest neighbor searching on historical data...
Inelastic α-particle scattering at intermediate energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, T.S.; Beurtey, R.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Catz, H.; Couvert, P.; Escudie, J.L.; Fontaine, J.M.; Garcon, M.; Lugol, J.C.; Matoba, M.; Platchkov, S.; Rouger, M.; Terrien, Y.
1979-01-01
The rigid body approximation is used to extend the Glauber formalism to the analysis of inelastic scattering of 1.37 GeV α particles by 24 Mg and 58 Ni. Angular distributions for low-lying states in 24 Mg and 58 Ni are analyzed in this framework together with previously published data for Ca isotopes. Intermediate energy α particle scattering is tested as a tool to observe the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance. Energy weighted sum rules are drawn from the analysis of L = 2 angular distributions measured in the proper energy range. Comparison is made with existing data
Nuclear structure at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.
1991-01-01
The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do
Nuclear structure at intermediate energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.
1991-09-30
The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries I. Direct estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
2004-01-01
We study various approximation classes associated with m-term approximation by elements from a (possibly) redundant dictionary in a Banach space. The standard approximation class associated with the best m-term approximation is compared to new classes defined by considering m-term approximation...... with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied, respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space, and we prove...... that assuming a certain structure of the dictionary is sufficient and (almost) necessary to obtain stronger results. We give examples of classical dictionaries in L^p spaces and modulation spaces where our results recover some known Jackson type estimates, and discuss som new estimates they provide....
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries, I: Direct estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
We study various approximation classes associated with $m$-term approximation by elements from a (possibly redundant) dictionary in a Banach space. The standard approximation class associated with the best $m$-term approximation is compared to new classes defined by considering $m......$-term approximation with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space......, and we prove that assuming a certain structure of the dictionary is sufficient and (almost) necessary to obtain stronger results. We give examples of classical dictionaries in $L^p$ spaces and modulation spaces where our results recover some known Jackson type estimates, and discuss som new estimates...
Bounded-Degree Approximations of Stochastic Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Christopher J.; Pinar, Ali; Kiyavash, Negar
2017-06-01
We propose algorithms to approximate directed information graphs. Directed information graphs are probabilistic graphical models that depict causal dependencies between stochastic processes in a network. The proposed algorithms identify optimal and near-optimal approximations in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence. The user-chosen sparsity trades off the quality of the approximation against visual conciseness and computational tractability. One class of approximations contains graphs with speci ed in-degrees. Another class additionally requires that the graph is connected. For both classes, we propose algorithms to identify the optimal approximations and also near-optimal approximations, using a novel relaxation of submodularity. We also propose algorithms to identify the r-best approximations among these classes, enabling robust decision making.
Mapping moveout approximations in TI media
Stovas, Alexey
2013-11-21
Moveout approximations play a very important role in seismic modeling, inversion, and scanning for parameters in complex media. We developed a scheme to map one-way moveout approximations for transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI), which is widely available, to the tilted case (TTI) by introducing the effective tilt angle. As a result, we obtained highly accurate TTI moveout equations analogous with their VTI counterparts. Our analysis showed that the most accurate approximation is obtained from the mapping of generalized approximation. The new moveout approximations allow for, as the examples demonstrate, accurate description of moveout in the TTI case even for vertical heterogeneity. The proposed moveout approximations can be easily used for inversion in a layered TTI medium because the parameters of these approximations explicitly depend on corresponding effective parameters in a layered VTI medium.
Factorized distorted wave approximation for the (e,2e) reaction on atoms : coplanar symmetric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuss, I.; McCarthy, I.E.; Noble, C.J.; Weigold, E.
1977-02-01
The coplanar symmetric (e,2e) cross section has been studied in the intermediate energy region for the valence states of the inert gases He, Ar and Ne. Experimental measurements at 200, 400, 800, and 1200eV for He, and at 400, 800 and 1200eV for Ne and Ar, are compared with calculations based on the factorized half-off-shell distorted-wave impulse approximation. Calculations are carried out using partial wave expanded optical model wave functions which describe elastic scattering for the distorted waves, the eikonal approximation, and the plane wave approximation. (Author)
Analytically approximate screened calculations of atomic-field pair production cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dugne, J.J.
1976-01-01
A new method is described to obtain analytically approximate screened cross sections of atomic-field pair production. The Thomas-Fermi-Csavinszky potential model is expanded at the first order and put in the place of the point Coulomb potential in the Dirac equation. That method can be very useful to calculate approximate screened cross sections for the intermediate photon energy range (5m 0 c 2 to about 50m 0 c 2 ) where numerically exact screened cross sections are needing a prohibitive computer time and when the form factor approach based on Born approximation is not always valid. (Auth.)
19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...
Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.
Jones, Marion
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…
Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.
Abramson, Michael
1997-01-01
Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…
Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.
Lang, Thomas
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…
39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...
Brazil : Interest Rates and Intermediation Spreads
World Bank
2006-01-01
This study sheds light on the analytical and policy issues regarding the high intermediation spread in Brazil, focusing on its determinants, the reasons for its persistence, and its impact on the real economy, especially on access to finance for Brazilian firms. The key contention of the analysis is that high intermediation spreads are a symptom of underlying problems; as such, spreads constitute ...
Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Geisler
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection.
Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.
Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie
2017-08-01
Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.
Multilevel Monte Carlo in Approximate Bayesian Computation
Jasra, Ajay
2017-02-13
In the following article we consider approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) inference. We introduce a method for numerically approximating ABC posteriors using the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). A sequential Monte Carlo version of the approach is developed and it is shown under some assumptions that for a given level of mean square error, this method for ABC has a lower cost than i.i.d. sampling from the most accurate ABC approximation. Several numerical examples are given.
Approximate unitary equivalence of normaloid type operators
Zhu, Sen
2015-01-01
In this paper, we explore approximate unitary equivalence of normaloid operators and classify several normaloid type operators including transaloid operators, polynomial-normaloid operators and von Neumann operators up to approximate unitary equivalence. As an application, we explore approximation of transaloid operators with closed numerical ranges. Among other things, it is proved that those transaloid operators with closed numerical ranges are norm dense in the class of transaloid operators.
Uniform analytic approximation of Wigner rotation matrices
Hoffmann, Scott E.
2018-02-01
We derive the leading asymptotic approximation, for low angle θ, of the Wigner rotation matrix elements, dm1m2 j(θ ) , uniform in j, m1, and m2. The result is in terms of a Bessel function of integer order. We numerically investigate the error for a variety of cases and find that the approximation can be useful over a significant range of angles. This approximation has application in the partial wave analysis of wavepacket scattering.
A Note on Generalized Approximation Property
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antara Bhar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a notion of generalized approximation property, which we refer to as --AP possessed by a Banach space , corresponding to an arbitrary Banach sequence space and a convex subset of , the class of bounded linear operators on . This property includes approximation property studied by Grothendieck, -approximation property considered by Sinha and Karn and Delgado et al., and also approximation property studied by Lissitsin et al. We characterize a Banach space having --AP with the help of -compact operators, -nuclear operators, and quasi--nuclear operators. A particular case for ( has also been characterized.
Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, A.H.
1986-01-01
The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented
Approximate maximum parsimony and ancestral maximum likelihood.
Alon, Noga; Chor, Benny; Pardi, Fabio; Rapoport, Anat
2010-01-01
We explore the maximum parsimony (MP) and ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) criteria in phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Both problems are NP-hard, so we seek approximate solutions. We formulate the two problems as Steiner tree problems under appropriate distances. The gist of our approach is the succinct characterization of Steiner trees for a small number of leaves for the two distances. This enables the use of known Steiner tree approximation algorithms. The approach leads to a 16/9 approximation ratio for AML and asymptotically to a 1.55 approximation ratio for MP.
Relaxation approximation to bed-load sediment transport
Delis, A. I.; Papoglou, I.
2008-04-01
In this work we propose and apply a numerical method based on finite volume relaxation approximation for computing the bed-load sediment transport in shallow water flows, in one and two space dimensions. The water flow is modeled by the well-known nonlinear shallow water equations which are coupled with a bed updating equation. Using a relaxation approximation, the nonlinear set of equations (and for two different formulations) is transformed to a semilinear diagonalizable problem with linear characteristic variablesE A second order MUSCL-TVD method is used for the advection stage while an implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta scheme solves the relaxation stage. The main advantages of this approach are that neither Riemann problem solvers nor nonlinear iterations are required during the solution process. For the two different formulations, the applicability and effectiveness of the presented scheme is verified by comparing numerical results obtained for several benchmark test problems.
Instantons and magnetization tunneling: Beyond the giant-spin approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florez, J.M.; Vargas, P.; Nunez, Alvaro S.
2009-01-01
In this work we show that commonly neglected fluctuations of the net total spin of a molecular nanomagnet strongly modified its tunneling properties and provide a scenario to explain some discrepancies between theory and experiment. Starting off from an effective spin Hamiltonian, we study the quantum tunneling of the magnetization of molecular nanomagnets in the regime where the giant-spin approximation is breaking down. This study is done using an instanton description of the tunneling path. The instanton is calculated considering its coupling to quantum fluctuations.
Lattice approximation of gauge theories with Dirac Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joos, H.
1988-01-01
A program which tries to overcome the systematic difficulties caused by the lattice fermion problem by the consideration of models which describe Dirac fields by differential forms is reported. In the first lecture the formalism is developped and applied to the formulation of geometric QCD and of a Geometric Standard Model. The second lecture treats the characteristic symmetry problems which appear in the lattice approximation of geometric field theories. In the last lecture strong coupling dynamics of geometric QCD are considered with the final aim of a derivation of the quark model for the hadron spectrum. (author) [pt
Language in use intermediate : classroom book
Doff, Adrian
1995-01-01
ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.
Language in use intermediate : teacher's book
Doff, Adrian
1998-01-01
Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.
Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanderup, Sara
2014-01-01
, and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age......In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....
Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update
Litvinenko, Alexander
2016-06-23
We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.
Diagonal Pade approximations for initial value problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reusch, M.F.; Ratzan, L.; Pomphrey, N.; Park, W.
1987-06-01
Diagonal Pade approximations to the time evolution operator for initial value problems are applied in a novel way to the numerical solution of these problems by explicitly factoring the polynomials of the approximation. A remarkable gain over conventional methods in efficiency and accuracy of solution is obtained. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Simultaneous approximation in scales of Banach spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bramble, J.H.; Scott, R.
1978-01-01
The problem of verifying optimal approximation simultaneously in different norms in a Banach scale is reduced to verification of optimal approximation in the highest order norm. The basic tool used is the Banach space interpolation method developed by Lions and Peetre. Applications are given to several problems arising in the theory of finite element methods
Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable discrete metric space. Moreover, we use ... Department of Applied Mathematics, Shanghai Finance University, Shanghai 201209, People's Republic of China ...
Nonlinear approximation with general wave packets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten
2005-01-01
We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a complete...
Quirks of Stirling's Approximation
Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.
2013-01-01
Stirling's approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy…
On approximating multi-criteria TSP
Manthey, Bodo; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.
2009-01-01
We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized
On approximating multi-criteria TSP
Manthey, Bodo
We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multicriteria traveling salesman problem (TSP). First, we devise randomized approximation algorithms for multicriteria maximum traveling salesman problems (Max-TSP). For multicriteria Max-STSP where the edge weights have to be
Boundary Value Problems and Approximate Solutions ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we discuss about some basic things of boundary value problems. Secondly, we study boundary conditions involving derivatives and obtain finite difference approximations of partial derivatives of boundary value problems. The last section is devoted to determine an approximate solution for boundary value ...
Polynomial approximation approach to transient heat conduction ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This work reports polynomial approximation approach to transient heat conduction in a long slab, long cylinder and sphere with linear internal heat generation. It has been shown that the polynomial approximation method is able to calculate average temperature as a function of time for higher value of Biot numbers.
Approximation algorithms for guarding holey polygons ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Guarding edges of polygons is a version of art gallery problem.The goal is finding the minimum number of guards to cover the edges of a polygon. This problem is NP-hard, and to our knowledge there are approximation algorithms just for simple polygons. In this paper we present two approximation algorithms for guarding ...
Similarity based approximate reasoning: fuzzy control
Raha, S.; Hossain, A.; Ghosh, S.
2008-01-01
This paper presents an approach to similarity based approximate reasoning that elucidates the connection between similarity and existing approaches to inference in approximate reasoning methodology. A set of axioms is proposed to get a reasonable measure of similarity between two fuzzy sets. The
Approximate solution for the reactor neutron probability distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruby, L.; McSwine, T.L.
1985-01-01
Several authors have studied the Kolmogorov equation for a fission-driven chain-reacting system, written in terms of the generating function G(x,y,z,t) where x, y, and z are dummy variables referring to the neutron, delayed neutron precursor, and detector-count populations, n, m, and c, respectively. Pal and Zolotukhin and Mogil'ner have shown that if delayed neutrons are neglected, the solution is approximately negative binomial for the neutron population. Wang and Ruby have shown that if the detector effect is neglected, the solution, including the effect of delayed neutrons, is approximately negative binomial. All of the authors assumed prompt-neutron emission not exceeding two neutrons per fission. An approximate method of separating the detector effect from the statistics of the neutron and precursor populations has been proposed by Ruby. In this weak-coupling limit, it is assumed that G(x,y,z,t) = H(x,y)I(z,t). Substitution of this assumption into the Kolmogorov equation separates the latter into two equations, one for H(x,y) and the other for I(z,t). Solution of the latter then gives a generating function, which indicates that in the weak-coupling limit, the detector counts are Poisson distributed. Ruby also showed that if the detector effect is neglected in the equation for H(x,y), i.e., the detector efficiency is set to zero, then the resulting equation is identical with that considered by Wang and Ruby. The authors present here an approximate solution for H(x,y) that does not set the detector efficiency to zero
Breakdown of the few-level approximation in collective systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiffner, M.; Evers, J.; Keitel, C. H.
2007-01-01
The validity of the few-level approximation in dipole-dipole interacting collective systems is discussed. As an example system, we study the archetype case of two dipole-dipole interacting atoms, each modeled by two complete sets of angular momentum multiplets. We establish the breakdown of the few-level approximation by first proving the intuitive result that the dipole-dipole induced energy shifts between collective two-atom states depend on the length of the vector connecting the atoms, but not on its orientation, if complete and degenerate multiplets are considered. A careful analysis of our findings reveals that the simplification of the atomic level scheme by artificially omitting Zeeman sublevels in a few-level approximation generally leads to incorrect predictions. We find that this breakdown can be traced back to the dipole-dipole coupling of transitions with orthogonal dipole moments. Our interpretation enables us to identify special geometries in which partial few-level approximations to two- or three-level systems are valid
Angular dependences of the tensor analyzing powers in the dd→3Hen reaction at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.
2002-01-01
The tensor analyzing powers A yy , A xx , and A xz in the dd→ 3 Hen reaction at intermediate energies are considered in the framework of the one-nucleon-exchange approximation. Their strong sensitivity to the 3 He and deuteron spin structure at short distances is shown
Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang-Liang Yin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.
Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods
Kallman, Jeffrey S
2013-05-21
In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.
Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding
Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.
2009-01-01
The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater
Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert
2009-01-01
The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs
The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods
Labruza, T. P.
1971-01-01
Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.
Proposed changes in intermediate pipe break criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitz, R.P.
1984-01-01
Bechtel Power Corporation proposed to the US NRC in 1983 that the NRC eliminate from their criteria all intermediate breaks. Bechtel's rationale for the proposal and support for their position are presented
MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn
2014-01-01
at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...
Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.
The characteristics of directional spread parameters at intermediate water depth are investigated based on a cosine power '2s' directional spreading model. This is based on wave measurements carried out using a Datawell directional waverider buoy...
Intermediality, Architecture, and the Politics of Urbanity
Tortosa Garrigós, Virgilio
2011-01-01
In his article "Intermediality, Architecture, and the Politics of Urbanity" Virgilio Tortosa Garrigós discusses aspects of the exponential development of large cities, the neoliberal economy, and the "spectacle" of architecture in the context of intermediality. With the connivance between land speculators and politicians — which has led not only to the loss of spatial identity but to irreversible pollution and geographic degradation — urbanity is epitomized on the Mediterranean coast line. In...
Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanyal, A.K.
2008-01-01
The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.
The tendon approximator device in traumatic injuries.
Forootan, Kamal S; Karimi, Hamid; Forootan, Nazilla-Sadat S
2015-01-01
Precise and tension-free approximation of two tendon endings is the key predictor of outcomes following tendon lacerations and repairs. We evaluate the efficacy of a new tendon approximator device in tendon laceration repairs. In a comparative study, we used our new tendon approximator device in 99 consecutive patients with laceration of 266 tendons who attend a university hospital and evaluated the operative time to repair the tendons, surgeons' satisfaction as well as patient's outcomes in a long-term follow-up. Data were compared with the data of control patients undergoing tendon repair by conventional method. Totally 266 tendons were repaired by approximator device and 199 tendons by conventional technique. 78.7% of patients in first group were male and 21.2% were female. In approximator group 38% of patients had secondary repair of cut tendons and 62% had primary repair. Patients were followed for a mean period of 3years (14-60 months). Time required for repair of each tendon was significantly reduced with the approximator device (2 min vs. 5.5 min, ptendon repair were identical in the two groups and were not significantly different. 1% of tendons in group A and 1.2% in group B had rupture that was not significantly different. The new nerve approximator device is cheap, feasible to use and reduces the time of tendon repair with sustained outcomes comparable to the conventional methods.
Higher order antibunching in intermediate states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban
2008-01-01
Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters
Associations of Systemic Diseases with Intermediate Uveitis.
Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F
2016-01-01
To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.
Nag, Tanay
2016-06-01
We take a central spin model (CSM), consisting of a one-dimensional environmental Ising spin chain and a single qubit connected globally to all the spins of the environment, to study the excess energy (EE) of the environment and the logarithm of decoherence factor namely, generalized fidelity susceptibility per site (GFSS), associated with the qubit under a periodic driving of the transverse field term of environment across its critical point using the Floquet theory. The coupling to the qubit, prepared in a pure state, with the transverse field of the spin chain yields two sets of EE corresponding to the two species of Floquet operators. In the limit of weak coupling, we derive an approximated expression of GFSS after an infinite number of driving period which can successfully estimate the low- and intermediate-frequency behavior of GFSS obtained numerically with a large number of time periods. Our main focus is to analytically investigate the effect of system-environment coupling strength on the EEs and GFSS and relate the behavior of GFSS to EEs as a function of frequency by plausible analytical arguments. We explicitly show that the low-frequency beatinglike pattern of GFSS is an outcome of two frequencies, causing the oscillations in the two branches of EEs, that are dependent on the coupling strength. In the intermediate frequency regime, dip structure observed in GFSS can be justified by the resonance peaks of EEs at those coupling parameter-dependent frequencies; high-frequency saturation behavior of EEs and GFSS are controlled by the same static Hamiltonian and the associated saturation values are related to the coupling strength.
Hardness and Approximation for Network Flow Interdiction
Chestnut, Stephen R.; Zenklusen, Rico
2015-01-01
In the Network Flow Interdiction problem an adversary attacks a network in order to minimize the maximum s-t-flow. Very little is known about the approximatibility of this problem despite decades of interest in it. We present the first approximation hardness, showing that Network Flow Interdiction and several of its variants cannot be much easier to approximate than Densest k-Subgraph. In particular, any $n^{o(1)}$-approximation algorithm for Network Flow Interdiction would imply an $n^{o(1)}...
Regression with Sparse Approximations of Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noorzad, Pardis; Sturm, Bob L.
2012-01-01
We propose sparse approximation weighted regression (SPARROW), a method for local estimation of the regression function that uses sparse approximation with a dictionary of measurements. SPARROW estimates the regression function at a point with a linear combination of a few regressands selected...... by a sparse approximation of the point in terms of the regressors. We show SPARROW can be considered a variant of \\(k\\)-nearest neighbors regression (\\(k\\)-NNR), and more generally, local polynomial kernel regression. Unlike \\(k\\)-NNR, however, SPARROW can adapt the number of regressors to use based...
Approximately Liner Phase IIR Digital Filter Banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. D. Ćertić
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with linear-phase FIR filter banks exhibiting similar magnitude responses. The effects of coefficient quantization are analyzed.
Mathematical analysis, approximation theory and their applications
Gupta, Vijay
2016-01-01
Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.
Approximation of the semi-infinite interval
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. McD. Mercer
1980-01-01
Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.
Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.
1990-01-01
Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs
Square well approximation to the optical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, A.K.; Gupta, M.C.; Marwadi, P.R.
1976-01-01
Approximations for obtaining T-matrix elements for a sum of several potentials in terms of T-matrices for individual potentials are studied. Based on model calculations for S-wave for a sum of two separable non-local potentials of Yukawa type form factors and a sum of two delta function potentials, it is shown that the T-matrix for a sum of several potentials can be approximated satisfactorily over all the energy regions by the sum of T-matrices for individual potentials. Based on this, an approximate method for finding T-matrix for any local potential by approximating it by a sum of suitable number of square wells is presented. This provides an interesting way to calculate the T-matrix for any arbitary potential in terms of Bessel functions to a good degree of accuracy. The method is applied to the Saxon-Wood potentials and good agreement with exact results is found. (author)
Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation
Fomel, Sergey
2012-04-30
We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Steepest descent approximations for accretive operator equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1993-03-01
A necessary and sufficient condition is established for the strong convergence of the steepest descent approximation to a solution of equations involving quasi-accretive operators defined on a uniformly smooth Banach space. (author). 49 refs
Degree of Approximation and Green Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Simkani
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We will relate the degree of rational approximation of a meromorphic function f to the minimum value, on the natural boundary of f, of Green potential of the weak∗ limit of the normalized pole-counting measures
Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications
Markovsky, Ivan
2012-01-01
Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...
Methods of Fourier analysis and approximation theory
Tikhonov, Sergey
2016-01-01
Different facets of interplay between harmonic analysis and approximation theory are covered in this volume. The topics included are Fourier analysis, function spaces, optimization theory, partial differential equations, and their links to modern developments in the approximation theory. The articles of this collection were originated from two events. The first event took place during the 9th ISAAC Congress in Krakow, Poland, 5th-9th August 2013, at the section “Approximation Theory and Fourier Analysis”. The second event was the conference on Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory in the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona, during 4th-8th November 2013, organized by the editors of this volume. All articles selected to be part of this collection were carefully reviewed.
APPROXIMATE DEVELOPMENTS FOR SURFACES OF REVOLUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mădălina Roxana Buneci
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is provide a set of Maple procedures to construct approximate developments of a general surface of revolution generalizing the well-known gore method for sphere
An overview on Approximate Bayesian computation*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baragatti Meïli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation techniques, also called likelihood-free methods, are one of the most satisfactory approach to intractable likelihood problems. This overview presents recent results since its introduction about ten years ago in population genetics.
Approximation for the adjoint neutron spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da
2002-01-01
The proposal of this work is the determination of an analytical approximation which is capable to reproduce the adjoint neutron flux for the energy range of the narrow resonances (NR). In a previous work we developed a method for the calculation of the adjoint spectrum which was calculated from the adjoint neutron balance equations, that were obtained by the collision probabilities method, this method involved a considerable quantity of numerical calculation. In the analytical method some approximations were done, like the multiplication of the escape probability in the fuel by the adjoint flux in the moderator, and after these approximations, taking into account the case of the narrow resonances, were substituted in the adjoint neutron balance equation for the fuel, resulting in an analytical approximation for the adjoint flux. The results obtained in this work were compared to the results generated with the reference method, which demonstrated a good and precise results for the adjoint neutron flux for the narrow resonances. (author)
TMB: Automatic differentiation and laplace approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders; Berg, Casper Willestofte
2016-01-01
are automatically integrated out. This approximation, and its derivatives, are obtained using automatic differentiation (up to order three) of the joint likelihood. The computations are designed to be fast for problems with many random effects (approximate to 10(6)) and parameters (approximate to 10...... computations. The user defines the joint likelihood for the data and the random effects as a C++ template function, while all the other operations are done in R; e.g., reading in the data. The package evaluates and maximizes the Laplace approximation of the marginal likelihood where the random effects......(3)). Computation times using ADMB and TMB are compared on a suite of examples ranging from simple models to large spatial models where the random effects are a Gaussian random field. Speedups ranging from 1.5 to about 100 are obtained with increasing gains for large problems...
Approximations of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations
Di Nunno, Giulia; Zhang, Tusheng
2014-01-01
In this paper we show that solutions of stochastic partial differ- ential equations driven by Brownian motion can be approximated by stochastic partial differential equations forced by pure jump noise/random kicks. Applications to stochastic Burgers equations are discussed.
Saddlepoint approximation methods in financial engineering
Kwok, Yue Kuen
2018-01-01
This book summarizes recent advances in applying saddlepoint approximation methods to financial engineering. It addresses pricing exotic financial derivatives and calculating risk contributions to Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall in credit portfolios under various default correlation models. These standard problems involve the computation of tail probabilities and tail expectations of the corresponding underlying state variables. The text offers in a single source most of the saddlepoint approximation results in financial engineering, with different sets of ready-to-use approximation formulas. Much of this material may otherwise only be found in original research publications. The exposition and style are made rigorous by providing formal proofs of most of the results. Starting with a presentation of the derivation of a variety of saddlepoint approximation formulas in different contexts, this book will help new researchers to learn the fine technicalities of the topic. It will also be valuable to quanti...
Mediterranean intermediate circulation estimated from Argo data in 2003–2010
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Menna
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the intermediate Mediterranean currents for the period October 2003–January 2010. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats remained at the sea surface for about 6 h, enough time to be localised and transmit the data to the Argos satellite system. The Argos positions were used to determine the float surface and intermediate displacements. At the surface, the float motion was approximated by a linear displacement and inertial motion. Intermediate velocities estimates were used to investigate the Mediterranean circulation at 350 m, to compute the pseudo-Eulerian statistics and to study the influence of bathymetry on the intermediate currents. Maximum speeds, as large as 33 cm/s, were found northeast of the Balearic Islands (western basin and in the Ierapetra eddy (eastern basin. Typical speeds in the main along-slope currents (Liguro-Provençal-Catalan, Algerian and Libyo-Egyptian Currents were ~20 cm/s. In the central and western part of Mediterranean basin, the pseudo-Eulerian statistics show typical intermediate circulation pathways which can be related to the motion of Levantine Intermediate Water. In general our results agree with the qualitative intermediate circulation schemes proposed in the literature, except in the southern Ionian where we found westward-flowing intermediate currents. Fluctuating currents appeared to be usually larger than the mean flow. Intermediate currents were found to be essentially parallel to the isobaths over most of the areas characterized by strong bathymetry gradients, in particular, in the vicinity of the continental slopes.
Approximative solutions of stochastic optimization problem
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lachout, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 513-523 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic optimization problem * sensitivity * approximative solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/lachout-approximative solutions of stochastic optimization problem.pdf
Nonlinear approximation with nonstationary Gabor frames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottosen, Emil Solsbæk; Nielsen, Morten
2018-01-01
We consider sparseness properties of adaptive time-frequency representations obtained using nonstationary Gabor frames (NSGFs). NSGFs generalize classical Gabor frames by allowing for adaptivity in either time or frequency. It is known that the concept of painless nonorthogonal expansions...... resolution. Based on this characterization we prove an upper bound on the approximation error occurring when thresholding the coefficients of the corresponding frame expansions. We complement the theoretical results with numerical experiments, estimating the rate of approximation obtained from thresholding...
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-15
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
On surface approximation using developable surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, s.
1999-01-01
We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G(1) surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G(r) NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produ...... robust approximation of given scattered data. The presented technique can be applied in computer aided manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding. (C) 1999 Academic Press....
On surface approximation using developable surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, S.
1998-01-01
We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G_1 surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G_r NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produce...... robust approximation of given scattered data. The presented technique can be applied in computer aided manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding....
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-01
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Nonlinear Stochastic PDEs: Analysis and Approximations
2016-05-23
Approximation to Nonlinear SPDEs with Discrete Random Variables , SIAM J Scientific Computing, (08 2015): 1872. doi: R. Mikulevicius, B. Rozovskii. On...multiplicative discrete random variables , ( ) S. Lototsky, B. Rozovsky. Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, (09 2015) B. Rozovsky, R...B. Rozovsky and G.E. Karniadakis, "Adaptive Wick-Malliavin approximation to nonlinear SPDEs with discrete random variables ," SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 37
Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupont, T.; Scott, R.
1980-01-01
Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomical plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces
Approximation properties ofλ-Bernstein operators.
Cai, Qing-Bo; Lian, Bo-Yong; Zhou, Guorong
2018-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new type λ -Bernstein operators with parameter [Formula: see text], we investigate a Korovkin type approximation theorem, establish a local approximation theorem, give a convergence theorem for the Lipschitz continuous functions, we also obtain a Voronovskaja-type asymptotic formula. Finally, we give some graphs and numerical examples to show the convergence of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], and we see that in some cases the errors are smaller than [Formula: see text] to f .
Rough Sets Approximations for Learning Outcomes
Encheva, Sylvia; Tumin, Sharil
Discovering dependencies between students' responses and their level of mastering of a particular skill is very important in the process of developing intelligent tutoring systems. This work is an approach to attain a higher level of certainty while following students' learning progress. Rough sets approximations are applied for assessing students understanding of a concept. Consecutive responses from each individual learner to automated tests are placed in corresponding rough sets approximations. The resulting path provides strong indication about the current level of learning outcomes.
Approximations for the Erlang Loss Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mejlbro, Leif
1998-01-01
Theoretically, at least three formulae are needed for arbitrarily good approximates of the Erlang Loss Function. In the paper, for convenience five formulae are presented guaranteeing a relative error <1E-2, and methods are indicated for improving this bound.......Theoretically, at least three formulae are needed for arbitrarily good approximates of the Erlang Loss Function. In the paper, for convenience five formulae are presented guaranteeing a relative error
The convergent close-coupling method for a Coulomb three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.
1994-09-01
The close-coupling method relies on the reformulation of the Schroedinger equation into an infinite set of coupled-channel equations by expanding over the complete set of target states. The difficulty in applying this approach is that the continuum channels are known to be very important in the intermediate-energy region and coupling to them must be included with little approximation. The application of the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) method is discussed which allows the continuum to be treated in a systematic manner via the use of square-integrable states. The CCC method utilizes an expansion of the target in a complete set of orthogonal L 2 functions which form a basis for the underlying Hilbert space. The utility of the method relies on being able to demonstrate convergence in the scattering amplitudes of interest as the basis size is increased. Numerical examples for the well known Temkin-Poet problem are used to illustrate the method. It is estimated the methods may be readily applied to full electron-atom scattering problem. 17 refs., 4 figs
Approximating centrality in evolving graphs: toward sublinearity
Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George
2017-05-01
The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.
Thermal recombination: Beyond the valence quark approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: fries@physics.umn.edu; Bass, S.A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
2005-07-07
Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree well with data on hadron production at intermediate transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss the implications for our understanding of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martins N.F.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.
Li, Y.
2012-01-01
The geometrical statistics of fluid deformation are analyzed theoretically within the framework of the restricted Euler approximation, and numerically using direct numerical simulations. The restricted Euler analysis predicts that asymptotically a material line element becomes an eigenvector of the velocity gradient regardless its initial orientation. The asymptotic stretching rate equals the intermediate eigenvalue of the strain rate tensor. Analyses of numerical data show that the pressure ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pato, M.P.; Hussein, M.S.
1989-06-01
The Uniform Semiclassical Approximation is modified to take into account absorption. Symbol calculus and pseudodifferential operators techniques are employed for the purpose. The resulting theory, very similar to the one developed by Frahn and Gross permits the decomposition of the near-side and far-side amplitudes into diffractive and refractive components. Application to several heavy-ion systems at intermediate energies is made. (author) [pt
CDW (continuum distorted wave) type approximation for electron capture at large angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fojon, O.A.; Maidagan, J.M.
1990-01-01
A calculation is made for the probability of electron capture in shell K at great angles using a second order symmetrical model used related to the continuum distorted wave (CDW) approximation. The influence of Coulomb distortion of nuclei is studied and compared with OBK and CIS type calculations. Numerical results are compared with experimental results of the collision of H + on C at intermediate energies. (Author). 19 refs., 2 figs
A S-matrix-like approximation in the charged particle scattering by the hydrogen atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignaco, J.A.; Tort, A.C.
1979-01-01
The Born approximation for charged particle scattering by the hydrogen atom is unfit at low energies. From a S-matrix-like consideration on the dominance of the neighbour singularities, the calculation of other contributions is suggested. The inclusion of bound states is made, following Eden's and his colaborators' ideas, which are described by their interest and likeness with procedures in the intermediate energy physics. (Author) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald
2012-05-01
This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.
On selection rules and inelastic electron scattering at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuroh, K.
1986-12-01
Correlation effects are included in the Bethe-Born theory for the generalized oscillator strength of inelastic scattering of electrons on atoms. The formulation is such as to allow for the calculation of relative line strengths of multiplets. It is used to analyze line strengths of the 4d → 4f transition in La 3+ and Ce 4+ within LS-coupling. The analysis indicates that only singlet states of the intermediate 4d 9 4f configuration are allowed. Calculated line strengths are compared with a recent core electron energy loss spectra of metallic La and tetravalent CeO 2 and there is an overall qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs
The Grammar of Approximating Number Pairs
Eriksson, Kimmo; Bailey, Drew H.; Geary, David C.
2009-01-01
We studied approximating pairs of numbers (a, b) used to estimate quantity in a single phrase (“two, three years ago”). Pollmann and Jansen (1996) found that only a few of the many possible pairs are actually used, suggesting an interaction between the ways in which people estimate quantity and their use of quantitative phrases in colloquial speech. They proposed a set of rules that describe which approximating pairs are used in Dutch phrases. We revisit this issue in an analysis of Swedish and American language corpora and in a series of three experiments in which Swedish and American adults rated the acceptability of various approximating pairs, and created approximating pairs of their own in response to various estimation tasks. We find evidence for Pollmann’s and Jansen’s rules in both Swedish and English phrases, but also identify additional rules and substantial individual and cross-language variation. We discuss implications for the origin of this loose “grammar” of approximating pairs. PMID:20234023
'LTE-diffusion approximation' for arc calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowke, J J; Tanaka, M
2006-01-01
This paper proposes the use of the 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for predicting the properties of electric arcs. Under this approximation, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, with a particular mesh size near the electrodes chosen to be equal to the 'diffusion length', based on D e /W, where D e is the electron diffusion coefficient and W is the electron drift velocity. This approximation overcomes the problem that the equilibrium electrical conductivity in the arc near the electrodes is almost zero, which makes accurate calculations using LTE impossible in the limit of small mesh size, as then voltages would tend towards infinity. Use of the LTE-diffusion approximation for a 200 A arc with a thermionic cathode gives predictions of total arc voltage, electrode temperatures, arc temperatures and radial profiles of heat flux density and current density at the anode that are in approximate agreement with more accurate calculations which include an account of the diffusion of electric charges to the electrodes, and also with experimental results. Calculations, which include diffusion of charges, agree with experimental results of current and heat flux density as a function of radius if the Milne boundary condition is used at the anode surface rather than imposing zero charge density at the anode
Approximate Bayesian evaluations of measurement uncertainty
Possolo, Antonio; Bodnar, Olha
2018-04-01
The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) includes formulas that produce an estimate of a scalar output quantity that is a function of several input quantities, and an approximate evaluation of the associated standard uncertainty. This contribution presents approximate, Bayesian counterparts of those formulas for the case where the output quantity is a parameter of the joint probability distribution of the input quantities, also taking into account any information about the value of the output quantity available prior to measurement expressed in the form of a probability distribution on the set of possible values for the measurand. The approximate Bayesian estimates and uncertainty evaluations that we present have a long history and illustrious pedigree, and provide sufficiently accurate approximations in many applications, yet are very easy to implement in practice. Differently from exact Bayesian estimates, which involve either (analytical or numerical) integrations, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, the approximations that we describe involve only numerical optimization and simple algebra. Therefore, they make Bayesian methods widely accessible to metrologists. We illustrate the application of the proposed techniques in several instances of measurement: isotopic ratio of silver in a commercial silver nitrate; odds of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients; height of a manometer column; mass fraction of chromium in a reference material; and potential-difference in a Zener voltage standard.
Semiclassical initial value approximation for Green's function.
Kay, Kenneth G
2010-06-28
A semiclassical initial value approximation is obtained for the energy-dependent Green's function. For a system with f degrees of freedom the Green's function expression has the form of a (2f-1)-dimensional integral over points on the energy surface and an integral over time along classical trajectories initiated from these points. This approximation is derived by requiring an integral ansatz for Green's function to reduce to Gutzwiller's semiclassical formula when the integrations are performed by the stationary phase method. A simpler approximation is also derived involving only an (f-1)-dimensional integral over momentum variables on a Poincare surface and an integral over time. The relationship between the present expressions and an earlier initial value approximation for energy eigenfunctions is explored. Numerical tests for two-dimensional systems indicate that good accuracy can be obtained from the initial value Green's function for calculations of autocorrelation spectra and time-independent wave functions. The relative advantages of initial value approximations for the energy-dependent Green's function and the time-dependent propagator are discussed.
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-10-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
The grammar of approximating number pairs.
Eriksson, Kimmo; Bailey, Drew H; Geary, David C
2010-04-01
In the present article, we studied approximating pairs of numbers (a, b) that were used to estimate quantity in a single phrase ("two, three years ago"). Pollmann and Jansen (1996) found that only a few of the many possible pairs are actually used, suggesting an interaction between the ways in which people estimate quantity and their use of quantitative phrases in colloquial speech. They proposed a set of rules that describe which approximating pairs are used in Dutch phrases. We revisited this issue in an analysis of Swedish and American language corpora and in a series of three experiments in which Swedish and American adults rated the acceptability of various approximating pairs and created approximating pairs of their own in response to various estimation tasks. We found evidence for Pollmann and Jansen's rules in both Swedish and English phrases, but we also identified additional rules and substantial individual and cross-language variation. We will discuss implications for the origin of this loose "grammar" of approximating pairs.
Multilevel weighted least squares polynomial approximation
Haji-Ali, Abdul-Lateef
2017-06-30
Weighted least squares polynomial approximation uses random samples to determine projections of functions onto spaces of polynomials. It has been shown that, using an optimal distribution of sample locations, the number of samples required to achieve quasi-optimal approximation in a given polynomial subspace scales, up to a logarithmic factor, linearly in the dimension of this space. However, in many applications, the computation of samples includes a numerical discretization error. Thus, obtaining polynomial approximations with a single level method can become prohibitively expensive, as it requires a sufficiently large number of samples, each computed with a sufficiently small discretization error. As a solution to this problem, we propose a multilevel method that utilizes samples computed with different accuracies and is able to match the accuracy of single-level approximations with reduced computational cost. We derive complexity bounds under certain assumptions about polynomial approximability and sample work. Furthermore, we propose an adaptive algorithm for situations where such assumptions cannot be verified a priori. Finally, we provide an efficient algorithm for the sampling from optimal distributions and an analysis of computationally favorable alternative distributions. Numerical experiments underscore the practical applicability of our method.
Dehydration-induced instabilities at intermediate depths in subduction zones
Brantut, Nicolas; Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean
2017-08-01
We formulate a model for coupled deformation and dehydration of antigorite, based on a porosity-dependent yield criterion and including shear-enhanced compaction. A pore pressure and compaction instability can develop when the net volume change associated with the reaction is negative, i.e., at intermediate depth in subduction zones. The instability criterion is derived in terms of the dependence of the yield criterion on porosity: if that dependence is strong, instabilities are more likely to occur. We also find that the instability is associated with strain localization, over characteristic length scales determined by the hydraulic diffusivity, the elasto-plastic parameters of the rock, and the reaction rate. Typical lower bounds for the localization length are of the order of 10 to 100 for antigorite dehydration and deformation at 3 GPa. The fluid pressure and deformation instability is expected to induce stress buildup in the surrounding rocks forming the subducted slab, which provides a mechanism for the nucleation and propagation of intermediate-depth earthquakes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.
2009-01-01
The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed
The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-03-03
The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.
Numerical approximation of partial differential equations
Bartels, Sören
2016-01-01
Finite element methods for approximating partial differential equations have reached a high degree of maturity, and are an indispensible tool in science and technology. This textbook aims at providing a thorough introduction to the construction, analysis, and implementation of finite element methods for model problems arising in continuum mechanics. The first part of the book discusses elementary properties of linear partial differential equations along with their basic numerical approximation, the functional-analytical framework for rigorously establishing existence of solutions, and the construction and analysis of basic finite element methods. The second part is devoted to the optimal adaptive approximation of singularities and the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations arising from finite element discretizations. In the third part, the mathematical framework for analyzing and discretizing saddle-point problems is formulated, corresponding finte element methods are analyzed, and particular ...
Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.
Piecewise-Cubic Approximation in Autotracking Mode
Dikoussar, N D
2004-01-01
A method for piecewise-cubic approximation within the frame of four-point transforms is proposed. The knots of the segments are detected in autotracking mode using a digitized curve. A three-point cubic parametric spline (TPS) is used as a model of a local approximant. A free parameter $\\theta$ (a coefficient at $x^{3}$) is found in a line following mode, using step-by-step averaging. A formula for expression of the free parameter via a length of the segment and values of a function and derivatives in joining points is received. The $C^{1}$-smoothness depends on the accuracy of the $\\theta$-estimate. The stability of the method w.r.t. input errors is shown as well. The key parameters of the approximation are: the parameters of the basic functions, the variance of the input errors, and a sampling step. The efficiency of the method is shown by numerical calculations on test examples.
On transparent potentials: a Born approximation study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coudray, C.
1980-01-01
In the frame of the scattering inverse problem at fixed energy, a class of potentials transparent in Born approximation is obtained. All these potentials are spherically symmetric and are oscillating functions of the reduced radial variable. Amongst them, the Born approximation of the transparent potential of the Newton-Sabatier method is found. In the same class, quasi-transparent potentials are exhibited. Very general features of potentials transparent in Born approximation are then stated. And bounds are given for the exact scattering amplitudes corresponding to most of the potentials previously exhibited. These bounds, obtained at fixed energy, and for large values of the angular momentum, are found to be independent on the energy
The binary collision approximation: Background and introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, M.T.
1992-08-01
The binary collision approximation (BCA) has long been used in computer simulations of the interactions of energetic atoms with solid targets, as well as being the basis of most analytical theory in this area. While mainly a high-energy approximation, the BCA retains qualitative significance at low energies and, with proper formulation, gives useful quantitative information as well. Moreover, computer simulations based on the BCA can achieve good statistics in many situations where those based on full classical dynamical models require the most advanced computer hardware or are even impracticable. The foundations of the BCA in classical scattering are reviewed, including methods of evaluating the scattering integrals, interaction potentials, and electron excitation effects. The explicit evaluation of time at significant points on particle trajectories is discussed, as are scheduling algorithms for ordering the collisions in a developing cascade. An approximate treatment of nearly simultaneous collisions is outlined and the searching algorithms used in MARLOWE are presented
Minimal entropy approximation for cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukś, Henryk
2014-01-01
We present a method for the construction of approximate orbits of measures under the action of cellular automata which is complementary to the local structure theory. The local structure theory is based on the idea of Bayesian extension, that is, construction of a probability measure consistent with given block probabilities and maximizing entropy. If instead of maximizing entropy one minimizes it, one can develop another method for the construction of approximate orbits, at the heart of which is the iteration of finite-dimensional maps, called minimal entropy maps. We present numerical evidence that the minimal entropy approximation sometimes outperforms the local structure theory in characterizing the properties of cellular automata. The density response curve for elementary CA rule 26 is used to illustrate this claim. (paper)
Plazy, M; Orne-Gliemann, J; Balestre, E; Miric, M; Darak, S; Butsashvili, M; Tchendjou, P; Dabis, F; Desgrées du Loû, A
2013-08-01
The Prenahtest study investigated the efficacy of a couple-oriented HIV counselling session (COC) in encouraging couple HIV counselling and testing, and improving intra-couple communication about sexual and reproductive health. We report here on the effect of COC on intra-couple communication about HIV. Within this 4-country trial (India, Georgia, Dominican Republic and Cameroon), 484 to 491 pregnant women per site were recruited and individually randomized to receive either the COC intervention, enhanced counselling with role playing, or standard post-test HIV counselling. Women were interviewed at recruitment, before HIV testing (T0), and 2 to 8 weeks after post-test HIV counselling (T1). Four dichotomous variables documented intra-couple communication about HIV at T1: 1) discussion about HIV, 2) discussion about condom use, 3) suggesting HIV testing and 4) suggesting couple HIV counselling to the partner. An intra-couple HIV communication index was created: low degree of communication ("yes" response to zero or one of the four variables), intermediate degree of communication ("yes" to two or three variables) or high degree of communication ("yes" to the four variables). To estimate the impact of COC on the intra-couple HIV communication index, multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. One thousand six hundred and seven women were included in the analysis of whom 54 (3.4%) were HIV-infected (49 in Cameroon). In the four countries, the counselling group was associated with intra-couple HIV communication (P≤0.03): women allocated to the COC group were significantly more likely to report high or intermediate degrees of intra-couple communication about HIV (versus low degree of communication) than women allocated to standard counselling. COC improved short-term communication about HIV within couples in different sociocultural contexts, a positive finding for a couple approach to HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
APPROXIMATE INTEGRATION OF HIGHLY OSCILLATING FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. N. Melashko
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Elementary approximate formulae for numerical integration of functions containing oscillating factors of a special form with a parameter have been proposed in the paper. In this case general quadrature formulae can be used only at sufficiently small values of the parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to consider in advance presence of strongly oscillating factors in order to obtain formulae for numerical integration which are suitable in the case when the parameter is changing within wide limits. This can be done by taking into account such factors as weighting functions. Moreover, since the parameter can take values which cannot always be predicted in advance, approximate formulae for calculation of such integrals should be constructed in such a way that they contain this parameter in a letter format and they are suitable for calculation at any and particularly large values of the parameter. Computational rules with such properties are generally obtained by dividing an interval of integration into elementary while making successive approximation of the integral density at each elementary interval with polynomials of the first, second and third degrees and taking the oscillating factors as weighting functions. The paper considers the variant when density of the integrals at each elementary interval is approximated by a polynomial of zero degree that is a constant which is equal to the value of density in the middle of the interval. At the same time one approximate formula for calculation of an improper integral with infinite interval of the function with oscillating factor of a special type has been constructed in the paper. In this case it has been assumed that density of the improper integral rather quickly goes to zero when an argument module is increasing indefinitely. In other words it is considered as small to negligible outside some finite interval. Uniforms in parameter used for evaluation of errors in approximate formulae have been
Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators
Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.
2004-01-01
We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.
Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.
1981-05-01
This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.
Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.
1981-05-01
This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities
Stopping Rules for Linear Stochastic Approximation
Wada, Takayuki; Itani, Takamitsu; Fujisaki, Yasumasa
Stopping rules are developed for stochastic approximation which is an iterative method for solving an unknown equation based on its consecutive residuals corrupted by additive random noise. It is assumed that the equation is linear and the noise is independent and identically distributed random vectors with zero mean and a bounded covariance. Then, the number of iterations for achieving a given probabilistic accuracy of the resultant solution is derived, which gives a rigorous stopping rule for the stochastic approximation. This number is polynomial of the problem size.
Computational topology for approximations of knots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Li
2014-10-01
• a sum of total curvature and derivative. High degree Bézier curves are often used as smooth representations, where computational efficiency is a practical concern. Subdivision can produce PL approximations for a given B\\'ezier curve, fulfilling the above two conditions. The primary contributions are: (i a priori bounds on the number of subdivision iterations sufficient to achieve a PL approximation that is ambient isotopic to the original B\\'ezier curve, and (ii improved iteration bounds over those previously established.
On the dipole approximation with error estimates
Boßmann, Lea; Grummt, Robert; Kolb, Martin
2018-01-01
The dipole approximation is employed to describe interactions between atoms and radiation. It essentially consists of neglecting the spatial variation of the external field over the atom. Heuristically, this is justified by arguing that the wavelength is considerably larger than the atomic length scale, which holds under usual experimental conditions. We prove the dipole approximation in the limit of infinite wavelengths compared to the atomic length scale and estimate the rate of convergence. Our results include N-body Coulomb potentials and experimentally relevant electromagnetic fields such as plane waves and laser pulses.
Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarzyna Paluch
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.
An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.
2004-01-01
Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...
APPROXIMATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN QUEUEING MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. I. Aliev
2013-03-01
Full Text Available For probability distributions with variation coefficient, not equal to unity, mathematical dependences for approximating distributions on the basis of first two moments are derived by making use of multi exponential distributions. It is proposed to approximate distributions with coefficient of variation less than unity by using hypoexponential distribution, which makes it possible to generate random variables with coefficient of variation, taking any value in a range (0; 1, as opposed to Erlang distribution, having only discrete values of coefficient of variation.
Approximate Controllability of Fractional Integrodifferential Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Ganesh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of approximate controllability for a class of control system which is represented by nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions. By using semigroup theory, p-mean continuity and fractional calculations, a set of sufficient conditions, are formulated and proved for the nonlinear fractional control systems. More precisely, the results are established under the assumption that the corresponding linear system is approximately controllable and functions satisfy non-Lipschitz conditions. The results generalize and improve some known results.
Approximated Fractional Order Chebyshev Lowpass Filters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd Freeborn
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose the use of nonlinear least squares optimization to approximate the passband ripple characteristics of traditional Chebyshev lowpass filters with fractional order steps in the stopband. MATLAB simulations of (1+α, (2+α, and (3+α order lowpass filters with fractional steps from α = 0.1 to α = 0.9 are given as examples. SPICE simulations of 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 order lowpass filters using approximated fractional order capacitors in a Tow-Thomas biquad circuit validate the implementation of these filter circuits.
Approximate Inference and Deep Generative Models
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
Advances in deep generative models are at the forefront of deep learning research because of the promise they offer for allowing data-efficient learning, and for model-based reinforcement learning. In this talk I'll review a few standard methods for approximate inference and introduce modern approximations which allow for efficient large-scale training of a wide variety of generative models. Finally, I'll demonstrate several important application of these models to density estimation, missing data imputation, data compression and planning.
Approximation result toward nearest neighbor heuristic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monnot Jér"me
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we revisit the famous heuristic called nearest neighbor (N N for the traveling salesman problem under maximization and minimization goal. We deal with variants where the edge costs belong to interval Ša;taĆ for a>0 and t>1, which certainly corresponds to practical cases of these problems. We prove that NN is a (t+1/2t-approximation for maxTSPŠa;taĆ and a 2/(t+1-approximation for minTSPŠa;taĆ under the standard performance ratio. Moreover, we show that these ratios are tight for some instances.
Belkić, Dževad
1999-06-01
Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/ dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H ++H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pad
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belkic, Dzevad
1999-01-01
Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H + +H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pade
Low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Mexico
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paredes, L.C.; Ortiz, J.R.; Sanchez, S.
2002-01-01
Currently, it is necessary to establish, in a few years, a definitive repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in order to satisfy the necessities of Mexico for the next 50 years. Consequently, it is required to estimate the volumes of the radioactive waste generated annually, the stored volumes to-date and their projection to medium-term. On this subject, the annual average production of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the electricity production by means of nuclear power reactors is 250 m 3 /y which consist of humid and dry solid waste from the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant having a re-use efficiency of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, the applications in medicine, industry and research generate 20 m 3 /y of solid waste, 280 m 3 /y of liquid waste and approximately 10 m 3 /y from 300 spent sealed radioactive sources. The estimation of the total volume of these waste to the year 2035 is 17500 m 3 corresponding to the 46% of the volume generated by the operation and maintenance of the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, 34% to the decommissioning of these 2 units at the end of their useful life and 20% to the waste generated by applications in medicine, industry and research. (author)
Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D
2003-11-01
An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)
Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Husam Aldamen
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.
Markov chain Monte Carlo with the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation
Gómez-Rubio, Virgilio
2017-10-06
The Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) has established itself as a widely used method for approximate inference on Bayesian hierarchical models which can be represented as a latent Gaussian model (LGM). INLA is based on producing an accurate approximation to the posterior marginal distributions of the parameters in the model and some other quantities of interest by using repeated approximations to intermediate distributions and integrals that appear in the computation of the posterior marginals. INLA focuses on models whose latent effects are a Gaussian Markov random field. For this reason, we have explored alternative ways of expanding the number of possible models that can be fitted using the INLA methodology. In this paper, we present a novel approach that combines INLA and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The aim is to consider a wider range of models that can be fitted with INLA only when some of the parameters of the model have been fixed. We show how new values of these parameters can be drawn from their posterior by using conditional models fitted with INLA and standard MCMC algorithms, such as Metropolis–Hastings. Hence, this will extend the use of INLA to fit models that can be expressed as a conditional LGM. Also, this new approach can be used to build simpler MCMC samplers for complex models as it allows sampling only on a limited number of parameters in the model. We will demonstrate how our approach can extend the class of models that could benefit from INLA, and how the R-INLA package will ease its implementation. We will go through simple examples of this new approach before we discuss more advanced applications with datasets taken from the relevant literature. In particular, INLA within MCMC will be used to fit models with Laplace priors in a Bayesian Lasso model, imputation of missing covariates in linear models, fitting spatial econometrics models with complex nonlinear terms in the linear predictor and classification of data with
Radiation forces in the discrete dipole approximation
Hoekstra, A.G.; Frijlink, M.O.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.
2001-01-01
The theory of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for light scattering is extended to allow for the calculation of radiation forces on each dipole in the DDA model. Starting with the theory of Draine and Weingartner [Astrophys. J. 470, 551 (1996)] we derive an expression for the radiation force
Perturbation of operators and approximation of spectrum
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The pure linear algebraic approach is the main advantage of the results here. Keywords. Operator .... The paper is organized as follows. In §2, the approximation results are extended to the case of a one-parameter norm continuous family of operators. In §3, the spectral gap prediction results are proved with some examples.
Isotopic Approximation of Implicit Curves and Surfaces
Plantinga, Simon; Vegter, Gert
2004-01-01
Implicit surfaces are defined as the zero set of a function F: R3 → R. Although several algorithms exist for generating piecewise linear approximations, most of them are based on a user-defined stepsize or bounds to indicate the precision, and therefore cannot guarantee topological correctness.
A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan
1980-01-01
A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function w...
An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.
2004-01-01
Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...
Approximate solutions to variational inequalities and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Beatrice Lignola
1994-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate two concepts of approximate solutions to parametric variational inequalities in topological vector spaces for which the corresponding solution map is closed graph and/or lower semicontinuous and to apply the results to the stability of optimization problems with variational inequality constrains.
Nanostructures: Scattering beyond the Born approximation
Grigoriev, S.V.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Chumakov, A. P.; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Napolskii, K.S.; Roslyakov, I. V.; Eliseev, A.A.; Petukhov, A.V.; Eckerlebe, H.
2010-01-01
The neutron scattering on a two-dimensional ordered nanostructure with the third nonperiodic dimension can go beyond the Born approximation. In our model supported by the exact theoretical solution a well-correlated hexagonal porous structure of anodic aluminum oxide films acts as a peculiar
Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.
2008-12-01
We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)
Approximability and Parameterized Complexity of Minmax Values
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2008-01-01
We consider approximating the minmax value of a multi player game in strategic form. Tightening recent bounds by Borgs et al., we observe that approximating the value with a precision of ε log n digits (for any constant ε > 0) is NP-hard, where n is the size of the game. On the other hand......, approximating the value with a precision of c log log n digits (for any constant c ≥ 1) can be done in quasi-polynomial time. We consider the parameterized complexity of the problem, with the parameter being the number of pure strategies k of the player for which the minmax value is computed. We show...... that if there are three players, k = 2 and there are only two possible rational payoffs, the minmax value is a rational number and can be computed exactly in linear time. In the general case, we show that the value can be approximated wigh any polynomial number of digits of accuracy in time n^O(k) . On the other hand, we...
An Approximate Bayesian Fundamental Frequency Estimator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2012-01-01
Joint fundamental frequency and model order estimation is an important problem in several applications such as speech and music processing. In this paper, we develop an approximate estimation algorithm of these quantities using Bayesian inference. The inference about the fundamental frequency...
Pade approximant calculations for neutron escape probability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Wakil, S.A.; Saad, E.A.; Hendi, A.A.
1984-07-01
The neutron escape probability from a non-multiplying slab containing internal source is defined in terms of a functional relation for the scattering function for the diffuse reflection problem. The Pade approximant technique is used to get numerical results which compare with exact results. (author)
Uniform semiclassical approximation for absorptive scattering systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.
1987-07-01
The uniform semiclassical approximation of the elastic scattering amplitude is generalized to absorptive systems. An integral equation is derived which connects the absorption modified amplitude to the absorption free one. Division of the amplitude into a diffractive and refractive components is then made possible. (Author) [pt
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-11-30
We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
2006-01-01
In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block...
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...
Generalized Lower and Upper Approximations in Quantales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qimei Xiao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the concepts of set-valued homomorphism and strong set-valued homomorphism of a quantale which are the extended notions of congruence and complete congruence, respectively. The properties of generalized lower and upper approximations, constructed by a set-valued mapping, are discussed.
Uncertainty relations for approximation and estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jaeha, E-mail: jlee@post.kek.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsutsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.tsutsui@kek.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Theory Center, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)
2016-05-27
We present a versatile inequality of uncertainty relations which are useful when one approximates an observable and/or estimates a physical parameter based on the measurement of another observable. It is shown that the optimal choice for proxy functions used for the approximation is given by Aharonov's weak value, which also determines the classical Fisher information in parameter estimation, turning our inequality into the genuine Cramér–Rao inequality. Since the standard form of the uncertainty relation arises as a special case of our inequality, and since the parameter estimation is available as well, our inequality can treat both the position–momentum and the time–energy relations in one framework albeit handled differently. - Highlights: • Several inequalities interpreted as uncertainty relations for approximation/estimation are derived from a single ‘versatile inequality’. • The ‘versatile inequality’ sets a limit on the approximation of an observable and/or the estimation of a parameter by another observable. • The ‘versatile inequality’ turns into an elaboration of the Robertson–Kennard (Schrödinger) inequality and the Cramér–Rao inequality. • Both the position–momentum and the time–energy relation are treated in one framework. • In every case, Aharonov's weak value arises as a key geometrical ingredient, deciding the optimal choice for the proxy functions.
An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory
Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.
1992-05-01
We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibration-rotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.
Markov operators, positive semigroups and approximation processes
Altomare, Francesco; Leonessa, Vita; Rasa, Ioan
2015-01-01
In recent years several investigations have been devoted to the study of large classes of (mainly degenerate) initial-boundary value evolution problems in connection with the possibility to obtain a constructive approximation of the associated positive C_0-semigroups. In this research monograph we present the main lines of a theory which finds its root in the above-mentioned research field.
Orthorhombic rational approximants for decagonal quasicrystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
An important exercise in the study of rational approximants is to derive their metric, especially in relation to the corresponding quasicrystal or the underlying clusters. Kuo's model has ..... the smaller diagonal of the fat rhombus in the Penrose tiling. This length scale is obtained by a section along a1 in the Penrose tiling and ...
Uncertainty relations for approximation and estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jaeha; Tsutsui, Izumi
2016-01-01
We present a versatile inequality of uncertainty relations which are useful when one approximates an observable and/or estimates a physical parameter based on the measurement of another observable. It is shown that the optimal choice for proxy functions used for the approximation is given by Aharonov's weak value, which also determines the classical Fisher information in parameter estimation, turning our inequality into the genuine Cramér–Rao inequality. Since the standard form of the uncertainty relation arises as a special case of our inequality, and since the parameter estimation is available as well, our inequality can treat both the position–momentum and the time–energy relations in one framework albeit handled differently. - Highlights: • Several inequalities interpreted as uncertainty relations for approximation/estimation are derived from a single ‘versatile inequality’. • The ‘versatile inequality’ sets a limit on the approximation of an observable and/or the estimation of a parameter by another observable. • The ‘versatile inequality’ turns into an elaboration of the Robertson–Kennard (Schrödinger) inequality and the Cramér–Rao inequality. • Both the position–momentum and the time–energy relation are treated in one framework. • In every case, Aharonov's weak value arises as a key geometrical ingredient, deciding the optimal choice for the proxy functions.
Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
groups have invariant translation approximation property (ITAP, see Definition 2.2). He also pointed out that there was no serious difficulty in extending the main theorem to fine hyperbolic graphs, but he did not outline the proof. So in this paper, we first give a proof for this extension, see Theorem 1.1 below. Then we define ...
Approximate Dynamic Programming by Practical Examples
Mes, Martijn R.K.; Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Boucherie, Richard; van Dijk, Nico M.
2017-01-01
Computing the exact solution of an MDP model is generally difficult and possibly intractable for realistically sized problem instances. A powerful technique to solve the large scale discrete time multistage stochastic control processes is Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP). Although ADP is used
Approximation Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis
Feldman, A.B.
2010-01-01
Model-based diagnosis is an area of abductive inference that uses a system model, together with observations about system behavior, to isolate sets of faulty components (diagnoses) that explain the observed behavior, according to some minimality criterion. This thesis presents greedy approximation
Quasilinear theory without the random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weibel, E.S.; Vaclavik, J.
1980-08-01
The system of quasilinear equations is derived without making use of the random phase approximation. The fluctuating quantities are described by the autocorrelation function of the electric field using the techniques of Fourier analysis. The resulting equations posses the necessary conservation properties, but comprise new terms which hitherto have been lost in the conventional derivations
Statistical model semiquantitatively approximates arabinoxylooligosaccharides' structural diversity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dotsenko, Gleb; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Lange, Lene
2016-01-01
(wheat flour arabinoxylan (arabinose/xylose, A/X = 0.47); grass arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.24); wheat straw arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.15); and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.05)), is semiquantitatively approximated using the proposed model. The suggested approach can be applied...
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...
Multi-Interpretation Operators and Approximate Classification
Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.
2003-01-01
In this paper non-classical logical techniques are introduced to formalize the analysis of multi-interpretable observation information, in particular in approximate classification processes where information on attributes of an object is to be inferred on the basis of observable properties of the
Approximate Furthest Neighbor in High Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco; Sivertsen, Johan von Tangen
2015-01-01
-dimensional Euclidean space. We build on the technique of Indyk (SODA 2003), storing random projections to provide sublinear query time for AFN. However, we introduce a different query algorithm, improving on Indyk’s approximation factor and reducing the running time by a logarithmic factor. We also present a variation...
Padé approximations and diophantine geometry.
Chudnovsky, D V; Chudnovsky, G V
1985-04-01
Using methods of Padé approximations we prove a converse to Eisenstein's theorem on the boundedness of denominators of coefficients in the expansion of an algebraic function, for classes of functions, parametrized by meromorphic functions. This result is applied to the Tate conjecture on the effective description of isogenies for elliptic curves.
Stability of approximate factorization with $ heta $-methods
W. Hundsdorfer (Willem)
1997-01-01
textabstractApproximate factorization seems for certain problems a viable alternative to time splitting. Since a splitting error is avoided, accuracy will in general be favourable compared to time splitting methods. However, it is not clear to what extent stability is affected by factorization.
Decision-theoretic troubleshooting: Hardness of approximation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lín, Václav
2014-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2014), s. 977-988 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Decision-theoretic troubleshooting * Hardness of approximation * NP-completeness Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014
Comparison of Two Approaches to Approximated Reasoning
van den Broek, P.M.; Wagenknecht, Michael; Hampel, Rainer
A comparison is made of two approaches to approximate reasoning: Mamdani's interpolation method and the implication method. Both approaches are variants of Zadeh's compositional rule of inference. It is shown that the approaches are not equivalent. A correspondence between the approaches is
Lognormal Approximations of Fault Tree Uncertainty Distributions.
El-Shanawany, Ashraf Ben; Ardron, Keith H; Walker, Simon P
2018-01-26
Fault trees are used in reliability modeling to create logical models of fault combinations that can lead to undesirable events. The output of a fault tree analysis (the top event probability) is expressed in terms of the failure probabilities of basic events that are input to the model. Typically, the basic event probabilities are not known exactly, but are modeled as probability distributions: therefore, the top event probability is also represented as an uncertainty distribution. Monte Carlo methods are generally used for evaluating the uncertainty distribution, but such calculations are computationally intensive and do not readily reveal the dominant contributors to the uncertainty. In this article, a closed-form approximation for the fault tree top event uncertainty distribution is developed, which is applicable when the uncertainties in the basic events of the model are lognormally distributed. The results of the approximate method are compared with results from two sampling-based methods: namely, the Monte Carlo method and the Wilks method based on order statistics. It is shown that the closed-form expression can provide a reasonable approximation to results obtained by Monte Carlo sampling, without incurring the computational expense. The Wilks method is found to be a useful means of providing an upper bound for the percentiles of the uncertainty distribution while being computationally inexpensive compared with full Monte Carlo sampling. The lognormal approximation method and Wilks's method appear attractive, practical alternatives for the evaluation of uncertainty in the output of fault trees and similar multilinear models. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
Ruttink, P.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073437220; van Lenthe, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068417942; Todorov, P.D.
2005-01-01
An extension of the CEPA1 method to the multi-reference case is presented, the MR-CEPA1 approach. The method takes the variationally included terms into account as in MRDCEPA and corrects for the exclusion principle violating terms as in closed shell CEPA1. It is shown that this method yields
Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT
2009-01-01
The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.
Fostering teamwork in an intermediate care unit.
Spence, Heather; Cappleman, Julia
2011-06-01
The government has emphasised that, to deliver high quality, integrated care, staff must work across organisational boundaries using a team approach so that everyone works towards the same goals. This article describes how one NHS-managed intermediate care unit has integrated care staff employed by the independent sector.
Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation
Kempf, Elisabeth
2016-01-01
This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of
34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.
2010-07-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic.... Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period covered by the timeline under § 200.15 as follows: (a) The first incremental increase must take effect not...
Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks
T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)
2005-01-01
htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of
Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda
2017-01-01
Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical condition...
Financial intermediation with credit constrained agents
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Boháček, Radim
2007-01-01
Roč. 29, č. 4 (2007), s. 741-759 ISSN 0164-0704 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial intermediation * occupational choice * general equilibrium Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2007
What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?
de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.
2013-01-01
A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…
Interaction between Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Biological control of snail intermediate host of human schistosome parasites has been suggested. In this study, the effect of Indoplanobis exustus a planorbid snail and possible competitor snail of Biomphalaria pfeifferi on the fecundity and growth rate of the later was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in ...
Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations
1988-05-01
Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to
Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance
Dapp, G.S.
2013-01-01
This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that
Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence
Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.
2009-01-01
There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…
Unraveling Intermediate Filaments : The super resolution solution
Nahidiazar, L.
2017-01-01
Intermediate Filaments (IFs) carry out major functions in cells. Several diseases have been associated with malfunctioning IFs in the cells and among them are certain sub types of cancer. To determine the structure and organization of IFs, we have used Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM)
Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca
2012-01-01
transition pathway determined using the string method. The experimental results and computational analysis suggest that the phenotype of I241W may originate in the formation of a hydrogen bond between the indole nitrogen atom and the backbone carbonyl of R2. This work provides new information on intermediate...... states in voltage-gated ion channels with an approach that produces minimum chemical perturbation....
Intuitionistic Rules : Admissible Rules of Intermediate Logics
Goudsmit, J.P.
2015-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate the admissible rules of intermediate logics. On the one hand, one can characterize the admissibility of rules in certain logic, and on the other hand, one can characterize logics through their admissible rules. We take both approaches, and reach new results in both
Intermediate Systems Analyst | IDRC - International Development ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
The intermediate Systems Analyst will bring to the System Development Group the necessary skills to understand in depth the architecture of Oracle to allow better design and implementation of new and enhanced information systems and applications. The incumbent will take full responsibility for the ITM division's ...
Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate
Hambling, Brian
2009-01-01
Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.
Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin
2017-01-01
Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadjadi, H.M. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-03-15
We study the parameterized post-Newtonian approximation in teleparallel model of gravity with a scalar field. The scalar field is non-minimally coupled to the scalar torsion as well as to the boundary term introduced in Bahamonde and Wright (Phys Rev D 92:084034 arXiv:1508.06580v4 [gr-qc], 2015). We show that, in contrast to the case where the scalar field is only coupled to the scalar torsion, the presence of the new coupling affects the parameterized post-Newtonian parameters. These parameters for different situations are obtained and discussed. (orig.)
LIPSS results for photons coupling to light neutral scalar bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrei Afanasev; Oliver K. Baker; Kevin Beard; George Biallas; James Boyce; Minarni Minarni; Roopchan Ramdon; Michelle D. Shinn; Penny Slocum
2008-06-01
The LIPSS search for a light neutral scalar boson coupling to optical photons is reported. The search covers a region of parameter space of approximately 1.0 meV and coupling strength greater than 10^-6 GeV^-1. The LIPSS results show no evidence for scalar coupling in this region of parameter space.
Multiplicity correlations of intermediate-mass fragments with pions and fast protons in 12C + 197AU
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turzo, K.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Auger, G.
2003-12-01
Low-energy π + (E π 12 C+ 197 Au collisions at incident energies from 300 to 1800 MeV per nucleon were detected with the Si-Si(Li)-CsI(Tl) calibration telescopes of the INDRA multidetector. The inclusive angular distributions are approximately isotropic, consistent with multiple rescattering in the target spectator. The multiplicity correlations of the low-energy pions and of energetic protons (E p >or ≤ 150 MeV) with intermediate-mass fragments were determined from the measured coincidence data. The deduced correlation functions 1 + R ∼ 1.3 for inclusive event samples reflect the strong correlations evident from the common impact-parameter dependence of the considered multiplicities. For narrow impact-parameter bins (based on charged-particle multiplicity), the correlation functions are close to unity and do not indicate strong additional correlations. Only for pions at high particle multiplicities (central collisions) a weak anticorrelation is observed, probably due to a limited competition between these emissions. Overall, the results are consistent with the equilibrium assumption made in statistical multifragmentation scenarios. Predictions obtained with intranuclear cascade models coupled to the statistical multifragmentation model are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)
Approximate Riemann solver for the two-fluid plasma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shumlak, U.; Loverich, J.
2003-01-01
An algorithm is presented for the simulation of plasma dynamics using the two-fluid plasma model. The two-fluid plasma model is more general than the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model often used for plasma dynamic simulations. The two-fluid equations are derived in divergence form and an approximate Riemann solver is developed to compute the fluxes of the electron and ion fluids at the computational cell interfaces and an upwind characteristic-based solver to compute the electromagnetic fields. The source terms that couple the fluids and fields are treated implicitly to relax the stiffness. The algorithm is validated with the coplanar Riemann problem, Langmuir plasma oscillations, and the electromagnetic shock problem that has been simulated with the MHD plasma model. A numerical dispersion relation is also presented that demonstrates agreement with analytical plasma waves
Transient regime of degenerate electrons via relaxation time approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giusti, D.; Molinari, V.G.
1993-01-01
To describe electron transport in metals and in liquid metals, or in ICF plasmas one must solve the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation taking into account quantum effects. In fact in these physical situations the plasma is strongly coupled and then electrons must be regarded as a degenerate gas. In this paper the relaxation time approximation is used to solve the time independent and the time-dependent Boltzmann-Vlasov equation for an electron gas whose degree of degeneration is complete or weak. The stationary and time-dependent electron distribution function are obtained together with density current and electrical conductivity. The relaxation time τ(E)is considered as being function of the energy. Different kind of functions are considered. It is shown the strong influence of different τ(E) on the distribution function and on the density current. Deviations from Ohm's law at high current densities are analyzed
Approximate solution to the bidomain equations for defibrillation problems
Patel, Salil G.; Roth, Bradley J.
2005-02-01
The bidomain model can be used for calculating the electrical potential in the heart during defibrillation. However, this model consists of a coupled system of two partial differential equations that are, in general, difficult and time consuming to solve. In this paper, we present an approximate, iterative method of solving the bidomain equations. After working out the general method, we apply it to four problems: (i) a cylindrical strand in a uniform electric field, (ii) a nonuniform electric field applied to tissue with straight fibers, (iii) a spherical heart in a uniform electric field, and (iv) a two-dimensional sheet of cardiac tissue with curving fibers. Finally, we analyze the general case of three dimensions.
Oxidase catalysis via aerobically generated hypervalent iodine intermediates
Maity, Asim; Hyun, Sung-Min; Powers, David C.
2018-02-01
The development of sustainable oxidation chemistry demands strategies to harness O2 as a terminal oxidant. Oxidase catalysis, in which O2 serves as a chemical oxidant without necessitating incorporation of oxygen into reaction products, would allow diverse substrate functionalization chemistry to be coupled to O2 reduction. Direct O2 utilization suffers from intrinsic challenges imposed by the triplet ground state of O2 and the disparate electron inventories of four-electron O2 reduction and two-electron substrate oxidation. Here, we generate hypervalent iodine reagents—a broadly useful class of selective two-electron oxidants—from O2. This is achieved by intercepting reactive intermediates of aldehyde autoxidation to aerobically generate hypervalent iodine reagents for a broad array of substrate oxidation reactions. The use of aryl iodides as mediators of aerobic oxidation underpins an oxidase catalysis platform that couples substrate oxidation directly to O2 reduction. We anticipate that aerobically generated hypervalent iodine reagents will expand the scope of aerobic oxidation chemistry in chemical synthesis.
Very large intermediate breaking scale in the Gepner/Schimmrigk three generation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jizhi; Arnowitt, Richard
1994-01-01
A detailed study of the intermediate symmetry breaking scale, via the renormalization group equations, for a three generation heterotic string model arising from the N=2 superconformal construction is reported. The numerical study shows that the model admits a very large intermediate breaking scale > or ∼1.0x10 16 GeV. The role of the gauge singlets in this model is studied, and it is found that these fields play a crucial role in determining the directions and the scale of the intermediate symmetry breaking. The importance of the mixing in generation space is also studied. The generation mixing terms are found to have special effects in the intermediate symmetry breaking. Remarkably these terms can produce some new Yukawa couplings (not present at the Planck scale) through loops. These couplings are in general very small compared to the ones with non-vanishing tree level values and thus offer a new mechanism to solve the lepton/quark mass hierarchy problem. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Shuwu; Yao, Yunhua; Jia, Tianqing; Ding, Jingxin; Zhang, Shian; Sun, Zhenrong; Huang, Yunxia
2015-01-01
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the control of the intermediate state absorption in an (n + m) resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process by the polarization-modulated femtosecond laser pulse. An analytical solution of the intermediate state absorption in a resonance-mediated multi-photon absorption process is obtained based on the time-dependent perturbation theory. Our theoretical results show that the control efficiency of the intermediate state absorption by the polarization modulation is independent of the laser intensity when the transition from the intermediate state to the final state is coupled by the single-photon absorption, but will be affected by the laser intensity when this transition is coupled by the non-resonant multi-photon absorption. These theoretical results are experimentally confirmed via a two-photon fluorescence control in (2 + 1) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of Coumarin 480 dye and a single-photon fluorescence control in (1 + 2) resonance-mediated three-photon absorption of IR 125 dye. (paper)
A coupled-stability index for ENSO
Jin, Fei-Fei; Kim, Seon Tae; Bejarano, Luis
2006-12-01
Based on the simple framework of the recharge oscillator for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), this paper describes the formulation of a coupled stability index for the large-scale tropical ocean-atmosphere interactions in the equatorial Pacific region. This index, referred to as the Bjerknes (BJ) stability index, takes its negative contributions from the mean upwelling and thermal damping and its positive contributions from the thermocline, the zonal advection, and the Ekman feedbacks. The validity of the BJ stability index formula is tested through a detailed eigen-analysis of an intermediate-coupled model, which shows that the BJ stability index captures the dependence of growth rate of the leading coupled ENSO-like mode on various climate conditions. The general formula of the BJ stability index may be useful for assessing the coupled stability of ENSO and its sensitivity to changes in tropical climate conditions.
Analytical Ballistic Trajectories with Approximately Linear Drag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giliam J. P. de Carpentier
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a practical analytical approximation of projectile trajectories in 2D and 3D roughly based on a linear drag model and explores a variety of different planning algorithms for these trajectories. Although the trajectories are only approximate, they still capture many of the characteristics of a real projectile in free fall under the influence of an invariant wind, gravitational pull, and terminal velocity, while the required math for these trajectories and planners is still simple enough to efficiently run on almost all modern hardware devices. Together, these properties make the proposed approach particularly useful for real-time applications where accuracy and performance need to be carefully balanced, such as in computer games.
Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko
2014-01-01
Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region
Nonlinear analysis approximation theory, optimization and applications
2014-01-01
Many of our daily-life problems can be written in the form of an optimization problem. Therefore, solution methods are needed to solve such problems. Due to the complexity of the problems, it is not always easy to find the exact solution. However, approximate solutions can be found. The theory of the best approximation is applicable in a variety of problems arising in nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. This book highlights interesting aspects of nonlinear analysis and optimization together with many applications in the areas of physical and social sciences including engineering. It is immensely helpful for young graduates and researchers who are pursuing research in this field, as it provides abundant research resources for researchers and post-doctoral fellows. This will be a valuable addition to the library of anyone who works in the field of applied mathematics, economics and engineering.
Simple Lie groups without the approximation property
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haagerup, Uffe; de Laat, Tim
2013-01-01
For a locally compact group G, let A(G) denote its Fourier algebra, and let M0A(G) denote the space of completely bounded Fourier multipliers on G. The group G is said to have the Approximation Property (AP) if the constant function 1 can be approximated by a net in A(G) in the weak-∗ topology...... on the space M0A(G). Recently, Lafforgue and de la Salle proved that SL(3,R) does not have the AP, implying the first example of an exact discrete group without it, namely, SL(3,Z). In this paper we prove that Sp(2,R) does not have the AP. It follows that all connected simple Lie groups with finite center...... and real rank greater than or equal to two do not have the AP. This naturally gives rise to many examples of exact discrete groups without the AP....
The optimal XFEM approximation for fracture analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shouyan; Du Chengbin; Ying Zongquan
2010-01-01
The extended finite element method (XFEM) provides an effective tool for analyzing fracture mechanics problems. A XFEM approximation consists of standard finite elements which are used in the major part of the domain and enriched elements in the enriched sub-domain for capturing special solution properties such as discontinuities and singularities. However, two issues in the standard XFEM should specially be concerned: efficient numerical integration methods and an appropriate construction of the blending elements. In the paper, an optimal XFEM approximation is proposed to overcome the disadvantage mentioned above in the standard XFEM. The modified enrichment functions are presented that can reproduced exactly everywhere in the domain. The corresponding FORTRAN program is developed for fracture analysis. A classic problem of fracture mechanics is used to benchmark the program. The results indicate that the optimal XFEM can alleviate the errors and improve numerical precision.
Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-02-01
The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.
Incomplete Sparse Approximate Inverses for Parallel Preconditioning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anzt, Hartwig; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Huckle, Thomas K.; Bräckle, Jürgen; Dongarra, Jack
2017-01-01
In this study, we propose a new preconditioning method that can be seen as a generalization of block-Jacobi methods, or as a simplification of the sparse approximate inverse (SAI) preconditioners. The “Incomplete Sparse Approximate Inverses” (ISAI) is in particular efficient in the solution of sparse triangular linear systems of equations. Those arise, for example, in the context of incomplete factorization preconditioning. ISAI preconditioners can be generated via an algorithm providing fine-grained parallelism, which makes them attractive for hardware with a high concurrency level. Finally, in a study covering a large number of matrices, we identify the ISAI preconditioner as an attractive alternative to exact triangular solves in the context of incomplete factorization preconditioning.
Approximate Solutions in Planted 3-SAT
Hsu, Benjamin; Laumann, Christopher; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji
2013-03-01
In many computational settings, there exists many instances where finding a solution requires a computing time that grows exponentially in the number of variables. Concrete examples occur in combinatorial optimization problems and cryptography in computer science or glassy systems in physics. However, while exact solutions are often known to require exponential time, a related and important question is the running time required to find approximate solutions. Treating this problem as a problem in statistical physics at finite temperature, we examine the computational running time in finding approximate solutions in 3-satisfiability for randomly generated 3-SAT instances which are guaranteed to have a solution. Analytic predictions are corroborated by numerical evidence using stochastic local search algorithms. A first order transition is found in the running time of these algorithms.
Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damian, Daniela
2001-01-01
Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed-point approximat......Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed...
Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2011-01-01
Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
The approximability of the String Barcoding problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rizzi Romeo
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract The String Barcoding (SBC problem, introduced by Rash and Gusfield (RECOMB, 2002, consists in finding a minimum set of substrings that can be used to distinguish between all members of a set of given strings. In a computational biology context, the given strings represent a set of known viruses, while the substrings can be used as probes for an hybridization experiment via microarray. Eventually, one aims at the classification of new strings (unknown viruses through the result of the hybridization experiment. In this paper we show that SBC is as hard to approximate as Set Cover. Furthermore, we show that the constrained version of SBC (with probes of bounded length is also hard to approximate. These negative results are tight.
Approximations in the PE-method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arranz, Marta Galindo
1996-01-01
Two differenct sources of errors may occur in the implementation of the PE methods; a phase error introduced in the approximation of a pseudo-differential operator and an amplitude error generated from the starting field. First, the inherent phase errors introduced in the solution are analyzed...... for a case where the normal mode solution to the wave equation is valid, when the sound is propagated in a downward refracting atmosphere. The angular limitations for the different parabolic approximations are deduced, and calculations showing shifts in the starter as the second source of error...... is investigated. Numerical and analytical starters are compared for source locations close to the ground. The spectral properties of several starters are presented....
A Varifold Approach to Surface Approximation
Buet, Blanche; Leonardi, Gian Paolo; Masnou, Simon
2017-11-01
We show that the theory of varifolds can be suitably enriched to open the way to applications in the field of discrete and computational geometry. Using appropriate regularizations of the mass and of the first variation of a varifold we introduce the notion of approximate mean curvature and show various convergence results that hold, in particular, for sequences of discrete varifolds associated with point clouds or pixel/voxel-type discretizations of d-surfaces in the Euclidean n-space, without restrictions on dimension and codimension. The variational nature of the approach also allows us to consider surfaces with singularities, and in that case the approximate mean curvature is consistent with the generalized mean curvature of the limit surface. A series of numerical tests are provided in order to illustrate the effectiveness and generality of the method.
Approximations and Solution Estimates in Optimization
2016-04-06
for applications in machine learning and stochastic optimization . In this paper, we quantify the error in optimal values, optimal solutions, near...problem from that of another rather different problem is especially important in stochastic optimization , optimal control, and semi-infinite...approximate solutions to convex stochastic programs. SIAM J. Optimization , 18(3):961–979, 2007. [26] J. O. Royset and R. J-B Wets. From data to
Finite element approximation of the Isaacs equation
Salgado, Abner J.; Zhang, Wujun
2015-01-01
We propose and analyze a two-scale finite element method for the Isaacs equation. The fine scale is given by the mesh size $h$ whereas the coarse scale $\\varepsilon$ is dictated by an integro-differential approximation of the partial differential equation. We show that the method satisfies the discrete maximum principle provided that the mesh is weakly acute. This, in conjunction with weak operator consistency of the finite element method, allows us to establish convergence of the numerical s...
Mean-field approximation minimizes relative entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilbro, G.L.; Snyder, W.E.; Mann, R.C.
1991-01-01
The authors derive the mean-field approximation from the information-theoretic principle of minimum relative entropy instead of by minimizing Peierls's inequality for the Weiss free energy of statistical physics theory. They show that information theory leads to the statistical mechanics procedure. As an example, they consider a problem in binary image restoration. They find that mean-field annealing compares favorably with the stochastic approach
Fast Approximate Joint Diagonalization Incorporating Weight Matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.
2009-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 878-891 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : autoregressive processes * blind source separation * nonstationary random processes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-fast approximate joint diagonalization incorporating weight matrices.pdf
Fast approximate convex decomposition using relative concavity
Ghosh, Mukulika
2013-02-01
Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into approximately convex components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can also generate a more manageable number of components. It can be used as a basis of divide-and-conquer algorithms for applications such as collision detection, skeleton extraction and mesh generation. In this paper, we propose a new method called Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition (FACD) that improves the quality of the decomposition and reduces the cost of computing it for both 2D and 3D models. In particular, we propose a new strategy for evaluating potential cuts that aims to reduce the relative concavity, rather than absolute concavity. As shown in our results, this leads to more natural and smaller decompositions that include components for small but important features such as toes or fingers while not decomposing larger components, such as the torso, that may have concavities due to surface texture. Second, instead of decomposing a component into two pieces at each step, as in the original ACD, we propose a new strategy that uses a dynamic programming approach to select a set of n c non-crossing (independent) cuts that can be simultaneously applied to decompose the component into n c+1 components. This reduces the depth of recursion and, together with a more efficient method for computing the concavity measure, leads to significant gains in efficiency. We provide comparative results for 2D and 3D models illustrating the improvements obtained by FACD over ACD and we compare with the segmentation methods in the Princeton Shape Benchmark by Chen et al. (2009) [31]. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Approximations of Two-Attribute Utility Functions
1976-09-01
06320 i Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Dr. Jack R. Borsting, Chairman Dept. of Operations Research and Professor Oskar Morgenstern ... Morgenstern utility functions u defined on two attributes from the viewpoint of mathematical --roxi-n’tion theory.r It focuses on approximations v of u that...von Neumann and Morgenstern (1947) or an equivalent system (Herstein and Milnor, 1953; Fishburn, 1970) so that there exists u: T + Re such that P - Q
Approximate Inverse Preconditioners with Adaptive Dropping
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopal, J.; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 84, June (2015), s. 13-20 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853; GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverse * Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization * incomplete decomposition * preconditioned conjugate gradient method * algebraic preconditioning * pivoting Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2015
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-07
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-05
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Ganor-Stern, Dana
2016-01-01
Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close) from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Markdown Optimization via Approximate Dynamic Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cos?gun
2013-02-01
Full Text Available We consider the markdown optimization problem faced by the leading apparel retail chain. Because of substitution among products the markdown policy of one product affects the sales of other products. Therefore, markdown policies for product groups having a significant crossprice elasticity among each other should be jointly determined. Since the state space of the problem is very huge, we use Approximate Dynamic Programming. Finally, we provide insights on the behavior of how each product price affects the markdown policy.
Factorized Approximate Inverses With Adaptive Dropping
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kopal, Jiří; Rozložník, Miroslav; Tůma, Miroslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 38, č. 3 (2016), A1807-A1820 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : approximate inverses * incomplete factorization * Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization * preconditioned iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2016
An analytical approximation for resonance integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magalhaes, C.G. de; Martinez, A.S.
1985-01-01
It is developed a method which allows to obtain an analytical solution for the resonance integral. The problem formulation is completely theoretical and based in concepts of physics of general character. The analytical expression for integral does not involve any empiric correlation or parameter. Results of approximation are compared with pattern values for each individual resonance and for sum of all resonances. (M.C.K.) [pt
Fast algorithms for approximate circular string matching.
Barton, Carl; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Pissis, Solon P
2014-03-22
Circular string matching is a problem which naturally arises in many biological contexts. It consists in finding all occurrences of the rotations of a pattern of length m in a text of length n. There exist optimal average-case algorithms for exact circular string matching. Approximate circular string matching is a rather undeveloped area. In this article, we present a suboptimal average-case algorithm for exact circular string matching requiring time O(n). Based on our solution for the exact case, we present two fast average-case algorithms for approximate circular string matching with k-mismatches, under the Hamming distance model, requiring time O(n) for moderate values of k, that is k=O(m/logm). We show how the same results can be easily obtained under the edit distance model. The presented algorithms are also implemented as library functions. Experimental results demonstrate that the functions provided in this library accelerate the computations by more than three orders of magnitude compared to a naïve approach. We present two fast average-case algorithms for approximate circular string matching with k-mismatches; and show that they also perform very well in practice. The importance of our contribution is underlined by the fact that the provided functions may be seamlessly integrated into any biological pipeline. The source code of the library is freely available at http://www.inf.kcl.ac.uk/research/projects/asmf/.
Approximate particle number projection in hot nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosov, D.S.; Vdovin, A.I.
1995-01-01
Heated finite systems like, e.g., hot atomic nuclei have to be described by the canonical partition function. But this is a quite difficult technical problem and, as a rule, the grand canonical partition function is used in the studies. As a result, some shortcomings of the theoretical description appear because of the thermal fluctuations of the number of particles. Moreover, in nuclei with pairing correlations the quantum number fluctuations are introduced by some approximate methods (e.g., by the standard BCS method). The exact particle number projection is very cumbersome and an approximate number projection method for T ≠ 0 basing on the formalism of thermo field dynamics is proposed. The idea of the Lipkin-Nogami method to perform any operator as a series in the number operator powers is used. The system of equations for the coefficients of this expansion is written and the solution of the system in the next approximation after the BCS one is obtained. The method which is of the 'projection after variation' type is applied to a degenerate single j-shell model. 14 refs., 1 tab
Feedforward Approximations to Dynamic Recurrent Network Architectures.
Muir, Dylan R
2018-02-01
Recurrent neural network architectures can have useful computational properties, with complex temporal dynamics and input-sensitive attractor states. However, evaluation of recurrent dynamic architectures requires solving systems of differential equations, and the number of evaluations required to determine their response to a given input can vary with the input or can be indeterminate altogether in the case of oscillations or instability. In feedforward networks, by contrast, only a single pass through the network is needed to determine the response to a given input. Modern machine learning systems are designed to operate efficiently on feedforward architectures. We hypothesized that two-layer feedforward architectures with simple, deterministic dynamics could approximate the responses of single-layer recurrent network architectures. By identifying the fixed-point responses of a given recurrent network, we trained two-layer networks to directly approximate the fixed-point response to a given input. These feedforward networks then embodied useful computations, including competitive interactions, information transformations, and noise rejection. Our approach was able to find useful approximations to recurrent networks, which can then be evaluated in linear and deterministic time complexity.
Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.
CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marozzi, Giovanni; Fanizza, Giuseppe; Durrer, Ruth; Dio, Enea Di
2016-01-01
We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles ℓ ∼< 2500, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum, and its imprint on CMB lensing is too small to be seen in present experiments.
Function approximation of tasks by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gougam, L.A.; Chikhi, A.; Mekideche-Chafa, F.
2008-01-01
For several years now, neural network models have enjoyed wide popularity, being applied to problems of regression, classification and time series analysis. Neural networks have been recently seen as attractive tools for developing efficient solutions for many real world problems in function approximation. The latter is a very important task in environments where computation has to be based on extracting information from data samples in real world processes. In a previous contribution, we have used a well known simplified architecture to show that it provides a reasonably efficient, practical and robust, multi-frequency analysis. We have investigated the universal approximation theory of neural networks whose transfer functions are: sigmoid (because of biological relevance), Gaussian and two specified families of wavelets. The latter have been found to be more appropriate to use. The aim of the present contribution is therefore to use a m exican hat wavelet a s transfer function to approximate different tasks relevant and inherent to various applications in physics. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem
Simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation for tidal models
Altaf, M.U.
2011-05-12
The Dutch continental shelf model (DCSM) is a shallow sea model of entire continental shelf which is used operationally in the Netherlands to forecast the storm surges in the North Sea. The forecasts are necessary to support the decision of the timely closure of the moveable storm surge barriers to protect the land. In this study, an automated model calibration method, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) is implemented for tidal calibration of the DCSM. The method uses objective function evaluations to obtain the gradient approximations. The gradient approximation for the central difference method uses only two objective function evaluation independent of the number of parameters being optimized. The calibration parameter in this study is the model bathymetry. A number of calibration experiments is performed. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of the final results as well as the computational costs required to produce these results. In doing so, comparison is made with a traditional steepest descent method and also with a newly developed proper orthogonal decompositionbased calibration method. The main findings are: (1) The SPSA method gives comparable results to steepest descent method with little computational cost. (2) The SPSA method with little computational cost can be used to estimate large number of parameters.
Acid-induced equilibrium folding intermediate of human platelet profilin.
McLachlan, Glendon D; Cahill, Sean M; Girvin, Mark E; Almo, Steven C
2007-06-12
The acid-induced unfolding of human platelet profilin (HPP) can be minimally modeled as a three-state process. Equilibrium unfolding studies have been performed on human platelet profilin1 (HPP) and monitored by far-UV circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence, ANS binding, and NMR spectroscopy. Far-UV CD measurements obtained by acid titration demonstrate that HPP unfolds via a three-state mechanism (N --> I --> U), with a highly populated intermediate between pH 4 and 5. Approximately 80% of native helical secondary structural content remains at pH 4, as indicated by monitoring the CD signal at 222 nm. The stability (DeltaGH2O) of the native conformation at pH 7.0 (obtained by monitoring the change in tryptophan signal as a function of urea concentration) is 5.56 +/- 0.51 kcal mol-1; however, the DeltaGH2O for the intermediate species at pH 4 is 2.01 +/- 0.47 kcal mol-1. The calculated m-values for the pH 7.0 and pH 4.0 species were 1.64 +/- 0.15 and 1.34 +/- 0.17 kcal mol-1 M-1, respectively, which is an indication that the native and intermediate species are similarly compact. Additionally, translational diffusion measurements obtained by NMR spectroscopy and ANS binding studies are consistent with a globular and compact conformation at both pH 7.0 and 4.0. The pKa values for the two histidine (His) residues located on helix 4 of HPP were determined to be 5.6 and 5.7 pH units. These pKa values coincide with the midpoint of the far-UV CD acid titration curve and suggest that the protonation of one or both His residues may play a role in the formation of the unfolding intermediate. Stable intermediate species populate the 2D 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectra between pH 4 and 5. A number of backbone and side-chain resonances show significant perturbations relative to the native spectrum; however, considerable nativelike tertiary contacts remain. Interestingly, the residues on HPP that are significantly altered at low pH coincide with segments of the G-actin binding
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-01-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-10-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand
2002-01-30
In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed
Application of Coupled-Wave Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin Approximation to Ground Penetrating Radar
Igor Prokopovich; Alexei Popov; Lara Pajewski; Marian Marciniak
2017-01-01
This paper deals with bistatic subsurface probing of a horizontally layered dielectric half-space by means of ultra-wideband electromagnetic waves. In particular, the main objective of this work is to present a new method for the solution of the two-dimensional back-scattering problem arising when a pulsed electromagnetic signal impinges on a non-uniform dielectric half-space; this scenario is of interest for ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications. For the analytical description of the s...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Post, O.
2009-01-01
Roč. 42, č. 41 (2009), 415305/1-415305/22 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : convergence * scattering * spectra Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.577, year: 2009
Ultracold atoms in radio-frequency dressed potentials beyond the rotating-wave approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofferberth, S.; Fischer, B.; Schumm, Thorsten
2007-01-01
We study dressed Bose-Einstein condensates in an atom chip radio-frequency trap. We show that in this system sufficiently strong dressing can be achieved to cause the widely used rotating-wave approximation (RWA) to break down. We present a full calculation of the atom-field coupling which shows...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2001-01-01
We develop an advanced mean held method for approximating averages in probabilistic data models that is based on the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) approach of disorder physics. In contrast to conventional TAP. where the knowledge of the distribution of couplings between the random variables...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, T.A.
1978-10-01
For one-electron heteropolar systems, the wave-theoretic Lagrangian of Paper I 2 is simplified in two distinct approximations. The first is semiclassical; the second is quantal, for velocities below those for which the semiclassical treatment is reliable. For each approximation, unitarity and detailed balancing are discussed. Then, the variational method as described by Demkov is used to determine the coupled equations for the radial functions and the Euler-Lagrange equations for the translational factors which are part of the theory. Specific semiclassical formulae for the translational factors are given in a many-state approximation. Low-velocity quantal formulae are obtained in a one-state approximation. The one-state results of both approximations agree with an earlier determination by Riley. 14 references
Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin
2016-01-01
What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8 year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics. Copyright
Opening the Black Box of Intermediation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nowinska, Agnieszka
) and at the interfirm level (between partners and within alliances and associations).The tentative results show that both of these levels are important in defining the intermediating firms' business models and in answering their environmental threats and in building up competitive advantage. The paper ends with a short......This paper attempts to answer how external environmental factors affect intermediating firms within the maritime industry - the middlemen that plays a very important role in the sector. The category encompasses firms such as liner and port agencies, freight forwarders and shipbrokers, who link......, by its global character and by volatility. As such, the industry offers an interesting and generalizable environment for research. Moreover, the choice of the middleman, an intermediary in the value chain, as the object of study, offers additional insights into the complex industry and value chain...
Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonggi Kim
1998-06-01
Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.
Intermediate storage for the Start accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaponenko, N.I.; Tkach, Yu.V.; Stepanenko, I.A.; Kozachek, A.S.; Komarov, A.D.; Gadetskij, N.P.
1988-01-01
Usage of the chain of series-connected capacitors, placed near the voltage pulse generator (VPG) cascades, as an intermediate storage (IS) has allowed to reduce the inductance of the PG-IS charging circuit and to reduce storage charging time up to 30 ns. In such cases the electrical strength of the IS capacitor insulation is essentially higher, than at dc voltage, it has allowed to reduce the number of capacitors in the chain and to reduce IS self-inductance. Additional ways to reduce the inductance of the VPG-IS charging circuit are considered. Reduction of storage charging time has allowed to stabilize the operation of the commutator, which connects the intermediate storage with the accelerator shaping line
Far from the intermediate nuclear field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, K.; Wagner, G.J.; Gregoire, C.; Campi, X.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Platchkov, S.; Mayer, B.; Abgrall, Y.; Bohigas, O.; Grange, P.; Signarbieux, C.
1988-01-01
Pairing correlations in nuclear physics; the BCS state and quasi-particles; the layer model; collision effects on nuclear dynamics; the theory of cluster formation (application to nucleus fragmentation); short range correlations (few-particle systems); deuterium electron scattering; dibaryonic resonances; traditional and exotic hadron probes of nuclear structure; spectral fluctuations and chaotic motion; corrections to the intermediate nuclear field (nonrelativistic and other effects); and heavy nuclei splitting and nuclear superfluidity are introduced [fr
International express student's book : pre-intermediate
Taylor, Liz
1996-01-01
The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.
Assembly of intermediates for rapid membrane fusion.
Harner, Max; Wickner, William
2018-01-26
Membrane fusion is essential for intracellular protein sorting, cell growth, hormone secretion, and neurotransmission. Rapid membrane fusion requires tethering and Sec1-Munc18 (SM) function to catalyze R-, Qa-, Qb-, and Qc-SNARE complex assembly in trans , as well as SNARE engagement by the SNARE-binding chaperone Sec17/αSNAP. The hexameric vacuolar HOPS ( ho motypic fusion and vacuole p rotein s orting) complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae tethers membranes through its affinities for the membrane Rab GTPase Ypt7. HOPS also has specific affinities for the vacuolar SNAREs and catalyzes SNARE complex assembly, but the order of their assembly into a 4-SNARE complex is unclear. We now report defined assembly intermediates on the path to membrane fusion. We found that a prefusion intermediate will assemble with HOPS and the R, Qa, and Qc SNAREs, and that this assembly undergoes rapid fusion upon addition of Qb and Sec17. HOPS-tethered membranes and all four vacuolar SNAREs formed a complex that underwent an even more dramatic burst of fusion upon Sec17p addition. These findings provide initial insights into an ordered fusion pathway consisting of the following intermediates and events: 1) Rab- and HOPS-tethered membranes, 2) a HOPS:R:Qa:Qc trans -complex, 3) a HOPS:4-SNARE trans -complex, 4) an engagement with Sec17, and 5) the rapid lipid rearrangements during fusion. In conclusion, our results indicate that the R:Qa:Qc complex forms in the context of membrane, Ypt7, HOPS, and trans -SNARE assembly and serves as a functional intermediate for rapid fusion after addition of the Qb-SNARE and Sec17 proteins. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos
Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano
2017-07-01
We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are
Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, University of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Koda, Jun [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Kitaura, Francisco-Shu [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: munari@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: jun.koda@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: fkitaura@iac.es, E-mail: sefusatti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)
2017-07-01
We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z =0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.
1991-01-01
To offset the defective behavior of the molecular method of atomic collisions at intermediate energies, we propose a method to approximate the probability flux towards continuum and discrete states not included in the molecular basis. We check the degree of accuracy and limitations of the method for a model case where transition probabilities can be calculated exactly. An application to the benchmark case of He + +H + collisions is also presented, and yields complementary information on the properties of this approach
Pair production by photons. Screening corrections for intermediate and high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oeverboe, I.
1978-01-01
The screening correction to the total cross-section for coherent electron pair production by photons is evaluated for intermediate and high energies, by employing the Born-approximation recoil momentum distribution and accurate relativistic form factors. Results are given for all 3<=Z<=92. For each element the results are presented in terms of a seven-parameter formula which is based on a high-energy expansion of the screened cross-section. (author)
Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others
1997-04-01
Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.
Product-State Approximations to Quantum States
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.
2016-02-01
We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.
Dynamic system evolution and markov chain approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roderick V. Nicholas Melnik
1998-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper computational aspects of the mathematical modelling of dynamic system evolution have been considered as a problem in information theory. The construction of mathematical models is treated as a decision making process with limited available information.The solution of the problem is associated with a computational model based on heuristics of a Markov Chain in a discrete space–time of events. A stable approximation of the chain has been derived and the limiting cases are discussed. An intrinsic interconnection of constructive, sequential, and evolutionary approaches in related optimization problems provides new challenges for future work.
The EH Interpolation Spline and Its Approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Xie
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new interpolation spline with two parameters, called EH interpolation spline, is presented in this paper, which is the extension of the standard cubic Hermite interpolation spline, and inherits the same properties of the standard cubic Hermite interpolation spline. Given the fixed interpolation conditions, the shape of the proposed splines can be adjusted by changing the values of the parameters. Also, the introduced spline could approximate to the interpolated function better than the standard cubic Hermite interpolation spline and the quartic Hermite interpolation splines with single parameter by a new algorithm.
On one approximation in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, A.I.; Bajkov, V.A.; Boos, Eh.Eh.
1982-01-01
Form of a complete fermion propagator near the mass shell is investigated. Considered is a nodel of quantum chromodynamics (MQC) where in the fermion section the Block-Nordsic approximation has been made, i. e. u-numbers are substituted for ν matrices. The model was investigated by means of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for a quark propagator in the infrared region. The Schwinger-Dyson equation was managed to reduce to a differential equation which is easily solved. At that, the Green function is suitable to represent as integral transformation
Topics in multivariate approximation and interpolation
Jetter, Kurt
2005-01-01
This book is a collection of eleven articles, written by leading experts and dealing with special topics in Multivariate Approximation and Interpolation. The material discussed here has far-reaching applications in many areas of Applied Mathematics, such as in Computer Aided Geometric Design, in Mathematical Modelling, in Signal and Image Processing and in Machine Learning, to mention a few. The book aims at giving a comprehensive information leading the reader from the fundamental notions and results of each field to the forefront of research. It is an ideal and up-to-date introduction for gr
Shape theory categorical methods of approximation
Cordier, J M
2008-01-01
This in-depth treatment uses shape theory as a ""case study"" to illustrate situations common to many areas of mathematics, including the use of archetypal models as a basis for systems of approximations. It offers students a unified and consolidated presentation of extensive research from category theory, shape theory, and the study of topological algebras.A short introduction to geometric shape explains specifics of the construction of the shape category and relates it to an abstract definition of shape theory. Upon returning to the geometric base, the text considers simplical complexes and
Mean field approximation to QCD, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1987-09-01
We apply mean field approximation to the gluon field in the equations of motion derived from the QCD lagrangian. The gluon mean field is restricted to the time-independent 0th component, and color exchange components are ignored. The equation of motion for the gluon mean field turns into a Poisson equation, and that for the quark field into a Dirac equation with a potential term. For example, assuming spherical symmetric box-like distribution and Gauss-like distribution to quarks, we try to solve these two equations simultaneously. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Bell, Caleb B.; Clay, MIchael D.
2009-01-01
-O stretch frequencies, Mossbauer isomer shifts, absorption spectra, J-coupling constants, electron affinities, and free energies Of O-2 and proton or water binding are presented for a series of possible intermediates. The results enable structure-property correlations and a new rationale for the changes...
RCS estimation of linear and planar dipole phased arrays approximate model
Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan
2016-01-01
In this book, the RCS of a parallel-fed linear and planar dipole array is derived using an approximate method. The signal propagation within the phased array system determines the radar cross section (RCS) of phased array. The reflection and transmission coefficients for a signal at different levels of the phased-in scattering array system depend on the impedance mismatch and the design parameters. Moreover the mutual coupling effect in between the antenna elements is an important factor. A phased array system comprises of radiating elements followed by phase shifters, couplers, and terminating load impedance. These components lead to respective impedances towards the incoming signal that travels through them before reaching receive port of the array system. In this book, the RCS is approximated in terms of array factor, neglecting the phase terms. The mutual coupling effect is taken into account. The dependence of the RCS pattern on the design parameters is analyzed. The approximate model is established as a...
Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco
2017-12-01
The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.
Kaushal, Nitin; Herbrych, Jacek; Nocera, Alberto; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Moreo, Adriana; Reboredo, F. A.; Dagotto, Elbio
2017-10-01
Using the density matrix renormalization group technique we study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on a three-orbital Hubbard model in the (t2g) 4 sector and in one dimension. Fixing the Hund coupling to a robust value compatible with some multiorbital materials, we present the phase diagram varying the Hubbard U and spin-orbit coupling λ , at zero temperature. Our results are shown to be qualitatively similar to those recently reported using the dynamical mean-field theory in higher dimensions, providing a robust basis to approximate many-body techniques. Among many results, we observe an interesting transition from an orbital-selective Mott phase to an excitonic insulator with increasing λ at intermediate U . In the strong U coupling limit, we find a nonmagnetic insulator with an effective angular momentum 〈(Jeff)2〉≠0 near the excitonic phase, smoothly connected to the 〈(Jeff)2〉=0 regime. We also provide a list of quasi-one-dimensional materials where the physics discussed in this paper could be realized.
Nonlinear higher quasiparticle random phase approximation
Smetana, Adam; Šimkovic, Fedor; Štefánik, Dušan; Krivoruchenko, Mikhail
2017-10-01
We develop a new approach to describe nuclear states of multiphonon origin, motivated by the necessity for a more accurate description of matrix elements of neutrinoless double-beta decay. Our approach is an extension of the Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA), in which nonlinear phonon operators play an essential role. Before applying the nonlinear higher QRPA (nhQRPA) to realistic problems, we test its efficiency with exactly solvable models. The first considered model is equivalent to a harmonic oscillator. The nhQRPA solutions follow from the standard QRPA equation, but for nonlinear phonon operators defined for each individual excited state separately. The second exactly solvable model is the proton-neutron Lipkin model that describes successfully not only energy spectrum of nuclei, but also beta-decay transitions. Again, we reproduce exactly the numerical solutions in the nhQRPA framework. We show in particular that truncation of the nonlinear phonon operators leads to an approximation similar to the self-consistent second QRPA, given the phonon operators are defined with a constant term. The test results demonstrate that the proposed nhQRPA is a promising tool for a realistic calculation of energy spectra and nuclear transitions.
Fast approximate hierarchical clustering using similarity heuristics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kull Meelis
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC is a common unsupervised data analysis technique used in several biological applications. Standard AHC methods require that all pairwise distances between data objects must be known. With ever-increasing data sizes this quadratic complexity poses problems that cannot be overcome by simply waiting for faster computers. Results We propose an approximate AHC algorithm HappieClust which can output a biologically meaningful clustering of a large dataset more than an order of magnitude faster than full AHC algorithms. The key to the algorithm is to limit the number of calculated pairwise distances to a carefully chosen subset of all possible distances. We choose distances using a similarity heuristic based on a small set of pivot objects. The heuristic efficiently finds pairs of similar objects and these help to mimic the greedy choices of full AHC. Quality of approximate AHC as compared to full AHC is studied with three measures. The first measure evaluates the global quality of the achieved clustering, while the second compares biological relevance using enrichment of biological functions in every subtree of the clusterings. The third measure studies how well the contents of subtrees are conserved between the clusterings. Conclusion The HappieClust algorithm is well suited for large-scale gene expression visualization and analysis both on personal computers as well as public online web applications. The software is available from the URL http://www.quretec.com/HappieClust
Traveling cluster approximation for uncorrelated amorphous systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, T.; Sen, A.K.; Gray, L.J.; Mills, R.
1985-01-01
In this paper, the authors apply the TCA concepts to spatially disordered, uncorrelated systems (e.g., fluids or amorphous metals without short-range order). This is the first approximation scheme for amorphous systems that takes cluster effects into account while preserving the Herglotz property for any amount of disorder. They have performed some computer calculations for the pair TCA, for the model case of delta-function potentials on a one-dimensional random chain. These results are compared with exact calculations (which, in principle, taken into account all cluster effects) and with the CPA, which is the single-site TCA. The density of states for the pair TCA clearly shows some improvement over the CPA, and yet, apparently, the pair approximation distorts some of the features of the exact results. They conclude that the effects of large clusters are much more important in an uncorrelated liquid metal than in a substitutional alloy. As a result, the pair TCA, which does quite a nice job for alloys, is not adequate for the liquid. Larger clusters must be treated exactly, and therefore an n-TCA with n > 2 must be used
APPROXIMATING INNOVATION POTENTIAL WITH NEUROFUZZY ROBUST MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kasa, Richard
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In a remarkably short time, economic globalisation has changed the world’s economic order, bringing new challenges and opportunities to SMEs. These processes pushed the need to measure innovation capability, which has become a crucial issue for today’s economic and political decision makers. Companies cannot compete in this new environment unless they become more innovative and respond more effectively to consumers’ needs and preferences – as mentioned in the EU’s innovation strategy. Decision makers cannot make accurate and efficient decisions without knowing the capability for innovation of companies in a sector or a region. This need is forcing economists to develop an integrated, unified and complete method of measuring, approximating and even forecasting the innovation performance not only on a macro but also a micro level. In this recent article a critical analysis of the literature on innovation potential approximation and prediction is given, showing their weaknesses and a possible alternative that eliminates the limitations and disadvantages of classical measuring and predictive methods.
Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Zvi I.
2012-02-01
The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.
Approximate reversal of quantum Gaussian dynamics
Lami, Ludovico; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.
2018-03-01
Recently, there has been focus on determining the conditions under which the data processing inequality for quantum relative entropy is satisfied with approximate equality. The solution of the exact equality case is due to Petz, who showed that the quantum relative entropy between two quantum states stays the same after the action of a quantum channel if and only if there is a reversal channel that recovers the original states after the channel acts. Furthermore, this reversal channel can be constructed explicitly and is now called the Petz recovery map. Recent developments have shown that a variation of the Petz recovery map works well for recovery in the case of approximate equality of the data processing inequality. Our main contribution here is a proof that bosonic Gaussian states and channels possess a particular closure property, namely, that the Petz recovery map associated to a bosonic Gaussian state σ and a bosonic Gaussian channel N is itself a bosonic Gaussian channel. We furthermore give an explicit construction of the Petz recovery map in this case, in terms of the mean vector and covariance matrix of the state σ and the Gaussian specification of the channel N .
Approximating Markov Chains: What and why
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pincus, S.
1996-01-01
Much of the current study of dynamical systems is focused on geometry (e.g., chaos and bifurcations) and ergodic theory. Yet dynamical systems were originally motivated by an attempt to open-quote open-quote solve,close-quote close-quote or at least understand, a discrete-time analogue of differential equations. As such, numerical, analytical solution techniques for dynamical systems would seem desirable. We discuss an approach that provides such techniques, the approximation of dynamical systems by suitable finite state Markov Chains. Steady state distributions for these Markov Chains, a straightforward calculation, will converge to the true dynamical system steady state distribution, with appropriate limit theorems indicated. Thus (i) approximation by a computable, linear map holds the promise of vastly faster steady state solutions for nonlinear, multidimensional differential equations; (ii) the solution procedure is unaffected by the presence or absence of a probability density function for the attractor, entirely skirting singularity, fractal/multifractal, and renormalization considerations. The theoretical machinery underpinning this development also implies that under very general conditions, steady state measures are weakly continuous with control parameter evolution. This means that even though a system may change periodicity, or become chaotic in its limiting behavior, such statistical parameters as the mean, standard deviation, and tail probabilities change continuously, not abruptly with system evolution. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Zvi, I.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R and D Energy Recovery Linac.
On some applications of diophantine approximations.
Chudnovsky, G V
1984-03-01
Siegel's results [Siegel, C. L. (1929) Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys.-Math. Kl. 1] on the transcendence and algebraic independence of values of E-functions are refined to obtain the best possible bound for the measures of irrationality and linear independence of values of arbitrary E-functions at rational points. Our results show that values of E-functions at rational points have measures of diophantine approximations typical to "almost all" numbers. In particular, any such number has the "2 + epsilon" exponent of irrationality: Theta - p/q > q(-2-epsilon) for relatively prime rational integers p,q, with q >/= q(0) (Theta, epsilon). These results answer some problems posed by Lang. The methods used here are based on the introduction of graded Padé approximations to systems of functions satisfying linear differential equations with rational function coefficients. The constructions and proofs of this paper were used in the functional (nonarithmetic case) in a previous paper [Chudnovsky, D. V. & Chudnovsky, G. V. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5158-5162].
Regularity and approximability of electronic wave functions
Yserentant, Harry
2010-01-01
The electronic Schrödinger equation describes the motion of N-electrons under Coulomb interaction forces in a field of clamped nuclei. The solutions of this equation, the electronic wave functions, depend on 3N variables, with three spatial dimensions for each electron. Approximating these solutions is thus inordinately challenging, and it is generally believed that a reduction to simplified models, such as those of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory, is the only tenable approach. This book seeks to show readers that this conventional wisdom need not be ironclad: the regularity of the solutions, which increases with the number of electrons, the decay behavior of their mixed derivatives, and the antisymmetry enforced by the Pauli principle contribute properties that allow these functions to be approximated with an order of complexity which comes arbitrarily close to that for a system of one or two electrons. The text is accessible to a mathematical audience at the beginning graduate level as...