WorldWideScience

Sample records for interlocks

  1. Interlocking wettable ceramic tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabereaux, Jr., Alton T.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Groat, Eric; Mroz, Thomas; Ulicny, Alan; Walker, Mark F.

    2005-03-08

    An electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum having a layer of interlocking cathode tiles positioned on a cathode block. Each tile includes a main body and a vertical restraining member to prevent movement of the tiles away from the cathode block during operation of the cell. The anode of the electrolytic cell may be positioned about 1 inch from the interlocking cathode tiles.

  2. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  3. Modelling Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Morten Peter; Viuf, P.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    In this report we present a model of interlocking systems, and describe how the model may be validated by simulation. Station topologies are modelled by graphs in which the nodes denote track segments, and the edges denote connectivity for train traÆc. Points and signals are modelled by annotatio...

  4. Interlocked systems in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Catia; Becher, Tiago B; Megiatto, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected to provide solutions to some of modern medicine's unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine. The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and gene delivery systems.

  5. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  6. 49 CFR 236.751 - Interlocking, manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interlocking, manual. 236.751 Section 236.751 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Interlocking, manual. An arrangement of signals and signal appliances operated from an interlocking machine and...

  7. Interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies:

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  8. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  9. Macro-Micro Interlocked Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Simulation Science is now standing on a turning point. After the appearance of the Earth Simulator, HEC is struggling with several severe difficulties due to the physical limit of LSI technologies and the so-called latency problem. In this paper I would like to propose one clever way to overcome these difficulties from the simulation algorithm viewpoint. Nature and artificial products are usually organized with several nearly autonomously working internal systems (organizations, or layers). The Earth Simulator has gifted us with a really useful scientific tool that can deal with the entire evolution of one internal system with a sufficient soundness. In order to make a leap jump of Simulation Science, therefore, it is desired to design an innovative simulator that enables us to deal with simultaneously and as consistently as possible a real system that evolves cooperatively with several internal autonomous systems. Three years experience of the Earth Simulator Project has stimulated to come up with one innovative simulation algorithm to get rid of the technological barrier standing in front of us, which I would like to call 'Macro-Micro Interlocked Algorithm', or 'Macro-Micro Multiplying Algorithm', and present a couple of such examples to validate the proposed algorithm. The first example is an aurora-arc formation as a result of the mutual interaction between the macroscopic magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the microscopic field-aligned electron and ion system. The second example is the local heavy rain fall resulting from the interaction between the global climate evolution and the microscopic raindrop growth process. Based on this innovative feasible algorithm, I came up with a Macro-Micro Multiplying Simulator

  10. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey...

  11. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...

  12. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal sounds...

  13. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  14. Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Bliguet, Marie Le; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways can be formally modelled and verified. Such systems are documented by circuit diagrams describing their static layout. It is explained how to derive a state transition system model for the dynamic behaviour of a re...

  15. Effectiveness and complications of SIGN intramedullary interlocking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Interlocking intramedullary nailing is the current state-of-the-art management of the shaft fractures of long bones. Objective: To assess the functional outcome of SIGN nailing of femoral and tibial fractures at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital. Design: Retrospective analytical, study over a three year period ...

  16. Radiation safety interlocks at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1985-07-01

    The function of the NSLS interlock systems is to insure that no one is in an area where there is hazardous radiation, and to turn off the radiation source if a person somehow gains access to such an area. The interlock systems for the high hazard areas meet the following design requirements: (1) The system is redundant, that is no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is done by providing 2 independent systems or circuits; (2) In so far as possible, the two circuits are physically different. This minimizes the possibility of related coincident failures; (3) The design is fail safe. This means that the most likely failure modes leave the system in a safe condition. For example, the following failures are safe: Loss of power in any part of the system, any combination of shorts to ground, and any combination of open circuits; and (4) The interlock system must be testable. Redundancy sometimes makes testing difficult, but testing schemes must be worked out, since an untested interlock is undependable

  17. Any Monotone Function Is Realized by Interlocked Polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Demaine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Suppose there is a collection of n simple polygons in the plane, none of which overlap each other. The polygons are interlocked if no subset can be separated arbitrarily far from the rest. It is natural to ask the characterization of the subsets that makes the set of interlocked polygons free (not interlocked. This abstracts the essence of a kind of sliding block puzzle. We show that any monotone Boolean function ƒ on n variables can be described by m = O(n interlocked polygons. We also show that the decision problem that asks if given polygons are interlocked is PSPACE-complete.

  18. Application software for new BEPC interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming; Na Xiangyin; Chen Jiansong; Yu Yulan

    1997-01-01

    New BEPC (Beijing electron Positron collider) interlock system has been built in order to improve the reliability of personnel safety and interlock functions. Moreover, the system updates BEPC operation message once every 6 seconds, which are displayed on TV screens at the major entrances. Since March of 1996, new BEPC interlock system has been operating reliably. The hardware of the system is based on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). A multimedia IBM/PC-586 as the host computer of the PLCs, monitors the PLC system via serial port COM2. The PC communicates with the central computer VAX-4500 of BEPC control system and gets operating massage of the accelerator through serial port COM3. The application software on the host computer has been developed. Visual C++ for MS-Windows 3.2 TM is selected as the work bench. It provides nice tools for building programs, such as APP STUDIO, CLASS WIZARD, APP WIZARD and debugger tool. The author describes the design idea and the structure of the application software. Error tolerance is taken into consideration. The author also presents a small database and its data structure for the application

  19. Beam Interlocks for LHC and SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A; Gimeno-Vicente, J; Nouchi, P; Puccio, B; Schmidt, R; Wenninger, J

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN (LHC) will operate at 7 TeV/c with a luminosity of 10 cms. This requires two beams with about 3^10 protons/beam, corresponding to a stored energy of about 350 MJ, sufficient to heat and melt 500 kg of copper. Protection of equipment from damage in case of uncontrolled beam losses is challenging. Injection of the beam from the SPS to the LHC could already damage equipment and is only permitted when all LHC systems are correctly prepared. In case of an uncontrolled loss of the circulating LHC beams, it is required to extract the beams into a specially designed target as soon as possible. Beam loss monitors and equipment for hardware surveillance are distributed around the 26 km long accelerator. In case of failures or beam losses, the beam interlock system is informed and sends a dump request to the beam dumping system. The beam interlock system also inhibits injection when the LHC is not ready for beam. In this paper the requirements for the beam interlock system are discussed...

  20. INTERFIRM COOPERATION AND INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When firms engage in cooperative efforts, interfirm relations get particular interest to be studied. A direct interlock occurs when an executive or director of one firm sits on the board of another firm, and an indirect interlock occurs when two firms have directors or executives who sit on the board of a third firm. The three commonly used theoretical models such as social network theory, learning theory, and theory of strategic choice are more relevant for the formation and management of interlocking directorates. Uncertainty, resource scarcity, mutual trust, dependency, etc. influence the formation of interlocking directorates. Consequently, interlocking directorates allow sharing of information and overall cooperation between partners through learning, collaboration, networking, and effective relationship, etc. Proper management of interlocking directorates requires communication and collaboration among partners that enhance exchange of knowledge and cooperation.

  1. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ''active'' protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated

  2. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.

  3. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... safety properties. This model accommodates sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. To verify the safety of an interlocking system, first a domain-specific description of interlocking configuration data is constructed and validated. Then the generic model and safety...

  4. Interlocking Nailing Versus Interlocking Plating in Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Sophia; Martin, Heiner; Ulmar, Benjamin; Döbele, Stefan; Zwipp, Hans; Rammelt, Stefan; Richter, Martinus; Pompach, Martin; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation with a plate is deemed to represent the gold standard of surgical treatment for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Standard plate fixation is usually placed through an extended lateral approach with high risk for wound complications. Minimally invasive techniques might avoid wound complications but provide limited construct stability. Therefore, 2 different types of locking nails were developed to allow for minimally invasive technique with sufficient stability. The aim of this study was to quantify primary stability of minimally invasive calcaneal interlocking nail systems in comparison to a variable-angle interlocking plate. After quantitative CT analysis, a standardized Sanders type IIB fracture model was created in 21 fresh-frozen cadavers. For osteosynthesis, 2 different interlocking nail systems (C-Nail; Medin, Nov. Město n. Moravě, Czech Republic; Calcanail; FH Orthopedics SAS; Heimsbrunn, France) as well as a polyaxial interlocking plate (Rimbus; Intercus GmbH; Rudolstadt, Germany) were used. Biomechanical testing consisted of a dynamic load sequence (preload 20 N, 1000 N up to 2500 N, stepwise increase of 100 N every 100 cycles, 0.5 mm/s) and a load to failure sequence (max. load 5000 N, 0.5 mm/s). Interfragmentary movement was detected via a 3-D optical measurement system. Boehler angle was measured after osteosynthesis and after failure occurred. No significant difference regarding load to failure, stiffness, Boehler angle, or interfragmentary motion was found between the different fixation systems. A significant difference was found with the dynamic failure testing sequence where 87.5% of the Calcanail implants failed in contrast to 14% of the C-Nail group (P plate. The highest load to failure was observed for the C-Nail. Boehler angle showed physiologic range with all implants before and after the biomechanical tests. Both minimally invasive interlocking nail systems displayed a high primary stability

  5. The SDUV-FEL vacuum interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Binchuan; Zhu Haijun; Ding Jiangguo

    2011-01-01

    Shanghai Deep Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (SDUV-FEL) test facility is an integrated multi-purpose test bed for FEL principles. In this paper, we focus on the development of an interlock system for SDUV-FEL vacuum protection. Hardware and software of the system implementations are introduced. A distributed control system composed of a PLC, an embedded computer and consoles based on EPICS toolkit is described in details. The system has been used for cascaded HGHG FEL experiment. Stability and reliability has been demonstrated. (authors)

  6. A DUAL NETWORK MODEL OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphry Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an integrative framework for the study of interlocking directorates by using an approach that encompasses the concepts of multiple networks and resource endowment. This serves to integrate the traditional views of interorganizational linkages and intra-class cohesion. Through appropriate strategic analysis of relevant resource endowment of internal environment and external networks of organizations and corporate elites, this article argues that the selection of directors, if used effectively, can be adopted as a strategic device to enhance the corporation's overall performance.

  7. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  8. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...

  9. Dual Interlocked Logic for Single-Event Transient Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Dual Interlocked Logic for Single -Event Transient Mitigation Jeffrey Maharrey, Jeffrey Kauppila, Dennis Ball, Timothy Holman, Lloyd Massengill...is shown to be robust to single event transients. Keywords: SET; CVSL; DIL; single event transient; hardened logic; cascode voltage switch; dual...interlocked Introduction Single event transients (SETs) generated in combinational logic are a major, often dominant, contributor to soft errors in

  10. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing route-based interlocking systems which are compatible with European Train Control System ETCS Level 2. The abstract syntax and static semantics of the language are formally defined using the RAISE Specification Language (RSL......). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...

  11. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    A large body of work in the Grubbs group has focused on the development of functional-group tolerant ruthenium alkylidene catalysts that perform a number of olefin metathesis reactions. These catalysts have seen application in a wide range of fields, including classic total synthesis as well as polymer and materials chemistry. One particular family of compounds, interlocked molecules, has benefitted greatly from these advances in catalyst stability and activity. This thesis describes several elusive and challenging interlocked architectures whose syntheses have been realized through the utilization of different types of ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions. Ring-closing olefin metathesis has enabled the synthesis of a [c2]daisy-chain dimer with the ammonium binding site near the cap of the dimer. A deprotonated DCD possessing such a structural attribute will more forcefully seek to restore coordinating interactions upon reprotonation, enhancing its utility as a synthetic molecular actuator. Dimer functionalization facilitated incorporation into linear polymers, with a 48% size increase of an unbound, extended analogue of the polymer demonstrating slippage of the dimer units. Ongoing work is directed at further materials studies, in particular, exploring the synthesis of macroscopic networks containing the DCD units and analyzing the correlation between molecular-scale extension-contraction manipulations and resulting macro-scale changes. A "clipping" approach to a polycatenated cyclic polymer, a structure that resembles a molecular "charm bracelet", has been described. The use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization of a carbamate monomer in the presence of a chain transfer agent allowed for the synthesis of a linear polymer that was subsequently functionalized and cyclized to the corresponding cyclic analogue. This cyclic polymer was characterized through a variety of techniques, and subjected to further functionalization reactions, affording a cyclic

  12. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  13. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Because interlocking systems are highly safety-critical complex systems, their automated safety verification is an active research topic investigated by several groups, employing verification techniques to produce important cost and time savings in their certification. However, such systems also...

  14. Interlock system for the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Martin; Sova, J.; Šíba, J.; Kovář, J.; Adámek, Jiří; Pánek, Radomír; Havlíček, Josef; Písačka, Jan; Mlynář, Jan; Stöckel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 505-508 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G09042; GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak operation * Interlock * Personnel safety Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-5003BXW-1&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=ef5794d05cc6530a905d1de43aa0ac6a&searchtype=a

  15. Artificial nanomachines based on interlocked molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credi, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The extension of the concept of machine to the molecular level is of great interest for the growth of nanoscience and the development of nanotechnology. A molecular machine can be defined as an assembly of a discrete number of molecular components (that is, a supramolecular structure) designed to perform a function through the mechanical movements of its components, which occur under appropriate external stimulation. Hence, molecular machines contain a motor part, that is a device capable of converting energy into mechanical work. Molecular motors and machines operate via nuclear rearrangements and, like their macroscopic counterparts, are characterized by the kind of energy input supplied to make them work, the manner in which their operation can be monitored, the possibility to repeat the operation at will, i.e., establishing a cyclic process, the timescale needed to complete a cycle of operation, and the performed function. Owing to the progresses made in several branches of chemistry, and to the better understanding of the operation mechanisms of molecular machines of the biological world, it has become possible to design and construct simple prototypes of artificial molecular motors and machines. Some examples based on rotaxanes, catenanes, and related interlocked molecules will be described

  16. Alcohol ignition interlock programmes for reducing drink driving recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C; Lybrand, S; Bellamy, N

    2004-10-18

    An ignition interlock device is part of a multi-dimensional programme aimed at reducing recidivism in convicted drink drivers. To operate a vehicle equipped with an ignition interlock device, the driver must first provide a breath specimen. If the breath alcohol concentration of the specimen exceeds the predetermined level, the vehicle will not start. As a measure to reduce circumvention of the device (i.e. someone else blows into the mouthpiece), random retests are required while the vehicle is running. Other components of the drink driving programme include information seminars for the driver and downloading data from the device's data logger, which logs all test attempts and records all passes, warnings and failures. To systematically assess the effectiveness of ignition interlock programmes on recidivism rates of drink drivers, by examining rates of recidivism while the ignition interlock device was installed in the vehicle and after removal of the device. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was searched, in addition to relevant electronic databases and the Internet. Controlled trials in which offenders have been charged with drink driving and have either been sentenced to participate in an ignition interlock programme or the usual punishment (either licence suspension or some form of treatment programme). This study was not restricted by language or status of publication. One randomised controlled trial (RCT) and ten controlled trials were identified, and also three ongoing trials. Data regarding recidivism while the interlock is installed in the vehicle; after the interlock has been removed from the vehicle and total recidivism during the study were extracted and entered into analyses using RevMan. The RCT showed that the interlock programme was effective while the device was installed in the vehicle; relative risk 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.63). Controlled trials support this conclusion, with a general trend - in both first-time and repeat

  17. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Javed, S.; Khan, G.N.; Aziz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Results: Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Conclusion: Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function. (author)

  18. Adaptive mechanical properties of topologically interlocking material systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, S; Siegmund, T; Cipra, R J; Bolton, J S

    2015-01-01

    Topologically interlocked material systems are two-dimensional granular crystals created as ordered and adhesion-less assemblies of unit elements of the shape of platonic solids. The assembly resists transverse forces due to the interlocking geometric arrangement of the unit elements. Topologically interlocked material systems yet require an external constraint to provide resistance under the action of external load. Past work considered fixed and passive constraints only. The objective of the present study is to consider active and adaptive external constraints with the goal to achieve variable stiffness and energy absorption characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system through an active control of the in-plane constraint conditions. Experiments and corresponding model analysis are used to demonstrate control of system stiffness over a wide range, including negative stiffness, and energy absorption characteristics. The adaptive characteristics of the topologically interlocked material system are shown to solve conflicting requirements of simultaneously providing energy absorption while keeping loads controlled. Potential applications can be envisioned in smart structure enhanced response characteristics as desired in shock absorption, protective packaging and catching mechanisms. (paper)

  19. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...... of behavioural (operational) semantics. The former checks that the plant model – that is, the software components reflecting the physical components of the interlocking system – has been set up in an adequate way. The latter investigates trains moving through the network, with the objective to uncover potential...... safety violations. From a formal methods perspective, these verification objectives can be approached by theorem proving, global, or bounded model checking. This article explains the techniques for application of bounded model checking techniques, and discusses their advantages in comparison...

  20. Poly[n]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-12-01

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (~75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass ~21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  1. Design of a dependable Interlock System for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Nouvel, Patrice

    For high energy accelerators, the interlock system is a key part of the machine protection. The interlock principle is to inhibit the beam either on failure of critical equipment and/or on low beam quality evaluation. The dependability of such a system is the most critical parameter. This thesis presents the design of an dependable interlock system for linear collider with an application to the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project. This design process is based on the IEEE 1220 standard and is is divided in four steps. First, the specifications are established, with a focus on the dependability, more precisely the reliability and the availability of the system. The second step is the design proposal based on a functional analysis, the CLIC and interfaced systems architecture. Third, the feasibility study is performed, applying the concepts in an accelerator facility. Finally, the last step is the hardware verification. Its aim is to prove that the proposed design is able to reach the requirements.

  2. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  3. 12 CFR 212.9 - Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.9 Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. The Board regards the provisions of the first three paragraphs of section 8 of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 19) to have been... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of Interlocks Act on Clayton Act. 212.9...

  4. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  5. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing route-based interlocking systems which are compatible with European Train Control System ETCS Level 2. The abstract syntax and static semantics of the language are formally defined using the RAISE Specification Language (RSL...

  6. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  7. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which is ba...

  8. Charging/Safety-Interlock Connection For Capacitor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrically controlled mechanical interlock apparatus prevents connection of bank of capacitors to battery or other dc power supply until capacitors precharged to nearly full supply voltage. Precharge eliminates excessive inrush current, which damages capacitors, wires, or connectors. Circuit in apparatus also discharges capacitors after power turned off or capacitors disconnected from power supply.

  9. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  10. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  11. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, I.; Martinez, G.; Lopez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  12. Design of modified safety interlock system for pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.L.; Lokare, R.N.; Matkar, U.V.; Ekambaram, M.; Gudekar, P.V.; Vishwakarma, Ramlal S.; Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has been operational for last twenty four years progressively with increased efficiency, delivering energetic light and heavy ions at medium energy. The process of beam acceleration makes the accelerator tower and beam hall radiation prone areas. A modified Interlock system for Pelletron Accelerator has been designed and developed to ensure radiation safety of the personnel working in the accelerator premises. Radiation levels from monitors, status of search and secure switches and entry doors of the accelerator tower, are inputs to the interlock system. The system triggers if radiation level exceeds the set value or status of any search and secure switches and entry doors across the tower are changed, thus stopping the beam at ion source level. This system also incorporates new features like-audio visual alarm pertaining to each location. (author)

  13. Design of responsive materials using topologically interlocked elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotnikov, A; Gerbrand, R; Qi, Y; Simon, G P; Estrin, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel approach to designing responsive structures by segmentation of monolithic plates into an assembly of topologically interlocked building blocks. The particular example considered is an assembly of interlocking osteomorphic blocks. The results of this study demonstrate that the constraining force, which is required to hold the blocks together, can be viewed as a design parameter that governs the bending stiffness and the load bearing capacity of the segmented structure. In the case where the constraining forces are provided laterally using an external frame, the maximum load the assembly can sustain and its stiffness increase linearly with the magnitude of the lateral load applied. Furthermore, we show that the segmented plate with integrated shape memory wires employed as tensioning cables can act as a smart structure that changes its flexural stiffness and load bearing capacity in response to external stimuli, such as heat generated by the switching on and off an electric current. (paper)

  14. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  15. Interlocked intramedullary nailing for treatment of open femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli, F; Baixauli, E J; Sánchez-Alepuz, E; Baixauli, F

    1998-05-01

    Twenty-eight patients with open femoral shaft fractures treated by reamed intramedullary nailing were reviewed retrospectively. Nine patients had Gustilo Grade I injuries; 14, Grade II; and five, Grade IIIA. Twenty cases had static locking, two cases had dynamic locking, and six cases were not locked. Average time to union was 20 weeks. The infection and nonunion rates were 0%. The data suggest that interlocked reamed intramedullary nailing is a safe treatment option for treating open femoral shaft fractures.

  16. External jig in the placement of distal interlocking screws | Ikem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde (52.2%) was the commonest surgical approach used for femur. The main indication for SIGN interlocking surgery was recent fracture 77.8%. Open reduction 97.8% was the commonest method of reduction used. The mean±SD bone union time was 3.58±0.56 months and range 3-5 months. Distal screw insertion ...

  17. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  18. Neutral beam interlock system on TFTR using infrared pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Although the region of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite tiles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm 2 the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200 0 C within 250 ms, and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock system based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of --30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900-nm pyrometer which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The pyrometer interlock system is designed to interrupt each of the 12 ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold which can be set in the range of 500--2300 0 C. A description of the pyrometer interlock system and its performance will be presented

  19. Determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this article was to identify the main determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian capital market. As the theoretical structure, the Agency theory and Corporate Governance, the Resource Dependence theory and the Board of Administrators and the Characteristics of Board Interlocking. The sample consists of 58 Brazilian companies that participate in the Bovespa Index (Ibovespa. An empirical analytic study was undertaken. With regard to the objectives, it is characterized as exploratory and, with regard to the procedures, a documentary research was undertaken. The data on the Boards of Administrators were collected from the Reference Forms available on the website of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA. The results found demonstrate the generalized presence of Board Interlocking in these companies, normally associated with four factors: (1 economic group formation; (2 governmental control; (3 formation of pension funds; and (4 presence of professionals with acknowledged market experience. The results also suggest that the first three factors give rise to long-lasting links and that these connections are hard to break. On the other hand, the links established through professionals with market experience tend to be more unstable because the presence of these professionals is highly demanded to serve on the board of different companies.

  20. Effects of Interlocking and Supporting Conditions on Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Geetimukta; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-02-01

    Concrete Block Paving (CBP) is widely used as wearing course in flexible pavements, preferably under light and medium vehicular loadings. Construction of CBP at site is quick and easy in quality control. Usually, flexible pavement design philosophy is followed in CBP construction, though it is structurally different in terms of small block elements with high strength concrete and their interlocking aspects, frequent joints and discontinuity, restrained edge etc. Analytical solution for such group action of concrete blocks under loading in a three dimensional multilayer structure is complex and thus, the need of conducting experimental studies is necessitated for extensive understanding of the load—deformation characteristics and behavior of concrete blocks in pavement. The present paper focuses on the experimental studies for load transfer characteristics of CBP under different interlocking and supporting conditions. It is observed that both interlocking and supporting conditions affect significantly on the load transfer behavior in CBP structures. Coro-lock block exhibits better performance in terms of load carrying capacity and distortion behavior under static loads. Plate load tests are performed over subgrade, granular sub-base (GSB), CBP with and without GSB using different block shapes. For an example case, the comparison of CBP with conventional flexible pavement section is also presented and it is found that CBP provides considerable benefit in terms of construction cost of the road structure.

  1. Achieving interlocking nails without using an image intensifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Innocent C; Ogunlusi, Johnson D; Ine, Henry R

    2007-08-01

    Interlocking nails are commonly performed using an image intensifier. These are expensive and are not readily available in most resource-poor countries of the world. The aim of this study was to achieve interlocking nailing without the use of an image intensifier. This is a prospective descriptive analysis of 40 consecutive cases seen with shaft fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia. Fracture fixation was done using Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nails. Forty limbs in 34 patients were studied. There were 12 females and 22 males, giving a ratio of 1:2. The mean age (years) was 35.75+/-13.16 and the range was 17-70 years. The studied bones were: humerus 10%, femur 65%, and tibia 25%. The fracture lines were: transverse 40%, oblique 15%, and communited 45%. Fracture grades were: closed 90%, grade I, 5%, grade II, 2.5%, and grade IIIA, 2.5%. Surgical approaches were: antegrade 62.5% and retrograde 37.5%. Indications for fixation were: recent fracture 92.5%, non-union 5%, and malunion 3%. Methods of reductions were: open 85% and closed 15%. The mean follow-up period (years) was 1.50+/-0.78. The union time averaged 3 months. Complication was mainly screw loosening due to severe osteoporoses in one case. It is, therefore, concluded that, with the aid of external jigs and slot finders, interlocking can be achieved without an image intensifier.

  2. The influence of biocalcification on soil-cement interlocking block compressive strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoosathaporn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Soil-cement interlocking block is used as the building block for many civil structures in Thailand. The addition of many alternative materials into interlocking block in order to improve compressive strength has been reported. However, there is currently no report on the influence of application of biocalcification or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP on interlocking block compressive strength. Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biocalcification on compressive strength of soil-cement interlocking block. Method. Soil bacterium, Bacillus pasteurii KCTC 3558, and Effective Microorganisms (EM were added into interlocking block before molding as the replacement of mixing water. The change of compressive strength in interlocking block at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of incubation was determined. Results. At 28 days, the compressive strength of interlocking block supplemented with B. pasteurii KCTC 3558 and 5% EM were 7.38% and 9.79% significantly higher than control. Calcium carbonate crystals were also observed under scanning electron microscope which suggested that an increased compressive strength of interlocking block was caused by biocalcification. Conclusions. Our results showed that microbiologically induced calcite precipitation could help increasing the compressive strength of soil-cement interlocking block.

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  5. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    The current trend of distributing computations over a network is here, as a novelty, applied to a safety critical system, namely a railway interlocking system. We show how the challenge of guaranteeing safety of the distributed application has been attacked by formally specifying and model checking...... the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  6. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C.

    1968-01-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [fr

  7. Stable three-dimensional metallic carbon with interlocking hexagons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Jena, Puru

    2013-11-19

    Design and synthesis of 3D metallic carbon that is stable under ambient conditions has been a long-standing dream. We predict the existence of such phases, T6- and T14-carbon, consisting of interlocking hexagons. Their dynamic, mechanical, and thermal stabilities are confirmed by carrying out a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. Unlike the previously studied K4 and the simple cubic high pressure metallic phases, the structures predicted in this work are stable under ambient conditions. Equally important, they may be synthesized chemically by using benzene or polyacenes molecules.

  8. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  9. Formal Development of a Tool for Automated Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kjær, Andreas A.; Le Bliguet, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for formal modelling relay interlocking systems and explains how it has been stepwise, formally developed using the RAISE method. The developed tool takes the circuit diagrams of a relay interlocking system as input and gives as result a state transition system modelling...

  10. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in...

  11. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between electrical and mechanical levers. 236.340 Section 236.340 Transportation Other Regulations... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical...

  12. Indus-2 machine safety interlock system - from design to commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothwal, Pankaj; Gupta, A.M.; Merh, B.; Fatnani, P.; Kumar, S.; Vaishnav, H.; Satheesan, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    INDUS-2 is a 2.5 GeV, 300 mA electron storage ring in operation at RRCAT, Indore. It is a one of its kind national facility with plans for 27 user beam lines from bending magnets. Any such large facility requires sufficient measures of machine safety besides occupational radiation safety during normal course of operation. In fact, machine safety is a major concern as any serious fault can cause expensive and extensive damage to machine components like magnets, vacuum chambers, vacuum valves etc. resulting in possibly long periods of machine shutdown. The machine has to clear many pre-checks to come to states of operation and certain conditions have to be maintained for operating it safely. The Machine Safety Interlock System (MSIS) must fulfil the normal requirements of a safety critical system. In the accelerator environment, such system must be easily configurable and expandable also. Therefore an intelligent computer based system has been developed and deployed. The INDUS-2 MSIS takes inputs from cooling water switches of photon absorbers and magnets, magnet coil temperatures, DCCT core temperature, vacuum sector valve status, door interlocks and search and scram system, integrated temperature status from vacuum chambers etc. The machine condition inputs to trip outputs relations are defined with equations. The paper presents the design basis, the system implementation details, performance issues and experiences. (author)

  13. Nonreamed interlocked intramedullary tibial nailing. One community's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwelius, P J; Schmidt, A H; Rubinstein, R A; Green, J M

    1995-06-01

    Forty-nine acute displaced tibial fractures (31 closed, 18 open: 5 Grade I, 7 Grade II, 4 Grade IIIA, and 2 Grade IIIB) were treated in 1 community with a standard operative protocol using a distractor without a fracture table, and an unreamed interlocked tibial nail. Forty-six fractures healed (94%). Complications included 3 nonunions (6%), 2 deep infections (4%), 9 delayed unions (18%), 4 angular malunions (8%), 2 rotatory malunions (4%), and 12 interlocking screws bent or broke (24%). Twenty-eight patients (57%) required at least 1 additional operation to obtain union, most commonly dynamization of a statically locked nail. The authors conclude that unreamed tibial nails provide adequate stabilization of displaced tibial fractures and can be used in the management of most open or closed tibial fractures. However, static locking is required in axially unstable fractures. Early dynamization or exchange nailing and bone grafting should be considered to hasten union and avoid screw failure. The distractor is an excellent adjunctive technique for reduction and alignment of tibial shaft fractures during intramedullary nailing.

  14. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  15. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  16. Software Development for Auto-Generation of Interlocking Knowledge base using Artificial Intelligence Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yun Seok [Nanseoul University (Korea); Kim, JOng Sun [Kwangwoon University (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This paper proposes IIKBAG (Intelligent Interlocking Knowledge Base Generator) which can build automatically the interlocking knowledge base utilized as the real-time interlocking strategy of the electronic interlocking system in order to enhance it's reliability and expansion. The IIKBAG consists of the inference engine and the knowledge base. The former has an auto-learning function which searches all the train routes for the given station model based on heuristic search technique while dynamically searching the model, and then generates automatically the interlocking patterns obtained from the interlocking relations of signal facilities on the routes. The latter is designed as the structure which the real-time expert system embedded on IS (Interlocking System) can use directly in order to enhances the reliability and accuracy. The IIKBAG is implemented in C computer language for the purpose of the build and interface of the station structure database. And, a typical station model is simulated to prove the validity of the proposed IIKBAG. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Compressibility effects on double tearing mode interlocking in differentially rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xian-Qu; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Wei, Lai; Xu, Wen-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Effects of compressibility on the double tearing modes (DTMs) in rotating plasmas are numerically investigated by using a compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model. It is found that due to the compressibility effects, the threshold of the interlocking magnetic island width in the slow and intermediate rotation regimes is larger than the counterpart in the incompressible plasmas. In the fast rotation regime, the compressible effect makes the DTM islands interlock more easily and faster. Moreover, in the very fast rotation regime, the plasma rotation can more effectively suppress the DTM islands. The scalings of the interlocking threshold in the different rotation regimes are obtained. Effects of plasma viscosity and beta on the DTM interlocking in the compressible plasmas are also discussed. -- Highlights: ► The threshold of the interlocking island width is larger than the counterpart in the incompressible plasmas. ► Compressible effect makes the islands interlock more easily and faster. ► The plasma rotation can more effectively suppress the DTM islands in the very fast rotation regime. ► Plasma beta effect on DTM interlocking is discussed.

  18. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability

  19. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  20. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  1. Communities detection as a tool to assess a reform of the Italian interlocking directorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ricciuti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Interlocking directorships are important communication channels among companies and may have anticompetitive effect. A corporate governance reform was introduced in 2011 to prevent interlocking directorships in the financial sector. We apply community detection techniques to the analysis of the networks in 2009 and 2012 to ascertain the effect of such reform on the Italian directorship network. We find that, although the number of interlocking directorships decreases in 2012, the reduction takes place mainly at the periphery of the network. The network core is stable, allowing the most connected companies to keep their strategic position.

  2. Interlock recovery during the drying, calcination and vitrification phase of Am/Cm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of five CIM5 [5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter] runs designed to demonstrate power interlock recovery methods during the drying, calcination and vitrification phases of the Am/Cm melter cycle

  3. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    The adaptation of commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel has required the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated in a commercial robot which was modified and with additional interlocks into the existing robotic control system. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem in the Secure Automated Fabrication facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  4. 18 CFR 45.9 - Automatic authorization of certain interlocking positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... owned, wholly or in part, by the other and, as its primary business, owns or operates transmission or... interlock involves affiliated public utilities. (b) Conditions of authorization. As a condition of...

  5. Compositional Model Checking of Interlocking Systems for Lines with Multiple Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the railway domain safety is guaranteed by an interlocking system which translates operational decisions into commands leading to field operations. Such a system is safety critical and demands thorough formal verification during its development process. Within this context, our work has focused...... on the extension of a compositional model checking approach to formally verify interlocking system models for lines with multiple stations. The idea of the approach is to decompose a model of the interlocking system by applying cuts at the network modelling level. The paper introduces an alternative cut (the...... linear cut) to a previously proposed cut (border cut). Powered with the linear cut, the model checking approach is then applied to the verification of an interlocking system controlling a real-world multiple station line....

  6. CAMAC-based interlock system for power-supply-hardware protection on MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    This interlock module accepts 16 inputs and generates, in conjunction with an internal PROM map, 8 outputs. This decision process is autonomous of the CAMAC dataway and host computer. The map is generated, burned and verified by a user interactive program written to accept input/output equations in Boolean algebra. The interlock module requires the host computer to periodically interrogate it to verify proper operation of the module, host computer and date link; otherwise, permissives are dropped. An internal mask register may be used to override interlock inputs. This mask is perishable and must be constantly refreshed. Output drivers may be operated in a latch/no latch mode. This prevents outputs, once dropped, from being reasserted even if the proper input sequence is reestablished. A first-out register may be utilized to determine which input has dropped first in the event that chain reactions are developed among the interlock inputs

  7. Washington State's alcohol ignition interlock law: effects on recidivism among first-time DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Leaf, William A; Farmer, Charles M; Eichelberger, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of changes to Washington State's ignition interlock laws: moving issuance of interlock orders from courts to the driver licensing department in July 2003 and extending the interlock order requirement to first-time offenders with blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) below 0.15 percent ("first simple driving under the influence [DUI]") in June 2004. Trends in conviction types, interlock installation rates, and 2-year cumulative recidivism rates were examined for first-time convictions (simple, high-BAC, test refusal DUI; deferred prosecution; alcohol-related negligent driving) stemming from DUI arrests between January 1999 and June 2006. Regression analyses examined recidivism effects of the law changes and interlock installation rates. To examine general deterrent effects, trends in single-vehicle late-night crashes in Washington were compared with trends in California and Oregon. After the 2004 law change, the proportion of simple DUIs declined somewhat, though the proportion of negligent driving convictions (no interlock order requirement) continued an upward trend. Interlock installation rates for first simple DUIs were 3 to 6 percent in the year before the law change and one third after. Recidivism declined by an estimated 12 percent (e.g., expected 10.6% without law change vs. 9.3% among offenders arrested between April and June 2006, the last study quarter) among first simple DUI offenders and an estimated 11 percent (expected 10.2% vs. 9.1%) among all first-time offenders. There was an estimated 0.06 percentage point decrease in the recidivism rate for each percentage point increase in the proportion of first simple DUI offenders with interlocks. If installation rates had been 100 vs. 34 percent for first simple DUI offenders arrested between April and June 2006, and if the linear relationship between rates of recidivism and installations continued, recidivism could have been reduced from 9.3 to 5.3 percent. With installation rates of

  8. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppa Srinivas; Yerukala Ramana; Dema Rajaiah; Mohammad Akbar Khan; Sujith Omkaram; Venkateswar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of t he tibial shaft and study the difficulties (complications) encountered during the operative study. To compare the efficacy of interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in treating open fractures of tibia, Time required for the union of fracture, Range of motion of ankle and knee joint, Rate of malunion and mal rota...

  9. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. Materials and Methods: In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most scre...

  10. Governance of pension funds: interlocking and compensation of Australian superannuation fund boards

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Elizabeth Meishan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents the incidence and determinants of board interlocking (where directors simultaneously sit on multiple boards) in pension funds and examines its effect on fund performance. It also investigates the determinants of pension fund director compensation. The motivation to examine these issues stems from the distinctive interlocking and compensation practices in pension funds. Data on a sample of 249 Australian pension funds from 2004 to 2011 is collected from fund documents ...

  11. Strength properties of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, S.; Bakar, B. H. Abu; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a laboratory investigation on the properties of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Compressive strength, which is one of the most important properties in masonry structures, is used to determine masonry performance. The compressive strength of the ICEB units was determined by applying a compressive strength test for 340 units from four types of ICEB. To analyze the strength of the ICEB units, each unit was capped by a steel plate at the top and bottom to create a flat surface, and then ICEB was loaded until failure. The average compressive strength of the corresponding ICEB units are as follows: wall brick, 19.15 N/mm2; beam brick, 16.99 N/mm2; column brick, 13.18 N/mm2; and half brick, 11.79 N/mm2. All the ICEB units had compressive strength of over 5 N/mm2, which is the minimum strength for a load-bearing brick. This study proves that ICEB units may be used as load-bearing bricks. The strength of ICEBs is equal to that of other common bricks and blocks that are currently available in the market.

  12. Water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, B. H. Abu; Saari, S.; Surip, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the water absorption characteristic of interlocking compressed earth brick (ICEB) units. Apart from compressive strength, water absorption is an important property in masonry. This property can affect the quality of the brick itself and the bond strength between the brick and mortar in masonry structures and can result in reducing its strength properties. The units were tested for 24 h water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption. A total of 170 ICEB units from four ICEB types underwent both tests. For the 24 h water absorption, the ICEB units were dried in the oven for 24 h and then cooled before being weighed. Thereafter, each brick was immersed in water for 24 h and weighed. The same specimens used for the 24 h water absorption test were re-used for the 5 h boiling water absorption test. After completing the 24 h water absorption test, the brick was boiled for 5-hours and weighed. The highest water absorption for the ICEBs in the 24-hour water absorption and 5 h boiling water absorption tests are 15.09% and 17.18%, respectively. The half brick has the highest water absorption (15.87%), whereas the beam brick has the lowest (13.20%). The water absorption of an ICEB unit is higher than that of normal bricks, although the water absorption of the former remains below the maximum rate of the brick water absorption (21%).

  13. Interlocked by nanoscale sculpturing: pure aluminum copper contacts (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerngross-Baytekin, Melike; Gerngross, Mark Daniel; Carstensen, Jürgen; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Connecting metals reliable with different corrosion potential is a well-known challenge. An extreme example are copper aluminum contacts. Galvanic corrosion occurs if the two different metals are in contact with each other and an electrolyte, the aluminum becomes susceptible to corrosion under current flow. Usually, antioxidant pastes containing metals are employed but create difficulties e.g. for fatigue resistant power electronic connections. The recently described process of nanoscale sculpturing [1] offers an alternative. Usually, if the surface of metals like aluminium are prepared they are just arbitrary cuts through the bulk. There is no optimization of the surface grain structure towards stability at all. Neither the crystalline facets in the grains are in their most stable orientation nor is the protective oxide shell the most stable one. The nanoscale sculpturing approach is carving out the most stable grains and planes by chemical or electrochemical treatment. The decisive trick is that the chemistry is targeting towards the instable oxide and not the metal. Aluminium sample surfaces including alloys like AA575 exhibit afterwards single crystalline surface facets covered with nanoscale stable oxide films. Galvanically deposited copper forms extremely reliable interlocked connections on top, even allowing for soldering on top of their surface.

  14. Interlocking Corporate Directorates and the Global City Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the direct and indirect economic linkages of the most prominent cities in the world, those commonly referred to as “global cities”, in terms of the direct and indirect linkages of the boards of directors of Fortune Global 500 firms headquartered in a given city with boards of directors of other firms. Specifically, we identify the interlocks of corporate boards located within these major cities with other Fortune 500 boards of directors by degrees of separation, and present a new ranking for selected global cities based upon these direct and indirect ties. We find that New York clearly dominates these economic linkages, followed by London and Paris. This is most pronounced for financial companies. Contrary to other global city rankings, we locate Tokyo below Frankfurt and Chicago on this dimension. We argue that these multiple levels of indirect relationships reflect a significant, and until now unexplored, dimension of what it means to be a “global” city.

  15. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  16. Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures. Part III: Long-term effects of static interlocking fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, R J; Ellison, T S; Poka, A; Bathon, G H; Burgess, A R

    1992-01-01

    The results of treatment of fractures of the femoral shaft with static interlocking nailing were reviewed retrospectively to determine the clinical importance of any stress-riser or stress-shielding properties of the nail. These properties, if relevant, would have been manifested by refracture of the femur, either through a hole used for a locking screw or through the original site of fracture after extraction of the device. Two hundred and fourteen fractures that had been treated with static interlocking nailing and that had healed without conversion to dynamic intramedullary fixation were divided into two groups. In Group I, which comprised 111 fractures, the static interlocking-fixation device was retained and in Group II, which comprised 103 fractures, the static interlocking-fixation device was removed during one operative procedure at an average of fourteen months after the injury. The average duration of follow-up was thirty months from the time of the original fixation in both groups. All patients in Group II were followed for a minimum of six months after removal of the nail. No femur in Group I, in which the static interlocked nail remained in situ, refractured. No femur in either group fractured through the proximal or the distal holes used for the locking screws. No locking screws or nails broke. One patient (1 per cent) in Group II had a refracture of the femoral shaft through the site of the original fracture six weeks after removal of the nail.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaera-Sanz, M [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science, Higher School of Technical Sciences CEU, Universidad Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: manzaesan@yahoo.es

    2009-08-15

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of {mu}seconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  18. Evaluation of a fast PLC module in prospect of the LHC beam interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Zaera-Sanz, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of mseconds. Siemens has introduced a “so called” fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor) that provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This note publishes the results of this study. As well, this note could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  19. The Impact of Board Interlocks on Auditor Choice and Audit Fees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise Johansen, Thomas; Pettersson, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research Question/Issue This paper uses unique Danish data to examine whether non-executive directors draw on both direct and indirect ties in the network of interlocking directorates to impact auditor choice, and whether this impact has consequences for audit fees. Research Findings/Insight The ......Research Question/Issue This paper uses unique Danish data to examine whether non-executive directors draw on both direct and indirect ties in the network of interlocking directorates to impact auditor choice, and whether this impact has consequences for audit fees. Research Findings...... of the non-executive director–auditor relationship and the role that board networks have in governing auditor choice decisions. The study identifies interlocks as an infrastructure for differentiation in the audit market and determines that such differentiation is associated with an audit fee premium...

  20. Ulnar interlocking intramedullary nail stabilization of a proximal radio-ulnar fracture in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatineau, Matthieu; Planté, Jérôme

    2010-12-01

    To report use of an ulnar interlocking intramedullary nail for repair of an open highly comminuted fracture of the proximal third of the antebrachium in a dog, caused by gunshot. Case report. 1.5-year old, 60 kg, neutered male Mastiff. An ulnar interlocking intramedullary nail was used to stabilize an open comminuted proximal antebrachial fracture and a cast applied for 4 weeks. Union by secondary bone healing occurred in 8 weeks. At 16 weeks, there was advanced remodeling of the radial and ulnar bony callus and fracture lines were no longer evident. Limb use was normal with normal pain free range of motion of the right elbow. Ulnar interlocking nail is a viable alternative treatment for highly comminuted fracture of the proximal third of the antebrachium in dogs. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Poly[ n ]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-11-30

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (similar to 75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass similar to 21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  2. Design of Control and Interlocking System for a Typical Radar Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushan Raju KONDURU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents design and constructional features of CPLD based control and interlocking units for a typical MST radar transmitter. The conventional digital hardware used for controlling the radar transmitter and performing the interlock operations has been replaced by Xilinx’s XC9572C10PC84 CPLD device. The latest state of the art devices replace the front panel switches and LEDs display. This has resulted in miniaturizing the entire control and interlock subsystems. The necessary code is written in Verilog HDL. The newly designed system overcomes the design flaws in the earlier system hardware. The performance and results of the system have been verified with the simulation and real time testing at the plant. The unit testing is performed for more than four months with continuous operation of transmitter and the test report is highly encouraging.

  3. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current robotic systems have been developed primarily for the automotive and electronic industry. The adaptation of these commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel requires the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated into a commercial robot. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem into the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  4. Online visual inspection of self-piercing riveting to determine the quality of the mechanical interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P; Cullen, J D; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2007-01-01

    Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has become a significant joining technique for the automotive applications of aluminium sheets. Quality control in this locale has progressed at an altogether more leisurely rate than other areas of mechanical joining (e.g. spotweld) and is underdeveloped. Testing the quality mechanical interlock is often achieved by destructive testing, which results in material and time wastage. The solution is online monitoring of the self-piercing riveting process to provide non-destructive testing of the mechanical interlock. Introducing sensors into the process facilitates real time data acquisition, which can be used to determine the quality of the joint

  5. The engineering project and reliability research of the safety interlock slow control system in BESIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yinhong; Zhao Jingwei; Li Xiaonan; Xie Xiaoxi; Gao Cuishan; Bai Jingzhi; Chen Xihui; Min Jian; Nie Zhendong

    2008-01-01

    The new safety interlock slow control system of BESIII is designed to ensure that the BESIII interior equipments and the accelerator control center to work in coordination, and to guarantee the safety of the operating staff and all the important equipments at the same time. This paper introduces the hardware and software design of safety interlock system from the engineering requirements angle, including a detailed research on the software implementation technique of the state machine on PLC and the reliability of the system. (authors)

  6. Towards a Framework for Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework currently under development for modelling, simulation, and verification of relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways. The framework is centred around a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing such systems, and provides (1) a graphical editor...

  7. 46 CFR 111.70-7 - Remote control, interlock, and indicator circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-7..., interlock, or indicator circuit of a motor controller must be protected against overcurrent unless: (1) The... hazard. Note: For overcurrent protection of steering gear control and indicator circuits, see Subpart 111...

  8. Custom sectional impression trays with interlocking type handle for microstomia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Aquaviva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Making impressions in microstomia patients is often cumbersome. A modification of standard impression procedure is often necessary while treating such patients. This article describes the fabrication of a custom sectional impression tray with interlocking type of a handle for definitive impression procedures in a microstomia patient.

  9. Development of Interlocking Masonry Bricks and its’ Structural Behaviour: A Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Amin; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Nuruddin, Fadhil; Nikbakht, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Conventional bricks are the most elementary building materials for houses construction. However, the rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for a new building technique that may result in even greater economy, more efficient and durable as an alternative for the conventional brick. Moreover, the high demands for having a speedy and less labour and cost building systems is one of the factor that cause the changes of the masonry conventional systems. These changes have led to improved constructability, performance, and cost as well. Several interlocking bricks has been developed and implemented in building constructions and a number of researches had studied the manufacturing of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour as load bearing and non-load bearing element. This technical paper aims to review the development of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour. In conclusion, the concept of interlocking system has been widely used as a replacement of the conventional system where it has been utilized either as load bearing or non-load bearing masonry system.

  10. The Utilisation of Shredded PET as Aggregate Replacement for Interlocking Concrete Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, M.; Kaamin, M.; Sahat, S.; Hamid, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    The consumption of plastic has grown substantially all over the world in recent years and this has created huge quantities of plastic-based waste. Plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to the modern way of living, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. This creates substantial garbage every day, which is much unhealthy. Plastic bottles such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was use as the partially component in this making of interlocking blocks concrete. This project investigates the strength and workability of the interlocking block concrete by replacing course aggregate with % PET. The suitability of recycled plastics (PET) as course aggregate in interlocking block concrete and its advantages are discussed here. Moreover, there were more benefits when using interlocking block than using conventional block such as it easy for construction because they are aligning, easy to place, high speed stacking and they offer more resistance to shear and buildings would be even stronger. Based on the test perform, the failure parameter were discussed .From the compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with increased of PET used. From the results, it shows that higher compressive strength was found with 5% natural course aggregate replaced with PET compared to other percentages.

  11. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (VandV) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification

  12. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft. (Gustillo type 1, type 2, type 3a, type 3b) . 2. To study the difficulties ( C omplications) encountered during the operative study. 3. To mobilize the patient early. ...

  13. Control and Interlocking System for Bending Magnet Front-end at Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sanjeev R.; Garg, Chander Kant; Nandedkar, R. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present control and interlock system developed for Indus-2 bending magnet front-end. The paper describes in detail the control of various signals associated with the front-end and the interlocking scheme implemented for the installed front-end. The number of signals associated with each front-end is ˜ 75. A control system is designed for monitoring temperature, pressure, airflow, water flow and control of vacuum gauges, fast shutter, water cooled shutter, safety shutter, pneumatic gate valves, sputter ion pump power supplies, beam position monitor etc. Two independent signals are generated for critical components that are used for software interlock and hard-wired interlock. The front-end control system is VME based and window 2000/XP workstation as an operator console. The CPU used is Motorola 68000-processor board of the VME bus having OS-9 real time operating system. One VME crate serves a cluster of 2-3 front ends. The communication between the VME and the workstation is linked over RS232 serial communication. The sputter ion power supplies are connected over isolated RS485 network. Critical protection features are implemented so that no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is implemented by providing two independent chains of protection (1) Hard wired in which relay logic is used and (2) Software. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Lab view Version 7.0.

  14. Förster resonance energy transfer by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogoshi, T.; Yamafuji, D.; Yamagishi, T.; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A[2]rotaxane has been constructed from a di-pyrene appended pillar[5]arene wheel, a pyridinium axle, and a perylene stopper. It shows efficient Forster resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane.

  15. 18 CFR 131.31 - FERC Form No. 561, Annual report of interlocking positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial services or credit; mutual savings bank; or savings and loan association FINI Insurance company..., Annual report of interlocking positions. 131.31 Section 131.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... positions. (See section 46.4 of this chapter.) ER31DE98.003 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING ANNUAL REPORT OF...

  16. Vertical interlocks of executives and performance of affiliated firms in state owned Chinese business groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Na, Chaohong

    increases. Our findings are consistent with the hypotheses that vertically interlocking executives can increase firm value by providing better protection against political interference and expropriation by the ultimate controllers of business groups. Our study sheds new light in the role and function...

  17. Internal Iliac Artery Embolization during an Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with Detachable Interlock Microcoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo ChuL; Jeon, Yong Sun; Hong, Kee Chun; Cho, Soon Gu; Park, Jae Young [Inha University Hospital, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jang Yong [Dept. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of detachable interlock microcoils for an embolization of the internal iliac artery during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A retrospective review was conducted on 40 patients with aortic aneurysms, who had undergone an EVAR between January 2010 and March 2012. Among them, 16 patients were referred for embolization of the internal iliac artery for the prevention of type II endoleaks. Among 16 patients, 13 patients underwent embolization using detachable interlock microcoils during an EVAR. Computed tomographic angiographies and clinical examinations were performed during the follow-up period. Technical success, clinical outcome, and complications were reviewed. Internal iliac artery embolizations using detachable interlock microcoils were technically successful in all 13 patients, with no occurrence of procedure-related complications. Follow-up imaging was accomplished in the 13 cases. In all cases, type II endoleak was not observed with computed tomographic angiography during the median follow-up of 3 months (range, 1-27 months) and the median clinical follow-up of 12 months (range, 1-27 months). Two of 13 (15%) patients had symptoms of buttock pain, and one patient died due to underlying stomach cancer. No significant clinical symptoms such as bowel ischemia were observed. Internal iliac artery embolization during an EVAR using detachable interlock microcoils to prevent type II endoleaks appears safe and effective, although this should be further proven in a larger population.

  18. Architecture for interlock systems: reliability analysis with regard to safety and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.; Apollonio, A.; Schmidt, R.; Zerlauth, M.; Vergara-Fernandez, A.

    2012-01-01

    For particle accelerators like LHC and other large experimental physics facilities like ITER, the machine protection relies on complex interlock systems. In the design of interlock loops for the signal exchange in machine protection systems, the choice of the hardware architecture impacts on machine safety and availability. The reliable performance of a machine stop (leaving the machine in a safe state) in case of an emergency, is an inherent requirement. The constraints in terms of machine availability on the other hand may differ from one facility to another. Spurious machine stops, lowering machine availability, may to a certain extent be tolerated in facilities where they do not cause undue equipment wear-out. In order to compare various interlock loop architectures in terms of safety and availability, the occurrence frequencies of related scenarios have been calculated in a reliability analysis, using a generic analytical model. This paper presents the results and illustrates the potential of the analysis method for supporting the choice of interlock system architectures. The results show the advantages of a 2003 (3 redundant lines with 2-out-of-3 voting) over the 6 architectures under consideration for systems with high requirements in both safety and availability

  19. Hands-on robotic distal interlocking in intramedullary nail fixation of femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszwald, Markus; Westphal, Ralf; Stier, Rebecca; Gaulke, Ralph; Calafi, Afshin; Müller, Christian W; Wahl, Friedrich; Krettek, Christian; Gösling, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become the gold standard in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. This procedure involves the placement of distal interlocking bolts using the freehand technique. Accurate placement of distal interlocks can be a challenging task, especially in inexperienced hands. Misplacement of distal interlocking bolts can lead to iatrogenic fracture, instability of the bone-implant construct, or even malalignment of the extremity. Repeated drilling attempts increase radiation exposure and can cause additional bony and soft tissue trauma. We hypothesize that robot-guided placement of distal interlocks is more accurate, precise, and efficient than the freehand technique. A custom-designed drill guide was mounted onto the arm of an industrial robot. We developed a special device to secure a generic block (Synbone, Malans, Switzerland) into which an intramedullary nail could be inserted in a standardized way. A metric scale allowed later measurements of the drillings. Digital images were taken from each side of the block for analysis of the drilling trajectories. The fluoroscope was adjusted to obtain perfect circles of the distal interlocking holes. The number of images necessary to achieve this was recorded. The axis was recognized automatically by using the differences in contrast between the matrix of the generic bone and the implant (intramedullary nail). The drill trajectories were then computed. The robot with the mounted drill-guide automatically moved onto the calculated trajectory. The surgeon then executed the drilling. We performed 40 robot assisted drillings in generic blocks. Freehand drilling served as our control group. Analysis of the digital images revealed a mean deviation of 0.94 mm and 2.7° off the ideal trajectory using robotic assistance. In 100% of the cases (n = 40), the distal locking hole was hit. A mean of 8.8 images was acquired. After manual drilling, 92.5% of the distal interlocks were hit. A mean deviation of 3.66 mm

  20. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  1. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  2. Design of test JIG for centralized interlock and protection module of ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Rao, S.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Fast Interlock and protection system plays very crucial role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of high power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system. Critical Protection Interlocks are generally implemented using hardwired components and are required to have a response time as fast as < 10 μs. In this context, an Industrial grade prototype Centralized Interlock and Protection Module (CIM) based on ITER-India design has been developed successfully with the help of local industry. This paper presents the complete requirements, approach, detailed design concept and current status of Test JIG in detail

  3. Final report on a cold climate permeable interlocking concrete pavement test facility at the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) completed a two year field verification study of a permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP) stormwater management system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cold climate function...

  4. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  5. The multi-interlock and check of logical system for 5 MW low power reactor automatic rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjian; Zhao Zengqiao

    1992-01-01

    The safety and reliability of the logical system for 5 MW LPR automatic rod are improved, because of using multi-interlock and manual check on line. The design character and function of the logical system are introduced

  6. The Effects of Interlocking a Universal Hip Cementless Stem on Implant Subsidence and Mechanical Properties of Cadaveric Canine Femora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buks, Yonathan; Wendelburg, Kirk L; Stover, Susan M; Garcia-Nolen, Tanya C

    2016-02-01

    To determine if an interlocking bolt would limit subsidence of the biological fixation universal hip (BFX(®)) femoral stem under cyclic loading and enhance construct stiffness, yield, and failure properties. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine femora (10 pairs). Paired femora implanted with a traditional stem or an interlocking stem (constructs) were cyclically loaded at walk, trot, and gallop loads while implant and bone motions were captured using kinematic markers and high-speed video. Constructs were then loaded to failure to evaluate failure mechanical properties. Implant subsidence was greater (P = .037) for the traditional implant (4.19 mm) than the interlocking implant (0.78 mm) only after gallop cyclic loading, and cumulatively after walk, trot, and gallop cyclic loads (5.20 mm vs. 1.28 mm, P = .038). Yield and failure loads were greater (P = .029 and .002, respectively) for the interlocking stem construct (1155 N and 2337 N) than the traditional stem construct (816 N and 1405 N). Version angle change after cyclic loading was greater (P = .020) for the traditional implant (3.89 degrees) than for the interlocking implant (0.16 degrees), whereas stem varus displacement at failure was greater (P = .008) for the interlocking implant (1.5 degrees) than the traditional implant (0.17 degrees). Addition of a stabilizing bolt enhanced construct stability and limited subsidence of a BFX(®) femoral stem. Use of the interlocking implant may decrease postoperative subsidence. However, in vivo effects of the interlocking bolt on osseointegration, bone remodeling, and stress shielding are unknown. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lawson, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Marsala, R.; Schneider, H.

    2009-01-01

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  8. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-BETA Personnel Safety and Interlocks System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the ''field-side'' of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-BETA Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  9. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES OF TIBIA WITH INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishna; Shivananda; Santhosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intramedullary interlocking is currently considered the treatment of choice for tibial shaft fractures, with high rates of fracture union, advantage of early stabilization which decreases the morbidity and mortality rate in patients, allows early mobilization, reduces the incidence of infection, malunion, non-union or implant failure. OBJECTIVES: To assess and study diaphyseal fractures of tibia and to evaluate the functional outcome of patients with tibial shaft fracture treated ...

  11. [Proximal interlocking of humeral intramedullary nails and risk of axillary nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Rommens, P M

    2002-01-01

    Possible injuries to the axillary nerve are criticised in antegrade and retrograde endomedullary nailing of the humeral shaft during proximal interlocking. Clinical experience seems not to support the theory of a high risk of nerve injury. The real risk although remains unknown under anatomical-morphological aspects. Eight complete human cadaveric shoulder-arm regions with original soft-tissue coverage had been used. Four times the unreamed humeral nail (UHN) had been inserted retrograde, and four times antegrade, distributed in each pair. Antegrade interlocking was performed after skin incision and spreading of soft tissues through the aiming devices. This involved one oblique bolt from lateral to medial. Retrograde proximal interlocking was performed under image intensifier. This involved triple interlocking, once dorso-ventrally and twice latero-medially. The incision paths have been marked. After preparation of the nerve stem in the lateral axillary portal the different branches have been searched and exposed. The spatial relations of bolts and nerve branches have been measured and the insertion path of the bolts has been revised, finally lesions of nerve structures have been documented. We found the latero-medially inserted bolt heads of the retrograde approach and the oblique bolt head of the antegrade approach being placed in a safe distance from the medio-dorsally positioned stem of the axillary nerve. On the other hand the dorsoventrally inserted bolt head (retrograde approach) showed in most cases a very tight relation to the nerve stem. Exploring the axillary nerve and its branches showed in no case a direct nerve lesion. We suggest to perform only a sharp cutaneous incision and then to prepare the muscle only by careful spreading until touching bone, with tissue retraction during drilling. In retrograde nailing the dorso-ventral bolt should only be used in extreme proximal fractures.

  12. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal.

  13. Radiation-free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and Femur Nailing: A Simple Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Ritesh Kumar; Mehta, Surender Mohan; Awasthi, Bhanu; Singh, Janith Lal; Kumar, Amit; Thakur, Lokesh; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Distal interlocking screw insertion in intramedullary nailing of long-bone fracture is a challenging task for orthopedic surgeons. It is difficult particularly when the surgeon is in his learning stage or when image intensifier is not available. We describe a radiation-free technique of distal interlocking screw insertion which is easy and practicable. In this technique, a same length nail is placed over the skin (outer nail) and through its distal-most screw hole, a 3.2 mm drill bit is inserted to drill the distal locking screw hole of the intramedullary nail (inner nail). With a small skin incision over the distal screw holes, the distal-most screw hole is identified; the bone window overlying the screw hole is widened with an awl and a locking bolt is inserted with a washer under direct visualization. The other distal interlocking screw is simply drilled by matching the other three holes of the outer and inner nails. We have operated 86 patients (39 femoral shaft fracture and 47 tibial shaft fracture) in 1 year where this technique was used. There were 41 open fracture and 45 closed fracture. Within 6 months of follow-up, bony union was achieved in 36 of 39 femur fractures and 45 of 47 tibial fractures. No unwanted complications were observed during the postoperative period and in follow-up. This method of radiation-free distal interlocking screw insertion is simple and can be used in third world country where image intensifier facility is not available. However, surgeons are encouraged to use image intensifier facility where the facility is available.

  14. Economic aspects of interlocking hollow brick system designed for industrialized building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Saggaff, Anis; Ngian, Shek Poi; Sulaiman, Arizu

    2017-11-01

    Construction industry has moved forward into a technology driven where a transition is in progress from conventional method to a more advanced and mechanised system known as the Industrialised Building System (IBS). However, the need to implement the IBS should be well understood by all construction players such as designer, architect, contraction, erectors and construction workers. Therefore, there is a need to educate all these construction players which should be spearheaded by authorities such as Construction Industrial Development Board where enforcement trough building by laws as well as initiative to those that adopt the IBS in their construction. This paper reports on economic aspects of using interlocking hollow brick system in construction as an alternative method offered for Industrialized Building System. The main objective is to address the economic aspects of using interlocking block system in terms of time, costs, and utilization of manpower and to present some of the experimental tests results related to Interlocking Hollow Brick System (IHBS). Example of savings from the use of IHBS is presented in this paper by comparing the construction of two storey terrace house with build-up area of about 200 square meter with conventional construction method of typical reinforced concrete construction (RCC) compared to IHBS. The comparison shows that the implementation of IHBS can reduce construction time, cost, and utilization of man power up to 26.6% compared to the conventional method. Moreover, the construction time using IHBS can also be reduced by up to 50% as compared to the conventional construction.

  15. A STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN FRACTURES OF TIBIA BY UNREAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppa Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in the treatment of open fractures of t he tibial shaft and study the difficulties (complications encountered during the operative study. To compare the efficacy of interlocking intramedullary nailing without reaming in treating open fractures of tibia, Time required for the union of fracture, Range of motion of ankle and knee joint, Rate of malunion and mal rotation and Pain at the knee joint. RESULTS: The average age of patient is 32 years,83.33% are males, road traffic accidents account for majority(79.16%,right side involved in 58.33%,gustillo type II and type I compound fractures are common, full range of movements is seen in 66.67% by 12 weeks and union occurred in 95.83% by 9 months. Thirteen (54.17% patients had excellent results, six (25% patients had good results, four (1 6.67% patients had fair results and one (4.16 patient had poor result. CONCLUSION: Unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing with the help of image intensifier seems feasible in open diaphyseal fractures of tibia with the advantages of minimal blood l oss, low risk of infection, early mobilisation , earlier soft tissue coverage , Promotes early union , minimal hospital stay and early returns to activities

  16. Automatic generation and verification of railway interlocking control tables using FSM and NuSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. YAZDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their important role in providing safe conditions for train movements, railway interlocking systems are considered as safety critical systems. The reliability, safety and integrity of these systems, relies on reliability and integrity of all stages in their lifecycle including the design, verification, manufacture, test, operation and maintenance.In this paper, the Automatic generation and verification of interlocking control tables, as one of the most important stages in the interlocking design process has been focused on, by the safety critical research group in the School of Railway Engineering, SRE. Three different subsystems including a graphical signalling layout planner, a Control table generator and a Control table verifier, have been introduced. Using NuSMV model checker, the control table verifier analyses the contents of control table besides the safe train movement conditions and checks for any conflicting settings in the table. This includes settings for conflicting routes, signals, points and also settings for route isolation and single and multiple overlap situations. The latest two settings, as route isolation and multiple overlap situations are from new outcomes of the work comparing to works represented on the subject recently.

  17. Reviewed approach to defining the Active Interlock Envelope for Front End ray tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shaftan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-24

    To protect the NSLS-II Storage Ring (SR) components from damage from synchrotron radiation produced by insertion devices (IDs) the Active Interlock (AI) keeps electron beam within some safe envelope (a.k.a Active Interlock Envelope or AIE) in the transverse phase space. The beamline Front Ends (FEs) are designed under assumption that above certain beam current (typically 2 mA) the ID synchrotron radiation (IDSR) fan is produced by the interlocked e-beam. These assumptions also define how the ray tracing for FE is done. To simplify the FE ray tracing for typical uncanted ID it was decided to provide the Mechanical Engineering group with a single set of numbers (x,x’,y,y’) for the AIE at the center of the long (or short) ID straight section. Such unified approach to the design of the beamline Front Ends will accelerate the design process and save valuable human resources. In this paper we describe our new approach to defining the AI envelope and provide the resulting numbers required for design of the typical Front End.

  18. Outcomes in closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Sawati, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. Methods: A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Results: Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Conclusion: Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good. (author)

  19. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  20. OUTCOMES IN CLOSED REAMED INTERLOCKING NAIL IN FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF FEMUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Taj; Khan, Alamzeb; Sawati, Alamzeb; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Awan, Abdus Saboor; Saboor, Abdus; Siddique

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good.

  1. Comparison of non-compression and compression interlocking intramedullary nailing in rabbit femoral shaft osteotomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Mehmet Emre; Aldemir, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih; Doğan, Ali; Kerimoğlu, Gökçen

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to compare non-compression and compression intramedullary nailing in an experimental femoral shaft osteotomy model in terms of radiological, histological, and biomechanical aspects. Twenty-four white New Zealand rabbits (average weight 4.3 kg; range 4 to 4.8 kg) were divided into three groups. A right femoral osteotomy was performed in all rabbits and all femurs were fixed with titanium compression interlocking intramedullary nail. After locking of nails, no compression was performed in group 1 while 0.5 mm and 1 mm compressions were performed in group 2 and 3, respectively. All rabbits were sacrificed four weeks after operation. Fracture sites were examined histologically and radiologically. Finite element analyses were performed. Radiological scores of groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher than group 1. There was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 radiologically. Best histological scores were achieved in group 2. According to finite element analyses, osteotomy site in group 2 was exposed to 1240 N of load and 34.5 MPa of mean stress. Compression interlocking intramedullary nailing provides faster fracture healing than non-compression interlocking intramedullary nailing. Best histological fracture healing scores were obtained with 0.5 mm compression performed at the fracture site.

  2. Bio-inspired design of geometrically interlocked 3D printed joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Oliva, Noel; Kumar's Lab Team

    The morphology of the adhesive-adherend interface significantly affects the mechanical behavior of adhesive joints. As seen in some biocomposites like human skull, or the nacre of some bivalve molluscs' shells, a geometrically interlocking architecture of interfaces creates toughening and strengthening mechanisms enhancing the mechanical properties of the joint. In an attempt to characterize this mechanical interlocking mechanism, this study is focused on computational and experimental investigation of a single-lap joint with a very simple geometrically interlocked interface design in which both adherends have a square waveform configuration of the joining surfaces. This square waveform configuration contains a positive and a negative rectangular teeth per cycle in such a way that the joint is symmetric about the mid-bondlength. Both physical tests performed on 3D printed prototypes of joints and computational results indicate that the joints with square waveform design have higher strength and damage tolerance than those of joints with flat interface. In order to identify an optimal design configuration of this interface, a systematic parametric study is conducted by varying the geometric and material properties of the non-flat interface. This work was supported by Lockheed Martin (Award No: 12NZZ1).

  3. Reinforcing the role of the conventional C-arm - a novel method for simplified distal interlocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windolf Markus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The common practice for insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails is a freehand technique under fluoroscopic control. The process is technically demanding, time-consuming and afflicted to considerable radiation exposure of the patient and the surgical personnel. A new concept is introduced utilizing information from within conventional radiographic images to help accurately guide the surgeon to place the interlocking bolt into the interlocking hole. The newly developed technique was compared to conventional freehand in an operating room (OR like setting on human cadaveric lower legs in terms of operating time and radiation exposure. Methods The proposed concept (guided freehand, generally based on the freehand gold standard, additionally guides the surgeon by means of visible landmarks projected into the C-arm image. A computer program plans the correct drilling trajectory by processing the lens-shaped hole projections of the interlocking holes from a single image. Holes can be drilled by visually aligning the drill to the planned trajectory. Besides a conventional C-arm, no additional tracking or navigation equipment is required. Ten fresh frozen human below-knee specimens were instrumented with an Expert Tibial Nail (Synthes GmbH, Switzerland. The implants were distally locked by performing the newly proposed technique as well as the conventional freehand technique on each specimen. An orthopedic resident surgeon inserted four distal screws per procedure. Operating time, number of images and radiation time were recorded and statistically compared between interlocking techniques using non-parametric tests. Results A 58% reduction in number of taken images per screw was found for the guided freehand technique (7.4 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD compared to the freehand technique (17.6 ± 10.3 (p p = 0.001. Operating time per screw (from first shot to screw tightened was on average 22% reduced by guided freehand (p = 0

  4. Interlocking Directorships in Polish Joint Stock Companies = Medsebojna prepletenost članov nadzornih svetov v delniških družbah na Poljskem

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pawlak

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG). Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to t...

  5. Incidence of Varus Malalignment Post Interlocking Nail in Proximal Femur Shaft Fractures Comparing Two Types of Entry Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagatullah, A N; Nazeeb, M N; Ibrahim, S

    2017-11-01

    Introduction: Osteosynthesis of the femur using an interlocking nail is the gold standard for treating diaphyseal fractures of the femur. There are two established entry points for the antegrade interlocking nails which is the piriformis fossa or the greater trochanter. It has been reported that varus malalignment was frequently seen in proximal femur fracture which were treated with interlocking nail utilizing the greater trochanter entry point. The study was done to find out if the problem was of significance. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study which included 179 patients with femur fractures which were treated from January 2013 till September 2015 in one Hospital. They were treated with interlocking nail either by utilizing the piriformis fossa (PF) or the greater trochanter (GT) entry points. Post-operative radiographs of the femur were used to measure the varus deformity. Results: Out of 179 patients, there were 5 patients who were reported to have unacceptable varus malalignment (2.79%). These 5 patients were out of the 88 (5.68%) patients utilizing the greater trochanter as the entry point. The same 5 patients were out 90 patients that were diagnosed with proximal femur shaft fractures (5.55%). Analysis with logistic regression was statistically not significant. Conclusion: There was higher rate of varus malalignment seen in proximal femur shaft fractures treated with interlocking nails utilizing the greater trochanter entry point. The incidence of varus malalignment was not significant statistically.

  6. A comparative study of interlocking directorates at the end of the import-substituting industrialization period in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Salvaj, Andrea Lluch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on interlocking directorates has been conducted primarily in the United States and European countries. Little work of either theoretical or empirical nature has been done to study the characteristics and the factors that affect this important business network in peripheral and turbulent economies. In this comparative and historical study, we focus on the effect of the political and economic turbulence and the ownership composition of the largest firms on shaping the structure of interlocking directorates in Argentina and Chile by the end of the sixties. Four main findings result from this analysis: 1 the interlocking directorate in Argentina is more fragmented than in Chile; 2 most relevant actors in the directorship interlock in Argentina are firms in industries considered strategic by the government; 3 multinational subsidiaries occupy a central position in Argentina; 4 banks and firms owned by local business groups played a central role in the interlocking directorates in Chile. This study shows how the institutional and economic factors shape the structure of relations between companies.

  7. Comparative study between reamed versus unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing in compound fractures of shaft tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibia is the commonest bones to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in healing of fracture. Purpose: To compare the clinical and radiological results of intramedullary interlocking nailing of open fractures of the tibial shaft after reaming versus unreamed medullary canal. Materials and Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we have treated 40 patients with compound tibia fracture (type I, II, IIIA by simultaneous care of wound and skeletal injury. Primary fixation for fracture stabilization was done by closed intramedullary interlock nailing either reamed or unreamed; the allocation to the two groups made on alternating basis. Wound was managed by thorough debridement with primary/delayed primary closure by suturing, split thickness skin grafting or fasciocutaneous flap cover. Active, non-weight bearing exercises were started from next post-op day. Partial weight bearing after suture removal was started on 12 th day. Further follow-up was done at 6 weeks interval for union. Results: Open fractures of shaft of tibia treated with unreamed/reamed interlocking nailing gave excellent results. In present series, 19 fractures (95% treated by unreamed and 19 (95% fractures treated by reamed technique, united within 6 months of injury. Delay in union was noticed in one patient treated by unreamed technique who had segmental and extensive soft tissue injury and in reamed nailing there was one patient with deep infection, which was treated with antibiotic coated nail. Conclusion: Time to complete union was similar in both groups. Adequate

  8. Intramedullary nailing without interlocking screws for femoral and tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreb, Dieuwertje L; Blokhuis, Taco J; van Wessem, Karlijn J P; Bemelman, Mike; Lansink, Koen W W; Leenen, Luke P H

    2013-08-01

    Intramedullary fixation is the treatment of choice for diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia. Locking the implant can sometimes be cumbersome and time consuming. In our institution, fractures with axial and rotational stability are treated with intramedullary nailing without interlocking. All consecutive patients presented in the University Medical Center Utrecht from October 2003 to August 2009 with acute traumatic diaphyseal fractures of the tibia or femur that were considered axial and rotational stable were included. They underwent internal fixation using intramedullary nails without interlocking. Patient records were evaluated for duration of surgery, perioperative complications, consolidation time and re-operations. Twenty-nine long bone fractures were treated in 27 patients: 20 men and 7 women, with an average age of 28.9 years (range 15.6-54.4). There were 12 femoral fractures and 17 tibial fractures. Sixteen fractures were closed and 13 were open (10 Gustilo 1, 3 Gustilo 2). The mean operating time was 43 min (range 18-68 min) for tibial fractures and 55 min (range 47-150 min) for femoral fractures. Postoperative complications occurred in six patients. Two patients (three fractures) were lost to follow-up. Healing occurred in 25 of the 26 remaining fractures (96 %) without additional interventions. One tibia was secondarily converted to a standard locked nail because of axial and rotational instability. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. The use of intramedullary nailing without interlocking is associated with minimal complications in selected fractures. The advantages include a short operating time and the simplicity of its application.

  9. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan Hjarbæk; Højsholt, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must...... be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level....... is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen–Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must...

  10. Facile route to an all-organic, triply threaded, interlocked structure by templated dynamic clipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Andrew; Hanifi, David A; Kiel, Gavin; O'Brien, Evan; Liu, Yi

    2012-12-21

    Encaged! Three-terminal interlocked molecular species were obtained by dynamic (2+3) assembly of a cagelike macro-bicycle around a trifurcated trispyridinium π guest. The complex is stabilized by π-π interactions and multiple [C-H⋅⋅⋅O] and [C-H⋅⋅⋅N] interactions. Uncomplexed guest molecules cocrystallize alongside the threaded complexes in the solid state, thus giving extended π-stacked columns. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  12. Buying intoformalization? State institutions and interlocked markets in African small-scale gold mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Yankson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in Africa has increased tremendously. An unknown but significant part is constituted by activities that are not based on legally registered mining licenses. The division of formal and informal ASM is, however, dissolved in the marketing....... This paper argues that future research and design of policy mechanisms needs to focus on the inter-linkages of actors and material flows within the complex intertwinement of the formal and informal ASM sectors. Our point of departure is the findings on interlocked markets within the literature on rural...

  13. The Use of UML to Development of a Railway Interlocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using the Unifield Modeling Lanfuage (UML in developmentt of new railway interlocking and signalling systems. A simplifield example of the control circuit of a point machine is used to demonstrate an object-oriented approach to specifying the functional safety requirements. An informal specification given by the relevant technical standart is used as a starting point and results in semi-formal specification based on UML model. Advantages of the presented approach are discussed and new trends of increasing formality of UML models are indicated within conclusions.

  14. Successful Transcatheter Embolization of Penetrating Aortic Ulcer Using Interlocking Detachable Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Yukihiro; Kaji, Tatsumi; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Hinokiyama, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Masafumi; Kusano, Shoichi

    2000-01-01

    A 54-year-old man with persistent chest pain was hospitalized for hypertension and DeBakey type IIIb aortic dissection. The false lumen of the dissection was almost completely thrombosed; however, a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) was observed 5 weeks later. At that time, we successfully embolized the PAU with a microcatheter and interlocking detachable coils (IDCs). The patient is well with no episodes of relapse in 20 months of follow-up. This case suggests the utility of the microcatheter and IDC system as an alternative to surgery

  15. The Layer of Kevlar Angle-interlock Woven Fabric Effect on the Tensile Properties of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Chen; Guo, Xu-Yi; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Shang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    This article is based on the structure of three-dimensional angle-interlock longitudinal.The 3-layer, 5-layer, 7-layer and 9-layer of angle-interlock 3D fabrics are woven on sample weaving machine respectively with the 1500D Kevlar fiber twist filament produced by United States DuPont. At the same time, Kevlar plain weave fabric is woven, and three, five, seven and nine layers’ fabric are to be compared. In the process of VARTM composite technology, epoxy resin is matrix material, acetone is diluent, triethylene tetramine is curing agent and the five different fabrics are the reinforced materials respectively. Finally, eight different three-dimensional woven fabric composites were prepared. In this paper, the tensile properties of eight kinds of three-dimensional woven fabric composites were tested respectively.Finally, it is concluded that the five-layer angle-interlock woven fabric prepared by Kevlar fiber shows the best tensile property.

  16. Control interlock and monitoring system for 80 KW IOT based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gautam; Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    For 80 kW inductive output tube (IOT) based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2, a control, interlock and monitoring system is realized. This is to facilitate proper start-up and shutdown of the amplifier system, monitor various parameters to detect any malfunction during its operation and to bring the system in a safe stage, thereby assuring reliable operation of the amplifier system. This high power amplifier system incorporates interlocks such as cooling interlocks, various voltage and current interlocks and time critical RF interlocks. Processing of operation sequence, cooling interlocks and various voltage and current interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make S7-CPU-315-2DP (CPU) based programmable logic controller (PLC) system. While time critical or fast interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make FPGA based Boolean Co-processor FM-352-5 which operates in standalone mode. Siemens make operating panel OP277 6'' is being used as a human machine interface (HMI) device for command, data, alarm generation and process parameter monitoring. (author)

  17. Changes in microgaps, micromotion, and trabecular strain from interlocked cement-trabecular bone interfaces in total knee replacements with in vivo service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, M.A.; Goodheart, J.R.; Khechen, B.; Janssen, D.W.; Mann, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    The initial fixation of cemented Total Knee Replacements (TKRs) relies on mechanical interlock between cement and bone, but loss of interlock occurs with in vivo service. In this study, cement-trabeculae gap morphology and micromechanics were measured for lab prepared (representing post-operative

  18. Successful commissioning of an electronic interlocking system, taking the example of Plochingen; Erfolgreiche Inbetriebnahme eines elektronischen Stellwerks - Beispiel ESTW Plochingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerner, C.; Rosenberger, H. [DB ProjektBau GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Kuehnle, T. [THOST Projektmanagement GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    It was essential to draw up a precise commissioning concept for the new electronic interlocking system in Plochingen, given the scale of the measure and the high frequency of trains passing through. The authors describe the detailed documents that were compiled to begin with, dealing, in particular, with technical and operational feasibility and time requirements. Such an input was a precondition for the commissioning operation to be completed smoothly. Thanks to this concept and the committed work of all those involved at first hand, commissioning the new electronic interlocking system in Plochingen was completed within the five night-time line closures planned for it between 13 and 18 April 2006. (orig.)

  19. Periareolar augmentation mastopexy with interlocking gore-tex suture, retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Johnny; Kelly, Emma; Kelly, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Periareolar Augmentation Mastopexy is one of the most challenging operations in plastic surgery. Problems with scar quality, areolar widening, and distortion are frequent problems that interfere with a predictable result. A retrospective review was performed on fifty consecutive patients who underwent a periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the interlocking approach. Of the 50 patients, 30 had both preoperative and postoperative photographs and were the basis of the study. The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 56 years with the average age being 39 years. The postoperative follow-up averaged 9.5 months and the implants averaged 316 mL. There were no deaths, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or infected implants. Four patients had complications following surgery for an overall complication rate of 13%. Two patients developed an infected Gore-Tex suture. Two of these complications were treated with revision surgery. Five patients required reoperation for an overall reoperative rate of 16% (one patient was converted to a full mastopexy). As a result of this retrospective study, we have found the interlocking approach to periareolar augmentation/mastopexy to be a safe and reliable operation.

  20. Periareolar Augmentation Mastopexy with Interlocking Gore-Tex Suture, Retrospective Review of 50 Consecutive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Franco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeriareolar Augmentation Mastopexy is one of the most challenging operations in plastic surgery. Problems with scar quality, areolar widening, and distortion are frequent problems that interfere with a predictable result.MethodsA retrospective review was performed on fifty consecutive patients who underwent a periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the interlocking approach. Of the 50 patients, 30 had both preoperative and postoperative photographs and were the basis of the study.ResultsThe age of the patients ranged from 19 to 56 years with the average age being 39 years. The postoperative follow-up averaged 9.5 months and the implants averaged 316 mL. There were no deaths, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or infected implants. Four patients had complications following surgery for an overall complication rate of 13%. Two patients developed an infected Gore-Tex suture. Two of these complications were treated with revision surgery. Five patients required reoperation for an overall reoperative rate of 16% (one patient was converted to a full mastopexy.ConclusionsAs a result of this retrospective study, we have found the interlocking approach to periareolar augmentation/mastopexy to be a safe and reliable operation.

  1. Patología de pavimentos articulados Pathology of interlocking pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernando Higuera Sandoval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un proyecto de grado sobre patología de pavimentos articulados, el cual fue elaborado con el propósito de hacer una recolección de los deterioros típicos de los pavimentos articulados construidos con adoquines de concreto o de ladrillo; y de esta forma, elaborar un catálogo de deterioros para este tipo de estructuras que facilitará la identificación y cuantificación de los deterioros en una inspección visual. El segundo propósito de este proyecto, es la formulación para Colombia de una metodología que permita determinar el Índice de Condición de las estructuras de pavimentos articulados.This article presents the results of a thesis on pathology of interlocking pavements, which objective was to make a compilation of typical damages of interlocking pavements constructed with concrete or brick pavers and, in this way, to elaborate a catalogue of damages for this kind of structures which will make the identification and quantification of deteriorations possible in a visual inspection. The second purpose of this project is the formulation of a methodology which allows determining the Index of pavement conditions for Colombia.

  2. A review on past and present development on the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosro, M. Z. M.; Samad, A. A. A.; Mohamad, N.; Goh, W. I.; Tambichik, M. A.; Iman, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Massive migration and increasing population in Malaysia has contributed to the increasing demand of quality and affordable housing. Over the past 50 years, the Malaysian housing industry has seen the growth of using conventional construction system such as reinforced concrete frame structures and bricks. The conventional system, as agreed by many researchers, causes delays and other disadvantages in some of the construction projects. Thus, the utilization of interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system is needed to address these issues. This system has been identified as an alternative and sustainable building system for the construction industry in Malaysia which the PUTRA block system is the latest example of the ILHB developed. The system offers various advantages in terms of speed and cost in construction, strength, environmentally friendly and aesthetic qualities. Despite these advantages, this system has not been practically applied and develop in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper aims to review the past and present development of the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system that available locally and globally.

  3. On the modeling and characterization of an interlocked flexible electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Nazanin; Shen, Xuechen; Naguib, Hani E.

    2017-04-01

    Development of an electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity is now of critical importance due its broad range of applications including prosthetic skins and biomimetic robotics. Microstructured conductive composite elastomers can acquire mechanical and electrical properties analogous to those of natural skin. One of the most prominent features of human skin is its tactile sensing property which can be mimicked in an electronic skin. Herein, an electrically conductive composite comprising polydimethylsiloxane and conductive fillers is used as a flexible and stretchable piezoresistive sensor. The electrical conductivity is induced within the elastomer matrix via carbon nanotubes whereas the piezoresistivity is obtained by means of microstructuring the surface of the substrate. An interlocked array of pyramids in micro-scale allows the change in the contact resistance between two thin layers of the composite upon application of an external load. Deformation of the interlocked arrays endows the sensor with an ultra-high sensitivity to the external pressures within the range of human skin perception. Moreover, using finite element analysis, the change in the contact are between the two layers was captured for different geometries. The structure of the sensor can be optimized through an optimization model in order to acquire maximum sensitivity.

  4. Hierarchical Porous Interlocked Polymeric Microcapsules: Sulfonic Acid Functionalization as Acid Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Gu, Jinyan; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-03-01

    Owing to their unique structural and surface properties, mesoporous microspheres are widely applied in the catalytic field. Generally, increasing the surface area of the specific active phase of the catalyst is a good method, which can achieve a higher catalytic activity through the fabrication of the corresponding catalytic microspheres with the smaller size and hollow structure. However, one of the major challenges in the use of hollow microspheres (microcapsules) as catalysts is their chemical and structural stability. Herein, the grape-like hypercrosslinked polystyrene hierarchical porous interlocked microcapsule (HPIM-HCL-PS) is fabricated by SiO2 colloidal crystals templates, whose structure is the combination of open mouthed structure, mesoporous nanostructure and interlocked architecture. Numerous microcapsules assembling together and forming the roughly grape-like microcapsule aggregates can enhance the structural stability and recyclability of these microcapsules. After undergoing the sulfonation, the sulfonated HPIM-HCL-PS is served as recyclable acid catalyst for condensation reaction between benzaldehyde and ethylene glycol (TOF = 793 h-1), moreover, exhibits superior activity, selectivity and recyclability.

  5. Tune resonance phenomena in the SPS and machine protection via fast position interlocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Tobias [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Wenninger, Joerg; Bogey, Thierry; Araujo Meleiro, Berta [CERN, Genf (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The 6911 m long Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN with a peak energy of 450 GeV is at the top of the LHC preaccelerator-complex. Apart from the LHC, the SPS is with the Tevatron the accelerator with the largest stored beam energy of up to 2.5 MJ. The SPS has a known vulnerability to fast equipment failures that led to an uncontrolled loss of a high intensity beam in 2008, which resulted in major damage of a main dipole. The beam loss was caused by a fast tune decrease towards an integer resonance. Simulations and distinct experimental studies provide clear understanding of the beam dynamics at different SPS tune resonances. Diverging closed orbit oscillations, dispersion explosion and increased beta-beating are the driving effects that lead to a complete beam loss in as little as 10 turns (230 {mu}s) after reaching the stop band of the resonance. Dedicated experiments of fast failures of the main power converters reveal that the current interlock systems with a delay of 7-12 ms are much too slow for an adequate machine protection. To counteract the vulnerability of the SPS, current research focuses on a new fast position interlock system which is planned to become operational in the first quarter of 2010.

  6. Traction Converting Substation from Viewpoint of Feeding Interlocking Plant at Czech Railwayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Dolecek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analyses current and voltage harmonic in traction converting substation 3 kV. It researches their rise and influence to three-phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz that is used for feeding interlocking plant. Processing of this task is arisen from requirement practice for line Pěčky - Poříčany - Rostoklaty where happened to adverse ratio in particular transmission line of feeding system. It is meant especially about backward influence traction substation rectifier Pečky to three - phase cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz. At the determinate lenght of the cable line, when resonace frequency of circuit transformer 22 kV/6 kV and the cable line 6 kV, 50 Hz is approached frequency 550 Hz and 650 Hz (i.e. 11 and 13 harmonic are happened to socalled "annulations input reactance of this circuit". That is caused by the leakage of current resonace frequency from traction converting substation to cable line. That proceduces additional losses and deformation waveform of voltage too. This deformation can be reflected on how interlocking plant is working. 

  7. Bacterial carbonate precipitation improves water absorption of interlocking compressed earth block (ICEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamer, M. M.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Faisal, S. K.; Anneza, L. H.; Alshalif, A. F.; Teddy, T.

    2017-11-01

    Interlocking compressed earth blocks (ICEB) are soil based blocks that allows for mortarless construction. The addition of many alternative materials into interlocking block in order to improve the durability has been reported. However there are currently lack of report and evidence on the application of biocalcification or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in improving the engineering properties of ICEB. This paper evaluate the effect of UB in improving the water absorption properties of ICEB. This paper also provide the results on SEM analysis of addition of 1%, 3% and 5% UB in ICEB. The bacteria were added as partial replacement of limestone water in ICEB. The results showed the reduction of 14.72% with 5% UB on initial water absorption followed by the results for water absorption by 24-hour soaking which also indicates reduction of 14.68% with 5% UB on 28th days of testing compared to control specimen. It was expected that the reduction of water absorption was due to the plugging of pores by the bacterial calcite which prevent ingression of water in ICEB samples. Therefore this study hopes that the positive results from the UB as improving in water absorption of ICEB will lead to improve others ICEB properties and others construction materials.

  8. An in vitro biomechanical investigation of an interlocking nail system developed for buffalo tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S A; Aithal, H P; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal; Zama, M M S; Gope, P C; Pawde, A M; Ahmad, R A; Gugjoo, M B

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the mechanical properties of a customized buffalo interlocking nail (BIN), intact buffalo tibia, and ostectomized tibia stabilized with BIN in different configurations, as well as to assess the convenience of interlocking nailing in buffalo tibia. The BIN (316L stainless steel, 12 mm diameter, 250 mm long, nine-hole solid nails with 10° proximal bend) alone was loaded in compression and three-point bending (n=4 each); intact tibiae and ostectomized tibiae (of buffaloes aged 5-8 years, weighing 300-350 kg) stabilized with BIN using 4.9 mm standard or modified locking bolts (4 or 8) in different configurations were subjected to axial compression, cranio-caudal three-point bending and torsion (n=4 each) using a universal testing machine. Mechanical parameters were determined from load-displacement curves and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test (ptesting modes. The strength of fixation constructs with eight locking bolts was significantly more than with four bolts. Overall strength of fixation with modified locking bolts was better than standard bolts. Based on technical ease and biomechanical properties, cranio-caudal insertion of bolts into the bone was found better than medio-lateral insertion. The eight bolt BIN-bone constructs could be useful to treat tibial fractures in large ruminants, especially buffaloes.

  9. Treatment of acute fractures of the femoral shaft with reamed intramedullary interlocking AO nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, M; Niazi, A K; Hussain, D; Ahmad, M

    2004-08-01

    To review and audit our experience with closed intramedullary interlocking nailing for acute femoral shaft fractures. All patients admitted to The Aga Khan University Hospital, over the last six years and with a minimum follow-up of twelve months, with acute fractures of the femoral shaft were included in the study. All patients treated for established non-unions and infections or with pathological fractures were excluded from the study. There were 89 fractures, 74% of whom were closed and 50% were associated with other orthopedic injuries. Most of these were younger patients involved in high velocity road traffic accidents. The union rate was 88% with 4.4% of fractures going into non-union. The remaining 8% of the fractures went into a phase of delayed union, but ultimately united, making the overall success rate to be 95.6%. The mean time for union was 11.5 weeks. At the final clinical follow-up, 4% of the patients had minor pain, 7% had limp, 4% had leg length discrepancy of more than 2 cm and 4% had decreased range of motion at the hip or knee joints. We had a 4% rate of superficial infection. There were 3 cases of pudendal nerve neuropraxia and 2 cases of deep vein thrombosis. Intramedullary Interlocking nailing is a safe and effective treatment modality for acute fractures of the femoral shaft. Proper surgical decision making regarding static versus dynamic mode of locking can avoid problems of delayed union.

  10. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  11. Effect of microtrichia on the interlocking mechanism in the Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Liu, Chao; Bhushan, Bharat; Wu, Wei; Tong, Jin

    2018-01-01

    The hindwings of beetles are folded under the elytra when they are at rest but are extended during flight, which can provide bioinspiration for the design of deployable micro air vehicles (MAVs). Beetle hindwings must be able to be both securely locked under the elytra and freely extended for flight, depending on the required action. To investigate the locking mechanism, this study used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to examine the microstructures of the elytra, hindwings and abdomen of the Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773). On the ventral side (VS) of the elytra, the microtrichia show a transitional structure from the lateral edge to the medial edge. On the hindwing surface, the folded regions were observed on both the dorsal side (DS) and the VS. On the abdomen, the microtrichia between the abdominal segments show a cyclical change from sparse to dense in each segment in the middle of the abdomen. Furthermore, the different directions of microtrichia that lead to self-locking friction on the surfaces of the hindwing, elytron and abdomen appear to facilitate interlocking. A model for the interlocking of the hindwings of the H. axyridis was established, and its underlying mechanism is discussed.

  12. Bio-inspired ``jigsaw''-like interlocking sutures: Modeling, optimization, 3D printing and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, I. A.; Mirkhalaf, M.; Barthelat, F.

    2017-05-01

    Structural biological materials such as bone, teeth or mollusk shells draw their remarkable performance from a sophisticated interplay of architectures and weak interfaces. Pushed to the extreme, this concept leads to sutured materials, which contain thin lines with complex geometries. Sutured materials are prominent in nature, and have recently served as bioinspiration for toughened ceramics and glasses. Sutures can generate large deformations, toughness and damping in otherwise all brittle systems and materials. In this study we examine the design and optimization of sutures with a jigsaw puzzle-like geometry, focusing on the non-linear traction behavior generated by the frictional pullout of the jigsaw tabs. We present analytical models which accurately predict the entire pullout response. Pullout strength and energy absorption increase with higher interlocking angles and for higher coefficients of friction, but the associated high stresses in the solid may fracture the tabs. Systematic optimization reveals a counter-intuitive result: the best pullout performance is achieved with interfaces with low coefficient of friction and high interlocking angle. We finally use 3D printing and mechanical testing to verify the accuracy of the models and of the optimization. The models and guidelines we present here can be extended to other types of geometries and sutured materials subjected to other loading/boundary conditions. The nonlinear responses of sutures are particularly attractive to augment the properties and functionalities of inherently brittle materials such as ceramics and glasses.

  13. An analytical hierarchical model explaining the robustness and flaw-tolerance of the interlocking barb-barbule structure of bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav; Kovalev, Alexander; Li, Zhiyong; Pugno, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    Feathers can fulfill their aerodynamic function only if the pennaceous vane forms an airfoil stabilized by robust interlocking between barbules. Thus, revealing the robustness of the interlocking mechanical behavior of the barbules is very important to understand the function and long-term resilience of bird feathers. This paper, basing on the small- and large-beam deflection solutions, presents a hierarchical mechanical model for deriving the critical delamination conditions of the interlocking barbules between two adjacent barbs in bird feathers. The results indicate a high robustness and flaw-tolerant design of the structure. This work contributes to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of the robust interlocking barb-barbule structure of the bird feather, and provides a basis for design of feather-inspired materials with robust interlocking mechanism, such as advanced bio-inspired micro-zipping devices.

  14. The business prestige: A preliminary study based on interlocks within companies El prestigi empresarial: Anàlisi a través de les conselleries creuades The business prestige: A preliminary study based on interlocks within companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The literature on interlocked directorate or interlocks has proposed the presence of cross-directors as an influential factor in the prestige of a firm (Mizruchi, 1996. This theory is based on the fact that, by having multiple companies with interlocks within them, major stakeholders of the company ought to have a higher perception of prestige. The aim of this preliminary study is to present an exploratory study and suggest future research lines on this issue. Design/methodology/approach: In a first preliminary study, we evaluate the interlocks network comprising companies belonging to the ranking established by the MERCO report in Spain for the year 2010. This is a well-known ranking of corporate reputation in Spain used in recent articles (Luna & Fernandez, 2010. For further analysis, other variables are considered as being quoted in the Spanish market benchmark index, IBEX 35, and the location of the headquarters.Findings: Significant positive relationship was obtained between the number of directorships shared with other public companies and the perceived prestige that stakeholders perceive from the firm. Similarly, we obtain significant positive correlation between the prestige and being listed on the IBEX 35. Finally, we identified banking, construction and energy sectors as the ones that use interlocking directorates more intensively.Research limitations: The results of this preliminary study show the viability of future studies about prestige and interlocks (Mizruchi, 1996. For the validation of the theory described in this study, it should be replicated in different regions and, with larger samples, to observe the effect that interlocks have on the perception of prestige of the company.Practical implications / Originality/value: This is among the first studies showing the existence of a relationship between interlocks and business prestige. It highlights the importance of the composition of the boards for the perceived prestige

  15. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  16. Analysis of operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock in lead-cooled fast reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Jianye; Yang, Minghan; Wang, Weitian; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We development an operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock. • We offer an integrated aid system to reduce the working strength of operators. • The method can help operators avoid dangerous, irreversible operation. • This method can be used in the fusion research reactor in the further. - Abstract: In nuclear systems, operators have to carry out corrective actions when abnormal situations occur. However, operators might make mistakes under pressure. In order to avoid serious consequences of the human errors, a new method for operators support based on intelligent dynamic interlock was proposed. The new method based on full digital instrumentation and control system, contains real-time alarm analysis process, decision support process and automatic safety interlock process. Once abnormal conditions occur, necessary safety interlock parameter based on analysis of real-time alarm and decision support process can be loaded into human-machine interfaces and controllers automatically, and avoid human errors effectively. Furthermore, the new method can make recommendations for further use and development of this technique in nuclear power plant or fusion research reactor.

  17. [Electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail technology for treatment of femoral shaft fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kangkang; Qin, Wei; Guo, Qing; Palati-Ababaikeli; Qiao, Peiliu; Shen, Mingquan; Yin, Lele; Pan, Qilin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the value of electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture. Between July 2012 and October 2013, 53 cases of femoral shaft fracture were treated. There were 40 males and 13 females, aged 16-52 years (mean, 38.3 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident in 28 cases, falling from height in 11 cases, falling in 7 cases, crush injury in 4 cases, and other in 3 cases. Of 53 cases, there were 3 cases of open fracture (Gustilo I degree) and 50 cases of closed fracture. Fracture was located in the proximal femur in 17 cases, middle femur in 29 cases, and distal femur in 7 cases. According to Winquist classification, 7 cases were rated as type I, 8 cases as type II, 22 cases as type III, and 16 cases as type IV; according to AO classification, 18 cases were rated as type 32-A, 28 cases as type 32-B, and 7 cases as type 32-C. The time from injury to operation was 3-11 days (mean, 5 days). Distal interlocking intramedullary nail was implanted using electromagnetic navigation. The distal locking nail operation with interlocking intramedullary nail was successfully completed under electromagnetic navigation; the one-time success rate of distal locking nail operation reached 100%; and the locking nail time was 5.0-9.5 minutes (mean, 7.0 minutes). Healing of incision by first intention was obtained after operation, and no complication of skin necrosis, infection, and sinus tract occurred. Fifty-three cases were all followed up 5-12 months (mean, 9 months). One case had hip pain and weaken middle gluteal muscle strength, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the nail. During the follow-up period, no broken nails, nail exit, infection, or re-fracture occurred. All fractures achieved clinical healing, and the healing time was 8-22 weeks (mean, 14.5 weeks). In 49 patients followed up 8 months, the Lysholm score was excellent in 44 cases, good in 4 cases, and acceptable in 1 case, with an excellent and

  18. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  19. The use of microprocessors at TRIUMF in the control of radiation safety interlock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.

    1988-01-01

    At TRIUMF the cyclotron vault, all primary beam lines, and each experimental area has a dedicated control unit to manage the safety interlock control of the area lockup sequence, beam blocker drive and area access. Typically each area has 24 devices which are monitored to control 16 outputs. These control units (Area Safety Units) were first implemented through the use of relay logic. The relay logic was reliable but difficult to modify to incorporate changes to the areas. In 1979 it was decided to use microprocessors in the form of single board computers to control the Area Safety Units. The details of the hardware and software is discussed as well as the advantages of microprocessor control

  20. Testing the permeability and corrosion resistance of micro-mechanically interlocked joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov-Nielsen, Jeppe; Holm, Allan H.; Højsholt, Rune; Sá, Pedro; Balling, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Micro-mechanical interlocking (MMI) can be applied to create new and interesting composite materials. We have employed laser structuring to achieve MMI between stainless steel and plastic with extremely high joint strength. However, the water permeability and corrosion resistance of the joint must be examined. For many industrially relevant applications it is important to keep water away from certain parts and to prevent the sample from corroding. A thorough study of the permeability of the interconnected samples at different temperatures and after employing different laser-structuring techniques is conducted. The permeability seems to be consistent with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation independent of the laser structuring technique and is orders of magnitudes larger than the diffusion rate through the plastic. Two different types of corrosion tests have been undertaken, and we show that care must be taken in order not to degrade the corrosion resistance of the sample to an unacceptable level.

  1. Reuse of mining dams waste for the processing of interlocking blocks for paving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Raissa Ribeiro Lima; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Silva, Sidney Nicodemos da

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of mining dam residues can be mitigated by their reuse in the production of interlocking blocks for pavements with a mechanical strength greater than 50 MPa. From the mixture of cement CPV-ARI, sand and gravel, the characterization of the mechanical and physicochemical properties was performed by the following procedures: SEM, FRX, XRD, compression tests and thermal analysis (DSC). These blocks produced from these residues can be considered an economical alternative for the mining depletion cycle in the State of Minas Gerais. This work sought to improve the traces with the replacement the sand of the rivers bed by residues of mining dams that can represent an opportunity for generation of employment and income

  2. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  3. Tensile Damage Mechanism of 3-D Angle-Interlock Woven Composite using Acoustic Emission Events Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Qian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-static tensile damage behavior of one type of layer-to-layer 3-Dimensional Angle-interlock Woven Composite (3DAWC was tested and analyzed in this paper. Incorporated with the acoustic emission (AE events monitoring, the mechanical behavior of the 3DAWC under tensile loading condition was characterized. The Load-Extension curve, Load/AE events-Time curves occurred during the entire testing process and tensile damage modes were recorded to characterize and summarize the mechanical properties and damage mechanism of the 3DAWC subjected to tensile loading. It was found that the tensile damage of the 3DAWC could be summarized into 3 steps. And each step has a distinct primary damage mode. Moreover, the resin cracks, resin-yarn interface debonding and yarn breakages were the main damage modes for the 3DAWC.

  4. Groovy as Domain-Specific Language in the Software Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, J; Kruk, G

    2014-01-01

    After over 7 years in operation the Software Interlock System (SIS) has become an indispensable and mission critical controls tool covering many operational areas from general machine protection to diagnostics. The growing number of running instances as much as the size of existing configurations have increased both the complexity and maintenance cost of running the SIS infrastructure. In response to those issues, new ways of configuring the system have been investigated aiming at simplifying the configuration process by making it faster, more user-friendly and understandable for wider audiences and domain experts alike. As one of the possible choices the Groovy scripting language has been considered as being particularly well suited for writing a custom Domain-Specific Language (DSL) due to its built-in language features like native syntax constructs, command chain expressions, hierarchical structures with builders, closures or Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) transformations. This document explains best practices...

  5. Radiation interlocks: The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system. Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper will review the status of the committee's recommendations, and describe radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional relay approach and designs using computers. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Transparent superhydrophobic coating application to the interlocking clay block for the microbial growth mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimittrakoolchai, O.; Suwan, M.; Supothina, S.

    2017-12-01

    Interlocking clay block is of widespread use in many countries due to its less labor-intensive design. The block comprises of considerable amount of pore structures; therefore water can easily penetrate into it causing deterioration by natural weathering as well as the growth of microbes on its surface. In this present work, a transparent, superhydrophobic coating was applied onto the block’s surface to prevent water absorption. The coating which is a poly(methyl hydrogensiloxane) base containing fumed SiO2 nanoparticle was designed to possess surface topographic feature similar to that of the lotus leaf. After coating the block with the superhydrophobic compound, its water absorption decreased from 11.5 to 4.8% and porosity substantially decreased from 22.5 to 9.2%, while bulk and apparent densities did not change. Accelerated weathering test revealed that the coating had good stability. The coated samples exhibited growth inhibition of algae.

  7. Metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws XMCP™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Parra, C N; Montaner-Alonso, D; Morales-Rodríguez, J

    2017-09-04

    The study objective was to assess the results of a thumb metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) arthrodesis using intramedullary interlocking screws at 25°, XMCP ™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany, NJ). Radiographs evaluated the angle of arthrodesis, time of fusion and fixation of the implant. Clinical and functional outcomes were assessed using the DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale. Any complications found during surgery or the follow-up period were noted. We studied 9 patients. The mean follow-up was 27.6 months. Patients showed clinical and radiological evidence of fusion in an average of 8 weeks, the angle of fusion was 25°. There were no complications and no implant had to be removed. The XMCP™ system provides a reliable method for MCPJ arthrodesis for several indications and can be used with other procedures in the complex hand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. An active interlock system for the NSLS x-ray ring insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Biscardi, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Flannigan, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Rothman, J.; Smith, J.; So, I.; Thomas, M.; Decker, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of an active interlock system which has been installed in the NSLS X-ray electron storage ing to protect the vacuum chamber from thermal damage by mis-steered high power photon beams from insertion devices (IDs). the system employs active beam position detectors to monitor beam motion in the ID straight sections and solid state logic circuitry to ''dump'' the stored beam in the event of a fault condition by interrupting the rf. To ensure a high degree of reliability, redundancy and continuous automatic checking has been incorporated into the design. Overall system integrity is checked periodically with beam at safe levels of beam current. 2 refs., 3 figs

  9. Photoswitchable interlocked thiodiglycolamide as a cocatalyst of a chalcogeno-Baylis-Hillman reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cuezva, Alberto; Saura-Sanmartin, Adrian; Nicolas-Garcia, Tomas; Navarro, Cristian; Orenes, Raul-Angel; Alajarin, Mateo; Berna, Jose

    2017-05-01

    En route to a photoswitchable interlocked catalyst we have proved the ability of thiodiglycolamide to act as a template in the formation of hydrogen-bonded [2]rotaxanes. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the shielding of the sulfide atom by the macrocycle. A series of molecular shuttles are described as having an isomerizable fumaramide and thiodiglycolamide binding sites for controlling the relative ring position at will. By employing these systems as photoregulated catalysts, the TiCl 4 -mediated chalcogeno-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction is tested. In the presence of the maleamide shuttle, in which the sulfide function is encapsulated by the macrocycle, a complete loss in control of the geometry of the produced aldol is observed. The E -aldol adduct is predominantly obtained when the photoisomerized fumaramide shuttle, in which the sulfide function is exposed, is used.

  10. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Initial Validation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This note presents the inspection and tests to be performed on the DZERO solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench protection system before it is energized for the first time. This test is to be performed with a 5000A jumper at the end of the bus instead of the solenoid. This system is based in DZERO room 511. A copy of this note shall be annotated, signed and dated by the person coordinating the procedure; and filed with the system maintenance records. Annotations shall include comments about any aspect of the procedure that is abnormal or unsuccessful. The following inspections and tests shall be performed by persons knowledgeable about the system. Each individual test step should be reviewed and understood before proceeding with that step.

  11. Control/interlock/display system for EBT-P using commercially-available hardware and firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    For the EBT-P project, alternative commercially-available hardware, software and firmware have been employed for control, interlock and data display functions. This paper describes the criteria and rationale used to select that commercial equipment and discusses the important features of the equipment chosen, especially programmable controllers. Additional discussion is centered on interface problems which are encountered upon attempts to integrate equipment from several vendors. Some solutions to these problems are discussed. Details of software and hardware performance during tests are presented. The extent to which the EBT-P hardware and software configuration addresses and resolves various issues is discussed. Several areas have been uncovered in which relatively slight improvements/modifications of commercial programmable controller firmware would significantly improve the capability of this type of hardware in fusion control applications. These improvements are discussed in detail

  12. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  13. A pH-Dependent, Mechanically Interlocked Switch: Organometallic [2]Rotaxane vs. Organic [3]Rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Philipp J; Pöthig, Alexander

    2017-12-04

    We present the first [2]rotaxane featuring a functional organometallic host. In contrast to the known organic scaffolds, this assembly shows a high post-synthetic modifiability. The reactivity of the Ag 8 pillarplex host is fully retained, as is exemplified by the first transmetalation in a rotaxane framework to provide the respective Au 8 analogue. Additionally, a transformation under acidic conditions to give a purely organic [3]rotaxane is demonstrated which is reversible upon addition of a suitable base, rendering the assembly a pH-dependent switch. Hereby, it is shown that the mechanically interlocked nature of the system enhances the kinetic stability of the NHC host complex by a factor of >1000 and corresponds to the first observation of a stabilizing "rotaxand effect". © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. External jig-aided intramedullary interlocking nailing of diaphyseal fractures: experience from a tropical developing centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeme, Ikpeme; Ngim, Ngim; Udosen, Anthony; Onuba, Obiora; Enembe, Okokon; Bello, Segun

    2011-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing for diaphyseal fractures is a standard treatment option in affluent societies. These procedures are often performed under image intensifier guidance. The cost of these gadgets precludes their common use in resource poor regions. External jig-aided intramedullary interlocking nailing is relatively cheap and offers the chance for performing these procedures in resource poor regions. The aim of this study was to document the advantages, challenges and outcome of this form of treatment in a resource poor setting. The Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) implants and instrumentation were used for this study. Thirty-seven limbs in 35 patients were included. There were 30 males and five females giving a ratio of 6:1. The mean age was 35 ± 11.9 years with a range of 15-61 years. The femur and tibia were the bones studied with a total of 23 and 14 fractures, respectively (ratio 1.6:1). There were 14 comminuted fractures, two segmented fractures, six mal-unions, eight non-unions and seven simple fractures. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injuries with motorcycle accidents accounting for 19 (57.4%) cases. The mean follow-up period was 22 ± 5.32 months, mean time to union was 16.9 ± 5.4 weeks and the major complication was osteomyelitis (10.8%). We conclude that this is a viable treatment option for musculoskeletal injuries in resource poor regions. Education to encourage early acceptance of surgical intervention and reduced patronage of traditional bone setting for injudicious interventions can reduce the infective complication rates.

  15. A Focus on Triazolium as a Multipurpose Molecular Station for pH-Sensitive Interlocked Crown-Ether-Based Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrot, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The control of motion of one element with respect to others in an interlocked architecture allows for different co-conformational states of a molecule. This can result in variations of physical or chemical properties. The increase of knowledge in the field of molecular interactions led to the design, the synthesis, and the study of various systems of molecular machinery in a wide range of interlocked architectures. In this field, the discovery of new molecular stations for macrocycles is an attractive way to conceive original molecular machines. In the very recent past, the triazolium moiety proved to interact with crown ethers in interlocked molecules, so that it could be used as an ideal molecular station. It also served as a molecular barrier in order to lock interlaced structures or to compartmentalize interlocked molecular machines. This review describes the recently reported examples of pH-sensitive triazolium-containing molecular machines and their peculiar features.

  16. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [Mobile .MP4 (480x320/29.97fps/13.9MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  17. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [SD .MP4 (640x424/29.97fps/22.6MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  18. [Effect of interlocking intramedullary nail in treatment of open tibial and fibula fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianfei; Zhao, Yinsong; He, Xueyu; Zhou, Yang

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effect of interlocking intramedullary nail in treatment of open tibial and fibula fractures and analyze the method to promote the bone union. From December 2003 to June 2006, thirty-five patients with open tibial and fibula fracture were treated with emergency debridement, interlocked intramedullary fixation for tibia and fixed fibula at the same time. During operation, the bone marrow was collected and grafted into the fracture gaps. Among them, there were 27 males and 8 females, involving in 22 left legs and 13 right legs. Their ages ranged from 19 to 65 years, with an average of 34.7 years. The location of fracture was the middle of the tibia and fibula in 16 cases, the distal 1/3 of the tibia and fibula in 12 cases and the proximal 1/3 in 7 cases. According to the Gustilo classification of open injuries, there were 7 cases of type I, 19 cases of type II, 8 cases of type III a and 1 case of type III b. The mean range of knee motion was 48.3 degrees (45-70 degrees). The mean time from injury to operation was 4.3 hours (50 minutes to 7 hours). The mean operation time was 94 minutes (60-132 minutes) and the mean blood loss was 122 mL (100-350 mL). The wound healed by first intention in 32 patients. Incision was sutured in 2 cases of type III a fractures after operation 4 days, gastrocnemius flap graft was performed in 1 case of type III b fracture 1 week after operation. They all achieve good healing. No fractures split off, no iatrogenic nerve and vascular injury occurred, no osteofascial compartment syndromes or deep vein thrombus happened. Tension blisters appeared in 1 case of type II fracture after operation and subsided after 5 days. Patients were followed up for 14-43 months (mean 22 months). The X-ray films showed that fracture union was observe in 30 cases after 14 weeks of operation, in 3 cases after 18 weeks and in 1 case after 22 weeks of operation. The fractures union time was 15.2 weeks on average. About 2 cm nonunion in lateral

  19. Comparative multicenter study of treatment of multi-fragmented tibial diaphyseal fractures with nonreamed interlocking nails and with bridging plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Hélio Jorge Alvachian; Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Silva, Jorge dos Santos; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Zumiotti, Arnaldo Valdir

    2006-08-01

    A prospective, randomized study to compare patients with closed, multi-fragmented tibial diaphyseal fractures treated using one of two fixation methods undertaken during minimally invasive surgery: nonreamed interlocking intramedullary nails or bridging plates. Forty-five patients were studied; 22 patients were treated with bridging plates, 23 with interlocking nails without reaming. All fractures were Type B and C (according to the AO classification). Clinical and radiographic healing occurred in all cases. No cases of infection occurred. The healing time for patients who received nails was longer (4.32 weeks on average) than the healing time for those who received plates (P = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between the two methods regarding ankle mobility for patients in the two groups. The healing time was shorter with the bridging plate technique, although no significant functional differences were found.

  20. Metal-organic and supramolecular architectures based on mechanically interlocked molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Isurika Rosini

    The focus of this work is on mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), which have unusual physicochemical and mechanical properties with potential applications in nano-scale/molecular devices and high strength materials. Rotaxanes, for example, consist of an axle-like molecule threaded through a wheel-like molecule, with bulky groups at the two ends of the axle preventing the wheel from dissociating. The position of the wheel along the axle can be switched in a controllable and reversible manner by applying external stimuli, a feature that might lead to the next generation of computers. Molecularly woven materials (MWMs), another example of molecules with mechanically interlocked features, are predicted to be unprecedentedly strong while being lightweight and flexible. With the ultimate goal of achieving control over the functioning of molecular devices in the solid state, a variety of pseudorotaxane building blocks were prepared and characterized, including a novel, rare blue-colored motif. The temperature-dependent assembly/disassembly of pseudorotaxanes was exploited for the construction of single-wavelength colorimetric temperature sensors over a 100 °C window. Pseudorotaxanes based on aromatic crown ether wheels and disubstituted 4,4'-bipyridinium axles were converted into rotaxanes upon binding to metal complexes (zinc, cadmium, mercury, copper, cobalt), and the formation of ordered crystalline arrays was studied in the solid state. The columnar organization of pseudorotaxanes by Hg2X6 2-- complexes (X = Cl, Br, I), leading to unprecedented dichroic (blue/red) rotaxane crystals, was demonstrated for the first time. From the crystal structures studied it became apparent that negatively charged metal complexes are needed for successful assembly with the positively charged pseudorotaxane units. To be able to use the more common, positively charged metal ions for rotaxane framework construction, neutral and negatively charged pseudorotaxanes were synthesized

  1. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  2. Topology Engineering of Proteins in Vivo Using Genetically Encoded, Mechanically Interlocking SpyX Modules for Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Wen-Hao; Liu, Ya-Jie; Wu, Xia-Ling; Cao, Yang; Song, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Wen-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Recombinant proteins are traditionally limited to linear configuration. Herein, we report in vivo protein topology engineering using highly efficient, mechanically interlocking SpyX modules named AXB and BXA. SpyX modules are protein domains composed of p53dim (X), SpyTag (A), and SpyCatcher (B). The p53dim guides the intertwining of the two nascent protein chains followed by autocatalytic isopeptide bond formation between SpyTag and SpyCatcher to fulfill the interlocking, leading to a variety of backbone topologies. Direct expression of AXB or BXA produces protein catenanes with distinct ring sizes. Recombinant proteins containing SpyX modules are obtained either as mechanically interlocked obligate dimers if the protein of interest is fused to the N- or C-terminus of SpyX modules, or as star proteins if the protein is fused to both N- and C-termini. As examples, cellular syntheses of dimers of (GB1) 2 (where GB1 stands for immunoglobulin-binding domain B1 of streptococcal protein G) and of four-arm elastin-like star proteins were demonstrated. Comparison of the catenation efficiencies in different constructs reveals that BXA is generally much more effective than AXB, which is rationalized by the arrangement of three domains in space. Mechanical interlocking induces considerable stability enhancement. Both AXB and BXA have a melting point ∼20 °C higher than the linear controls and the BXA catenane has a melting point ~2 °C higher than the cyclic control BX'A. Notably, four-arm elastin-like star proteins demonstrate remarkable tolerance against trypsin digestion. The SpyX modules provide a convenient and versatile approach to construct unconventional protein topologies via the "assembly-reaction" synergy, which opens a new horizon in protein science for stability enhancement and function reinforcement via topology engineering.

  3. A STUDY OF EXCHANGE OF FAILED IMPLANT WITH INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL IN FRACTURES OF FEMUR AND TIBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rapaka; Maheshwar; Gouru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the fracture treatment is to achieve union with timely functional recovery. Internal fixation with adherence to strict biomechanical principles is often required to achieve this. However, a fixation device may fail to hold a redu ced fracture until union, giving rise to non - union or delayed union with implant failure. The aim of this study was to see the efficacy of exchange of failed implant with an intra - medullary interlocking nail. PATIENTS AND ...

  4. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Arup K Daolagupu; Ashwani Mudgal; Vikash Agarwala; Kaushik K Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Background: Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effectiv...

  5. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolagupu, Arup K; Mudgal, Ashwani; Agarwala, Vikash; Dutta, Kaushik K

    2017-01-01

    Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant ( P plating group. Lesser complications in terms of implant irritation, ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  6. Biocalcification using Ureolytic Bacteria (UB) for strengthening Interlocking Compressed Earth Blocks (ICEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamer, M. M.; Irwan, J. M.; Othman, N.; Faisal, S. K.; Anneza, L. H.; Alshalif, A. F.; Teddy, T.

    2018-02-01

    Interlocking compressed earth blocks (ICEB) are soil based blocks that allows for mortarless construction. This characteristic resulted to faster the process of building walls and required less skilled labor as the blocks are laid dry and lock into place. Recently, implementation in using bacteria as construction material improvement is vigorously used in research in order pursuit the sustainable construction works. This paper provide the results of ureolytic bacteria (UB) throughout enrichment process in soil condition to acclimatize the ICEB environment, compressive strength of 1%, 3% and 5% UB and SEM analysis of ICEB. The bacteria were added as partial replacement of limestone water in ICEB. The results showed the optimal growth achieved based on the days and absorbance from optical density (OD) test which are in 12th days with absorbance of 0.55 whereas the results for strength shows the increment of 15.25% with 5% UB on 28th days of testing compared to control specimen. Therefore this study hopes that positive results from the UB as improving in strength of ICEB which will lead to improve others ICEB properties and others construction materials.

  7. Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge; Vega-Zamanillo, Angel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Interlocking concrete block pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (R(SL)) and surface slope (S(S)). This paper studies the infiltration behaviour of ICBP during their operational life in a car park using an improved version of the Cantabrian Fixed (CF) Infiltrometer. This laboratory device simulates direct rainfall and runoff from adjacent impervious areas over an ICBPs surface of 0.25 m(2) for different slopes (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) and three scenarios of clogging (surface newly built, surface clogged and surface clogged with maintenance). This paper presents the results of the tests and a statistical analysis based on three regression models (corresponding to each clogging scenario) depending on the R(SL) and S(S) variables. All models passed a confidence level of 95%, presenting high R(2) values and showing that R(SL) is a more influential variable than the S(S) for all clogging scenarios.

  8. A Simple Field Test to Evaluate the Maintenance Requirements of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Lucke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate infiltration through Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements (PICPs is critical to their hydraulic and stormwater treatment performance. Infiltration is affected by clogging caused by the trapping of fines in the PICP surface, which, over time, reduces treatment performance. Clogging can be reduced by periodic maintenance such as vacuum sweeping and/or pressure washing. Maintenance requirements can be indicated by measuring reduced infiltration rates. This paper compared infiltration results using the standard test (C1781M-14a with the results of a new stormwater infiltration field test (SWIFT developed in Australia to evaluate the maintenance requirements of PICPs. A strong correlation (Pearson’s r = −0.714 was found between results using the two methods. This study found that the SWIFT was a reliable method for estimating the degree of clogging of PICPs while successfully overcoming some of the problems with the more technical existing test methodology such as horizontal water leakage (use of sealant, unrealistic pressure heads, speed of test, and portability. The SWIFT test is a simple, fast and inexpensive way for asset managers and local government employees to quickly assess the maintenance requirements of PICP installations in the field.

  9. Comparing Two Methods of Determining Infiltration Rates of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W.B.Nichols

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate infiltration through Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements (PICPs is critical to their hydraulic performance. Detected by monitoring infiltration performance, reduced infiltration rates can indicate that maintenance is required. Measurement of infiltration rates has previously been problematic on PICPs because of a lack of accepted standard methodologies and the practical difficulties in modifying existing testing methodologies. On large sites, standard methodologies necessitate multiple measurements to achieve accuracy. Standard methods also contend with practical issues such as sealing the rings to the surface to prevent lateral water flow. This study examined the performance of two PICP surface infiltration rate measurement methods: a modified double-ring infiltrometer (DRIT, and a specially designed rainfall simulation infiltrometer (RSIT. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.85 of results was found between the two, demonstrating that the RSIT was comparable to the DRIT. The modified DRIT produced surface infiltration results approximately 60% higher than the RSIT results. The RSIT provided lower variation between tests, requiring fewer measurements in large sites whilst still maintaining accuracy, thereby improving testing efficiency. The new RSIT method also eliminates some of the practical difficulties with existing methodologies such as unrealistic pressure heads artificially increasing infiltration rates, and the use of sealant under test measurement infiltration rings.

  10. Removal of interlocking intramedullary nail for relieve of knee pain after tibial fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodong; Wu, Xiaotao; Liu, Lei; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of intramedullary nail removal after tibial fracture repair. Sixty patients at our hospital were enrolled in a prospective study and divided into moderate/severe knee pain (visual analog scale (VAS) ≥ 4) and mild/no knee pain (VAS knee and ankle pain, the range of motion of the knee and ankle, and Johner-Wruhs criteria before, 6 weeks after operation, and at the last follow-up. Fifty-seven patients were followed for a mean of 8.4 (2-17) months. In patients with moderate or severe knee pain intramedullary nail removal led to significant pain reductions ( p anterior border of tibia (knee pain. Knee pain VAS scores significantly lowered 6 weeks postoperatively and at the last follow-up, compared to before the operation ( p pain VAS scores, range of motion, and Johner-Wruhs criteria ( p > 0.05). For patients complaining knee pain after interlocking intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures, especially with a short distance from the tip of the nail tail to the tibial plateau (anterior border of the tibia (pain significantly.

  11. Active interlock system for high power insertion devices in the x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In modern synchrotron radiation rings photon beams generated by high power insertion devices (IDs) may be sufficiently intense to cause severe thermal damage to the machine vacuum chamber if mis-steered. Thus when operating a storage ring with the IDs, great care must be exercised to prevent mis-steering of the electron beam orbit. At present, the X-ray ring operates with three IDs, namely two hybrid wigglers (HBW) at X-21 and X-25,a nd a 5-Tesla superconducting wiggler at X-17. All wigglers are located in low-beta straight sections. In the straight sections. In the straight sections, beam orbit may be deflected by as much as ±8 mrad without scraping the chamber wall. For various reasons it was not possible to design the X-ray ring vacuum chamber to be safe under all possible operating conditions, however, the chamber is safe for i < 7 mA, all horizontal beam deflection angles and for vertical angles < ± 2.5 mrad. To protect the machine vacuum chamber from damage due to mis-steered beams, and interlock system has been developed and installed. This system utilizes active beam position detectors which continuously monitor beam motion in each of the ID straight sections and logic circuitry which interrupts the RF and dumps the stored beam in the case of a fault

  12. Being present in action: a theoretical model about the interlocking between intentions and environmental affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eTriberti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological evidence suggest that a key role in linking perceptions and intentions is played by sense of presence. Despite this phenomenon having been studied primarily in the field of virtual reality (conceived as the illusion of being in the virtual space, recent research highlighted that it is a fundamental feature of everyday experience. Specifically, the function of presence as a cognitive process is to locate the Self in a physical space or situation, based on the perceived possibility to act in it; so, the variations in sense of presence allow one to continuously adapt his own action to the external environment. Indeed intentions, as the cognitive antecedents of action, are not static representations of the desired outcomes, but dynamic processes able to adjust their own representational content according to the opportunities/restrictions emerging in the environment. Focusing on the peculiar context of action mediated by interactive technologies, we here propose a theoretical model showing how each level of an intentional hierarchy (future-directed; present directed; and motor intentions can interlock with environmental affordances in order to promote a continuous stream of action and activity.

  13. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uzun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI. Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%. Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%. Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm. Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%. The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening.

  14. Being Present in Action: A Theoretical Model About the "Interlocking" Between Intentions and Environmental Affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triberti, Stefano; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological evidence suggest that a key role in linking perceptions and intentions is played by sense of presence. Despite this phenomenon having been studied primarily in the field of virtual reality (conceived as the illusion of being in the virtual space), recent research highlighted that it is a fundamental feature of everyday experience. Specifically, the function of presence as a cognitive process is to locate the Self in a physical space or situation, based on the perceived possibility to act in it; so, the variations in sense of presence allow one to continuously adapt his own action to the external environment. Indeed intentions, as the cognitive antecedents of action, are not static representations of the desired outcomes, but dynamic processes able to adjust their own representational content according to the opportunities/restrictions emerging in the environment. Focusing on the peculiar context of action mediated by interactive technologies, we here propose a theoretical model showing how each level of an intentional hierarchy (future-directed; present directed; and motor intentions) can "interlock" with environmental affordances in order to promote a continuous stream of action and activity.

  15. A bio-inspired swellable microneedle adhesive for mechanical interlocking with tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yun; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Park, Kyeng Min; Cho, Woo Kyung; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving significant adhesion to soft tissues while minimizing tissue damage poses a considerable clinical challenge. Chemical-based adhesives require tissue-specific reactive chemistry, typically inducing a significant inflammatory response. Staples are fraught with limitations including high-localized tissue stress and increased risk of infection, and nerve and blood vessel damage. Here inspired by the endoparasite Pomphorhynchus laevis, which swells its proboscis to attach to its host’s intestinal wall, we have developed a biphasic microneedle array that mechanically interlocks with tissue through swellable microneedle tips, achieving ~3.5-fold increase in adhesion strength compared with staples in skin graft fixation, and removal force of ~4.5 N cm-2 from intestinal mucosal tissue. Comprising a poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) swellable tip and non-swellable polystyrene core, conical microneedles penetrate tissue with minimal insertion force and depth, yet high adhesion strength in their swollen state. Uniquely, this design provides universal soft tissue adhesion with minimal damage, less traumatic removal, reduced risk of infection and delivery of bioactive therapeutics.

  16. String Electron and Three-ring Quarked Nucleons' Transverse Interlocks Build Atoms, Vindicate Schr"odinger

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David; McLeod, Roger David

    2008-05-01

    Flatland electron loop strings have transversely vibrating neutrino strings. Traveling waves TWs alternately become upwardly deflecting standing waves SWs along each half-wave segment between non-vibrating node pairs. Descending SWs revert to TWs at flatland, proceeding to the next adjacent nodal pair; folding continues. New SWs descend, then ascend; repetition follows to a three dimensional object. Broken ``linear'' electron string and spring constant compress within stars so linear mass density allows incorporation into stable three-ring proton string, creating neutron of two down quarks, one up. It is unstable; it lacks overpass-underpass interlocks of proton that merged linear charge density of two up quarks and one down quark with the electron, becoming neutral. Any transversely aligned neutron notch pushed into acceptor notch of proton is ionized deuterium; tritium follows. Alpha particle is a stable ``tic-tac-toe'' grid. Atom building proceeds routinely, nucleon attachment follows chemical and physical property requirements. Models require vindication of Schr"odinger's actual, but incomplete, wave model of electron with physical extent over his wave, and question Heisenberg's uncertainty proposal.

  17. The Tight-interlocked Rhythm Section: Production and Perception of Synchronisation in Jazz Trio Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alex; Wesolowski, Brian C; Goebl, Werner

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the production and perception of timing, synchronisation and dynamics in jazz trio performances. In a production experiment, six trio combinations of one saxophonist, two bassists, and three drummers were recorded while they performed three popular jazz songs. Onset timing and dynamics of each performer were extracted and analysed. Results showed that the tempo was significantly influenced by the timing of the drummers and all performers showed higher temporal precision on the backbeats. The drummers demonstrated individual swing-ratios, accentuations of beats and intrapersonal asynchronies between simultaneous hi-hat and ride cymbal onsets, which resulted in a hi-hat played 2-26 ms ahead of the pulse of the music. In a subsequent perception test, participants ([Formula: see text]) rated 12 excerpts of the jazz recordings. They selected their preferred version from a pool of stimuli containing the original version, but also manipulations with artificially increased or reduced asynchronies. Stimuli with reduced asynchronies smaller than 19 ms were preferred by the listeners over the original or the fully quantised timing. This suggests that listeners endorse a 'tight-interlocked' jazz rhythm section, with asynchronies smaller than the perceptual threshold (temporal masking), but with natural timing variabilities that makes it distinguishable from a computer-generated playback.

  18. Development of Remote Control and Interlock System for the PEFP Microwave Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    The control system for a microwave ion source as an isolated high voltage device is a main part of the PEFP distributed control system. The system is used to control two sets of microwave ion sources, the remote control and the interlock system. A VME system with an embedded Power PC CPU is used as main computer. The VME system is dedicated to control and monitoring of the ion source operation. An isolated control system has been designed and developed for remote control and monitoring of a microwave generator and various power supplies. As the source is placed on high voltage platform, optical fiber isolation has been used between the serial to optical fiber VME I/O board and the control system on the high voltage platform. These are connected through RS232 serial interface. A fast Ethernet is used to communicate between the microwave ion source control system and other control stations in the PEFP control system. EPICS toolkit is adopted to provide network programming and user interface by using EPICS Channel Access (CA)

  19. A Bio-Inspired Swellable Microneedle Adhesive for Mechanical Interlocking with Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yun; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Sisk, Geoffroy C.; Park, Kyeng Min; Cho, Woo Kyung; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving significant adhesion to soft tissues while minimizing tissue damage poses a considerable clinical challenge. Chemical-based adhesives require tissue-specific reactive chemistry, typically inducing a significant inflammatory response. Staples are fraught with limitations including high-localized tissue stress and increased risk of infection, and nerve and blood vessel damage. Here, inspired by the endoparasite Pomphorhynchus laevis which swells its proboscis to attach to its host’s intestinal wall, we have developed a biphasic microneedle array that mechanically interlocks with tissue through swellable microneedle tips, achieving ~ 3.5 fold increase in adhesion strength compared to staples in skin graft fixation, and removal force of ~ 4.5 N/cm2 from intestinal mucosal tissue. Comprising a poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid) swellable tip and non-swellable polystyrene core, conical microneedles penetrate tissue with minimal insertion force and depth, yet high adhesion strength in their swollen state. Uniquely, this design provides universal soft tissue adhesion with minimal damage, less traumatic removal, reduced risk of infection and delivery of bioactive therapeutics. PMID:23591869

  20. Fatigue behavior of Ilizarov frame versus tibial interlocking nail in a comminuted tibial fracture model: a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahel Philip F

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment options for comminuted tibial shaft fractures include plating, intramedullary nailing, and external fixation. No biomechanical comparison between an interlocking tibia nail with external fixation by an Ilizarov frame has been reported to date. In the present study, we compared the fatigue behaviour of Ilizarov frames to interlocking intramedullary nails in a comminuted tibial fracture model under a combined loading of axial compression, bending and torsion. Our goal was to determine the biomechanical characteristics, stability and durability for each device over a clinically relevant three month testing period. The study hypothesis was that differences in the mechanical properties may account for differing clinical results and provide information applicable to clinical decision making for comminuted tibia shaft fractures. Methods In this biomechanical study, 12 composite tibial bone models with a comminuted fracture and a 25 mm diaphyseal gap were investigated. Of these, six models were stabilized with a 180-mm four-ring Ilizarov frame, and six models were minimally reamed and stabilized with a 10 mm statically locked Russell-Taylor Delta™ tibial nail. After measuring the pre-fatigue axial compression bending and torsion stiffness, each model was loaded under a sinusoidal cyclic combined loading of axial compression (2.8/28 lbf; 12.46/124.6 N and torque (1.7/17 lbf-in; 0.19/1.92 Nm at a frequency of 3 Hz. The test was performed until failure (implant breakage or ≥ 5° angulations and/or 2 cm shortening occurred or until 252,000 cycles were completed, which corresponds to approximately three months testing period. Results In all 12 models, both the Ilizarov frame and the interlocking tibia nail were able to maintain fracture stability of the tibial defect and to complete the full 252,000 cycles during the entire study period of three months. A significantly higher stiffness to axial compression and torsion was

  1. Early Clinical Experience with a Newly Designed Interlocking Nail System-Targon(®) Vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Michael; Unger, Martin; Spies, Markus

    2016-08-01

    To describe early clinical experience with a newly designed interlocking nail system (Targon(®) Vet) in diaphyseal fractures in cats and small dogs. Retrospective case series. Client-owned cats (n=49) and dogs (n=8). Fifty-seven consecutive cases (49 cats, 8 dogs) with 60 long bone fractures were included in the study. Follow-up radiographs were scheduled at 4 and 8 weeks and again 6 months postoperatively. The end point for each case was determined radiographically by a healed fracture. Complications were defined as minor or major. Clinical outcome was subjectively assessed by a full orthopedic examination and follow-up radiographs. Descriptive data are reported. Median age of cats was 18 months (range, 3-220 months) and of dogs was 28 months (range, 7-115 months). Median body weight was 3.7 kg (range, 1.67-8.41 kg) for cats and 8.15 kg (range, 2.68-13.6 kg) for dogs. Median radiographic follow-up was 16 weeks. All fractures with follow-up radiographs available (n=46) were healed with no infections reported. A total of 12 postoperative complications occurred: 3 minor (slippage of the locking screws) and 9 major (5 femoral-irritation of the sciatic nerve, stress protection, fracture because of a missed fissure, femoral neck fracture, intra-operative revision with a rod and plate; 4 tibial-3 with protrusion of the distal locking screw through the skin and 1 with in-growth of the intramedullary nail). Implantation of the Targon(®) Vet System was feasible in all cases. It provides an alternative system for diaphyseal fracture repair in cats and small dogs. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Elaboration of the configuration and programming of the interlocks system of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia C, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The modernization of the TRIGA Mark III reactor interlock system requires a system that provides high reliability, flexibility and ease of operation during reactor operation. With this modernization of the system, is intended to prevent, control and mitigate the causes of probable accidents reported in the reactor accident analysis. On the other hand, is foreseen the ease reactor operation in a simple, safe and efficient way. The programmable logic controller can be programmed by programming instructions using simple language and easy to develop, these can be modified from a computer using the programming software. In addition, another of the advantages offered by the controller is that can be modified from a touch screen (human-machine interface) that allows adjustment, without the need to use programming software and diagnostic functions during the process. As a result of the present work, a situation of improvement in the reactor operation was generated, facilitating the handling of the bridge and increasing the efficiency of the system in the execution of the operating conditions of the installations external to the reactor. A modern, more reliable and much less expensive system was achieved than the previous one, avoiding that the maintenance to the system generates high expenses. With respect to the development of the application programming, a control was implemented that allows to select a zone of the five that have inside the pool to carry out the displacement of automatic way and later to be located in that zone, having in this way a greater efficiency and ease in bridge control. (Author)

  3. Ca2+-sensors and ROS-GC: Interlocked sensory transduction elements: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwar K Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available From its initial discovery that ROS-GC membrane guanylate cyclase is a mono-modal Ca2+-transduction system linked exclusively with the phototransduction machinery to the successive finding that it embodies a remarkable bimodal Ca2+signaling device, its widened transduction role in the general signaling mechanisms of the sensory neuron cells was envisioned. A theoretical concept was proposed where Ca2+-modulates ROS-GC through its generated cyclic GMP via a nearby cyclic nucleotide gated channel and creates a hyper- or depolarized sate in the neuron membrane (Ca2+ Binding Proteins 1:1, 7-11, 2006. The generated electric potential then becomes a mode of transmission of the parent [Ca2+]i signal. Ca2+ and ROS-GC are interlocked messengers in multiple sensory transduction mechanisms.This comprehensive review discusses the developmental stages to the present status of this concept and demonstrates how neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins are the interconnected elements of this elegant ROS-GC transduction system. The focus is on the dynamism of the structural composition of this system, and how it accommodates selectivity and elasticity for the Ca2+ signals to perform multiple tasks linked with the SENSES of vision, smell and possibly of taste and the pineal gland. An intriguing illustration is provided for the Ca2+ sensor GCAP1 which displays its remarkable ability for its flexibility in function from being a photoreceptor sensor to an odorant receptor sensor. In doing so it reverses its function from an inhibitor of ROS-GC to the stimulator of ONE-GC membrane guanylate cyclase.

  4. Improved osseointegration and interlocking capacity with dual acid-treated implants: a rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Anders; Jimbo, Ryo; Johansson, Carina B; Gretzer, Christina; Jacobsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how osseointegration is affected by different nano- and microstructures. The hypothesis was that the surface structure created by dual acid treatment (AT-1), applied on a reduced topography, might achieve equivalent biomechanical performance as a rougher surface treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF). In a preclinical rabbit study, three groups (I, II, and III) comprised of test and control implants were inserted in 30 rabbits. The microstructures of the test implants were either produced by blasting with coarse (I) or fine (II) titanium particles or remained turned (III). All test implants were thereafter treated with AT-1 resulting in three different test surfaces. The microstructure of the control implants was produced by blasting with coarse titanium particles thereafter treated with HF. The surface topography was characterized by interferometry. Biomechanical (removal torque) and histomorphometric (bone-implant contact; bone area) performances were measured after 4 or 12 weeks of healing. Removal torque measurement demonstrated that test implants in group I had an enhanced biomechanical performance compared to that of the control despite similar surface roughness value (Sa ). At 4 weeks of healing, group II test implants showed equivalent biomechanical performance to that of the control, despite a decreased Sa value. Group III test implants showed decreased biomechanical performance to that of the control. The results of the present study suggest that nano- and microstructure alteration by AT-1 on a blasted implant might enhance the initial biomechanical performance, while for longer healing time, the surface interlocking capacity seems to be more important. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The best location for proximal locking screw for femur interlocking nailing: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet A; Karakaşli, Ahmet; Aycan, Hakan; Çeçen, Berivan; Yildiz, Didem Venüs; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Proximal locking screw deformation and screw fracture is a frequently seen problem for femur interlocking nailing that affects fracture healing. We realized that there is lack of literature for the right level for the proximal locking screw. We investigated the difference of locking screw bending resistance between the application of screws on different proximal femoral levels. We used a total of 80 proximal locking screws for eight groups, 10 screws for each group. Three-point bending tests were performed on four types of screws in two different trochanteric levels (the lesser trochanter and 20 mm proximal). We determined the yield points at three-point bending tests that a permanent deformation started in the locking screws using an axial compression testing machine. The mean yield point value of 5 mm threaded locking screws applied 20 mm proximal of lesser trochanter was 1022 ± 49 (range 986-1057) (mean ± standard deviation, 95% confidence interval). On the other hand, the mean yield point value of the same type of locking screws applied on the lesser trochanteric level was 2089 ± 249 (range 1911-2268). Which means 103% increase of screw resistance between two levels (P = 0.000). In all screw groups, on the lesser trochanter line we determined 98-174% higher than the yield point values of the same type of locking screws in comparison with 20 mm proximal to the lesser trochanter (P = 0.000). According to our findings, there is twice as much difference in locking screw bending resistance between these two application levels. To avoid proximal locking screw deformation, locking screws should be placed in the level of the lesser trochanter in nailing of 1/3 middle and distal femur fractures.

  6. [Retrograde interlocked intramedullary nailing with tibia bone graft fusion for the treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhong-Yu; Pei, Ping; Liu, Lin; Song, Yu-Xin

    2017-06-25

    To explore clinical outcomes of retrograde interlocked intramedullary nailing with tibia bone graft fusion in treating end-stage ankle arthritis. From November 2014 to April 2016, 22 patients with end-stage ankle arthritis were treated with retrograde interlocked intramedullary nailing with tibia bone graft fusion, including 9 males and 13 females aged from 30 to 65 years old with an average of 48.5 years old. Seven patients had obvious varus deformity, and other 15 patients' appearance were normal. Operative time, blood loss, fracture healing time and complications were observed and compared, AOFAS and VAS score were applied for evaluate ankle joint function and pain degree before operation and 9 months after operation. All patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months with an average of 18.6 months. The incision were healed at stage I , and no complications occurred. Operative time ranged from 80 to 120 min with an average of 90 min;blood loss ranged from 15 to 50 ml with an average of 30 ml;fracture healing time was from 10 to 18 weeks with an average of 14 weeks. AOFAS score at 9 months after operation was 88.00±3.45, while 54.82±2.98 before operation, and there was statistical significance; 8 cases obtained excellent results, 12 good and 2 moderate. There was significant difference in VAS score between preoperative(3.96±1.27) and 9 months after operation(9.37±0.55). Retrograde interlocked intramedullary nailing with tibia bone graft fusion for the treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis has advantages of stable fixation, less trauma, less blood loss, bone union and rapid recovery of function, and could relieve pain obviously.

  7. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Process Vacuum Liquid Detection interlock systems prevent intrusion of process liquids into the HEPA filters downstream of demisters No.6 and No.7 during Process Vacuum System operation. This prevents liquid intrusion into the filters, which could cause a criticality. The Safety Envelope (SE) includes the equipment, which detects the presence of liquids in the vacuum headers; isolates the filters; shuts down the vacuum pumps; and alarms the condition. This report identifies the equipment in the SE operating, maintenance, and surveillance procedures needed to maintain the SE equipment; and rationale for exclusion of some equipment and testing from the SE

  8. Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result?

    OpenAIRE

    Chalidis, Byron E.; Petsatodis, George E.; Sachinis, Nick C.; Dimitriou, Christos G.; Christodoulou, Anastasios G.

    2009-01-01

    The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9?years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter ...

  9. Interlocking Directorships in Polish Joint Stock Companies = Medsebojna prepletenost članov nadzornih svetov v delniških družbah na Poljskem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG. Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to the same phenomenon existing in other countries. About 13.43 percent of Polish joint stock company directors possess additional directorships. The average number of directorships for the whole group employed by Polish joint stock companies is 1,207, and 2,541 for people who hold more than one mandate. There is a positive correlation between the total investments in the Polish economy and the number of multiple directorships.

  10. Bending and torsional stiffness in cadaver humeri fixed with a self-locking expandable or interlocking nail system: a mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Karagül, Göksen; Sternstein, Werner; Rommens, Pol M

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to gain data about a new expandable, noninterlocked intramedullary nail's capacity to stabilize unstable transverse humeral shaft fractures without the need for interlocking, thus making nail implantation simpler and to prove our goal hypothesis: that in a midshaft osteotomy of the humeral shaft the expandable humeral nail will show the same bending and torsional stiffness as an interlocked humeral nail, when implanted correctly according to the manufacturer's instructions. Pair randomization. Mechanical laboratory testing. Eight pairs of freshly harvested cadaveric humeri. Fracture model was a midshaft transverse osteotomy, gapped to 3 mm. Each humerus pair received an expandable humeral nail (Fixion) or an interlocked humerus nail (Synthes) through a retrograde approach. The humeri were fixed in polymethylmethacrylate cylinders and tested in a servo-pneumatic material-testing machine. Torsional stiffness and bending stiffness of the nail-bone-construction. Expandable nails (interlocked nails) showed a lateral bending stiffness of 0.73 +/- 0.14 (0.63 +/- 0.1) KN/mm (P = 0.026) and a frontal bending stiffness of 0.67 +/- 0.18 (0.58 +/- 0.09) KN/mm (P = 0.084). Torsional stiffness values were 0.13 +/- 0.19 (0.43 +/- 0.09 Nm/degrees) (P = 0.012). Lower torsional stiffness in the expandable nail group was observed in humeri with a funnel shaped proximal intramedullary canal. The nail systems showed similar characteristics for frontal bending (P = 0.084), but not for lateral bending (P = 0.026). For lateral bending, the Fixion nail showed significantly more stiffness than the UHN nail (P = 0.026). There was significantly lower torsional stiffness with expandable nails compared with interlocked nails. Clinical correlation would suggest that in rotationally unstable fractures (A2 and A3 diaphyseal fractures), interlocked nails would provide increased stability over expandable nails.

  11. I: Hydrodynamic-focusing microreactor II: Mechanically interlocked molecules for functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti, Karla Karina

    I: Microreactors, a class of microfluidics, offer numerous benefits -- such as small sample requirement, short analysis times and automations -- and have been used to study reactions of chemical and biological reagents. In order to understand the relationship between fast mixing, product regioselectivity, as well as the ability to separate, in time and space, the nanoparticle (NP) formation stages, a microreactor capable of fast and controllable mixing was developed (Chapter 1) based on multi-lamination and hydrodynamic-focusing. By taking advantage of the fast and controllable mixing properties of this novel microreactor one can control the time when chemical reactions commence inside the microchannels. These properties of the microreactor can be exploited to improve the product regioselectivity of a diazo-coupling reaction to attain a product distribution of monoazo to diazo product of ˜1:99, a selectivity unprecedented in both conventional, macroscopic reactors and other microfluidic systems. Additionally, the ability to separate different stages during the NP formation process inside the microreactor, allowed us to study the aggregation of polypyrrole NPs. II: Supramolecular actuators and molecular interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, have attracted considerable attention because of their sophisticated topology and their application in functional molecular devices. The blending of supramolecular and mechanostereochemistry with mesoporous silica NPs has proven to be a powerful combination, leading to the development of a new class of materials -- mechanized silica nanoparticles ( Chapter 2). These new hybrid materials are designed to release their content in response to an external stimuli and their development is being driven by the need to improve current drug delivery technologies. In an effort to explore how the stimuli-controlled mechanical movement of switchable, bistable [2]rotaxanes -- based on a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring

  12. Triple Helix Model in Developing Technological Innovation: The Case of Computer Based Interlocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Ricardo Nurzal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer Based Interlocking (CBI is the most important part of the electric railway signalingsystem which serves as the “brain” that controls the operation of electrical signaling system thatreplaces the role of the electromagnetic relay which has gradually been abandoned. Developmentof CBI is based on the fact that until recently the signaling system in Indonesia is still reliedheavily on the CBI products from foreign vendors. Therefore, the development of domestic CBIproducts is really necessary in order to decrease the dependence on technology from foreignvendors that at the same time is also be able to support the accelerated development of railwayinfrastructure in Indonesia.The CBI development is conducted in the form of a collaboration involving the government,universities, and industry. This paper explores and analyzes the roles and interactions betweendifferent actors in the triple helix perspective, and identifies how the innovation ecosystemfunctioning with support from the government.Based on the data collected through in-depth interview with the actors involved in the CBI casestudy, this paper gives some key findings. First, government role is very important in establishingan innovation ecosystem for CBI development. Second, the leader in the development of CBItechnological innovation should be the industry supported by governmental R & D institutionsand universities. Third, R & D consortium is an effective vehicle for creating an interactionamong industry, academia, and government.Such findings may provide conceptual direction which is important for the development oftechnological innovation in Indonesia. In addition, in providing support for R&D activities, thegovernment needs to direct its R & D incentives to the industry as a business practitioner with itsown technology roadmap. The possible further research may include some research issues. First,is the pattern occurred in the CBI case also applied in the other cases of

  13. Analytical and computational modeling of the mechanical interlocking between steel/FRP reinforcing bars and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailing

    Mechanical interaction (commonly called bond) between concrete and reinforcing bars significantly affects the structural response of reinforced concrete. This study addresses modeling issues for the bond of steel and fiber-reinforced polymer---FRP bars. Two analysis scales are examined: the rib-scale (where the surface structure of the bar is often explicitly modeled) and the bar-scale (where the surface is idealized as smooth and an interface idealization is adopted). The study's main objective is to better understand how contact between concrete and a bar with a fabricated surface structure affects the radial elastic response and how these effects can be incorporated into bar-scale models. A limited modeling study on the local crushing near the ribs of a bar is also presented. Experimental or analytical justifications for the radial elastic modulus (D̂e) of a barscale model do not exist, yet D̂ e is important toward predicting bond behavior and splitting failures. A proposed analytical framework defines D̂e as characterizing the local elastic deformation resulting from mechanical interlocking. The approach enforces static and strain energy equivalencies of riband bar-scale idealizations. Assuming axisymmetric elastic behavior, homogeneous materials, and periodicity, closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for D̂ e. D̂e's dependence on interface traction distribution, material constants and bar geometry is studied for steel and FRP bars. D̂ e increases with the contact area but remains finite for full contact (assuming a nonuniform traction). For FRP bars, D̂e reproduces the radial snap-back behavior that occurs with longitudinal cracking, which helps explain the splitting behavior of some test specimens and the convergence problems in some numerical studies. For a steel bar D̂e is incorporated into a bar-scale bond model via a local contact model which leads to improved prediction of the radial response. Elastoplastic constitutive relations are

  14. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  15. Management of aseptic non-unions of the distal third of the tibial diaphysis using static interlocking intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begkas, Dimitrios; Katsenis, Dimitrios; Pastroudis, Alexandros

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the management of aseptic non-unions of the distal third of the tibial diaphysis, using static interlocking intramedullary nailing. Between January 2005 and November 2012, a total number of 42 patients who underwent surgery at our hospital for aseptic non-unions of the distal third of the tibial diaphysis, were included in our study. Preoperatively, all the patients were tested for the presence of infection of non-union. The post-operative follow up was based on clinical and radiological findings. Union was achieved in 41 (98%) patients, at a mean time of 5.8 months (four-eight months). One (2%) patient developed infection of the wound four weeks after the operation. A small decrease of the tibial length, of about one cm was seen in three (7%) patients. Pain of the patellar tendon, at the entry point of the nail, was observed in six (14%) patients, without impacting the range of motion of the knee. In two (5%) patients, a decrease in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint occurred, of about ten degrees angle. Static interlocking intramedullary nailing is the preferable technique in the management of aseptic non-unions of the distal third of the tibial diaphysis, because it provides high union rate and few postoperative complications. A good preoperative evaluation for infections, use of proper surgical technique with respect to soft tissues, use of autogenous bone grafts and early mobilization of patients, are the keys to success of this method.

  16. Three-dimensional iron sulfide-carbon interlocked graphene composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Sun, Hongyu; Shangguan, Huihui

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon-wrapped iron sulfide interlocked graphene (Fe7S8@C-G) composites for high-performance sodium-ion storage are designed and produced through electrostatic interactions and subsequent sulfurization. The iron-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs, MIL-88-Fe) interact...... with graphene oxide sheets to form 3D networks, and carbon-wrapped iron sulfide (Fe7S8@C) nanoparticles with high individual-particle conductivity are prepared following a sulfurization process, surrounded by interlocked graphene sheets to enhance the interparticle conductivity. The prepared Fe7S8@C......, the Fe7S8@C-G composites exhibit a reversible capacity of 449 mA h g−1at 500 mA g−1 after 150 cycles and a retention capacity of 306 mA h g−1 under a current density of 2000 mA g−1. The crucial factors related to the structural changes and stability during cycles have been further investigated...

  17. Close Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing Versus Locking Compression Plating In the Treatment of Closed Fracture Shaft of the Tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, I K; Datta, N K; Chowdhury, A Z; Das, K P; Tarik, M M; Faisal, M A

    2016-07-01

    Fracture of tibial shaft is the commonest site of long bone fractures due to its superficial location involving young or middle-age people. Proper management is an important issue regarding the future effective movements. In this study patients were grouped in closed Intra medullary interlocking nailing and locking compression plating. Post-operative follow up at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 3 months thereafter up to 6 months were done. Each of the patients was evaluated clinically and radiologically by tucker criteria of Tuker et al. Patients were assessed for pain on full weight bearing and kneeling, shortening and range of motion of knee and ankle joints. Radiological assessment for union of fracture, alignment of fracture and angulations and position of nail and screws and infection were observed during follow up. A total number of 32 patients were selected but only 27 patients were available for follow up for a period of 6 months. They were grouped into Group A, consisting of 15 patients who took the treatment in the form of closed intramedullary interlocking nailing and Group B, consisting of 12 patients those underwent ORIF with locking compression plating. In both of the groups Motor Vehicle Accident was the main mechanism of trauma. Fracture involving the middle 3rd of the tibia is common in both the groups. During post-operative follow up, four patients in Group A complained anterior knee pain, one patient in Group B had superficial infection, most of the patients had no restriction of movement in the ankle and knee joints and a single patient in Group B showed 1.5cm shortening of the lower limb. Period of hospital stay and fracture union time were less in Group A, which was statistically significant. Both groups showed excellent result with minimum complications. So this study permits to conclude that close IM interlocking nailing and open reduction and internal fixation by locking compression plating is equally effective for the management of close

  18. Interlocked chiral/polar domain walls and large optical rotation in Ni3TeO6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyun Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chirality, i.e., handedness, pervades much of modern science from elementary particles, DNA-based biology to molecular chemistry; however, most of the chirality-relevant materials have been based on complex molecules. Here, we report inorganic single-crystalline Ni3TeO6, forming in a corundum-related R3 structure with both chirality and polarity. These chiral Ni3TeO6 single crystals exhibit a large optical specific rotation (α—1355° dm−1 cm3 g−1. We demonstrate, for the first time, that in Ni3TeO6, chiral and polar domains form an intriguing domain pattern, resembling a radiation warning sign, which stems from interlocked chiral and polar domain walls through lowering of the wall energy.

  19. Fibre Monitoring System for the Beam Permit Loops at the LHC and Future Evolution of the Beam Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    García-Argos, Carlos; Gabourin, Stéphane; Martin, Christophe; Puccio, Bruno; Siemko, Andrzej P.

    The optical fibres that transmit the beam permit loop signals at the CERN accelerator complex are deployed along radiation areas. This may result in increased attenuation of the fibres, which reduces the power margin of the links. In addition, other events may cause the links to not function properly and result in false dumps, reducing the availability of the accelerator chain and affecting physics data taking. In order to evaluate the state of the fibres, an out-of-band fibre monitoring system is proposed, working in parallel to the actual beam permit loops. The future beam interlock system to be deployed during LHC long shutdown 2 will implement online, real-time monitoring of the fibres, a feature the current system lacks. Commercial off-the-shelf components to implement the optical transceivers are proposed whenever possible instead of ad-hoc designs.

  20. Outsourcing the development of specific application software using the ESA software engineering standards the SPS software Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, B

    1995-01-01

    CERN is considering outsourcing as a solution to the reduction of staff. To need to re-engineer the SPS Software Interlock System provided an opportunity to explore the applicability of outsourcing to our specific controls environment and the ESA PSS-05 standards were selected for the requirements specification, the development, the control and monitoring and the project management. The software produced by the contractor is now fully operational. After outlining the scope and the complexity of the project, a discussion on the ESA PSS-05 will be presented: the choice, the way these standards improve the outsourcing process, the quality induced but also the need to adapt them and their limitation in the definition of the customer-supplier relationship. The success factors and the difficulties of development under contract will also be discussed. The maintenance aspect and the impact on in-house developments will finally be addressed.

  1. Measurement of the ground-state distributions in bistable mechanically interlocked molecules using slow scan rate cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Barnes, Jonathan C; Li, Hao; Benítez, Diego; Basuray, Ashish N; Fang, Lei; Sue, Chi-Hau; Barin, Gokhan; Dey, Sanjeev K; Goddard, William A; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2011-12-20

    In donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules that exhibit bistability, the relative populations of the translational isomers--present, for example, in a bistable [2]rotaxane, as well as in a couple of bistable [2]catenanes of the donor-acceptor vintage--can be elucidated by slow scan rate cyclic voltammetry. The practice of transitioning from a fast scan rate regime to a slow one permits the measurement of an intermediate redox couple that is a function of the equilibrium that exists between the two translational isomers in the case of all three mechanically interlocked molecules investigated. These intermediate redox potentials can be used to calculate the ground-state distribution constants, K. Whereas, (i) in the case of the bistable [2]rotaxane, composed of a dumbbell component containing π-electron-rich tetrathiafulvalene and dioxynaphthalene recognition sites for the ring component (namely, a tetracationic cyclophane, containing two π-electron-deficient bipyridinium units), a value for K of 10 ± 2 is calculated, (ii) in the case of the two bistable [2]catenanes--one containing a crown ether with tetrathiafulvalene and dioxynaphthalene recognition sites for the tetracationic cyclophane, and the other, tetrathiafulvalene and butadiyne recognition sites--the values for K are orders (one and three, respectively) of magnitude greater. This observation, which has also been probed by theoretical calculations, supports the hypothesis that the extra stability of one translational isomer over the other is because of the influence of the enforced side-on donor-acceptor interactions brought about by both π-electron-rich recognition sites being part of a macrocyclic polyether.

  2. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  3. Early Conversion of External Fixation to Interlocked Nailing in Open Fractures of Both Bone Leg Assisted with Vacuum Closure (VAC) - Final Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simrat Pal Singh; Raj, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Pulkesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Jasveer; Deep, Akash

    2016-02-01

    Management of compound grade III fractures of both bone leg includes external stabilization for long period, followed by various soft tissue coverage procedures. Primary interlocking of tibia had been also done with variable results. External fixation for long time without any bone loss often leads to infected nonunion, loss of reduction, pin tract infection and failure of fixation, primary interlocking in compound grade III fractures had shown high medullary infection rate. We managed all cases of compound grade III A/B fractures with primary external fixation, simultaneous wound management using vacuum assisted closure (VAC) followed by early conversion to interlocking within 2 weeks of fixator application. To determine the effectiveness of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) for the early conversion of external fixator to definitive interlocking in open fractures of the both bone leg. In current study we selected 84 cases of compound grade IIIA/B diaphyseal fractures of both bone leg during period of May 2010 to September 2013. We managed these cases by immediate debridement and application of external fixation followed by repeated debridement, application of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and conversion to interlocking within two weeks. Out of 84 cases union was achieved in 80(95%) of cases with definitive tibial interlocking. Excellent to good result were obtained in 77(91.8%) of cases and fair to poor result seen in rest of 7(8.2%) of cases according to modified Ketenjian's criteria. 5 out of these 7 poor result group cases were from Compound Grade III B group to start with. Deep infection rate in our series were 7% i.e. total 6 cases and 4 out of these were from compound Grade III B group to start with. Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) give a good help for rapid closure of the wound and help in early conversion to definitive intramedullary nailing. Reamed nail could well be used in compound grade IIIA/B fractures without increasing the risk of infection. It gives

  4. Reliability Analysis of the new Link between the Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse der neuen Verbindung zwischen dem Beam Interlock System und dem LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Vatansever, Volkan

    The nominal stored energy in each LHC beam is 360 MJ, surpassing the beam energy of other accelerators by orders of magnitude. This energy threatens to damage accelerator components in case of uncontrolled beam losses To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump block must be guaranteed at all times. Therefore, the LHC Beam Dumping System was built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the redundant system, a new direct link from the LHC Beam Interlock System to the Re-triggering Lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the startup with beam in 2015. This link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called Asynchronous Beam Dumps nor compromise machine availability. Therefore, a reliability analysis down to the co...

  5. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  6. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors; Chaines de securite et verrouillages installes sur les piles atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [French] Ce catalogue est compose d'un ensemble de tableaux (a raison de un tableau par pile) donnant les renseignements suivants: nombre et nature des detecteurs, dynamique des chaines, nature de l'electronique associee, seuils provoquant des actions de securite, verrouillages installes. Ces fiches ont ete etablies en vue de l'examen de la securite des piles par la 'Sous-Commission de Surete des Piles', et tiennent compte des decisions de celle-ci. Les reacteurs concernes sont: Azur, Cabri, Cator-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, et Ulysse. (auteurs)

  7. Reamed interlocking intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures and aseptic nonunions. Can we expect an optimum result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalidis, Byron E; Petsatodis, George E; Sachinis, Nick C; Dimitriou, Christos G; Christodoulou, Anastasios G

    2009-10-01

    The need for reaming and the number of locking screws to be used in intramedullary (IM) tibial nailing of acute fractures as well as routine bone grafting of tibial aseptic nonunions have not been clearly defined. We describe the results of reamed interlocked IM nails in 233 patients with 247 tibial fractures (190 closed, 27 open and 30 nonunions). Ninety-six percent of the fractures were united at review after an average of 4.9 years. No correlation was found between union and nail diameter (P = 0.501) or the number of locking screws used (P = 0.287). Nail dynamization was effective in 82% of fractures. Locking screw(s) breakage was associated with nonunion in 25% of cases. Bone grafting during IM nailing was found not to increase the healing rate in tibial nonunions (P = 0.623). None of the IM nails were removed or revised due to infection. A dropped hallux and postoperative compartment syndrome were found in 0.8 and 1.6% of cases, respectively. Anterior knee pain was reported in 42% of patients but nail removal did not alleviate the symptoms in almost half. This series confirms the place of reamed intramedullary nailing for the vast majority of tibial diaphyseal fractures. It provides an optimum outcome and minimizes the need for supplementary bone grafting in aseptic nonunions.

  8. Our Electron, Proton and Neutron Models Predict Atom Building from Three-ring Orthogonal Interlocks of Properly Quarked Nucleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Roger; McLeod, David

    2008-04-01

    We posited flatland electron loop strings from transversely vibrating neutrino strings. Loop traveling waves TWs alternately become upwardly deflecting standing waves SWs along each half-wave segment between non-vibrating node pairs. Descending SWs again revert to TWs at flatland, as far as the next two adjacent nodal pairs, where folding continues and new SWs descend, then ascend, and repetition follows. Three dimensional objects, not points, result. A broken ``linear'' electron string and its electron spring constant are compressed within stars until linear mass density is compatible with incorporation into a stable three-ring proton string. The created neutron has two down quarks and one up, but must be unstable because it lacks overpass-underpass interlocks of our proton that shared its linear charge density of two up quarks and one down quark with the electron, becoming neutral. Anu transversely aligned neutron can have one of its ``notches'' pushed into the acceptor notch of a proton, and deuterium results. Tritium may be a compatible ``catch'' of another neutron. An alpha particle follows when a second proton is forced in, creating a stable ``tic-tac-toe'' grid. Atom building proceeds routinely.

  9. Molecular annotation of ketol-acid reductoisomerases from Streptomyces reveals a novel amino acid biosynthesis interlock mediated by enzyme promiscuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel-Aranda, Karina; López-Cortina, Susana T; Hodgson, David A; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase superfamily oxidize and reduce a wide range of substrates, making their functional annotation challenging. Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), encoded by the ilvC gene in branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis, is a promiscuous reductase enzyme within this superfamily. Here, we obtain steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters for 10 IlvC homologues from the genera Streptomyces and Corynebacterium, upon eight selected chemically diverse substrates, including some not normally recognized by enzymes of this superfamily. This biochemical data suggested a Streptomyces biosynthetic interlock between proline and the branched-chain amino acids, mediated by enzyme substrate promiscuity, which was confirmed via mutagenesis and complementation analyses of the proC, ilvC1 and ilvC2 genes in Streptomyces coelicolor. Moreover, both ilvC orthologues and paralogues were analysed, such that the relationship between gene duplication and functional diversification could be explored. The KARI paralogues present in S. coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, despite their conserved high sequence identity (97%), were shown to be more promiscuous, suggesting a recent functional diversification. In contrast, the KARI paralogue from Streptomyces viridifaciens showed selectivity towards the synthesis of valine precursors, explaining its recruitment within the biosynthetic gene cluster of valanimycin. These results allowed us to assess substrate promiscuity indices as a tool to annotate new molecular functions with metabolic implications. PMID:25296650

  10. Study of the Residual Strength of an RC Shear Wall with Fractal Crack Taking into Account Interlocking Interface Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Panagouli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the postcracking strength of an RC shear wall element which follows the construction practices applied in Greece during the 70s is examined by taking into account the complex geometry of the crack of the wall and the mixed friction-plastification mechanisms that develop in the vicinity of the crack. Due to the significance of the crack geometry, a multiresolution analysis based on fractal geometry is performed, taking into account the size of the aggregates of concrete. The materials (steel and concrete are assumed to have elastic-plastic behaviour. For concrete, both cracking and crushing are taken into account in an accurate manner. On the interfaces of the crack, unilateral contact and friction conditions are assumed to hold. For every structure corresponding to each resolution of the interface, a classical Euclidean problem is solved. The obtained results lead to interesting conclusions concerning the influence of the simulation of the geometry of the fractal crack on the mechanical interlock between the two faces of the crack, a factor which seems to be very important to the postcracking strength of the lightly reinforced shear wall studied here.

  11. Positive health-care effects of an alcohol ignition interlock programme among driving while impaired (DWI) offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre, Bo; Kostela, Johan; Selén, Jan

    2007-11-01

    To compare the costs of hospital care and sick leave/disability pensions between two groups of driving while impaired (DWI) offenders: participants in an alcohol ignition interlock programme (AIIP) and controls with revoked licences, but with no comparable opportunity to participate in an AIIP. As an alternative to licence revocation DWI offenders can participate in a voluntary 2-year AIIP permitting the offender to drive under strict regulations entailing regular medical check-ups. The participants are forced to alter their alcohol habits and those who cannot demonstrate sobriety are dismissed from the programme. Participants are liable for all costs themselves. Quasi-experimental, with a non-equivalent control group used for comparison; intent-to-treat design. Based on the number of occasions/days in hospital and on sick leave/disability pension, the health-care costs for public insurance have been calculated. Average total health-care costs were 25% lower among AIIP participants (1156 individuals) than among controls (815 individuals) during the 2-year treatment period. This corresponds to over 1000 euros (SEK9610) less annual costs per average participant. For those who complete the 2-year programme the cost reduction was more pronounced; 37% during the treatment and 20% during the post-treatment period. The positive health-care effects were due apparently to reduced alcohol consumption. The social benefit of being allowed to drive while in the AIIP may also have contributed. The reduction in health-care costs was significant only during the 2-year treatment period, but among those who completed the entire AIIP sustained effects were also observed in the post-treatment period. The effects were comparable to those of regular alcoholism treatment programmes.

  12. Optimal location of a single distal interlocking screw in intramedullary nailing of distal third femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C J; Lindsey, R W; Noble, P C; Alexander, J W; Kamaric, E

    1998-05-01

    This biomechanical study was done to determine the effect of the level of a single distal screw in a static intramedullary (IM) femoral nail on the stability of fixation of a fracture in the distal third of the femur. Fifteen composite fiberglass femora were osteotomized transversely in the distal third of the femur. A Grosse-Kempf nail was implanted into the femurs, which were divided into three groups of five specimens. Single screw distal nail locking was varied distal to the osteotomy site for each group at 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 centimeters, respectively. All instrumented femurs were mounted on a servohydraulic testing machine and fitted with transducers to measure axial, rotational, and bending displacements. Specimens were cyclically loaded (one hertz) in simultaneous torsion (moment: +/- 10 newton-meters) and axial compression (amplitude: 2,000 newtons) for 500 cycles with a 250-pound abductor force. Data from linear and rotational transducers were sampled at 100 hertz for five cycles before cycling, every 100 cycles of loading, and immediately after cycling. Custom computer software was developed to convert transducer signals into static and dynamic measurements of axial motion (in millimeters), rotation (in degrees), and angulation (in degrees). Osteotomy site dynamic rotation increased significantly in specimens locked at 7.5 centimeters when compared with the 2.5-centimeter group. There was minimal difference between the stability of the 5.0-centimeter and 7.5-centimeter groups. There was no significant change in position at the fracture site before or after cyclic loading with respect to axial shortening, rotation, or bending. Both dynamic axial and angular displacements were also unaffected by screw position. The location of a single distal interlocking screw in static IM nail fixation of distal third femur fractures can significantly affect rotational stability but not axial or angular fixation.

  13. Experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' MK-III function test. Interlock test of the primary and secondary cooling system and function test of the remote automatic fuel handling control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michino, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Aita, Tsuyoshi

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the results of the primary and secondary cooling system interlock test and the fuel handling system function test, which were done as a part of JOYO MK-III function test. The items of the test are: (1) Primary and secondary cooling system interlock test (SKS-106,210). (2) Loss of electric power splay test (SKS-116). (3) In-vessel and ex-vessel automatic fuel transportation test (SKS-501, 502). As the interlock of the primary and secondary cooling system was changed, the interlock test by the reactor scram and the loss of electric power supply was carried out. The function of the remote automatic fuel handling system was confirmed before the handling of the fuel for MK-III core configuration. The results of the test satisfied the required performance, and it was confirmed that operation of the primary and secondary cooling system interlock and operation of the fuel handling system in JOYO MK-III were normal. (author)

  14. Treatment of comminuted tibial shaft fractures in four dogs with the use of interlocking nail connected with type I external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piórek, A; Adamiak, Z; Jaskólska, M; Zhalniarovich, Y

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of comminuted tibial shaft fractures in canine patients is burdened by significant risk which involves bone healing complications, such as delayed bone union. Complications may result from iatrogenic damage to blood vessels during fracture stabilization. To minimize this risk, treatment methods increasingly often rely on the concept of biological osteosynthesis. One of such methods involves the treatment of fractures with the use of new hybrid fixator consisted of an interlocking nail connected with type I external fixator. Connection of the nail with external fixator has been recently developed to maximize treatment efficiency. This manner of stabilization increases bone-fixator construct strength on forces acting in the place of fracture. It also enables fracture fixation with minimal damage of the blood supply of bone fragments. This article describes surgical procedure of stabilization of comminuted tibial bone fractures in four dogs by the use of interlocking nail connected with external fixator type I, discusses and evaluates the results of clinical treatment with the involvement of the said fixator. To control bone consolidation process the radiograms were taken in 6 and 8 week of healing. In all cases, the reviewed methods of clinical treatment were successful in producing bone union after eight week of healing. During the whole period of observations no complication was observed. In all cases the intramedullary nail were left in the medullary canal after the healing process was finished. The fixator supported quick restoration of limb function after treatment.

  15. Implementation of a Direct Link between the LHC Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Re-Triggering Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S; Denz, R; Magnin, N; Uythoven, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; Vatansever, V; Bartholdt, M; Bertsche, B; Zeiler, P

    2014-01-01

    To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump blocks must be guaranteed at all times. When a beam dump is demanded, the Beam Interlock System communicates this request to the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System of the LHC Beam Dumping System. Both systems were built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System, a new direct link from the Beam Interlock System to the re-triggering lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the start-up with beam in 2015. The link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called asynchronous beam dumps nor compromise machine availability. This paper describes the implementation choices of this link. Furthermore the results of a rel...

  16. Some aspects of operational reliability of the JET central interlock and safety system (CISS) in the period March 1984 to December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montfoort, Joop van.

    1987-01-01

    The Central Interlock and Safety System (CISS) provides basic safety functions for the JET plant. It monitors the status of emergency push buttons, access doors and plant equipment and takes corrective shutdown actions in the case that plant conditions are not compatible with safe operation. CISS consists of a hierarchical network of PLCs (programmable logic controllers) paralleling the CODAS architecture. It has been successfully in operation since June 1983 and has intervened many times and halted operation to protect JET from (further) damage or personnel against danger. The note will analyse genuine CISS failures only, and as will be shown, these failures are all due to malfunctioning of PLC hardware. All CISS failures have failed-safe and resulted in the expected shutdown action. Hence CISS failures have never resulted in a dangerous situation but they have restricted operational availability of JET. (author)

  17. Reuse of mining dams waste for the processing of interlocking blocks for paving; Reaproveitamento de residuos de barragens de mineracao para o processamento de blocos intertravados para pavimentacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Raissa Ribeiro Lima; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Silva, Sidney Nicodemos da, E-mail: lima.raissa2@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (DEMAT/CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The environmental impact of mining dam residues can be mitigated by their reuse in the production of interlocking blocks for pavements with a mechanical strength greater than 50 MPa. From the mixture of cement CPV-ARI, sand and gravel, the characterization of the mechanical and physicochemical properties was performed by the following procedures: SEM, FRX, XRD, compression tests and thermal analysis (DSC). These blocks produced from these residues can be considered an economical alternative for the mining depletion cycle in the State of Minas Gerais. This work sought to improve the traces with the replacement the sand of the rivers bed by residues of mining dams that can represent an opportunity for generation of employment and income.

  18. Two-component spin-coated Ag/CNT composite films based on a silver heterogeneous nucleation mechanism adhesion-enhanced by mechanical interlocking and chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Kang, Zhixin; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new method for the synthesis of silver carbon nanotube (Ag/CNT) composite films as conductive connection units for flexible electronic devices is presented. This method is about a two-component solution process by spin coating with an after-treatment annealing process. In this method, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) act as the core of silver heterogeneous nucleation, which can be observed and analyzed by a field-emission scanning electron microscope. With the effects of mechanical interlocking, chemical grafting, and annealing, the interfacial adhesive strength between films and PET sheets was enhanced to 12 N cm-1. The tensile strength of the Ag/CNT composite films was observed to increase by 38% by adding 5 g l-1 MWCNTs. In the four-probe method, the resistivity of Ag/CNT-5 declined by 78.2% compared with pristine Ag films. The anti-fatigue performance of the Ag/CNT composite films was monitored by cyclic bending deformation and the results revealed that the growth rate of electrical resistance during the deformation was obviously retarded. As for industrial application, this method provides an efficient low-cost way to prepare Ag/CNT composite films and can be further applied to other coating systems.

  19. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 4th and 5th finger using an interlocking screw device to treat severe recurrence of Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Parra, C D; Montaner-Alonso, D; Pérez-Correa, J I; Morales-Rodríguez, J; Rodrigo-Pérez, J L; Morales-Suarez-Varela, M

    2017-12-04

    To assess the radiological and functional outcome of arthrodesis of the 4th and 5th finger using the APEX™ (Extremity Medical, Parsippany,NJ)intermedullary interlocking screw system in patients with severe recurrence of Dupuytren's disease. The DASH questionnaire and the VAS scale were used to assess the clinical outcomes. The angle of arthrodesis, fusion time and implant fixation were evaluated on x-rays. The patients were monitored for complications during surgery and the follow-up period. The sample comprised 6 patients. Mean follow up was 19.6 months. All of the patients presented clinical and radiological evidence of fusion at 8 weeks, with fusion angles of 30° (3) and 45° (3). There were no complications and none of the implants had to be removed. The functional outcomes in these patients were poor. The system offers a reliable method for IPJ arthrodesis at a precise angle. It promotes stable fixation that does not require prolonged immobilisation. It can be used together with other procedures on the hand with severe recurrence of DD. The functional outcomes for this group of patients using this device were poor. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail and interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of long bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailian; Xiong, Ying; Deng, Hong; Gu, Shao; Jia, Fu; Li, Qunhui; Wang, Daxing; Gan, Xuewen; Liu, Wei

    2014-07-21

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical effects of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail (RSIN) and interlocking intramedullary nail (IIN) for long bone fractures. A retrospective study was performed in 1,704 patients who suffered bone fractures and underwent RSIN or IIN operation in our hospital between March 1999 and March 2013, including 494 with femoral fractures, 572 with humeral fractures, and 638 with tibial fractures. Among them, 634 patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, healing rate, and the excellent and good rate of functional recovery were compared between two groups. Compared with IIN group, RSIN group exhibited significantly shorter operative time and less intraoperative blood loss no matter for humeral, femoral, or tibial fractures (all p fractures (both p fracture. In IIN group, nail breakage or loosening occurred in 7 patients with femoral fractures and 16 patients with tibial fractures, radial nerve injury was observed in 8 patients with humeral fractures, and incision infection was present in 2 patients with humeral fractures and 1 patient with femoral fracture. The complication rate of IIN group was significantly higher than that of RSIN group (p fractures.

  1. Directorios cruzados: un estudio sobre la cúpula empresarial en la Argentina actual Interlocking directorates: a study of corporate power in today's Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paredes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar, a través del método de los directorios cruzados, las redes que se establecen entre algunas de las corporaciones de mayores ventas en Argentina. Los estudios que se centran en el análisis de las grandes empresas en su mayoría se basan en indicadores económicos, como es el caso del las investigaciones acerca de la concentración de la riqueza. En el presente trabajo, a través del concepto de redes sociales, nos concentramos en las relaciones sociales que se establecen entre las grandes empresas en nuestro país. Observamos que el conjunto de las empresas estudiadas representa un sector altamente interconectado; además, a partir del análisis de redes, aportamos evidencia que apoya los postulados de la teoría de la dependencia de recursos así como también, de la teoría del control financiero: las interconexiones entre las empresas responden al tipo de recursos que las mismas controlan, destacándose el rol de los recursos financieros sobre otro tipo de recursos. Las empresas fueron seleccionadas por medio del ranking de empresas publicado por la revista Mercado para el año 2005, además hemos agregado a la muestra algunos de los bancos más importantes que operan hoy en Argentina así como también otras cuatro entidades de suma relevancia dentro del sistema económico, con el propósito de conocer la relación de estas entidades con el resto de las empresas.The aim of this article is to analyze, through the interlocking directorates method, the networks that are established between some of the highest revenues corporations in Argentina. Most of the research studies focused on the analysis of large corporations are based on economic indicators, such as studies on concentration of wealth. In the present case, through the concept of social networks, we focus on the social relations that are developed among big corporations in our country. We observe that the corporations studied represent a

  2. The effect of intact fibula on functional outcome of reamed intramedullary interlocking nail in open and closed isolated tibial shaft fractures: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S Muthukumar; Chandra, P Madhu; Devadoss, Sathish; Devadoss, A

    2016-01-01

    Isolated tibial shaft (ITS) fracture with intact fibula is a common injury but records often fail to mention it. Our primary aim was to study the effect of the intact fibula in ITS fractures in closed and open injuries and that these fractures can unite without a primary fibulectomy. 56 patients who sustained an ITS fracture with an intact fibula who underwent closed or open reduction and reamed intramedullary interlocking nailing (IM IL nail) for closed and open fractures between August 2008 and April 2014 were included in this study. Four patients were lost to followup. One patient died due to causes not related to the surgery. At the time of final followup, 51 patients with 51 ITS fractures were available for the analysis. There were 33 closed and 18 open fractures. Patients were followed up at 4 weekly intervals until radiological signs of union were noted. They were assessed for functional outcome using the IOWA knee and ankle score systems at the time of final followup. The average time to union was 19.7 weeks. Closed fractures united in 17.7 weeks as compared to 23.5 weeks for open fractures (P fractures failed to unite (2 open). The functional outcome as per the knee score and ankle score evaluation system was 93.13 and 92.54, respectively. The knee scores were 93.81 and 91.8 for closed and open ITS fractures, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, the ankle scores were 94.96 and 88.1 for closed and open ITS fractures, respectively (P fracture with intact fibula is a common occurrence, and they can be treated safely with reamed IM nailing that provides good union rates and the excellent functional result even in open fractures.

  3. Characterization of Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers and Surface-Attached Interlocking Molecules Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, T; Willey, T

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the fundamental structure and substrate binding, as well as the direct measurement of conformational changes, are essential to the development of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and surface-attached interlocking molecules, catenanes and rotaxanes. These monolayers are vital to development of nano-mechanical, molecular electronic, and biological/chemical sensor applications. This dissertation investigates properties of functionalized SAMs in sulfur-gold based adsorbed molecular monolayers using quantitative spectroscopic techniques including near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of the gold-thiolate interface is addressed. A simple model SAM consisting of dodecanethiol adsorbed on Au(111) degrades significantly in less than 24 hours under ambient laboratory air. S 2p and O 1s XPS show the gold-bound thiolates oxidize to sulfinates and sulfonates. A reduction of organic material on the surface and a decrease in order are observed as the layer degrades. The effect of the carboxyl vs. carboxylate functionalization on SAM structure is investigated. Carboxyl-terminated layers consisting of long alkyl-chain thiols vs. thioctic acid with short, sterically separated, alkyl groups are compared and contrasted. NEXAFS shows a conformational change, or chemical switchability, with carboxyl groups tilted over and carboxylate endgroups more upright. Surface-attached loops and simple surface-attached rotaxanes are quantitatively characterized, and preparation conditions that lead to desired films are outlined. A dithiol is often insufficient to form a molecular species bound at each end to the substrate, while a structurally related disulfide-containing polymer yields surface-attached loops. Similarly, spectroscopic techniques show the successful production of a simple, surface-attached rotaxane that requires a ''molecular riveting'' step to hold the mechanically attached

  4. Interlocking intramedullary nailing with and without reaming for the treatment of closed fractures of the tibial shaft. A prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachut, P A; O'Brien, P J; Meek, R N; Broekhuyse, H M

    1997-05-01

    One hundred and fifty-two patients who had 154 closed fractures of the shaft of the tibia were prospectively randomized to management with interlocking intramedullary nailing either with or without reaming. Thirteen patients who had been randomized to treatment without reaming were switched to the group that had reaming because of technical reasons; these patients were excluded from the analysis of the results. An additional five patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, seventy-two patients (seventy-three fractures) who had been managed with nailing with reaming and sixty-three patients (sixty-three fractures) who had been managed with nailing without reaming were available for follow-up at an average of twelve months (range, three to thirty-three months) postoperatively. The two groups were similar with regard to demographics and the configurations of the fractures. The average total duration of the procedures performed without reaming was eleven minutes shorter than that of the procedures done with reaming (p = 0.0013). The duration of fluoroscopy was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.35, Mann-Whitney test). The average estimated blood loss was identical for the two groups. Seventy fractures (96 per cent) that were treated with nailing with reaming and fifty-six (89 per cent) that were treated with nailing without reaming united without the need for an additional operation (p = 0.19). Because of the small sample size, the study has insufficient power (34.7 per cent) to detect this difference if it is real. There was only one deep infection, which developed after nailing without reaming. The nail fractured after one procedure with reaming. A screw fractured after two procedures with reaming and after ten without reaming (p = 0.012); multiple screws fractured after three procedures in the latter group. Malunion occurred after three nailing procedures with reaming and after two without reaming. Four malunions were of very proximal fractures and

  5. [The comparisive study of the clinical effect of rotary self-locking intramedullary nail and intramedullary interlocking nail for the treatment of femur fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man-jiang; Sun, Shu-dong; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Dong-zhao

    2008-10-01

    To compare the clinical effect of rotary self-locking intramedullary nail (RSIN) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IIN) for the treatment of fresh femoral shaft fracture. The radiological records of 60 fresh femoral shaft fractures (41 stable fractures and 19 unstable fractures) were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 49 were male and 11 were female. The average age was 33.5 years old (range from 12 to 68 years old). All cases were fresh fracture with no important blood vessel or nerve injury, which were taken operation with RSIN on IIN respectively in 2 h-7 d after injury. The patients in IIN group began functional movements at postoperative 4 to 5 days and could bear the weight of 10-15 kg. The patients in RSIN group could began functional exercises after the wound healed and bear partly weight after 6 weeks. Both groups were contrasted on the biomechanics, operation procedure, fracture healing time, functional recovery and operative indication. Both groups were followed-up for average 13 months. IIN group: the average healing time of closed femur fracture was 16 weeks while that of open fracture was 20 weeks. The healing rate was 100% and the malunion rate was 7.9%. The excellent and good rate of functional recovery was 93.3% including excellent in 27 cases, good in 1, fair in 1 and bad in 1. RSIN group: the average healing time of closed femur fracture was 16 weeks while open fracture was 23 weeks. The healing rate was 87% and the malunion rate was 18.2%. The excellent and good rate of functional recovery was 83.3% including excellent in 23 cases, good in 2, fair in 3 and bad in 2. No implant break and nonunion happened. The differences between two groups in healing time, deformity-union rate and the rate of the twice operation were statistically significant. IIN provides a reliable and practical alternative method for the treatment of all kinds of femoral shaft fracture and its important complication is fewer than RSIN group. RSIN also has a good

  6. The VICKSI monitor interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, D.; Kluppak, B.

    1983-01-01

    Dose rate equivalents are monitored separately for all working areas and evaluated by a central unit. The accelerator is shut off automatically if the maximum permissible concentrations given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance are exceeded and if persons are endangered. However, the experimenter may, on his own responsibility, define certain areas as 'vacated' (no staff members inside). Operation can then proceed as desired. Entry of persons into these areas is checked by the central computer. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Elaboration of the configuration and programming of the interlocks system of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; Elaboracion de la configuracion y programacion del sistema de interbloqueos del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia C, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The modernization of the TRIGA Mark III reactor interlock system requires a system that provides high reliability, flexibility and ease of operation during reactor operation. With this modernization of the system, is intended to prevent, control and mitigate the causes of probable accidents reported in the reactor accident analysis. On the other hand, is foreseen the ease reactor operation in a simple, safe and efficient way. The programmable logic controller can be programmed by programming instructions using simple language and easy to develop, these can be modified from a computer using the programming software. In addition, another of the advantages offered by the controller is that can be modified from a touch screen (human-machine interface) that allows adjustment, without the need to use programming software and diagnostic functions during the process. As a result of the present work, a situation of improvement in the reactor operation was generated, facilitating the handling of the bridge and increasing the efficiency of the system in the execution of the operating conditions of the installations external to the reactor. A modern, more reliable and much less expensive system was achieved than the previous one, avoiding that the maintenance to the system generates high expenses. With respect to the development of the application programming, a control was implemented that allows to select a zone of the five that have inside the pool to carry out the displacement of automatic way and later to be located in that zone, having in this way a greater efficiency and ease in bridge control. (Author)

  8. Emergent Strain Stiffening in Interlocked Granular Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Denis; Houze, Maurine; Rambach, Paul; Salez, Thomas; Patinet, Sylvain; Damman, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Granular chain packings exhibit a striking emergent strain-stiffening behavior despite the individual looseness of the constitutive chains. Using indentation experiments on such assemblies, we measure an exponential increase in the collective resistance force F with the indentation depth z and with the square root of the number N of beads per chain. These two observations are, respectively, reminiscent of the self-amplification of friction in a capstan or in interleaved books, as well as the physics of polymers. The experimental data are well captured by a novel model based on these two ingredients. Specifically, the resistance force is found to vary according to the universal relation log F ˜μ √{N }Φ11 /8z /b , where μ is the friction coefficient between two elementary beads, b is their size, and Φ is the volume fraction of chain beads when semidiluted in a surrounding medium of unconnected beads. Our study suggests that theories normally confined to the realm of polymer physics at a molecular level can be used to explain phenomena at a macroscopic level. This class of systems enables the study of friction in complex assemblies, with practical implications for the design of new materials, the textile industry, and biology.

  9. 76 FR 42767 - Management Officials Interlocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift... Reduction Act. Today, OTS is soliciting public comments on its proposal to extend this information... performed by the person in question are necessary or desirable for the purpose of preserving safe and sound...

  10. Verifying therapy safety interlock system with spin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available System component represents TCS systems and electronic units. It connects to the TSB and TCS lines by sending a message register to the tlabsMediator component and unconnect from these lines through an unregister message. It also changes lines to either true... or false and emits two different messages (update and notify) to the tlabMediator component. The sysUtility component takes care of administrative work for the tlabSystem components, including receiving the display messages from other components. The tlabMediator...

  11. Análise experimental de blocos intertravados de concreto com adição de resíduos do processo de recauchutagem de pneus = Analysis of experimental interlocking blocks of concrete with addition of residues of process the tires retreading production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Fabiano Fioriti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da população nos últimos anos, a indústria de modo geral tem se adequado à demanda resultante. A indústria do processo de recauchutagem de pneus gera resíduos que em sua maioria têm sido descartados sem nenhum controle. Este fato contribui para aumentar a poluição ambiental e favorecer a proliferação de vetores nocivos àsaúde. Visando encontrar uma aplicação para esse tipo de resíduo, neste trabalho serão apresentados resultados experimentais de blocos intertravados para pavimentos de concreto, com traços adicionados de resíduos de pneus. Foram confeccionados blocos intertravados em que se determinou, por meio de ensaios laboratoriais, a necessidade de se fixar o traço que desse maior retorno quanto às características analisadas. Verificaram-se quatro tipos de traços de concreto com resíduos de pneus. Procedeu-se aos ensaios de resistência mecânicaà compressão, absorção de água e resistência ao impacto. Pelos resultados preliminares obtidos, verificou-se que são satisfatórios, confirmando-se a possibilidade de aplicação desse tipo de bloco intertravado em ambientes com solicitações baixas, o que traria, além da economia das fontes naturais de agregados, benefícios ecológicos pela reutilização dos resíduos da recauchutagem de pneus.With the population growth in recent years, industry in general has ajusted itself to resulting demand. the industry of tire retreading generates residues that have been discarded without any control. this adds to environmental pollution and promotes the proliferation of vectors harmful to health. aiming to find an application for this type of residues, this study presents experimental results to interlocking concrete block pavements, with addition of residuestires. interlocking blocks were built up and we determined, through laboratory tests, the need to set the mark that provide greater return regarding analyzed characteristics. there are four types of dosage

  12. Falhas na utilização de poliacetal e poliamida em forma de haste intramedular bloqueada para imobilização de fratura femural induzida em bovinos jovens Failures in the use of polyacetal and polyamide in the form of intramedullary interlocking nail for immobilization of induced femoral fracture in young cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odael Spadeto Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da expressiva evolução da ortopedia veterinária nos últimos anos, as fraturas de ossos longos em grandes animais são constante desafio para o médico-veterinário. O presente estudo é parte da proposta de desenvolvimento de um sistema de haste intramedular polimérica, de baixo custo e fácil aplicação, para uso em bovinos jovens e neonatos. Os objetivos foram avaliar, in vivo, hastes de poliacetal e poliamida para imobilização de fraturas femorais em bovinos jovens. Cinco bezerros machos foram submetidos à anestesia geral e tiveram os fêmures esquerdos fraturados e, em seguida, imobilizados, utilizando-se uma haste cilíndrica de poliacetal ou poliamida inserida no canal intramedular e bloqueada por quatro parafusos corticais de aço inoxidável, inseridos na diáfise em seu sentido lateral-medial e igualmente distribuídos distal e proximal à linha de fratura. Durante um período de 60 dias pós-cirúrgico, os animais foram avaliados por meio de exames clínicos e radiográficos. Houve fratura em quatro das cinco hastes de poliacetal implantadas pela primeira vez e em duas das quatro hastes de poliamida que foram implantadas após a quebra das de poliacetal. Todas as falhas ocorrerem nas primeiras duas semanas de imobilização. Não foram verificados quaisquer sinais de rejeição aos materiais usados. Os resultados demonstram que as hastes de poliacetal e poliamida não apresentaram resistência suficiente para, de acordo com o modelo proposto, promover imobilização precoce de fraturas de fêmur em bovinos jovens.In spite of the expressive development of veterinary orthopedics in the last years, long bone fractures in large animals remains a challenge for veterinary surgeons. This study is part of a proposal for development of a low-cost and easy-to-use polymeric interlocking nail designed to be used in newborns and young cattle. The objectives were to evaluate, in vivo, polyacetal and polyamide nails for immobilization

  13. Avaliação do uso de haste bloqueada e bloqueio transcortical no reparo de fraturas diafisárias de fêmur em felinos Evaluation of the use of interlocking nail and transcortical blockade for the repair of diaphyseal fractures of the femur in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Romano

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As hastes bloqueadas além de permitirem estabilização rígida de fraturas, possuem vantagens biomecânicas quando comparadas a outras técnicas de imobilização, por atuar ao longo do eixo mecânico central do osso, além de preservar os conceitos de padrões biológicos de osteossíntese . O uso limitado de hastes bloqueadas em gatos se atribui ao fato da cavidade intramedular ser pequena, limitando o tamanho e diâmetro dos pinos. Relatam-se casos de 10 felinos que apresentavam fraturas fechadas simples ou múltiplas da diáfise femoral. Os animais pesavam entre 3,5 e 5 kg, o que permitiu a utilização de hastes de 4,0mm e 4,7mm de diâmetro. Para inserção da haste, adotou-se a via retrógrada ou a normógrada e foram realizados bloqueios com quatro parafusos de titânio de 2,0 mm de diâmetro. Complicações intra-operatórias não ocorreram, entretanto um animal sofreu fratura de colo femoral e fratura transversa distal ao implante, três dias após o ato cirúrgico, devido a novo trauma. Os animais foram submetidos a exames radiográficos até quatro meses após a intervenção, evidenciando-se formação de calo ósseo secundário e consolidação óssea em período de 61-89 dias. Clinicamente, ocorreu esporadicamente alteração na marcha por leve claudicação de apoio definida por escala de claudicação, entretanto os animais iniciaram o apoio adequado entre três e oito dias após o ato operatório. Complicações pósoperatórias ocorreram referentes ao animal que sofreu novo trauma, entretanto notou-se consolidação do foco primário tratado pelo implante com 61 dias e consolidação da nova fratura num período total de 150 dias do início do tratamento conservativo por penso esparadrapado e tala. Conclui-se que o uso de haste bloqueada em felinos foi adequado uma vez que houve consolidação óssea em todos os casos, com retorno precoce da função do membro, permitindo a deambulação.Interlocking nails allow rigid

  14. Particular purpose micro computers for an interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos A, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a programmable controller for controlling an electron beam accelerator Pelletron type is proposed, the operating conditions of the electron beam accelerator are stated; a logic diagram elaborated and verified where those conditions are met is included, one traditional electric schematic diagram is made and one operational program is developed in programmable controller language, a modular control console is designed for the control operation. (author)

  15. Outcome of Interlocking Intramedullary Nailing in the Treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Fracture of the tibia is one of the commonest musculoskeletal injuries. The current practice is a locked intramedullary nailing of these fractures. This retrospective study aims to review the use of, and assess the clinical outcome of reamed locked antegrade intramedullary nailing of the tibia. Material and Methods: ...

  16. Interlocking concepts in Sartre's ontology of human freedom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a way, Jean Paul Sartre can be regarded as a transcendentalist of the phenomenological persuasion. Central to his existential ontology and theory of phenomenology is the question of human consciousness. Sartre's analysis of the concepts of Being, Nothingness, Negation, Freedom and the phenomenon is closely ...

  17. Compositional Verification of Interlocking Systems for Large Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    -network: in this way granting the access to a route is essentially a decision local to the sub-network, and the interfaces with the rest of the network easily abstract away less interesting details related to the external world. Following up on previous work, where we defined a compositional verification method...

  18. Characterization of dry-stack interlocking compressed earth blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Thomas Wilfried Sturm; Ramos, Luís F.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2015-01-01

    Earth has been a traditional building material to construct houses in Africa. One of the most common techniques is the use of sun dried or kiln fired adobe bricks with mud mortar. Fired bricks are the main cause for deforestation in countries like Malawi. Although this technique is low-cost, the bricks vary largely in shape, strength and durability. This leads to weak houses which suffer considerable damage during floods and seismic events. One solution is the use of dry-stack masonry with st...

  19. Application of programmable controllers to vacuum system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.; Moore, D.

    1979-11-01

    This paper describes the Doublet III Vacuum Control System in which all input signals and output loads are connected to a programmable controller (PC) for logical interfacing. Input signals derived from CAMAC, control panels, limit switches, etc., are implemented as output signals to CAMAC, vacuum valves, pump motors, etc., according to a logic program stored in the PC memory. The memory can be easily programmed by anyone familar with either Boolean algebra or relay-ladder network diagrams. The program data is entered with the aid of a calculator like, keyboard instrument with LED readout displays. The PC system contains a 1024 word RAM memory with a battery backup system to provide 72 hours protection of contents in case of power failure

  20. Botulinum Neurotoxin Is Shielded by NTNHA in an Interlocked Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Shenyan; Rumpel, Sophie; Zhou, Jie; Strotmeier, Jasmin; Bigalke, Hans; Perry, Kay; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng (Cornell); (Tufts); (Hannover-MED); (Sanford-Burnham)

    2012-03-28

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly poisonous substances that are also effective medicines. Accidental BoNT poisoning often occurs through ingestion of Clostridium botulinum-contaminated food. Here, we present the crystal structure of a BoNT in complex with a clostridial nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) protein at 2.7 angstroms. Biochemical and functional studies show that NTNHA provides large and multivalent binding interfaces to protect BoNT from gastrointestinal degradation. Moreover, the structure highlights key residues in BoNT that regulate complex assembly in a pH-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings define the molecular mechanisms by which NTNHA shields BoNT in the hostile gastrointestinal environment and releases it upon entry into the circulation. These results will assist in the design of small molecules for inhibiting oral BoNT intoxication and of delivery vehicles for oral administration of biologics.

  1. A Beam Interlock System for CERN High Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Schmidt, R

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) is one of the largest and most complicated machines envisaged to date. The LHC has been conceived and designed over the course of the last 25 years and represents the cutting edge of accelerator technology with a collision energy of 14TeV, having a stored beam energy over 100 times more powerful than the nearest competitor. Commissioning of the machine is already nderway and operation with beam is intended for Autumn 2007, with 7TeV operation expected in 2008. The LHC is set to answer some of the fundemental questions in theoretical physics, colliding particles with such high energy that the inner workings of the quantum world can be revealed. Colliding particles together at such high energy makes very high demands on machine operation and protection. The specified beam energy requires strong magnetic fields that are made in superconducting dipole magnets, these magnets are kept only around two degrees above absolute zero...

  2. The laser Megajoule facility personnel security and safety interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, J.C.; Arnoul, J.P.; Hurst, A.; Manson, M.

    2012-01-01

    The LMJ (Laser Megajoule) is designed to deliver about 1.4 MJ of 0.35 μm light to targets for high energy density physics experiments. Such an installation entails specific hazards related to the presence of intense laser beams, and high voltage power laser amplifiers. Furthermore, the thermonuclear fusion reactions induced by the experiment also produce different radiations and neutrons burst, and also activate various materials in the chamber environment. All these hazards could be lethal. The SSP (Personnel Safety System) was designed to prevent accidents and protect personnel working in the LMJ. To satisfy at the lowest cost the requirements of safety regulations and those of the operation management, the choice was made to implement a functional architecture built around two independent technological barriers when required by the risk level. Each technical barrier is composed of two subsets, one dedicated to hazard sources management, and the other one dedicated to worker presence management. The two completely independent barriers, even at the sensor or actuator level, are designed with different technologies adapted to the required Safety Integrity Level. The combination of these 2 barriers is equivalent to a unique barrier with a rate of dangerous failure of about 10 -6 per year

  3. Joining mechanism with stem tension and interlocked compression ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Allister W.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-09-04

    A stem (34) extends from a second part (30) through a hole (28) in a first part (22). A groove (38) around the stem provides a non-threaded contact surface (42) for a ring element (44) around the stem. The ring element exerts an inward force against the non-threaded contact surface at an angle that creates axial tension (T) in the stem, pulling the second part against the first part. The ring element is formed of a material that shrinks relative to the stem by sintering. The ring element may include a split collet (44C) that fits partly into the groove, and a compression ring (44E) around the collet. The non-threaded contact surface and a mating distal surface (48) of the ring element may have conic geometries (64). After shrinkage, the ring element is locked onto the stem.

  4. Understanding Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Equilibrium with Interlocking Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Nichol, Carolyn A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reaction kinetics and equilibrium are essential core concepts of chemistry but are challenging topics for many students, both at the high school and undergraduate university level. Visualization at the molecular level is valuable to aid understanding of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. This activity provides a discovery-based method to…

  5. EMC Specific Problems of Frequency Converters Used at Interlocking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of frequency control drive of electromotive switch actuator of railway switch. The frequency converter with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and the output sinus filter are used for feeding of the asynchronous motor of the switch actuator. This drive is operated in an insulated system of feeding voltages. The drive is fed by a frequency converter with an unshielded cable with length up to 1.2 km. The EMC problems occurring at development and operating of the drive are analyzed in this paper. The used solution of these problems and experience with EMC of the given system from real operation are described in this paper as well.

  6. ROS-GC interlocked Ca2+-sensor S100B protein signaling in cone photoreceptors: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwar K Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoreceptor rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC is central to visual transduction; it generates cyclic GMP, the second messenger of the photon signal. Photoexcited rhodopsin initiates a biochemical cascade that leads to a drop in the intracellular level of cyclic GMP and closure of cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG ion channels. Recovery of the photoresponse requires resynthesis of cyclic GMP, typically by a pair of ROS-GCs, 1 and 2. In rods, ROS-GCs exist as complexes with GCAPs, which are Ca2+-sensing elements. There is a light-induced fall in intracellular Ca2+. As Ca2+ dissociates from GCAPs in the 20 to 200 nM range, ROS-GC activity rises to quicken the photoresponse recovery. GCAPs then progressively turn down ROS-GC activity as Ca2+ and cyclic GMP levels return to baseline. To date, GCAPs mediate the only known mechanism of ROS-GC regulation in the photoreceptors. However, in mammalian cone outer segments, cone synapses and ON bipolar cells, another Ca2+ sensor protein, S100B, complexes with ROS-GC1 and senses the Ca2+ signal with a K1/2 of 400 nM. Unlike GCAPs, S100B stimulates ROS-GC activity when Ca2+ is bound. Thus, the ROS-GC system in cones functions as a Ca2+ bimodal switch; with rising intracellular Ca2+, its activity is first turned down by GCAPs and then turned up by S100B. This presentation provides a historical perspective on the role of S100B in the photoreceptors, offers a pictorial model for the bimodal operation of the ROS-GC switch and projects future tasks that are needed to understand its operation. Some accounts of this review have been adopted from the original publications of these authors.

  7. Reliability study of the Controls Interlocks Beam Dumping System CIBDS V5

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenschein, Miriam Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The CIBDS V5 reliability study includes a failure mode and effect analysis, a failure rate prediction and a fault tree analysis. The different steps of these analyses, the assumptions as well as the results are summarised in this note.

  8. Generic FPGA-Based Platform for Distributed IO in Proton Therapy Patient Safety Interlock System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichin, Michael; Carmona, Pablo Fernandez; Johansen, Ernst; Grossmann, Martin; Mayor, Alexandre; Erhardt, Daniel; Gomperts, Alexander; Regele, Harald; Bula, Christian; Sidler, Christof

    2017-06-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland, cancer patients are treated with protons. Proton therapy at PSI has a long history and started in the 1980s. More than 30 years later, a new gantry has recently been installed in the existing facility. This new machine has been delivered by an industry partner. A big challenge is the integration of the vendor's safety system into the existing PSI environment. Different interface standards and the complexity of the system made it necessary to find a technical solution connecting an industry system to the existing PSI infrastructure. A novel very flexible distributed IO system based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology was developed, supporting many different IO interface standards and high-speed communication links connecting the device to a PSI standard versa module eurocard-bus input output controller. This paper summarizes the features of the hardware technology, the FPGA framework with its high-speed communication link protocol, and presents our first measurement results.

  9. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571... position. S3.1.2Transmission braking effect. In vehicles having more than one forward transmission gear... when the transmission shift position is in any forward drive gear; (b) The engine may not automatically...

  10. A Domain-Specific Language for Generic Interlocking Models and Their Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    of this work is to provide a domain-specific language for generic models and an instantiator tool taking not only configuration data but also a generic model as input instead of using a hard-coded generator for instantiating only one fixed generic model and its properties with configuration data....

  11. 12 CFR 250.411 - Interlocking relationships between member bank and variable annuity insurance company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fundamental investment policy of the accumulation fund. In addition, the Board of managers has sole authority... investments of the assets of the accumulation fund in accordance with its fundamental investment policy. In... member banks and (1) the board of managers of an accumulation fund, registered under the Investment...

  12. The data acquisition and interlock system for Tore Supra infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Caulier, G.; Ducobu, L.; Guilhem, D.; Jouve, M.; Roche, H.

    2003-01-01

    The data acquisition for the infrared measurement system on Tore-Supra is a key element in ensuring the supervision of the new actively-cooled plasma facing components of the CIEL project. It will allow us to follow the thermal evolution of components of Tore-Supra, in particular the toroidal pumped limiter (LPT) (360 deg.-15 m long) and the five additional heating launchers. When fully installed, the infrared measurement system will be composed of 12 digital 16-bit infrared cameras. They cover a 100-1200 deg.C temperature range and each picture has a definition of 320x240 pixels with a 20 ms time resolution. The objectives of the data acquisition system is real-time recording and analysis of each view element for further post-pulse analysis in order to understand the physics phenomenon and ensure the supervision of the plasma facing components and also to be part of the global feedback control system of Tore Supra

  13. Real time software for the control and monitoring of DIII-D system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesch, J.D.; Penaflor, B.G.; Coon, R.M.; Harris, J.J.; Scoville, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the real time, multi-tasking, multi-user software and communications of the E-Power Supply System Integrated Controller (EPSSIC) for the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC performs the DIII-D system wide go/no-go determination for the plasma sequencing. This paper discusses the data module handling, task work load balancing, and communications requirements. Operational experience with the new EPSSIC and recent improvements to this system are also described

  14. The risk of iatrogenic injury to anterior tibial artery variations during tibial nail distal interlocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanter, Nathan J; Inouye, Sandra E; Beiser, Christopher W

    2017-01-01

    Tibial intramedullary nailing remains a common tibial fracture fixation method. Tibial nailing indications continue to expand. Neurovascular complications from tibial nailing have been described; however, the proximity of distal tibial locking bolts to the anterior tibial artery (ATA) variants has not. 52 cadaveric legs were dissected identifying three common ATA variants. Each ATA variant received an intraluminal wire to facilitate fluoroscopic identification. Three different intramedullary tibial nails were inserted in each of the three ATA variant specimens. With fluoroscopy, the proximity of the distal locking holes of each tibial nail to the intraluminal wire representing the ATA variant course was measured. Of the 40 measurements, the intraluminal wire was directly in the bolt insertional path in 8 of 40 (20%) and within 5 mm in 16 of 40 (40%). All specimens had the wire cross the locking bolt insertional path at least once in each of the nails. The ATA variant taking a more lateral course deep to the extensor digitorum longus and peroneus tertius to overlay the lateral malleolus had the highest occurrence of measurements less than 5 mm. The close proximity of tibial nail distal locking bolt holes to ATA variants presents a risk for iatrogenic vascular injury during insertion. The coronal locking bolts pose the greatest iatrogenic risk to the most laterally positioned ATA variant.

  15. Interlocking Friction Governs the Mechanical Fracture of Bilayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gang Seob; Wang, Shanshan; Qin, Zhao; Martin-Martinez, Francisco J; Warner, Jamie H; Buehler, Markus J

    2018-04-24

    A molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) layered system is a two-dimensional (2D) material, which is expected to provide the next generation of electronic devices together with graphene and other 2D materials. Due to its significance for future electronics applications, gaining a deep insight into the fundamental mechanisms upon MoS 2 fracture is crucial to prevent mechanical failure toward reliable applications. Here, we report direct experimental observation and atomic modeling of the complex failure behaviors of bilayer MoS 2 originating from highly variable interlayer frictions, elucidated with in situ transmission electron microscopy and large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations. Our results provide a systematic understanding of the effects that different stacking and loading conditions have on the failure mechanisms and crack-tip behaviors in the bilayer MoS 2 systems. Our findings unveil essential properties in fracture of this 2D material and provide mechanistic insight into its mechanical failure.

  16. Interbasin water transfers and integrated water resources management: Where engineering, science and politics interlock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Zaag, P.

    2008-01-01

    As the pressure on water is increasing, the risk that the required amounts of water will not be available is also increasing in many semi-arid areas. Interbasin water transfers are designed to secure access by artificially conveying water to locations where people need it. These are typical supply

  17. Effect of autocontrol micromotion intramedullary interlocking nail on fracture healing: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-zhou; Guo, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Ju-cai; Wang, Yi-jin

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effect of autocontrol micromotion locking nail (AMLN) on experimental fracture healing and its mechanism. 16 goats undergoing both sides of transverse osteotomy of the femoral shafts were fixed intramedullary with AMLN and Gross-Kempf (GK) nail, respectively. The follow-up time was 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Roentgenographic, biomechanical, histological, scanning electromicroscopic and biochemical analyses were done. (1) The strength of anticompression, antiflexion and antitorsion in the fractural end in the AMLN-fixed group was higher than that of GK nail-fixed group; whereas, the rate of stress shelter in the fractured end decreased significantly (P<0.01). (2) The content of the total collagen, insoluble collagen, calcium and phosphate in the AMLN-fixed group was higher than that in the GK nail-fixed group (P<0.05). (3) Histological observation and quantitative analysis of calluses revealed that AMLN could promote the growth of bridge calluses and periosteum calluses. Hence the fracture healing and remolding process achieved early, which was much better than traditional GK nail fixation. (P<0.05). (4) 7-14 days postoperation, the calluses of AMLN-fixed group was flourish and camellarly arranged and the collagen fibril formed constantly in the absorption lacuna of bone trabecula. 28-56 days postoperation, the collagen fibril was flourish around the absorption lacuna and was parallel to the bone's longitudinal axis. Active bony absorption and formation were seen, so was remolding and rebuilding. Haversian system was intact and the bony structural net was very tenacious because of the deposition of calcium salt. None of the above findings was observed in the GK nail-fixed group. The design of AMLN accords well with the plastic fixation theory. As the geometry ametabolic system constituted by the intramedullary fixation instruments and the proximal and distal end of the fracture is very firm and stable, the disturbance to the physical stress distributed in the fractural end is light. The generation and conduct of the intermittent physical stress between the fractural parts could reach the balance between stress conduct and stress protection. The feature that the healing and remolding take place at the same time speeds up the fractural healing process.

  18. The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks As a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers : Traffic Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for all 15- to 20-year-olds. In 2014, there were 1,717 young drivers (15 to 20 years old) who died in motor vehicle crashes. In 2014, even though it was illegal for drivers under age 21 to operate ...

  19. The Feasibility of Voluntary Ignition Interlocks as a Prevention Strategy for Young Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Young drivers in the United States are at greater risk for alcohol-related crash deaths than any other age group of drivers in the general population. Though efforts have been made to reduce drinking and driving among young drivers (especially teens)...

  20. The best location for proximal locking screw for femur interlocking nailing: A biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A Karaarslan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: According to our findings, there is twice as much difference in locking screw bending resistance between these two application levels. To avoid proximal locking screw deformation, locking screws should be placed in the level of the lesser trochanter in nailing of 1/3 middle and distal femur fractures.

  1. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...? (6) Circumvention testing. The 1992 Model Specifications offer a number of procedures for evaluating... believe that they represent a broad consensus in the industry. F. Tampering and Circumvention Testing There was some criticism that the 1992 Model Specifications for tampering and circumvention testing are...

  2. Comparative study between reamed versus unreamed interlocking intramedullary nailing in compound fractures of shaft tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Puri; Samar Kumar Biswas; Anil Salgia; Sahil Sanghi; Tushar Agarwal; Rohit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tibia is the commonest bones to sustain open injury because of subcutaneous position. Treatment of open fractures requires simultaneous management of both skeletal and soft tissue injury. Intramedullary nailing with reaming is generally considered to be contraindicated for open fractures tibia, because it damages the endosteal blood supply which will lead to non-union, deep infection. However, recent studies with or without reaming in open fracture tibia shows no influence in heal...

  3. A STUDY ON ROLE OF INTERLOCK NAILING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TIBIAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara Rao; Chinta Shyam; Anvesh

    2015-01-01

    Tibial fractures are one of the commonest orthopedic injuries. Tibial fractures are one of the commonest orthopedic injuries. In the past several years there has been a trend towards by use of small diameter nails without remaining in the management of unstable tibial shaft fractures. However it is important to remember that many closed fractures with less severe soft tissue injury, Treatment with an intramedullary nail with reaming allows placement of larger implan...

  4. A STUDY ON INTERNAL FIXATION OF COMPOUND FRACTURES OF TIBIA USING INTERLOCKING NAIL WITHOUT REAMING

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Chandra; Chandra Sekhar; Krishna Reddy; Bachu

    2016-01-01

    As one-third of the tibial surface is subcutaneous throughout its length, open fractures are commonly encountered in this bone. The factors which determine the outcome of these fractures are severity of the injury, indicated by the degree of initial displacement, comminution and soft tissue injury and the damage to the tibial blood supply. In open fractures not only is the endosteal circulation disrupted but also the periosteal circulation, because of periosteal stripping. The va...

  5. Genetic Engineering and Human Mental Ecology: Interlocking Effects and Educational Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes some likely semiotic consequences of genetic engineering on what Gregory Bateson has called "the mental ecology" (1979) of future humans, consequences that are less often raised in discussions surrounding the safety of GMOs (genetically modified organisms). The effects are as follows: an increased 1) habituation to the presence of GMOs in the environment, 2) normalization of empirically false assumptions grounding genetic reductionism, 3) acceptance that humans are capable and entitled to decide what constitutes an evolutionary improvement for a species, 4) perception that the main source of creativity and problem solving in the biosphere is anthropogenic. Though there are some tensions between them, these effects tend to produce self-validating webs of ideas, actions, and environments, which may reinforce destructive habits of thought. Humans are unlikely to safely develop genetic technologies without confronting these escalating processes directly. Intervening in this mental ecology presents distinct challenges for educators, as will be discussed.

  6. Lego Bricks and the Octet Rule: Molecular Models for Biochemical Pathways with Plastic, Interlocking Toy Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry J.; Lehoang, Jennifer; Kwan, Isabel; Baghaee, Anita; Prasad, Priya; Ha-Chen, Stephanie J.; Moss, Tanesha; Woods, Jeremy D.

    2018-01-01

    The 8 studs on a 2 × 4 Lego brick conveniently represent the outer shell of electrons for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. We used Lego bricks to model these atoms, which are then joined together to form molecules by following the Lewis octet rule. A variety of small biological molecules can be modeled in this way, such as most amino acids,…

  7. Radiation‑free Insertion of Distal Interlocking Screw in Tibial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suhm N, Messmer P, Zuna I, Jacob LA, Regazzoni P. Fluoroscopic guidance versus surgical navigation for distal locking of intramedullary implants. A prospective, controlled clinical study. Injury 2004;35:567‑74. 15. Kirousis G, Delis H, Megas P, Lambiris E, Panayiotakis G. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia.

  8. Machine Protection and Interlock Systems for Circular Machines - Example for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the protection of circular particle accelerators from accidental beam losses. Already the energy stored in the beams for accelerators such as the TEVATRON at Fermilab and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN could cause serious damage in case of uncontrolled beam loss. With the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the energy stored in particle beams has reached a value two orders of magnitude above previous accelerators and poses new threats with respect to hazards from the energy stored in the particle beams. A single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. Protection of equipment from beam accidents is mandatory. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. extraction of the beam towards a dedicated beam dump block o...

  9. 12 CFR 250.407 - Interlocking relationship involving securities affiliate of brokerage firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... partnership, and no individual, primarily engaged in the issue, flotation, underwriting, public sale, or... the practice of forming corporate affiliates of brokerage firms, in order that the affiliate may carry... “underwriting arm”. Under Rule 321 of the Exchange, the partners (other than X) are required to own stock in...

  10. 78 FR 26849 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... recommend to their customers that the sensing head be taken inside to keep it warm or cool in inclement...,000-1,000,000 plus retests per day are not taken in this fashion, but rather safely delivered while... will continue to monitor the data and respond to any new trends that are identified. Draeger pointed...

  11. Empirical studies of flexural strength for dry-stack Interlocking masonry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests were carried out to establish the flexural strength of dry-stack masonry under vertical and horizontal bending. Two formats of wallettes were tested. Format 1 made of specimens constructed span normal to bed joints, which were tested under vertical bending and Format 2 specimens constructed span parallel to bed ...

  12. Re-conceptualising food security : interlocking strategies, unfolding choices and rural livelihoods in Kisii District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omosa, M.

    1998-01-01

    This study argues that achieving food security is a process and one that shifts and swings. Points of stability mark the food security position of households and this depends on people's day-to-day practices. These undertakings draw on how households conceptualise their life chances and

  13. On-Orbit Assembly of a Universally Interlocking Modular Spacecraft (7225-020), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. and Advanced Solutions, Inc. propose a novel approach for on-orbit assembly of a modular spacecraft using a unique universal, intelligent,...

  14. Hierarchical Porous Interlocked Polymeric Microcapsules: Sulfonic Acid Functionalization as Acid Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaomei; Gu, Jinyan; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their unique structural and surface properties, mesoporous microspheres are widely applied in the catalytic field. Generally, increasing the surface area of the specific active phase of the catalyst is a good method, which can achieve a higher catalytic activity through the fabrication of the corresponding catalytic microspheres with the smaller size and hollow structure. However, one of the major challenges in the use of hollow microspheres (microcapsules) as catalysts is their chem...

  15. Learning Organization Profile of Educational Hospitals in Iran: Practice of Organizational Interlocking Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Hashemi, Hassan Jahani; Rajaee, Roya; Najafi, Marziye; Etedal, Mahbobeh G H

    2015-02-24

    Organizational learning has been identified as necessary for different organizations to improve their performance in the changing and competitive environment. The main purpose of this research was to specify the learning organization profile of educational and health centers of Tehran and Qazvin Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. The present research was conducted using a cross-sectional method in the academic year of 2013-2014. A staff of 530 from educational hospitals subordinated to Tehran and Qazvin universities of medical sciences participated in the research. The participants were selected using stratified random sampling. That is to say, a random sample of a proportionate size was selected from each hospital. The instrument for data collection was a Likert-scale questionnaire involving 50 items. The statistical techniques of ANOVA, t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficients (Pearson and Spearman), and regression were utilized to analyze the data. All of them were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 for windows. the results indicated that 449 of participants (84.7%) had a B.S. degree and 78 of them (14.7%) had an M.S. or a Ph.D. degree. Among the fivefold dimensions of "Learning Organization" model (Learning, Organization, People, Knowledge, and Technology) in comparison of the two universities, the "people" dimension was the highest-rated dimension with the mean rating of 25.71±8.36 and the "learning" dimension was the lowest-rated dimension with the mean of 25.35±8.04. Comparison between the two universities yielded the result that educational hospitals in Tehran University of medical sciences with the rating of 126.56 had a more complete profile than that of educational hospitals in Qazvin university of medical sciences with the rating of 122.23. The hospitals of the two above-mentioned universities were, to a great extent, far from the characteristics of Learning Organization. In light of the massive mission of these centers to maintain and improve the community health and to train the skilled labor force, the centers should embark on updating the data and institutionalizing learning. Furthermore, to modify staff's behavior and performance and to achieve their goals, they should accentuate the importance of acquiring, creating, and transferring knowledge.

  16. 12 CFR 250.410 - Interlocking relationships between bank and its commingled investment account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation for a national bank under his Regulation 9, “Fiduciary Powers of National Banks and Collective... fund, to be operated under the effective control of the bank, for the collective investment of sums of... the Bank (including its branches), or to persons who are already customers of the Bank in other...

  17. On-Orbit Assembly of a Universally Interlocking Modular Spacecraft (7224-110), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. and Advanced Solutions, Inc. propose a novel approach for on-orbit assembly of a modular spacecraft using a unique universal, intelligent,...

  18. Repair of earthquake-damaged bridge columns with interlocking spirals and fractured bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    During earthquakes, reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns may experience different levels of damage such as cracking, spalling, or crushing of concrete and yielding, buckling, or fracture of reinforcing bars. Although several repair options exist f...

  19. Interlocked graphene-Prussian blue hybrid composites enable multifunctional electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hou, Chengyi; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    graphene-Prussian Blue hybrid composites as high-performance materials for biosensors and supercapacitor electrodes. Given the fact that graphene oxide (GO) can act as an electron acceptor, we used iron(II) and glucose as co-reducing agents to reduce GO under mild reaction conditions without introducing...... conductivity. The as-synthesized composites were tested for biosensing of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and as supercapacitor electrode materials. The specific capacitance of the microcomposite based electrodes can reach 428Fg-1, with good cycling stability. The microcomposite also displays high performance...

  20. High velocity impact on different hybrid architectures of 2D laminated and 3D warp interlock fabric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, B.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.; Rondot, F.

    2012-08-01

    For decades, conventional amour shield is mainly oriented on metallic materials which are today well-known. Since the use of non conventional threats as IEDs, performances of those protections are required to be upgraded. The expected improvements that manufacturers are looking for are mainly oriented to the weight reduction which is the key parameter to reduce the fuel consumption, increase the payload, and offer more manoeuvrability to vehicles [1]. However, the difficulty is to reduce as cautiously as possible the total mass of the protection solution while ensuring the safety of the vehicle. One of the possible solutions is to use new combinations of materials, able to be more efficient against new threats and lighter than the traditional steel armour. It is in this context that the combination between some well-known ballistic alloys and textile composite material appear as a high potential solution for armour plated protection. Indeed, used as a backing, textile composite material present some interesting properties such as a very low density compared with steel and good behaviour in term of ballistic efficiency. This study proposes to test and compare the behaviour and efficiency of three different textile composite backings.

  1. Ultrasound for the early diagnosis of tibial fracture healing after static interlocked nailing without reaming: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moed, B R; Subramanian, S; van Holsbeeck, M; Watson, J T; Cramer, K E; Karges, D E; Craig, J G; Bouffard, J A

    1998-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study indicating the potential value of ultrasound (US) as a diagnostic tool for the early assessment of fracture healing and the related need for secondary operative procedures in patients treated by statically locked intramedullary (IM) nailing without reaming, a protocol was established for a larger scale prospective trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of this follow-up trial. All skeletally mature patients admitted to the Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit, Michigan) from January 1993 to August 1994 who had sustained an acute fracture of the tibial shaft and who were treated by statically locked IM nailing, without reaming, were candidates for study. Forty-seven patients with fifty fractures that could be evaluated by US were included. The adopted determinants for fracture healing were complete disappearance of the IM nail on US examination performed at six weeks postoperatively, or progressive disappearance of the nail noted between the initial six-week study and a second nine-week US examination, both in conjunction with periosteal callus formation. Radiographs were obtained to monitor maintenance of reduction and to further evaluate fracture healing. Of thirty-eight fractures with a positive US (thirty-two at six weeks, six at nine weeks), thirty-seven healed uneventfully, a positive predictive value of 97 percent. Radiographic fracture healing was not evident until, on average, nineteen weeks after injury. The single false-positive fracture progressed to nonunion. Of the twelve fractures with negative US studies, ten underwent secondary procedures (nine dynamization, one bone graft), with four progressing to nonunion. Two patients refused secondary surgery; screw failure occurred in both. Otherwise, there were no hardware failures in this series. The results of this study indicate that US may provide important prognostic information concerning fracture healing after unreamed tibial nailing, upon which subsequent treatment can be based.

  2. Illustrating Catalysis with Interlocking Building Blocks: Correlation between Structure of a Metallocene Catalyst and the Stereoregularity of Polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Catalysis with transition-metal complexes is a part of the inorganic chemistry curriculum and a challenging topic for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. A hands-on teaching aid has been developed for use during conventional lectures to help students understand these catalytic reactions. A unique method of illustrating the…

  3. Angle stable interlocking screws improve construct stability of intramedullary nailing of distal tibia fractures: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J; J, Horn; Linke, B; B, Linke; Höntzsch, D; D, Höntzsch; Gueorguiev, B; B, Gueorguiev; Schwieger, K; K, Schwieger

    2009-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for most displaced tibial shaft fractures. The ability to maintain a mechanically stable fixation becomes more difficult the further the fracture extends distally or proximally or when unreamed tibial nails are used. We assumed that a new angular stable locking option would provide improved stability and reduced interfragmentary movements in a distal tibia in vitro fracture model. Left and right bones of 8 pairs of human cadaveric tibiae were randomly assigned to either a group with conventional locked or a group with angular stable locked intramedullary nails. Nails of 10-mm-diameter were used after reaming up to 11 mm. A transverse distal osteotomy was performed and the specimens were tested mechanically under eccentric axial load. A video optical measurement system was used to determine the angular displacement of the osteotomy gap during loading. Construct stiffness, maximum load of the bone-nail construct and gap angle at 0.5 kN load were measured. The group with the angular stable locking option showed significantly higher stiffness values and reduced fracture gap motion compared to the group with conventional locked nails. A new angular stable locking option of intramedullary nails provides higher stability in terms of construct stiffness and reduced interfragmentary movements in a distal tibia in vitro fracture model.

  4. Case study on aggregate interlock capacity for the shear assessment of cracked reinforced-concrete bridge cross sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.; van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.; de Boer, A.

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old bridge showed large cracking in the approach bridge caused by restraint of deformation and support settlement. After repair, it was uncertain at which crack width the traffic loads on the bridge should be further restricted. The shear capacity was calculated by counting on the

  5. Two Interlocked Triads in Pat Kinevane’s Recent Plays: Self-Soul-Conscousness and Birth-Death-Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Stanca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyting conceivable, all that has ever been imagined, can be included in our minds and souls. As psyche means “breath”, “soul” and “mind”, it points to the relevance of psychology as a study of mental, emotional and spiritual processes involved in our identity make-up. One of the main organizers of our self and psychological experiences is our relationhip with death: our fear of abandonement and of being alone when conceiving our own death, the fear of the loss of the others, leading to the fear of attachment and emotional death. Pat Kinevane, a contemporary Irish playright, deals, in his 2005 play, Forgotten, with the idea of family and social abandonment of old people in nursing homes. The interconnected stories of Dora, Eucharia, Flor and Gustus, the characters in the play, aged 80-100 years old, living in separate retirement and care facilities around Ireland, reveal these fears. Mental illness in the current explosion of anxiety is also crucial to our identity. Another play by Kinevane, Silent (2010, ends with the word silent, which indicates the insanity, invisibility and ultimately the death of the protagonist, Tino McGoldring, a homeless man tormented by the suicide of his brother. His self after the loss of his brother, wife, family, job, mind is constructed in relation to the past and the imaginary world of the Italian-American icon of the film industry of the 1920s, Rudolph Valentino.

  6. The bacterial interlocked process ONtology (BiPON): a systemic multi-scale unified representation of biological processes in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Vincent J; Goelzer, Anne; Ferré, Arnaud; Fischer, Stephan; Dinh, Marc; Loux, Valentin; Froidevaux, Christine; Fromion, Vincent

    2017-11-23

    High-throughput technologies produce huge amounts of heterogeneous biological data at all cellular levels. Structuring these data together with biological knowledge is a critical issue in biology and requires integrative tools and methods such as bio-ontologies to extract and share valuable information. In parallel, the development of recent whole-cell models using a systemic cell description opened alternatives for data integration. Integrating a systemic cell description within a bio-ontology would help to progress in whole-cell data integration and modeling synergistically. We present BiPON, an ontology integrating a multi-scale systemic representation of bacterial cellular processes. BiPON consists in of two sub-ontologies, bioBiPON and modelBiPON. bioBiPON organizes the systemic description of biological information while modelBiPON describes the mathematical models (including parameters) associated with biological processes. bioBiPON and modelBiPON are related using bridge rules on classes during automatic reasoning. Biological processes are thus automatically related to mathematical models. 37% of BiPON classes stem from different well-established bio-ontologies, while the others have been manually defined and curated. Currently, BiPON integrates the main processes involved in bacterial gene expression processes. BiPON is a proof of concept of the way to combine formally systems biology and bio-ontology. The knowledge formalization is highly flexible and generic. Most of the known cellular processes, new participants or new mathematical models could be inserted in BiPON. Altogether, BiPON opens up promising perspectives for knowledge integration and sharing and can be used by biologists, systems and computational biologists, and the emerging community of whole-cell modeling.

  7. High velocity impact on different hybrid architectures of 2D laminated and 3D warp interlock fabric composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallee D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For decades, conventional amour shield is mainly oriented on metallic materials which are today well-known. Since the use of non conventional threats as IEDs, performances of those protections are required to be upgraded. The expected improvements that manufacturers are looking for are mainly oriented to the weight reduction which is the key parameter to reduce the fuel consumption, increase the payload, and offer more manoeuvrability to vehicles [1]. However, the difficulty is to reduce as cautiously as possible the total mass of the protection solution while ensuring the safety of the vehicle. One of the possible solutions is to use new combinations of materials, able to be more efficient against new threats and lighter than the traditional steel armour. It is in this context that the combination between some well-known ballistic alloys and textile composite material appear as a high potential solution for armour plated protection. Indeed, used as a backing, textile composite material present some interesting properties such as a very low density compared with steel and good behaviour in term of ballistic efficiency. This study proposes to test and compare the behaviour and efficiency of three different textile composite backings.

  8. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup K Daolagupu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  9. Identifying costs and funding alternatives for equipping operating while intoxicated (OWI) offenders with ignition interlock devices (IIDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    From 2005-2009 there were over 200,000 arrests for Operating while intoxicated (OWI) in the State of : Wisconsin. The project had three primary goals. First, data on OWI offenders were analyzed to : determine if there existed any driver characteristi...

  10. Anatomy of an energy-coupling mechanism--the interlocking catalytic cycles of the ATP sulfurylase-GTPase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meihao; Leyh, Thomas S

    2005-10-25

    ATP sulfurylase, from Escherichia coli K-12, conformationally couples the rates and chemical potentials of the two reactions that it catalyzes, GTP hydrolysis and activated sulfate synthesis. The enzyme is rare among such coupling systems in that it links the potentials of small-molecule chemistries to one another, rather than to vectorial motion. The pre-steady-state stages of the catalytic cycle of ATP sulfurylase were studied using tools capable of distinguishing between enzyme-bound and solution-phase product for each of the four products of the enzyme. The study reveals that the two chemistries are linked at multiple points in the reaction coordinate. Linking begins with an isomerization prior to chemistry that initiates an ordered cleavage of the beta,gamma and alpha,beta bonds of GTP and ATP, respectively; the rates of these three sequential events increase successively, causing them to appear simultaneous. Linking is again seen in the late stages of the catalytic cycle: product release is ordered with P(i) departing prior to either GDP or PP(i). Release rate constants are determined for each product and used to construct a quantitative model of the mechanism that accurately predicts the behavior of this complex system.

  11. Meshing Preprocessor for the Mesoscopic 3D Finite Element Simulation of 2D and Interlock Fabric Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.

  12. Interlocking oppressions: the effect of a comorbid physical disability on perceived stigma and discrimination among mental health consumers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, Allison; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2009-02-01

    People living with mental health problems often face stigma and discrimination; however, there is a lack of research that examines how comorbid conditions affect this perceived stigma. This study sought to determine whether people who have a comorbid physical and psychiatric disability experience more stigma than those with only a psychiatric disability. It also looked at how perceived stigma and discrimination affect physical and mental health. A secondary analysis on data from interviews with 336 former and current clients of the mental health system in a mid-size Canadian city in 2005 was performed. Of these, 203 (60.4%) reported they had a psychiatric disability, 112 (33.0%) reported that they had a physical disability, with 74 reporting both a psychiatric and a physical disability. People with a self-reported psychiatric disability and a self-reported comorbid physical disability faced more overall perceived discrimination/stigma (P = 0.04), than those with a psychiatric disability alone. Perceived discrimination/stigma was positively correlated with psychiatric problem severity (P = 0.02), and negatively correlated with self-rated general health (P disability on the perceived stigma for those living with a mental illness, and also strengthen the knowledge that stigma and discrimination have a negative impact on health. Healthcare providers should recognise this negative impact and screen for these comorbid conditions. Policy-makers should take measures such as improving access to housing and employment services to help reduce stigma and discrimination against this particularly vulnerable group.

  13. Theoretical study of the magnetic exchange interaction in catena-μ-Tris[oxalato(2-)-O1,O2;O3,O4]-dicopper complex with interlocked helical chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negodaev, Igor; Queralt, Nuria; Caballol, Rosa; Graaf, Coen de

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: From electronic structure calculations on fragments to the magnetic susceptibility after resolving the magnetic topology. Research highlights: → Estimates of magnetic couplings in an extended structure with Cu bridged by oxalato. → Determination of the magnetic structure based on the calculated magnetic couplings. → Calculation of the magnetic susceptibility curve from the local magnetic couplings. - Abstract: The coupling of the spin moments has been studied in an oxalato-based 3D extended structure with Cu(II) ions as magnetic sites. The ab initio calculations reveal that two of the three different magnetic interaction paths are characterized by a strong coupling, while the third one presents weaker interaction. Based on these calculated values, the magnetic topology of the material is determined as an alternating chain with weak interchain coupling. A theoretical estimate of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is derived from the diagonalization of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian for a multi-center magnetic model with boundary conditions. The theoretical procedure can serve as guide in an experimental determination of the magnetic coupling parameters in 3D extended structure with oxalato-bridges as found in the hexagonal layers of the bifunctional materials.

  14. [Healing of spiral fractures in the sheep tibia comparing different methods--osteosynthesis with internal fixation, interlocking nailing and dynamic compression plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, R; Schlegel, U; Kessler, S B; Cordey, J; Perren, S M; Schweiberer, L

    1995-12-01

    The healing process of spiral fractures of the sheep tibia was investigated in an experiment with simulated clinical conditions. The effects of conventional internal fixation techniques with the DCP and the intramedullary nail are compared with those of internal fixation with the spine fixator. The internal fixation techniques are described in terms of their bending stiffness when mounted on the fractured bone. The in vivo investigation was documented clinically and radiographically and the post mortem specimens were evaluated histologically. The bending stiffness of the healed bone was assessed in relation to the contralateral side. After application of the DCP, primary healing took place and extensive transcortical necrosis occurred in the implant bed. Intramedullary nailing led to secondary healing and to necrosis of the inner cortex close to the endosteum. After internal fixation with the spine fixator, gap healing took place and no cortical necrosis was observed. The clinical course was generally good after all procedures. The histological evaluation shows that damage to the vascularity of the bone can only be avoided by using the spine fixator. This principle seems to be appropriate for the purposes of biological internal fixation.

  15. Accelerated pavement testing of load transfer through aggregate interlock and the influence of crack width and aggregate type - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available presents the final outcome of the study in terms of theoretically based equations that were adjusted using regression techniques to fit the filed experience. These equations have now been incorporated into a mechanistically-based design method for concrete...

  16. Surface modification of PCL-TCP scaffolds improve interfacial mechanical interlock and enhance early bone formation : An in vitro and in vivo characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, A.; Wong, W. J.; Khoo, H. H.; Teoh, S. H.

    Pretreatment of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) scaffolds under alkaline conditions can be utilized to alter surface characteristics for enhanced early bone formation. PCL-TCP scaffolds were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at various time intervals (group A: untreated, group

  17. Histopathological examination of bone debris from reaming of interlocking intra-medullary nail fixation of long bone fractures with concomitant head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Fathy G; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to test, for the presence of osteoblasts in the reaming debris of intramedullary nailing of femoral and tibial fracture in patients with and without severe head injury. Two groups of patients were studied. Group A (n = 32) had long bone fractures in addition to having head injuries. Group B (n = 35) had only long bone fractures. The fractures in the 2 groups of patients was treated by inter medullary nailing. Osteoblasts in the debris of the inter medullary nailing was compared between the 2 groups of patients. The results demonstrated that histopathological specimens from reaming debris of fractured femur and tibia in patients with head injury showed osteoblasts in (82.9%) and in (27.5%) of patients with isolated long bone fractures (p fractures and concomitant head injury confirm fast and adequate healing in these patients and the presence of plenty of osteoblasts in their reaming debris may reflect a proof of accelerated fracture healing environment.

  18. Development of adaptive bust for female soft body armour using three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics: Three dimensional (3D) design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, M. A.; Bruniaux, P.; Boussu, F.

    2017-10-01

    The traditional two dimensional (2D) pattern making method for developing female body armour has a negative effect on the ballistic protective performance as well as the comfort of the wearer. This is due to, unlike the male body armour, the female body armour manufacturing involves different darts to accommodate the natural curvature of the female body, i.e. bust area, which will reveals the weak parts at the seam and stitch area while ballistic impact. Moreover, the proper bra size also plays an important role not only in bra design but also in the design of a women’s ballistic vest. The present research study tried to propose the novel 3D designing approach for developing different volumes of breast using feature points (both bust surface and outline points) in the specific 3D adaptive mannequin. Later the flattened 3D bra patterns of this method has been also compare with the 2D standard pattern making in order to modify and match with 2D traditional method. The result indicated that the proposed method which conceives the 3D patterns on the 3D bust is easier to implement and can generate patterns with satisfactory fit and comfort as compared to 2D patterns.

  19. Ex vivo torsional properties of a 2.5 mm veterinary interlocking nail system in canine femurs. Comparison with a 2.4 mm limited contact bone plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Aline S; Moens, Noel M M; Runciman, John; Gibson, Tom W G; Minto, Bruno W

    2017-03-20

    To evaluate the torsional properties of the Targon ® Vet Nail System (TVS) in small canine femurs and to compare these properties to those of the 2.4 mm LC-DCP ® plates. Thirty-six cadaveric femurs were allocated to three groups (n = 12). In all bones, points just distal to the lesser trochanter and just proximal to the fabellae were marked and a midshaft transverse osteotomy was performed. Group 1: bones were fixed with the 2.5 mm TVS with the bolts applied at the pre-identified marks. Group 2: A TVS system with 25% shorter inter-bolt distance was used. Group 3: A 7-hole 2.4 mm LC-DCP ® plates were applied. All constructs were tested non-destructively for 10 cycles, followed by an acute torsion to failure. Torque at yield was 0.806 ± 0.183 and 0.805 ± 0.093 Nm for groups 1 and 2 and 1.737 ± 0.461 Nm for group 3. Stiffness was 0.05 ± 0.01, 0.05 ± 0.007, and 0.14 ± 0.015 Nm/° for groups 1 to 3 respectively. Maximal angular displacement under cyclic loading was 16.6° ± 2.5°, 15.6° ± 2.1°, and 7.8° ± 1.06° respectively. There was no significant difference for any of the parameters between groups 1 and 2. Both torque at yield and stiffness were significantly greater between group 3 and groups 1 and 2. The TVS had approximately half the torsional strength and approximately 1/3 of the stiffness of the 2.4 mm bone plate. Slippage of the locking mechanism was probably the cause of the early failure. The system should be considered as a low-strength and low-stiffness system when compared to bone plates.

  20. The effect of intact fibula on functional outcome of reamed intramedullary interlocking nail in open and closed isolated tibial shaft fractures: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muthukumar Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: ITS fracture with intact fibula is a common occurrence, and they can be treated safely with reamed IM nailing that provides good union rates and the excellent functional result even in open fractures.

  1. Subsurface materials management and containment system, components thereof and methods relating thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2006-04-18

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  2. Method of sealing casings of subsurface materials management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

    2007-02-06

    Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

  3. Evolved Models for Elementary Particles and Atoms Require Alternating Neutrino/Antineutrino Pairs Along Interlocked or Looped Strings. Traveling Waves, TW, and Standing Waves, SW, Alternate at Nodal Notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Roger David; McLeod, David Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Our hydrogen atom interacts with a neutron star. Its stringy TW/SW electron is cut by a neutrino scissor that instantly becomes its end anti-node. The string has one extra neutrino in 100,000. Antimatter remains concealed. Our Dumbo Proton of a TW state is similarly cut. Inside the star, electron string/spring compresses 100,000 and 1836 times more, to proton's linear mass density. Electrostatics encourages that caboose, stringy electron, to couple with a cut proton. Linear charge densities neutralize while composite length contracts 20%. The writhing string evicts an antineutrino at closure on Pauli's authority, becoming Mickey Neutron, with looped quarks. Unstable Mickey Neutron has his ear notch forced into an ear notch of stable Dumbo Proton, achieving immortality in this deuteron marriage. Tritium is in a m'enage a trois. Alpha Nucleus has a # grid. Meta state Ne-20 predicts alpha eviction to O-16. Schr"odinger finally prevails, so string theory and Wave Mechanics can prosper.

  4. CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective means of handling femoral non-union in third world societies where instrumentation and implants for interlocked nailing may not be readily available. Key Words: Interlocked-Intramedullary nail, Femur, Cortical window. INTRODUCTION. CASE HISTRORY. Interlocked intramedullary nailing is a standard. A female ...

  5. Publications | Page 545 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5441 - 5450 of 6357 ... The challenges facing community forestry in the Philippines are complex with numerous interlocking causes. To address these interlocking causes, an interlocking operational framework guided this project. It has its anchor ''on the ground'' with field research to highlight community perspectives.

  6. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  7. The Diamond machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system

  8. 2H Evaporator CP class instrumentation uncertainties evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Evaporator Pot Temperature Instrumentations and the Steam Condensate Gamma Monitors are two instrumentation systems in the 2H Evaporator facilities that are classified as the critical protection. The temperature high alarm and interlock circuit and the temperature recorder circuit of the pot temperature instrumentation loop are described. From the gamma monitor loop, the high gamma alarm and interlock circuit, failure alarm and interlock circuit, cesium activity recorder circuit, and americium activity recorder circuit are described

  9. 2H Evaporator CP class instrumentation uncertainties evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, E.

    1994-02-10

    The Evaporator Pot Temperature Instrumentations and the Steam Condensate Gamma Monitors are two instrumentation systems in the 2H Evaporator facilities that are classified as the critical protection. The temperature high alarm and interlock circuit and the temperature recorder circuit of the pot temperature instrumentation loop are described. From the gamma monitor loop, the high gamma alarm and interlock circuit, failure alarm and interlock circuit, cesium activity recorder circuit, and americium activity recorder circuit are described. (GHH)

  10. Erişkin femur cisim kınklarının kilitli intramedüller çivileme ile tedavisi (Distal kilitlemede kolay bir teknik)

    OpenAIRE

    Arazi, Mehmet; Yel, Mustafa; Oktar, M.; Ogun, Tunc; Memik, Recep

    2004-01-01

    We describe an easy method for distal screw insertion in locked intramedullary nailing procedure and also present the early results of the femoral shaft fractures treated using this method and interlocking nailing. Between 1995 and 1997, 35 femoral shaft fractures which were not suitable for non-interlocked nailing because of localization and comminution were treated by interlocking nailing. The fractures were located in the proximal third of femur in 12 cases, middle in 15, and distal in 8. ...

  11. 10 CFR 55.41 - Written examination: Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... items, to the extent applicable to the facility. (1) Fundamentals of reactor theory, including fission... functions of control and safety systems, including instrumentation, signals, interlocks, failure modes, and...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogedegbe, FE. Vol 9, No 2 (2010) - Articles Interlocked medullary nailing of femoral and tibial shaft fractures at the National Hospital, Abuja: The journey so far. Abstract · Vol 11, No 1 (2012) - Articles Outcome of Interlocking Intramedullary Nailing in the Treatment of Diaphyseal Tibial Fractures Abstract. ISSN: 1596-4582.

  13. Outcome of surgical implant generation network nail initiative in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Closed interlocked intra-medullary nailing (IM), the standard method of treating of long bone shaft fracture, has been a dream to most resource poor hospitals ... Methods: Seventy eight consecutive patients with 20 tibia and 60 femur fractures were done SIGN interlocking nail at Embu Provincial Hospital, Kenya ...

  14. 75 FR 24991 - In the Matter of AREVA NP, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately) [NRC-2010-0172

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... electronic eye sensor known as the vacuum wand interlock, was deliberately bypassed by an employee and made... agreed that, although the vacuum wand interlock IROFS was disabled, sufficient system IROFS remained in... Environment (SCWE) training was conducted for employees at all AREVA SNM licensed facilities within the AREVA...

  15. 12 CFR 26.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....1 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 26.1 Authority, purpose, and scope. (a) Authority. This part is issued under the provisions of... Interlocks Act and this part is to foster competition by generally prohibiting a management official from...

  16. Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets by Rectangular Mechanical Clinching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Mori, K.; Kato, T.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanical clinching has the advantage of low running costs. However, the joint strength is not high. To improve the maximum load of the joined sheets by a mechanical clinching, square and rectangular mechanical clinching were introduced. In the mechanical clinching, the two sheets are mechanically joined by forming an interlock between the lower and upper sheets by the punch and die. The joined length with the interlock was increased by the rectangular punch and die. The deforming behaviours of the sheets in the mechanical clinching were investigated, and then the interlock in the sheets had distribution in the circumference of the projection. Although the interlocks were formed in both projection side and diagonal, the interlock in the diagonal was smaller because of the long contact length between the lower sheet and the die cavity surface. The maximum load of the joined sheets by the rectangular mechanical clinching was two times larger than the load by the round mechanical clinching.

  17. Falhas na utilização de poliacetal e poliamida em forma de haste intramedular bloqueada para imobilização de fratura femural induzida em bovinos jovens Failures in the use of polyacetal and polyamide in the form of intramedullary interlocking nail for immobilization of induced femoral fracture in young cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Odael Spadeto Junior; Rafael Resende Faleiros; Geraldo Eleno Silveira Alves; Estevam Barbosa de Las Casas; Luciano Brito Rodrigues; Bruno Zambelli Loiacono; Fabiane Cassou

    2010-01-01

    Apesar da expressiva evolução da ortopedia veterinária nos últimos anos, as fraturas de ossos longos em grandes animais são constante desafio para o médico-veterinário. O presente estudo é parte da proposta de desenvolvimento de um sistema de haste intramedular polimérica, de baixo custo e fácil aplicação, para uso em bovinos jovens e neonatos. Os objetivos foram avaliar, in vivo, hastes de poliacetal e poliamida para imobilização de fraturas femorais em bovinos jovens. Cinco bezerros machos ...

  18. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, p...

  19. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  20. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds in permeable pavement infiltrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The Edison Environmental Center (EEC) has a research and demonstration permeable parking lot comprised of three different permeable systems: permeable asphalt, porous concrete and interlocking concrete permeable pavers. Water quality and quantity analysis has been ongoin...

  1. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  2. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  3. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots in Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed tha...

  4. Design/Construction of a Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (EEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will provide a scientifically defensible estimate of the performance of the three permeable surfaces: porous concrete, porous asphalt, and interlocking concrete pavers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can provide the results to municipalities enabling...

  5. THE ACCOUNT OF OPTIONS SHEET OF WALLS PROFILE LARSEN IN THE DESIGN OF EXCAVATIONS SUPPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid A. Mangushev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bending stiffness and strength of steel sheet retaining walls is strongly dependent on shear resistance of pile interlocks. This fact, usually, is not taken into account in domestic practice of design and construction of sheet walls

  6. Full-Scale Physical Modeling Of The System "Granular Media—Steel Sheet Piling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskyy, M. P.; Meshcheryakov, G. N.; Petrosyan, V. N.; Dubrovska, O. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of determination of real parameters of the cross-sectional values of sheet piling walls made of U-profile piles (moment of inertia and section modulus) and their drivability regarding piles interaction with granular media (for example, sandy soil). Among main factors which influence on this one can mention soil friction in the interlocks and the transmission of longitudinal shear forces in the interlocks of the sheet piles. In reality granular media-interlock interaction depends mainly on installation method and properties of the granular media. Study of dependencies between applied forces and friction in the interlocks by full-scale physical modeling during press-in regarding pile-pile interaction and granular media properties was aiming to refine calculation model as well as to provide reliable numerical modeling and design of the considered system.

  7. THE ACCOUNT OF OPTIONS SHEET OF WALLS PROFILE LARSEN IN THE DESIGN OF EXCAVATIONS SUPPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid A. Mangushev; Alexandr B. Fadeev

    2017-01-01

    Bending stiffness and strength of steel sheet retaining walls is strongly dependent on shear resistance of pile interlocks. This fact, usually, is not taken into account in domestic practice of design and construction of sheet walls

  8. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

  9. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  10. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  11. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  12. 75 FR 76069 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... colorlight LED type signal heads and electric switch machines. The interlockings at West Cambridge, Hill... on the Internet at the docket facility's Web site at http://www.regulations.gov . Anyone is able to...

  13. 78 FR 64051 - Mule Sidetracks, L.L.C.-Acquisition Exemption-Columbiana County Port Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ..., including rights over the C.P. Graham Interlocking, and which collective rights were also conferred on CCPA..., one copy of each pleading must be served on MSLLC's counsel, Richard H. Streeter, Law Offices of...

  14. Practically Engaged : The entanglements between data journalism and civic tech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baack, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the entanglements between data journalists and civic technologists. Following an approach inspired by practice theory, it describes how they form a community that comes together through interlocking practices and complementary values and ambitions. Data journalists and civic

  15. Setup Aid for Electrical-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, G.; Duca, J.

    1985-01-01

    Interlock assures that workpiece is correctly assembled in machining fixture. A Plunger in a Hollow Shaft actuates a switch, allowing a power supply to produce current for electrical-discharge machining. Plunger operates only when necessary parts are position.

  16. Long-term infiltration capacity of different types of permeable pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Permeable pavements such as porous asphalt, pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers are relatively novel alternatives to conventional pavement that allow rain and snowmelt to infiltrate, thereby reducing runoff, flooding and nonp...

  17. Modeling of hot-mix asphalt compaction : a thermodynamics-based compressible viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Compaction is the process of reducing the volume of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) by the application of external forces. As a result of compaction, the volume of air voids decreases, aggregate interlock increases, and interparticle friction increases. The qu...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... condition appropriate to its use, either during normal operation or in the event of a malfunction, assuming... equipment, positive interlocks and sequencing of engagement to prevent improper operation are required. (g...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... condition appropriate to its use, either during normal operation or in the event of a malfunction, assuming... positive interlocks and sequencing of engagement to prevent improper operation. (f) If the automatic pilot...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... condition appropriate to its use, either during normal operation or in the event of a malfunction, assuming... positive interlocks and sequencing of engagement to prevent improper operation. (f) If the automatic pilot...

  1. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  2. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engine Order Telegraph Systems § 113.35-7 Electric... mechanically interlocked to effect synchronous operation, the requirements of § 113.35-13 must be met. (c...

  3. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths in 2009. Driving drunk is never OK. Choose not to drink and ... interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been ...

  5. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  6. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) Each blower must have a non-sparking fan. (4) The power ventilation system must be interlocked... vertical; and (iv) That has no appliances, such as flame arresters, that impede free passage of air or gas...

  7. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    B: NAVY OCCUPATIONS AND THEIR ABBREVIATIONS 315 APPENDIX C: MILITARY DAY CARE CENTER INFORMATION SHEET ---------------------------------- 316 APPENDIX... music , art, etc. e Naval Station, San Diego For tiny tots: one set of interlocking blocks, two sets interlocking squares, one set plastic blocks, twelve...sets peg boards, twenty puzzles, rythm instruments (six sets), one set flannel board letters, number shapes, two wooden trucks, one Tonka truck, piano

  8. Retaining force augmentation of retaining walls

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar, Krishpersad; Tota-Maharaj, Kiran; Panchoo, Roshan

    2017-01-01

    Concrete blocks retaining walls are commonly used for landscaping projects in which the retaining force strength of the structure is of paramount importance in preserving the integrity of the project and safety of humans and property. The effect of augmenting the retaining force strength of concrete block retaining walls was investigated using interlocking and interlocking with a horizontal steel re-bar and compared with regular concrete block walls. The average maximum retaining force for re...

  9. Two rare complications of twin gestation manifesting as arrest of descent in the second stage of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Veena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two rare complications of twin gestation, namely, conjoined twins and interlocking of twins, manifested as arrest of descent in the second stage of labor. This article reports in detail about how the diagnosis of conjoined twins was missed by ultrasonogram and interlocking of twins unusually occurred in diamniotic twins. The management of these rare conditions is also mentioned to aid readers to act accordingly in rare undiagnosed cases.

  10. Radiation-tight coupling arrangement for a machining laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Glachet, C.; Moulin, M.; Noel, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A radiation-tight coupling arrangement for coupling a machining laser to a hot cell containing radioactive material, comprising a cell flange integrally formed on the confinement wall which defines a cell opening, a cell door formed to interlock tightly with the cell flange, thereby closing the cell opening, an elongated container movably arranged in the sleeve and having a container flange defining a container opening and connected by a sealing bellows, a container door formed to interlock tightly with the container flange and to interlock with the cell door when the container flange interlocks with the cell flange, and a machining line translationally arranged in the container. When the container is in a retracted position, a radiation blocking drum intervenes between the cell opening and the container opening. The radiation blocking drum is rotated to allow the container to translate toward the cell. As a result of rotation of the container, the container flange interlocks with the cell flange and the container door interlocks with the cell door. The container door and cell door are then removed in tandem, allowing the machine head of the machining line to be inserted into the hot cell. The laser beam passes through the machine head and impinges on the radioactive material to be cut

  11. Development and operation of fast protection for KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jaesic, E-mail: hjaesic@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Han, Hyunsun; Han, Sang-Hee; Park, Kaprai

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The evolution of KSTAR machine interlock system. • The evolution of KSTAR fast interlock. • The fast interlock interface. • The operation results of the fast interlock. - Abstract: Protection for the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) is somewhat more complicated than for the previous tokomak generation. External reasons for this increased complexity are the initial and maintenance costs, and internal reasons relate to various characteristics of the tokamak and long pulse operation. KSTAR has two protection mechanisms: the device protection system protects damage to superconducting coils etc. from events within the other systems, and the fast protection system protects the internal vacuum vessel components against damage from heating and the long pulse plasma. The fast protection system initially contained the plasma control system (PCS), central control system (CCS), and the heating devices. In 2012, a fast interlock interface was implemented for PCS fail-safe. This detected the absence of plasma current using the diagnostic signals and discharge operation gate windows of the timing synchronized system (TSS), and activates the operation gates and heating stop from the CCS. Additional fast interlock logic was implemented to reduce damage to the plasma facing components (PFC) and other materials by overheating and improper operational state of heating systems after starting the discharge sequence. However, the fast interlock interface system has failed to protect the heating during PCS malfunctions since 2013. This paper introduces the KSTAR protection system, and describes the fast protection interface, with testing and operational results, then discusses future plans for a more effective and safer protection system.

  12. Axillary nerve palsy after retrograde humeral nailing: clinical confirmation of an anatomical fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lögters, Tim Tobias; Wild, Michael; Windolf, Joachim; Linhart, Wolfgang

    2008-12-01

    Locked antegrade or retrograde nailing of humeral shaft and proximal humerus fractures is a well established treatment option. Anatomic-morphological studies revealed a potential high risk of axillary nerve injury within proximal interlocking screw insertion. However, clinical experiences do not seem to confirm this, as there is a lack of interlocking screw insertion associated axillary lesions in literature. We report about a 69-year-old man with a humeral shaft fracture (AO-type 12-A3) stabilized by a retrograde implanted interlocking nail. Proximal interlocking screw insertion was performed in a posterior-to-anterior direction. The fracture healed uneventfully. In a follow-up examination 2 years later, an atrophy and paralysis of the deltoid muscle were visible. Electrophysiological evaluation confirmed an isolated axillary nerve injury. Nevertheless, the patient showed good functional recovery with almost free range of motion. Even for clinical practise proximal interlocking screw insertion is associated with a substantial risk of axillary nerve injury. Particularly for posterior-to-anterior screw insertion anatomic conditions should be considered. In spite of axillary nerve lesion, recovery of almost full shoulder function is possible by compensating the loss of deltoid function by rotator cuff muscles.

  13. Transnational Class Formation? Globalization and the Canadian Corporate Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Klassen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of transnational class formation has figured centrally in recent debates on globalization. These debates revolve around the question of whether or not new patterns of cross-border trade and investment have established global circuits of capital out of which a transnational capitalist class has emerged. This paper takes up the notion of transnational class formation at the point of corporate directorship interlocks. Using Canada as a case study, it maps the changing network of directorship interlocks between leading firms in Canada and the world economy. In particular, the paper examines the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in the Canadian corporate network; the resilience of a national corporate community; and new patterns of cross-border interlocking amongst transnational firms. Through this empirical mapping, the paper finds a definite link between investment and interlocking shaping the social space of the global corporate elite. Corporations with a transnational base of accumulation tend to participate in transnational interlocking. While national corporate communities have not been transcended, transnational firms increasingly predominate within them, articulating national with transnational elite segments. This new network of firms reconstitutes the corporate power bloc and forms a nascent transnational capitalist class.

  14. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  15. Protection and monitoring of the ISR superconducting low-/beta/ quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichsen, K.N.; Tausch, L.A.; Tortschanoff, T.; Walckiers, L.

    1981-01-01

    The eight superconducting magnets of the high-luminosity insertion, installed in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) were designed intrinsically safe against quenches. To prevent damage to the windings or cryostats, an active interlock system will trip the power supplies in the case of quenches, overheating of current leads or abnormal liquid helium level. Fast quench detectors will dump the ISR beam to prevent uncontrolled losses of protons. To prevent the unnecessary loss of the ISR beams due to a switching off by these interlocks, a computer-controlled monitoring system helps arresting the development of faults on the magnets or cryogenic system. In such a complex magnet system, it is important to analyze every quench and find its reason. In addition to the conventional display of the memorized interlock pattern, a fast quench recorder is employed. It is based on a data-acquisition system controlled by a dedicated minicomputer. 3 refs

  16. Manifold seal structure for fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William P.

    1988-01-01

    The seal between the sides of a fuel cell stack and the gas manifolds is improved by adding a mechanical interlock between the adhesive sealing strip and the abutting surface of the manifolds. The adhesive is a material which can flow to some extent when under compression, and the mechanical interlock is formed providing small openings in the portion of the manifold which abuts the adhesive strip. When the manifolds are pressed against the adhesive strips, the latter will flow into and through the manifold openings to form buttons or ribs which mechanically interlock with the manifolds. These buttons or ribs increase the bond between the manifolds and adhesive, which previously relied solely on the adhesive nature of the adhesive.

  17. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system. 

  18. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system.

  19. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  20. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  1. Modelling of Failure Effect to Integrity of System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interlocking systems are typically resisting against hazardous faults. Failure effect on the system can be determined directly by monitoring the original system installation, by simulation of the system operation using its model, or by computing or theoretical reasoning. The process of system ageing can be described with the help of the random failure time. Essential majorities of computer-based interlocking system elements are electronic elements that are not exposed to mechanical wear. The failure distribution of these elements is assumed to be exponential.   

  2. Model Checking and Model-based Testing in the Railway Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes some approaches and emerging trends for verification and model-based testing of railway control systems. We describe state-of-the-art methods and associated tools for verifying interlocking systems and their configuration data, using bounded model checking and k-induction. ......This chapter describes some approaches and emerging trends for verification and model-based testing of railway control systems. We describe state-of-the-art methods and associated tools for verifying interlocking systems and their configuration data, using bounded model checking and k...

  3. Femur cisim kırıklarının kilitli intramedüller çivi ile tedavisinde tek distal vida kullanımının sonuçları

    OpenAIRE

    Solak, Sukru; Aydin, Erbil; Boysan, Ersan; Kamiloglu, Sinan; Adabag, Cem

    2004-01-01

    The results of a single distal locking screw on 18 femoral fractures, treated with interlocking intramedullary mailing were evaluated. Average follow-up time was one year (range 4 months to 2 years). The average time to healing was 4.5 months (range 3 to 7.5 months). There was no nonunion or implant failure. There were 2 symptomatic screw migrations. We concluded that during the treatment of the femoral fractures with interlocking intramedullary nailing, two distal locking screws are not alwa...

  4. Send for the Cavalry: Political Incentives in the Provision of Agricultural Advisory Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Joughin, James

    2017-01-01

    local politicians, the Ministry of Agriculture, and, increasingly, disgruntled army factions then constituted a strong, interlocking set of further incentives to revert to a recentralised, top-down model dominated by the new, subsidised input, component. Our findings point to how well designed...

  5. Correlation of Traditional Water Quality Parameters with Metal Concentrations in Permeable Pavement Infiltrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot for research and demonstration of three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)] at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Infiltrate samples from e...

  6. Analysis of Instrumentation Selection and Placement to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems and Bioinfiltration Areas at the Edison Environmental Center in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot surfaced with three different permeable pavement types (interlocking concrete pavers, porous concrete, and porous asphalt) and six bioinfiltration areas with three different drainage area to...

  7. Nitrogen Transformations in Three Types of Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, USEPA constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types - permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). The driving lanes...

  8. Antiprotons in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    High-sensitivity electronics for TTl and ring 2 had been developed and installed, the original experimental stochastic cooling systems in the ISR were rebuilt and considerably improved, the split-field magnet (SFM) vacuum chamber was modified, some steering dipoles were designed, made and installed, and finally innumerable interlocks and computer programs were revised for antiproton operation. (orig./HSI)

  9. Vines and canopy contact: a route for snake predation on parrot nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUSAN E. KOENIG; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE; ERNESTO C. ENKERLINHOEFLICH

    2007-01-01

    Ornithologists have hypothesized that some tropical forest birds avoid snake predation by nesting in isolated trees that do not have vines and canopy contact with neighbouring trees. Here we review two complementary studies that support this hypothesis by demonstrating (1) that an abundance of vines and an interlocking canopy characterized Jamaican Black-billed Parrot...

  10. 46 CFR 111.95-7 - Wiring of boat winch components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limit switches, from all sources of potential. Other power circuit switches must be connected in series... parallel and each, in series, with the corresponding clutch interlock switch for that winch. Each clutch... electric installation from all sources of potential. The switch must be in series with and on the supply...

  11. A Report of the Center for Continuing Education, Drake University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Clarence H., Ed.

    With assistance from Title I of the Higher Education Act, a two-day workshop for counselors in Iowa was sponsored by the Center for Continuing Education at Drake University. Proceedings of the workshop, reported in this publication, include four interlocking dimensions: (1) the counselor's role in vocational decision making, (2) the counselor's…

  12. Functional outcome of diaphyseal fractures of femur managed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excellent to good results were seen in. 86.6% cases as per modifi ed Klaus and Klemm criteria. Consclusion: Closed intramedullary interlocking nailing has now become the treatment of choice for closed diaphyseal fractures of femur in adults, especially those with high comminution, long spiral, and segmental fractures.

  13. 78 FR 77787 - Notice of Joint Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION.... The interlocking is controlled by CSX. The Metra dispatcher must communicate with the CSX Blue Island... www.regulations.gov and in person at the U.S. Department of Transportation's Docket Operations...

  14. 12 CFR 563f.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 563f.1 Section... INTERLOCKS § 563f.1 Authority, purpose, and scope. (a) Authority. This part is issued under the provisions of... generally prohibiting a management official from serving two nonaffiliated depository organizations in...

  15. 12 CFR 348.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 348.1 Section... POLICY MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 348.1 Authority, purpose, and scope. (a) Authority. This part is... foster competition by generally prohibiting a management official from serving two nonaffiliated...

  16. 12 CFR 212.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 212.1 Section... MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS § 212.1 Authority, purpose, and scope. (a) Authority. This part is issued... competition by generally prohibiting a management official from serving two nonaffiliated depository...

  17. Guattari's Philosophy of Environment and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this essay I introduce Guattari's philosophy of environment and focus in particular on his ecosophy which comprises three interlocking dimensions of self, society and nature. Guattari argues that integrated world capitalism is concerned more than anything else with the production of human subjectivity. He suggests that ...

  18. Treatment of traumatic conditions of the femur using the Huckstep nail

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagranz illrcstrating the Huckstep nail, the jig and interlocking fiation. Management of Acute Fractures. Surgery was delayed for 3 to 14 days in closed fractures and for 2 to 4 weeks in open fractures. Primary treatment of open fractures consisted of thorough debridement, skeletal traction through the tibia1 tuberosity and ...

  19. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Kakande

    The target arm has a distal jig through which the slot finder is used to locate the hole in the nail for distal locking. It is designed for use with or without image intensifier or C arm6,7. Patients and Methods. This is a prospective descriptive study of gunshot open fractures of lower extremities treated with SIGN interlocking nails ...

  20. Regional Variation in the Microscopy and Tensile Strength of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The linea alba (LA), a midline tendinous structure formed by the interlocking anterior abdominal wall aponeurotic fibers, acts as a passive tensile band that prevents sagging of the lower abdomen. The microstructure and the strength of these fibres would thus be expected to reflect on the forces that act on the linea alba.

  1. W-087 Acceptance test procedure. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation and Mechanical systems function as required by project criteria and to verify proper operation of the integrated system including the interlocks

  2. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we focus on the synthetic strategies developed to construct pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes using Cu(I)/Cu(II) ions as template. Further, brief discussions ... the metal templated synthesis of interlocked molecules. In the absence of a metal template, .... hindering 2,2 -bipyridine derivative (figure 6). An elec- trochemical signal ...

  3. Business, Anthropology, and Magical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2014-01-01

    —encompassing related concepts of alchemy, animism, and enchantmen—is reflected in other business practices, which have developed their own parallel and interlocking systems of magic. Certain forms of capitalism, the—fashion, for example, or finance—may be analysed as a field of magical systems....

  4. Professional Learning Communities and the Diffusion of Pedagogical Innovation in the Chinese Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Tanja Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical innovations have been diffusing unevenly through the Chinese education system as a result of the implementation of the New Curriculum Reforms. Drawing on large-scale linked teacher and principal survey data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, this article investigates the extent to which interlocking teacher networks, which…

  5. 40 CFR 68.73 - Mechanical integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... and sensors, alarms, and interlocks) and, (6) Pumps. (b) Written procedures. The owner or operator... timely manner when necessary means are taken to assure safe operation. (f) Quality assurance. (1) In the...

  6. 78 FR 12307 - Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-5705-001] Taylor, G. Tom; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 14, 2013, G. Tom Taylor filed an application to hold interlocking positions pursuant to section 305(b) of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 825d(b), Part 45 of the...

  7. Mullite/Mo interfaces formed by Intrusion bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolome, Jose F.; Diaz, Marcos; Moya, Jose S.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-04-30

    The microstructure and strength of Mo/mullite interfaces formed by diffusion bonding at 1650 C has been analyzed. Interfacial metal-ceramic interlocking contributes to flexural strength of approx. 140 MPa as measured by 3 point bending. Saturation of mullite with MoO2 does not affect the interfacial strength.

  8. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  9. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  10. Evaluation of Healing Intervals of Incisional Skin Wounds of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the healing intervals among simple interrupted (SI), ford interlocking (FI) and subcuticular (SC) suture patterns in goats. We hypothesized that these common suture patterns used for closure of incisional skin wounds may have effect on the healing interval. To test this hypothesis, two ...

  11. Bondability of ipê (Tabebuia spp.) wood using ambient-curing exterior wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2016-01-01

    Ipê is an extremely difficult species to bond because of its high density, interlocking grain, and high volumetric swelling–shrinkage under prolonged wet conditions. Despite its difficulties, the wood is known to be extremely durable in exterior conditions because of its resistance to microbial and insect degradation. Therefore, investigating its bondability with...

  12. APPRAISING THE CONDITIONS OF UNIVERSAL MORALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hub of our discussion of the conditions of universal morality is predicated upon the fact that the argument that a society's social life can only be measured by the peculiarities of its ... The call for a context-bound conception of morality has lost much of its hold in view of the interlocking network of our contemporary life.

  13. Unleashing the IT Potential in the Complex Digital Business Ecosystem of International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The digital ecosystem for import of goods in international trade is analyzed, in-efficiencies are identified and their possible causes are revealed. The business ecosystem is rather complex and interlocked with many actors and various rules and regulations. It is supported by a digital business...

  14. 14 CFR 399.82 - Passing off of carrier identity by affiliation between carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the other within the meaning of section 408 of the Act; (3) Has any of the interlocking relationships described in section 409 of the Act; (4) Is jointly controlled with the other carrier, directly or..., express, and cargo transportation; airport transportation and hotel accommodations; local advertising and...

  15. Gunshot fractures of tibia and femur - excellent results with reamed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To document the outcome of treatment of femur and tibia diaphyseal fractures due to gunshot injury grafted with reamed bone marrow and immobilised with Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) interlocking nail. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Three referral centres in two developing countries

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salawu, SAI. Vol 6, No 1 (2007) - Articles Emerging indications for lower limb amputation in Abuja, Nigeria Abstract · Vol 9, No 2 (2010) - Articles Interlocked medullary nailing of femoral and tibial shaft fractures at the National Hospital, Abuja: The journey so far. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-4582. AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of sign intramedullary nailing in open tibia and femur fractures at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract · Vol 3, No 2 (2009) - Articles Effectiveness and complications of SIGN intramedullary interlocking nailing in the management of femoral and tibial fractures at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 144 ... Vol 3, No 2 (2009), Effectiveness and complications of SIGN intramedullary interlocking nailing in the management of femoral and tibial fractures at Moi ... Vol 4, No 2 (2010), Factors affecting blood loss during open reduciton and internal fixation (ORIF) of isolated closed femoral fractures at Mulago ...

  19. Using Frozen Barriers for Containment of Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-21

    precast interlocking sheets of steel, precast concrete , aluminum, or wood driven into the soil. The sheet piles are commonly installed to a depth of... impermeable wall. In general, geology and groundwater conditions need to be suitable for artificial ground freezing to be successful (Sanger and Sayles 1979

  20. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  1. Enhanced Locomotion Efficiency of a Bio-inspired Walking Robot using Contact Surfaces with Frictional Anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Petersen, Dennis; Kovalev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    stability. It shows high frictional anisotropy due to an array of sloped denticles. The orientation of the denticles to the underlying collagenous material also strongly influences their mechanical interlocking with the substrate. This study not only opens up a new way of achieving energy-efficient legged...

  2. Outcome of surgical implant generation network nail initiative in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Uganda, was propagated in to Kenya mainly in resource poor hospitals, and has changed long bone fractures' management and outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe applicability of the SIGN initiative in fracture care in a Kenyan hospital. AbstrAct. Background: Closed interlocked intra-medullary nailing (IM), ...

  3. Open Intramedullary Nailing for Segmental Long Bone Fractures: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the gold standard in the care of femoral shaft fractures, with high union ... shaft fractures as compared with open nailing.[19] Other ..... alignment. To achieve these, all except one of our fractures were statically locked using 3 or 4 interlocking screws. Despite the open method of reduction, our overall union rate of 91.7% at ...

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description SYS 93-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process

  5. Green laser photocoagulator for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The system includes various safety and operational features like internal power monitoring system, safety interlock, emergency switch-off, graphical LCD display with table-top touch mode portable control ... and hence diabetic retinopathy is becoming a major health concern [1]. Unfortu- nately, the high cost of imported laser ...

  6. Selected publications related to the experimental facilities of the Advanced Photon Source, 1987--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report contain papers on work related to the experimental facilities of the Advanced Photon Source. The general topics of these papers are: insertion devices; front ends; high heat load x-ray optics; novel optics and techniques; and radiation safety, interlocks, and personnel safety

  7. Status report on the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GVM control mode was found to be about±2 kV. 4. Safety related interlocking in FOTIA. Like any other accelerator, FOTIA also involves various hazards like SF6 leakage, high voltages, radiation, fire and vacuum failures. The low and high energy accelerating tubes. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 59, No. 5, November 2002. 741 ...

  8. Green laser photocoagulator for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Safety and reliability are the biggest concerns for medical equipments and we put special efforts to avoid any hazards while using the system while meeting the safety norms for a medical system. Power, current and temperature interlocks are provided to avoid any unusual performance. Apart from these, an internal power.

  9. Grafting of benzylic amide macrocycles onto acid-terminated self-assembled monolayers studied by XPS, RAIRS, and contact angle measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchet, F; Pilling, M; Hevesi, L; Schergna, S; Wong, JKY; Clarkson, GJ; Leigh, DA; Rudolf, P; Wong, Jenny K.Y.; Clarkson, Guy J.

    2003-01-01

    The grafting of benzylic amide macrocycles, the basic units of more complex mechanically interlocked architectures such as catenanes and rotaxanes, was performed via the functionalization of an acid-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA). Both chemical and

  10. From Chemical Topology to Molecular Machines (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2017-09-04

    To a large extent, the field of "molecular machines" started after several groups were able to prepare, reasonably easily, interlocking ring compounds (named catenanes for compounds consisting of interlocking rings and rotaxanes for rings threaded by molecular filaments or axes). Important families of molecular machines not belonging to the interlocking world were also designed, prepared, and studied but, for most of them, their elaboration was more recent than that of catenanes or rotaxanes. Since the creation of interlocking ring molecules is so important in relation to the molecular machinery area, we will start with this aspect of our work. The second part will naturally be devoted to the dynamic properties of such systems and to the compounds for which motions can be directed in a controlled manner from the outside, that is, molecular machines. We will restrict our discussion to a very limited number of examples which we consider as particularly representative of the field. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cognitive and Social Correlates of Bilinguality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    A discussion of research on the cognitive, personal, and social correlates of bilingualism focuses on those consequences for individuals who are "caused" to become bilingual by their participation in innovative language education programs such as immersion, bilingual immersion, interlocking, or two-way bilingual programs. The purpose of this paper…

  12. Challenging Corruption in Asia : Case Studies and a Framework for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Vinay; Bolongaita, Emil

    2004-01-01

    At the economic level, corruption is seen as a contributing factor to the East Asian financial crisis. The crisis focused people's attention on the staggering impact of corruption, particularly in Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. The interlocking relationship of business and government were previously viewed as part of the way of doing business and practicing politics-a usef...

  13. 12 CFR 212.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... person only if the first person has an agreement, express or implied, to act on behalf of the second...) The term affiliate has the meaning given in section 202 of the Interlocks Act (12 U.S.C. 3201). For... of the area median income. (j) Management official. (1) The term management official means: (i) A...

  14. 12 CFR 711.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... person only if the first person has an agreement, express or implied, to act on behalf of the second...) The term affiliate has the meaning given in section 202 of the Interlocks Act (12 U.S.C. 3201). For... of the area median income. (k) Management official. (1) The term management official means: (i) A...

  15. 12 CFR 348.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agreement, express or implied, to act on behalf of the second person with respect to management...) Affiliate. (1) The term affiliate has the meaning given in section 202 of the Interlocks Act (12 U.S.C. 3201... of the area median income. (j) Management official. (1) The term management official means: (i) A...

  16. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  17. Ghosh, Prof. Pradyut

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 2016 Section: Chemistry. Ghosh, Prof. Pradyut Ph.D. (IIT, Kanpur). Date of birth: 17 February 1970. Specialization: Chemical Sensing of Ions, Anion & Ion Pair Recognition Chemistry, Interlocked Molecular Systems & Self-Assembly Address: Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation ...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1209 - What are the monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... average. (iii) Calculation of rolling averages when the hazardous waste feed is cutoff. (A) Except as... hydrocarbons when the hazardous waste feed is cutoff if the source is operating. You must not resume feeding.... You must interlock the span limits into the automatic waste feed cutoff system required by § 63.1206(c...

  19. Teaching Marketing through a Micro-Economy in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Bridges, Erin; Strelzoff, Andrew; Sulbaran, Tulio

    2011-01-01

    Teaching retailing principles to students is a challenge because although real-world wholesale and retail decision making very heavily depends on dynamic conditions, classroom exercises are limited to abstract discussions and role-playing. This article describes two interlocking class projects taught using the virtual reality of secondlife.com,…

  20. 78 FR 2675 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds of the Clayton Act AGENCY: Federal... for interlocking directorates required by the 1990 amendment of Section 8 of the Clayton Act. Section..., (202) 326-2879. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 19(a)(5). By direction of the Commission. Richard C. Donohue...

  1. 75 FR 3469 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds For Section 8 of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds For Section 8 of the Clayton Act AGENCY... thresholds for interlocking directorates required by the 1990 amendment of Section 8 of the Clayton Act..., (202) 326-2879. Authority: 15 U.S.C. Sec. 19(a)(5)). By direction of the Commission. Donald S. Clark...

  2. 76 FR 4349 - Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 8 of the Clayton Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Revised Jurisdictional Thresholds for Section 8 of the Clayton Act AGENCY... thresholds for interlocking directorates required by the 1990 amendment of Section 8 of the Clayton Act..., (202) 326-2879. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 19(a)(5). By direction of the Commission. Donald S. Clark...

  3. A third note: Helmholtz, Palestrina, and the Early History of Musicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kursell, J.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on Hermann von Helmholtz’s work on Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Helmholtz used his scientific concept of distortion to analyze this music and, reversely, to find corroboration for the concept in his musical analyses. In this, his work interlocked

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 236 - Civil Penalties 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... device that functions as track relay not in its most restrictive state when train, locomotive, or car..., timing relays and timing devices 1,000 2,000 236.110Results of tests 1,000 2,000 Subpart B—Automatic... as track relays and through signal mechanism contacts and time releases at automatic interlocking 1...

  5. Secret Societies, Opaque Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    This paper departs from an interest in the involvement of business leaders in the sphere of politics, in the broad sense. At a general level, we are seeing a proliferation of usages of non-market corporate strategies, such as testimony, lobbying, interlocking of positions and other means to influ...

  6. Simulative Winding of Roll Formed Profile in Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Ormstrup, Casper Alexander; Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    2015-01-01

    In carcass production for flexible pipe systems roll formed profiles are wound around a mandrel forming an interlocking, flexible structure able to withstand collapse from outside water pressure or mechanical crushing. Carcass is often produced in lengths of several kilometres, which implies...

  7. 49 CFR 236.307 - Indication locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards... semaphore type, power-operated home signals, power-operated switches, movable-point frogs and derails, and... track circuits or line circuits so arranged that a single fault will not permit a more favorable aspect...

  8. ATR/OTR-SY Tank Camera Purge System and in Tank Color Video Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-SY tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and 101-SY in tank Color Camera Video Imaging System (CCVIS). Included in the CPRS is the nitrogen purging system safety interlock which shuts down all the color video imaging system electronics within the 101-SY tank vapor space during loss of nitrogen purge pressure

  9. How wood adhesives work and where are the areas for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    Invoking normal adhesion theory, bonding of wood would seem to be easy in that the surface has plenty of roughness for mechanical interlocking with high enough surface energy, there is an abundance of hydroxyl groups on the wood for hydrogen bonding to the adhesives, and the aqueous solvent in the adhesive can readily soak into the wood. In fact most adhesives will...

  10. Properties of pressure sensitive adhesives found in paper recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan F. Verhulst; Steven J. Severtson; Jihui Guo; Carl J. Houtman

    2006-01-01

    Hot melt and water-based adhesives are very different materials with similar physical properties. Their ability to act as adhesives is due to physical bonds and mechanical interlocks which form as adhesive flows into topographical features on the substrate surface. Hot-melt adhesives are based on soft, rubbery polymers while water-based adhesives are usually acrylic...

  11. Procedures manual for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Procedures Manual for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator contains specific information pertaining to operation and safety of the facility. Items such as the interlock system, radiation monitoring, emergency procedures, night shift and weekend operation, and maintenance are discussed in detail

  12. Healing and women healers in Yoruba religion and African Christianity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healing in African indigenous cultures is a corporate matter involving the totality of the person, family and community. Healing presupposes sickness; its practice is therefore interlocked with a people's conception of sickness and diseases. In Africa, sickness is an attestation to the fact that an individual is out of tune with ...

  13. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  14. An indigenously developed electronic control system for Langmuir ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    systems of co-operating molecules, i.e. systems of molecules that interlock and interact like parts of a machine (Peterson 1992). Many efforts are being made to assemble the molecules in a well-ordered way, using a variety of different deposition techniques. (Kuhn et al 1972; Tredgold 1994). The Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) ...

  15. 49 CFR 38.125 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.125 Mobility aid accessibility... shall be at least 600 pounds. Working parts, such as cables, pulleys, and shafts, which can be expected... be interlocked with the car brakes, propulsion system, or door, or shall provide other appropriate...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.125 - Mobility aid accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.125 Mobility aid accessibility. (a)(1) General. All intercity rail... shall be at least 600 pounds. Working parts, such as cables, pulleys, and shafts, which can be expected... be interlocked with the car brakes, propulsion system, or door, or shall provide other appropriate...

  17. Ethnography at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    to a potential client will be preferred over that of a rival firm. The book shows how detailed ethnography can lead to an understanding of numerous different, but interlocking, theoretical issues. It demonstrates how ethnography can travel beyond the academic realm and be used by business personnel to heighten...

  18. Pradyut Ghosh | Speakers | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradyut Ghosh, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, IACS, Kolkata, elected to Fellowship in 2016. His research interests are recognition and chemical sensing of anions, interlocked molecules and self-assembly. He has been awarded the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize in Chemical Sciences (2015), among several others.

  19. Misappropriation of Our Musical Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracyk, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Education and learning occur in various settings, some of which are more formally institutionalized than others. Even if it seems to have failed as a definition of art, awareness of art-world institutions has increased in the wake of George Dickie's proposal that art enmeshes an artifact in a set of interlocking yet informally structured art-world…

  20. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing dogs...

  1. Fracture analysis of concrete gravity dam under earthquake induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    direction of local coordinate is calculated as follows: Figure 6: local axis system. Here, E = elastic modulus; and ν = Poisson's ratio and η = ratio between the softened Young's and = shear modulus; is the shear retention factor representing the extent of aggregate interlock on the crack surfaces. The shear retention factor has ...

  2. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a few instances of the remarkable clarity of focus on the real issues, sometimes bordering on prescience ... believed role attributed to chemical evolu- tion. As the title suggests, the arguments are presented in the ... of interlocking components that can function only in a mutually dependent manner. Armed with our current ...

  3. TT40 Damage during 2004 High Intensity SPS Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    During high intensity extraction on 25/10/04 an incident occurred in which the vacuum chamber of the TT40 magnet QTRF4002 was badly damaged. The beam was a 450 GeV full LHC injection batch of 3.4 1013 p+ in 288 bunches, and was extracted from SPS LSS4 with the wrong trajectory. Prior to the fatal extraction, problems had occurred over several hours during the setting-up, with beam-induced noise causing the extraction septum interlock to trip the power convertor, and also with the bumped beam position interlock. Deficiencies in the extraction setting-up process, in the interlocking and in the operational procedures used for the high-intensity test were contributing factors. In this note the incident causes are identified, the details reconstructed from the logged data, and the damage to the vacuum chamber analysed. The remedial measures which have already been taken are explained, and further recommendations made concerning the interlocking system performance and tests, as well as the operational procedures wh...

  4. Formation of a hydrogen-bonded barbiturate [2]-rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Arnaud; Thornton, Peter J; Rocher, Mathias; Jacquot de Rouville, Henri-Pierre; Desvergne, Jean-Pierre; Kauffmann, Brice; Buffeteau, Thierry; Cavagnat, Dominique; Tucker, James H R; McClenaghan, Nathan D

    2014-03-07

    Interlocked structures containing the classic Hamilton barbiturate binding motif comprising two 2,6-diamidopyridine units are reported for the first time. Stable [2]-rotaxanes can be accessed either through hydrogen-bonded preorganization by a barbiturate thread followed by a Cu(+)-catalyzed "click" stoppering reaction or by a Cu(2+)-mediated Glaser homocoupling reaction.

  5. A unique radiation area monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.C.; Allen, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Remote Area Monitoring Systems (RAMS) monitors four radiation areas with two independent systems in each area. Each system consists of power supplies, four ionization chambers, and four analog and digital circuits. The first system controls the warning beacons, horns, annunciation panel and interlocks. The second system presents a quantitative dose rate indication at the console and in the radiation area

  6. Outcome of the Treatment of Gunshot Open Fractures of the Lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the use 'SIGN' interlocking nailing in gunshot open fractures of the lower limbs. Methods: This is a prospective study of all patients in three tertiary centres in developing countries who had gunshot fractures of lower limbs fixed with SIGN nails from 1st January to 31st ...

  7. The Avu of Alafrika: a narrative on an encounter with musical arts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meki Nzewi, supplemented with interlocking commentary and interpretation by Eric Aseka, Anri Herbst, Mathola Motsekgha and Michael Nixon The Western world is just beginning to accept the concept of the griot and griottesses in West Africa as oral historians. Alex Haley\\'s Roots stimulated this awakening with his saga of ...

  8. Keeping fat on time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ninel Hansen, Stine; Peics, Julia; Gerhart-Hines, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    Circadian clocks harmonize processes ranging from intracellular biochemistry to whole-body physiology in accordance with the Earth's 24h rotation. These intrinsic oscillators are based on an interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loop comprised from a set of core clock factors...

  9. Dutch studies on work and organization : trends in the nineties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Ad H. van der

    2000-01-01

    In corporate governance systems boards perform three functions: the interlocking function (from a resource-dependency and network perspective), a monitoring function (from an agency perspective), and a strategic function (from a strategic choice perspective). In a one-tier board the board of

  10. Sexual Violence through a Social Justice Paradigm: Framing and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luoluo; Marine, Susan B.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore the factors that support the occurrence of sexual violence, including the role of interlocking systems of oppression. Traditional conceptions of "prevention" are deconstructed, a social justice paradigm for addressing sexual violence is advanced, and examples of how the paradigm can be applied to practice are…

  11. Express-Air Screen-System to protect miners against radon exposures at small underground construction sites in old mining; Express-Wetterblenden-System zum Sofort-Schutz von Bergleuten vor Radonexpositionen bei untertaegigen Bergsicherungsarbeiten im Altbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnert, J. [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (Germany). Referat Strahlenschutz; Stopp, J. [Aluminiumbau und Verwaltungs GmbH Stopp, Schneeberg (Germany); Schoenherr, B. [Bergsicherung Schneeberg GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new Express-Air Screen-System (EAS) for miners was developed to reduce the radon exposures of miners at small construction sites of old mining. The EAS is a lightweight, modular and reusable construction kit of interlocking telescopic aluminum tubes, plastic foils and glue foam to shut off radon rich parts of galleries in some minutes only.

  12. The de Bono LAMS Sequence Series: Template Designs as Knowledge-Mobilising Strategy for 21st Century Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the five interlocking de Bono LAMS sequences are introduced as a new form of generic template designs. This transdisciplinary knowledge-mobilising strategy is based on Edward de Bono's attention-directing ideas and thinking skills, commonly known as the CoRT tools. The development of the de Bono LAMS sequence series is an important…

  13. Leaving College Prematurely: The Experiences of Nontraditional-Age College Students With Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Ebanks, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of former nontraditional-age students with depression and reasons that led them to leave college prematurely. Constant comparative methods were used to illuminate themes within and across participants' stories. The findings showcase eight complex interlocking factors that these former students…

  14. Comparing three spaceborne optical sensors via fine scale pixel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User @

    Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA), as opposed to pixel-based image processing, is also emerging as a popular classification method. (Thunig et al., 2011; Tehrany et al., 2013). The process involves segmentation during which the pixels in an image are grouped into homogeneous interlocking regions as ...

  15. 76 FR 2902 - Williams, Barry Lawson; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-2449-005] Williams, Barry Lawson; Notice of Filing January 10, 2011. Take notice that on January 10, 2011, Barry Lawson Williams submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking positions, pursuant to section 305(b...

  16. 75 FR 62530 - Williams, Barry Lawson; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-6409-000] Williams, Barry Lawson; Notice of Filing October 4, 2010. Take notice that on September 24, 2010, Barry Lawson Williams submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking positions, pursuant to [[Page 62531...

  17. On the genetic basis of temperature compensation of circadian clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (Feldman and Hoyle 1973), the molecular mechanisms regulating circadian rhythms began to become clear. The consensus view is that the molecular mechanism underlying circadian rhythms involves two interlocked feedback loops based on transcription-translation controls (Sharma 2003a). Since the identification of ...

  18. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  19. Characteristics of the wood adhesion bonding mechanism using hydroxymethyl resorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Gardner; Charles E. Frazier; Alfred W. Christiansen

    2006-01-01

    A recent collaborative effort among the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory, Virginia Tech, and the University of Maine has explored the possible bonding mechanisms contributing to durable wood adhesive bonding using hydroxymethyl resorcinol (HMR) surface treatment. Current adhesive bonding mechanisms include: mechanical interlocking, electronic or electrostatic theory,...

  20. 78 FR 65639 - Notice of Filing; Wyrsch, Martha B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Filing; Wyrsch, Martha B. Take notice that on October 25, 2013, Martha B. Wyrsch submitted for filing, an application for authority to hold interlocking positions, pursuant to section 305(b) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 825d(b) and Part 45 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules...