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Sample records for interleukin-2 receptor sil-2r

  1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in scleroderma skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Deleuran, Mette; Heickendorff, Lene

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were present in scleroderma skin, and to compare their levels to concentrations measured in plasma and clinical parameters, we examined suction blister fluid and plasma...... from 13 patients with systemic sclerosis and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and biopsies were from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin. The levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both plasma and suction blister fluid from...

  2. Changes of serum IL-1 and sIL-2R levels after intravenous photo-coagulation in patients with varicose greater saphenous vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Gu Ying; Liu Fanguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes of serum interleukin 2 (IL-2) and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels in patients with varicose greater saphenous vein after intravenous photocoagulation. Methods: Fifty patients with varicose greater saphenous vein were divided into two groups (mild and severe) according to their clinical symptoms. Serum IL-2 and sIL-2R levels were determined with RIA and ELISA respectively in these patients and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-2 and sIL-2R in patients of the mild group were about the same as those in the controls. In patients of the severe group, levels of IL-2 decreased and levels of sIL-2R increased significantly. After photocoagulation, the IL-2 levels dropped at first but gradually rose; the reverse was true for the sIL-2R levels. The final levels of IL-2 and sIL-2R approached those before treatment in the mild group. In the severe group, the final IL-2 levels were higher and sIL-2R levels lower than those before photocoagulation. Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2 and sIL-2R levels revealed information about the immune status of the patients and could be applied for judgement of the treatment effect

  3. [Soluble interleukin 2 receptor as activity parameter in serum of systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, C; Zillikens, D; Tony, H P; Hartmann, A A; Burg, G

    1993-05-01

    The evaluation of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is important for selection of the appropriate therapeutic regimen. In addition to the clinical picture, various laboratory parameters are taken into account. However, no validated criteria for the evaluation of the disease activity in SLE have yet been established. Recently, serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) have been proposed as a potential parameter for disease activity in SLE. However, the studies reported on this subject so far have focused mainly on certain subsets of the disease, and the evaluation of the disease activity was based on a very limited number of parameters. In the present study, we determined serum levels of sIL-2R in 23 patients with SLE and 30 patients with discoid LE (DLE). Evaluation of disease activity in SLE was based on a comprehensive scale which considered numerous clinical signs and laboratory parameters. In SLE, serum levels of sIL-2R showed a better correlation with disease activity than all the other parameters investigated, including proteinuria, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum globulin concentration, titre of antibodies against double-stranded DNA, serum albumin concentration, serum complement levels and white blood cell count. For the first time, we report on elevated serum levels of sIL-2R in DLE, which also correlated with disease activity.

  4. Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohamad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Increased serum levels of certain immunologic markers including immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-melanocyte/ vitiligo antibodies (V-IgG) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are associated with augmented humoral and cellular immunity involved in melanocyte cytotoxicity during the active phase of non-segmental vitiligo. Recent reports have shown that, aspirin possesses a wide range of immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of long-term treatment of vitiligo patients with low-dose oral aspirin on serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration. The present study was carried out at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Eighteen female and 14 male patients with a recent onset of non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups. One group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the second group received only placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration were determined before and at the end of treatment period. The V-IgG activity was measured using cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following incubation of IgG antibodies with an adult cultured melanocytes. Serum sIL-2R concentration was measured using the highly sensitive quantitative sandwich ELISA utilizing a commercially available kit. As expected, the serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration of the active vitiligo patients (0.81 +/- 0.23 optical density (O.D.), 1428 +/- 510 pg/ml) were significantly increased compared with that of controls (0.27 +/- 0.1 O.D., 846 +/- 312 pg/ml; p<0.05, p<0.01). Aspirin-treated vitiligo patients showed significant decrease in serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration (0.32 +/- 0.08 O.D., 756 +/- 216 pg/ml) compared with that of placebo-treated patients (0.83 +/- 0.19 O.D., 1327 +/- 392 pg/ml; p<0.01). Low-dose oral aspirin treatment of

  5. Study on the changes of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (SIL-2R) levels and distribution pattern of peripheral blood T-cell subsets after treatment in pediatric patients with Bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the significance of changes of serum SIL-2R levels and T-cell subsets distribution type after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum SIL-2R levels (with ELISA) and peripheral blood T-cell subset distribution pattern (with monoclonal antibody technique) were determined in 33 pediatric patients with broncho-pneumonia and 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum SIL-2R levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (P 0.05). Serum SIL-2R levels were positively correlated with CD4/CD8 ratio. Conclusion: Detection of serum SIL-2R levels and CD4/CD8 ratio is clinically useful in the management of pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. (authors)

  6. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronks, Dirk L.; Dik, Willem A.; Schreurs, Marco W. J.

    2017-01-01

    The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml) versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml), p CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (89.5%). Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS. PMID:28634419

  7. Elevated Plasma Levels of sIL-2R in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Pathogenic Role for T-Lymphocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D. Bharwani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has long been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, not much is known about the role of the immune system and specifically T-cells in the onset and maintenance of this disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate T-cell activity in CRPS by comparing blood soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R levels between CRPS patients and healthy controls. CRPS patients had statistically significant elevated levels of sIL-2R as compared to healthy controls (median sIL-2R levels: 4151 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1 = 5731 pg/ml − 3546 pg/ml versus 1907 pg/ml (Q3 − Q1: 2206 pg/ml − 1374 pg/ml, p<0.001, resp.. Furthermore, sIL-2R level seems to be a good discriminator between CRPS patients and healthy controls with a high sensitivity (90% and specificity (89.5%. Our finding indicates increased T-cell activity in patients with CRPS. This finding is of considerable relevance as it could point towards a T-cell-mediated inflammatory process in this disease. This could pave the way for new anti-inflammatory therapies in the treatment of CRPS. Furthermore, sIL-2R could be a promising new marker for determining inflammatory disease activity in CRPS.

  8. Clinical significance of the changes of serum levels of the rheumatoid activity markers IL-2, sIL-2R, HA and VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yong; Long Wubin; Yu Ke; Zeng Ying; Liu Deying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between rheumatoid activity and serum levels of the cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), hyaluronic acid (HA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum IL-2, HA(with RIA) and sIL-2R, VEGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 30 controls, 30 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission. Sensitivity and specificity for each marker were analyzed. Results: In patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, the serum levels of sIL-2R, HA, VEGF were significantly higher and serum levels of IL-2 significantly lower than those in patients in remission and controls (p<0.01). Determination of VEGF levels possessed the highest specificity (93.3%) and also a high sensitivity (93.3% as well). Conclusion: Determination of the serum levels of any of these markers was valuable for monitoring the activity of the rheumatoid process. It is more desirable to take measurements of VEGF levels due to its highest specificity

  9. Clinical significance of the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and VEGF levels in pediatric patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Dongliang; Wu Chunfeng; Jiang Huanhao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum IL-2, soluble IL-2 receptor (SIL-2R) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in pediatric patients with tuberculosis. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R, VEGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 68 pediatric patients with tuberculosis (30 active and 38 non- active) and 30 controls. Results: In the patients with active tuberculosis, the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and SIL-2R, VEGF levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and VEGF levels was useful for monitoring the activity of tuberculosis in pediatric patients. (authors)

  10. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  11. Clinical significance of determination of serum IGF-I and SIL-2R levels in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zaigao; Lv Yuliang; Li Jiacheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of serum IGF-I and SIL-2R levels in patients with prostatic cancer. Methods: Serum IGF-I levels (with RIA) and SIL-2R levels (with ELISA) were measured in 31 patients with prostatic cancer and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of IGF-I and SIL-2R in the 31 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), serum IGF-I and SIL-2R levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.6182, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-I and SIL-2R were useful markers for prostatic cancer. (authors)

  12. Structure-function relationships for the interleukin 2 receptor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Robb

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptors for interleukin 2 (IL-2 esit in at least three forms which differ in their subunit compositio, their affinity for ligand and their ability to mediate a cellular reponse. Type I receptors occur following cellular acitivation and consist of the 55,000 m. w. glycoprotein Tac. These receptors bind IL-2 with a low affinity, do not internalize ligand and have not been definitively associated with any response. Type II receptors, on the other hand, conssit of one or more glycoproteins of 70,000 m. w. which have been termed "beta ([beta] chains." They bind IL-2 with an intermediate affinity and rapidly internalize the ligand. [Beta] proteins mediate many cellular IL-2-dependent reponses, including the short-term activation of natural killer cells and the induction of Tac protein expression. Type III receptors consist of a ternary complex of the Tac protein, the [beta] chain(s and IL-2. They are characterized by a paricularly high affinity for ligand association. Type III receptors also internalize ligand and mediate IL-2-dependent responses at low factor concentrations. The identification of two independent IL-2-binding molecules, Tac and [beta], thus provides the elusive molecular explanation for the differences in IL-2 receptor affinity and suggests the potential for selective therapeutic manipulation of IL-2 reponses.

  13. Clinical significance of changes of serum levels of SIL-2R and CEA in patients with lung cancer after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Zhilian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of SIL-2R and CEA after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum levels of SIL-2R (with ELISA) and CEA (with RIA) were measured in 31 patients with lung cancer both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 cantrols. Results: Before chemotherapy, both serum SIL-2R and CEA levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05), but the serum SIL-2R levels in the patients remained significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum SIL-2R and CEA levels after chemotherapy might be helpful for predicting the treatment outcomes in patients with lung cancer. (author)

  14. The clinical significance of T-cells, sIL-2R and TNF in evaluating patients with splenic autotransplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haowei; Wu Haorong; Li Juncheng; Wu Jingchang

    2002-01-01

    To study the immunological effects of splenic autotransplantation, forty patients with splenic trauma were divided into two groups equally. One group underwent splenic autotransplantation and another underwent splenectomy. Control group included ten cases. Splenic autotransplantation and splenectomy group were compared with the control group. In the group of splenic autotransplantation, CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , CD4 + /CD8 + dropped and sIL-2R, TNF rose after a week of operation. Then CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , CD4 + /CD8 + rose and sIL-2R, TNF dropped three months later. In the group of splenectomy, CD 3+ , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + dropped persistently, while sIL-2R and TNF rose postoperatively. Result showed splenic autotransplantation can help body to maintain T-cells level and improve the anti-infective ability

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xuefeng; Li Linlin; Shao Jun; Yao Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-2 and TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were determined in 42 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Development of endometriosis were closely related to the serum levels of IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α. (authors)

  16. β-Adrenergic receptor-mediated suppression of interleukin 2 receptors in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, R.D.; Hunninghake, G.W.; McArdle, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adrenergic receptor agonists are know to attenuate the proliferative response of human lymphocytes after activation; however, their mechanism of action is unknown. Since expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors is a prerequisite for proliferation, the effect of β-adrenergic receptor agonists on lymphocyte IL-2 receptors was studied on both mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes and IL-2-dependent T lymphocyte cell lines. In both cell types the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol blocked the expression of IL-2 receptors, as determined with the IL-2 receptor anti-TAC antibody. To determine the effect of β-adrenergic agonists on expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptors, [ 125 I]IL-2 binding studies were performed at concentrations selective for high affinity sites. No significant effect of β-adrenergic agonists on high affinity IL-2 receptor sites could be detected. The data demonstrate that β-adrenergic receptor agonists down-regulate IL-2 receptors primarily affecting low affinity sites

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels in patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zongxian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To detect the changes of serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels in the 33 patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: Serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels were determined with RIA and SIL-2R levels with ELISA in 33 lung cancer patients both before and after chemotherapy (n=28) as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). After chemotherapy, in 20 cases without recurrence at 6 months, the levels were much lower but still significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.05 ). However, in the 8 patients with recurrence, the levels increased again to approaching those before chemotherapy. Conclusion: Serum levels of NSE, SIL-2R and TNF might be useful for diagnosis and predicting therapeutic effects after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Men; Duo Huanzhi; Luo Guorong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in 36 patients with lung carcinoma. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 36 patients with lung carcinoma both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=20) had their IL-2 and SIL-2R levels returned to normal but in those with recurrences (n=12) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patient as well as the progress of disease and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yue

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after treatment in 31 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls ( P 0.05). Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patients as well as the progress of diseases and could be of prognostic values. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum FT3, FT4 and SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: Serum FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 55 patients with hyperthyroidism both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2 levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum FT 3 , FT 4 , SIL-2R levels is valuable for treatment outcome prediction in patients with hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  1. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α contents and T-cell subgroup distribution type in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Xudong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α contents and T-cell subgroup distribution type in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Serum IL-2 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA, SIL-2R levels was measured with ELISA and T-cell subgroup distribution type was detected with monoclonal antibody in 40 patients with psoriasis and 35 controls. Results: The serum IL-2 levels and CD 4 /CD 8 values were significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum SIL-2R, TNF-α levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α contents and T-cell subgroup distribution type is clinically useful for understanding the disturbances of immuno-modulation in these patients. (authors)

  2. Study on the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R levels in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxiu; Shi Shaohong; Wang Yuping; Xie Xueqin; Qin Jibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic values of combined determination of serum CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R levels in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum CA125, CA199 were measured with RIA and SIL-2R levels with ELISA in 54 patients with endometriosis and 35 controls. Results: The serum levels of CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R in patients with endometriosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The sensitivity and speciality of CA125 for endometriosis was 70.2% and 80.4% respectively, the sensitivity and speciality of CA199 for endometriosis was 62.4% and 71.8% respectively, the sensitivity and speciality of SIL-2R was 89.5% and 60.2% respectively. The sensitivity of the combined determination of CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R for endometriosis was 86.8% being significantly higher than that of CA125 and CA199 respectively. Conclusion: Combined determination of the serum CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R levels in serum can increase the diagnostic sensitivity for endometriosis. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurements of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Both before and one year after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels, were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01), one year after treatment, the patients without recurrence (n=31) had their serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels returned to normal, but in patients with recurrences (n=8) the levels were about the same as those before treatment. Conclusion: Serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α lends were closely related to the diseases process and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of measurements of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels after chemotherapy in patients with ovary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after chemotherapy in 34 patients with ovary cancer. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 34 patients with ovary cancers both before and 6 months after chemotherapy as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=21) had their IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels returned to normal, but in those with recurrences (n=10) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patients as well as the progress of diseases and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  5. Agonistic effects of a monoclonal antibody specific for the interleukin-2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eardley, D.D.; Makrides, V.

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) mediated immune responses can be blocked by monoclonal antibodies to the IL-2 receptor. The monoclonal antibody, M720, is defined as specific for the IL-2 receptor because it blocks 35 S-IL-2 binding to Con A blasts, reacts with lymphoblasts but not resting splenocytes, and inhibits IL-2 induced proliferation to mitogen, antigen, or allogeneic stimuli. Under appropriate culture conditions, the IL-2 receptor-specific antibody can act like IL-2 in that it will induce proliferation in T cells in the absence of additional antigen or mitogen. This agonistic effect is dependent on time, dose of antibody, and requires fetal calf serum (FCS) in the media. Because the FCS is not mitogenic by itself, the authors propose that the FCS components act as incomplete mitogen to induce appearance of IL-2 receptors but lack a factor which would push the majority of the cells into the S phase of the cell cycle. This factor is usually IL-2, but in the authors experiments, the IL-2 receptor-specific antibody can provide the same stimulus. These data indicate that factors like FCS can induce IL-2 receptors, but without additional IL-2 or receptor triggering, the cells will not proceed through the synthetic and proliferative phases of cell growth

  6. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Makoto; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Zheng-Sheng, Yao; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Masako N.; Sakahara, Harumi; Imada, Kazunori; Okuma, Minoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111 In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  7. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Han

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between progress of the disease and the changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Methods: Serum TGF-β(with RIA) and IL-2, sIL-2R(with ELISA) levels were determined in 30 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy both before and after six months' treatment with prednisonlone as well as in 30 controls. Results: The serum IL-2 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After treatment, the levels dropped markedly, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum IL-2, sIL-2R and TGF-β levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy might be helpful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  8. Decreased plasma levels of factor II + VII + X correlate with increased levels of soluble cytokine receptors in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Hansen, M B; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    The levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X and of blood platelets (thrombocytes) as well as of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors were studied in the patients with malaria or meningococcal infections. The coagulation factors were decreased particularly in the meningococcal patients, while...... thrombocytes were lowest in the Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients. There was no correlation between factors II + VII + X and thrombocytes, but plasma levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X were found to correlate inversely with levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble tumour...... necrosis factor-I (sTNF-RI) in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections. Elevated sIL-2R and sTNF-RI levels and decreased coagulation factors reverted to normal within 3-5 days after initiation of therapy in P. falciparum patients followed consecutively. Estimation of coagulation factors may...

  9. Generation of Affibody ligands binding interleukin-2 receptor alpha/CD25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönwall, Caroline; Snelders, Eveline; Palm, Anna Jarelöv; Eriksson, Fredrik; Herne, Nina; Ståhl, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Affibody molecules specific for human IL-2Ralpha, the IL-2 (interleukin-2) receptor alpha subunit, also known as CD25, were selected by phage-display technology from a combinatorial protein library based on the 58-residue Protein A-derived Z domain. The IL-2R system plays a major role in T-cell activation and the regulation of cellular immune responses. Moreover, CD25 has been found to be overexpressed in organ rejections, a number of autoimmune diseases and T-cell malignancies. The phage-display selection using Fc-fused target protein generated 16 unique Affibody molecules targeting CD25. The two most promising binders were characterized in more detail using biosensor analysis and demonstrated strong and selective binding to CD25. Kinetic biosensor analysis revealed that the two monomeric Affibody molecules bound to CD25 with apparent affinities of 130 and 240 nM respectively. The Affibody molecules were, on biosensor analysis, found to compete for the same binding site as the natural ligand IL-2 and the IL-2 blocking monoclonal antibody 2A3. Hence the Affibody molecules were assumed to have an overlapping binding site with IL-2 and antibodies targeting the IL-2 blocking Tac epitope (for example, the monoclonal antibodies Daclizumab and Basiliximab, both of which have been approved for therapeutic use). Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometric analysis of CD25-expressing cells demonstrated that the selected Affibody molecules bound to CD4+ CD25+ PMBCs (peripheral-blood mononuclear cells), the IL-2-dependent cell line NK92 and phytohaemagglutinin-activated PMBCs. The potential use of the CD25-binding Affibody molecules as targeting agents for medical imaging and for therapeutic applications is discussed.

  10. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delclos, G.L.; Flitcraft, D.G.; Brousseau, K.P.; Windsor, N.T.; Nelson, D.L.; Wilson, R.K.; Lawrence, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67 Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels, B lymphocyte count and T subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuntao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels B lymphocytes count and T lyonphocyte subsets distribation type after treatment in patients with vitiligo. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA), SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels, B lymphocytes count and T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were examined in 40 patients with vitiligo both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum SIL-2R, TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2, CD3, CD4 levels CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower(P<0.01). After treatment for 6 months, the data were greatly corrected but remanied significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Vitiligo is a kind of auto-immune diseases with abnormal immuno-regulation. (authors)

  12. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels, B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangcai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R level, peripheral blood B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum IL-2 ( with RIA), SIL-2R level (with ELISA) and peripheral blood B lymphocytes number as well as T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy serum SIL-2R level and B lymphocyte were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2 level, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were significantly lower (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy the levels changed markedly toward normal, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal immuno-regulation were present in patients with malignant mole. (authors)

  13. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies—basiliximab and daclizumab—for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Sageshima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Junichiro Sageshima, Gaetano Ciancio, Linda Chen, George W Burke IIIDewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, The Lillian Jean Kaplan Renal Transplant Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antibody induction after kidney transplantation has increased from 25% to 63% in the past decade and roughly one half of the induction agent used is anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA, ie, basiliximab or daclizumab. When combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression, IL-2RAs have been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection, one of the predictors of poor graft survival, without increasing risks of infections and malignancies in kidney transplantation. For low-immunological-risk patients, IL-2RAs, as compared with lymphocyte-depleting antibodies, are equally efficacious and have better safety profiles. For high-risk patients, however, IL-2RAs may be inferior to lymphocyte-depleting antibodies for the prophylaxis of acute rejection. In an effort to reduce toxicities of other immunosuppressive medications without increasing the risk of acute rejection and chronic graft loss, IL-2RAs have often been combined with steroid- and CNI-sparing immunosuppression protocols. More data support the benefits of early steroid withdrawal with IL-2RA in low-risk patients, but preferred induction therapy for high-risk patients has yet to be determined. Although CNI-sparing protocols with IL-2RA may preserve renal function and improve long-term survival in selected patients, further studies are needed to identify those who benefit most from this strategy.Keywords: basiliximab, daclizumab, interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, kidney transplantation, monoclonal antibody

  14. Interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its soluble receptor in autoimmune Addison's disease--an association study and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichna, Marta; Żurawek, Magdalena; Bratland, Eirik; Husebye, Eystein S; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Czarnocka, Barbara; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) results from T cell-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex, commonly accompanied by autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase (21OH). In order to gain insight into the obscure aetiology of this disease, we investigated the roles of the IL2 and IL2RA genes, encoding interleukin-2 and subunit alpha of its receptor (IL2Ra), respectively. The association of AAD with IL2 and IL2RA polymorphisms (rs6822844, rs2069762, rs3136534, rs11594656, rs3118470 and rs2104286) was tested in 223 patients and 672 healthy controls. Functional studies consisted of gene expression analysis in cultured PBMCs exposed to 21OH and evaluation of serum interleukin by ELISA assays. The frequency of the minor C allele of rs3136534 was significantly decreased in AAD subjects compared to controls (OR 0.71; 95%CI 0.561-0.887; p = 0.003). Only AAD cells responded to 21OH with an elevated IL2 and IL2RA mRNA synthesis (p = 0.004 and p = 0.009 versus controls, respectively), paralleled by increased supernatant levels of both cytokines (p = 0.031 and p = 0.001 versus controls). IL2 mRNA level in 21OH-stimulated AAD PBMCs correlated negatively with age (p = 0.036) and positively with serum antibodies to 21OH (p = 0.006). Carriers of the rs2104286 AA genotype demonstrated higher IL2RA mRNA (p = 0.022) and soluble IL2Ra secretion (p = 0.029) upon 21OH stimulation. Serum interleukin-2 in AAD subjects was significantly higher compared to controls (4.61 ± 4.3 versus 1.71 ± 3.2 pg/mL, p < 0.001), whereas sIL2Ra levels remained similar in both groups (p = 0.885). In conclusion, the study reveals an association between AAD and IL2 locus. It confirms specific 21OH-directed reactivity of the peripheral AAD lymphocytes, which display increased synthesis of interleukin-2 and sIL2Ra.

  15. HIV-1, HTLV-I and the interleukin-2 receptor: insights into transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnlein, E; Lowenthal, J W; Wano, Y; Franza, B R; Ballard, D W; Greene, W C

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we present direct evidence for the binding of the inducible cellular protein, HIVEN86A, to a 12-bp element present in the IL-2R alpha promoter. This element shares significant sequence similarity with the NF-kappa B binding sites present in the HIV-1 and kappa immunoglobulin enhancers. Transient transfection studies indicate that this kappa B element is both necessary and sufficient to confer tax or mitogen inducibility to a heterologous promoter. As summarized schematically in Fig. 5, the findings suggest that the HIVEN86A protein may play a central role in the activation of cellular genes required for T-cell growth, specifically the IL-2R alpha gene. In addition, the induced HIVEN86A protein also binds to a similar sequence present in the HIV-1 LTR leading to enhanced viral gene expression and ultimately T-cell death. Thus, mitogen activation of the HIV-1 LTR appears to involve the same inducible transcription factor(s) that normally regulates IL-2R alpha gene expression and T-cell growth. These findings further underscore the importance of the state of T-cell activation in the regulation of HIV-1 replication. Our results also demonstrate that HIVEN86A is induced by the tax protein of HTLV-I. Thus, in HTLV-I infected cells, normally the tight control of the transient expression of the IL-2R alpha gene is lost. The constitutive high-level display of IL-2 receptors may play a role in leukemic transformation mediated by HTLV-I (ATL). Apparently by the same mechanism, the tax protein also activates the HIV-1 LTR through the induction of HIVEN86A.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigens and interleukin-2 beta receptor molecules on mitogen- and antigen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, J; Dobbelaere, D; Griffin, J F; Buchan, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) and proliferating cell nuclear antigens (PCNA) were compared for their usefulness as markers of lymphocyte activation. Heterologous polyclonal (anti-bovine IL-2R) and monoclonal (anti-human PCNA) antibodies were used to detect the expression of these molecules on activated deer lymphocytes. Both molecules were co-expressed on blast cells which had been activated with mitogen [concanavalin A (Con A)]. There was detectable up-regulation of IL-2R expression in response to antigen [Mycobacterium bovis-derived purified protein derivative (PPD)] stimulation while PCNA expression mimicked lymphocyte transformation (LT) reactivity. PCNA expression was found to more accurately reflect both antigen- and mitogen-activated lymphocyte activation, as estimated by LT activity. The expression of PCNA was used to identify antigen reactive cells from animals exposed to M. bovis. A very low percentage (1.1 +/- 0.4%) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from non-infected animals could be stimulated to express PCNA by in vitro culture with antigen (PPD). Within the infected group both diseased and healthy, 'in-contact', animals expressed significantly higher levels of PCNA upon antigen stimulation. PMID:8104884

  17. Identification of alternatively spliced isoforms of interleukin-2/15 receptor β chain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Kim, Woo H; Yeo, Jaeseung; Fernandez, Cherry P; Kim, Suk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2014-12-15

    Interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15 receptor β (IL-2/15Rβ, CD122) play important roles in signal transduction for biological functions of IL-2 and IL-15. We found that ducks possess three different IL-2/15Rβ transcripts, a conventional form (duIL-2/15Rβ) and two variants. Comparisons between the cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the two variants, duIL-2/15Rβ-d7 and duIL-2/15Rβ-d9, were novel spliced transcripts resulting from skipping exons 7 and 9, respectively. Expression profiles of duIL-2/15Rβ and its isoforms were examined in healthy tissues, concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and in livers and spleens of Riemerella anatipestifer-infected ducks using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Generally, duIL-2/15Rβ-d9 expression was undetectable in healthy tissues, ConA-activated samples, and R. anatipestifer-infected ducks. Expression levels of duIL-2/15Rβ transcript were relatively high to moderate in all healthy tissues tested, while duIL-2/15Rβ-d7 expression was low. Compared to untreated controls, expression levels of duIL-2/15Rβ were elevated in ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes and in livers on day 7 in R. anatipestifer-infected ducks, while duIL-2/15Rβ-d7 expression was unchanged. Additionally, COS-7 cells transfected with duIL-2/15Rβ, duIL-2/15Rβ-d7, or duIL-2/15Rβ-d9 constructs generated 73 kilodalton (kDa), 31kDa, and 40kDa proteins, respectively. This study identified three different IL-2/15Rβ transcripts, including two isoforms generated by alternative splicing and their gene expression patterns in stimulated conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of Tac antigen component of bovine interleukin-2 receptor in different leukocyte populations infected with Theileria parva or Theileria annulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbelaere, D A; Prospero, T D; Roditi, I J; Kelke, C; Baumann, I; Eichhorn, M; Williams, R O; Ahmed, J S; Baldwin, C L; Clevers, H

    1990-01-01

    The Tac antigen component of the bovine interleukin-2 receptor was expressed as a Cro-beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used to raise antibodies in rabbits. These antibodies were used for flow cytofluorimetric analysis to investigate the expression of Tac antigen in a variety of Theileria parva-infected cell lines and also in three Theileria annulata-infected cell lines. Cells expressing Tac antigen on their surface were found in all T. parva-infected cell lines tested whether these were of T- or B-cell origin. T cells expressing Tac antigen could be CD4- CD8-, CD4+ CD8-, CD4- CD8+, or CD4+ CD8+. Tac antigen expression was observed both in cultures which had been maintained in the laboratory for several years and in transformed cell lines which had recently been established by infection of lymphocytes in vitro with T. parva. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrated Tac antigen transcripts in RNA isolated from all T. parva-infected cell lines. Three T. annulata-infected cell lines which were not of T-cell origin were also tested. Two of them expressed Tac antigen on their surface. Abundant Tac antigen mRNA was detected in these T. annulata-infected cell lines, but only trace amounts were demonstrated in the third cell line, which contained very few Tac antigen-expressing cells. In all cell lines tested, whether cloned or uncloned, a proportion of the cells did not express detectable levels of Tac antigen on their surface. This was also the case for a number of other leukocyte surface markers. In addition, we showed that the interleukin-2 receptors were biologically functional, because addition of recombinant interleukin-2 to cultures stimulated cell proliferation. Recombinant interleukin-2 treatment also resulted in increased amounts of steady-state Tac antigen mRNA. The relevance of interleukin-2 receptor expression on Theileria-infected cells is discussed. Images PMID:1979317

  19. Experimental treatment of the transplanted hepatoma in rabbit by hepatic arterial embolization using interleukin-2 dextran microsphere and iodized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiaohua; Wang Songzhang; Jin Deqin; Tang Ying; Ding Jinya; Feng Gansheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the degree of necrosis in the transplanted hepatic tumor and the changes in immunity of the rabbits after hepatic arterial embolization using interleukin-2 (IL-2) dextran microsphere and iodized oil. Methods: IL-2 dextran microsphere and iodized oil were infused into hepatic artery of 20 rabbits with transplanted hepatic tumor. Infusion of dextran microspheres and iodized oil were taken in another transplanted hepatic tumor group of rabbits as the control. The blood samples were acquired pre-and post-embolization to measure the changes of IL-2 and sIL-2R in both groups. The rabbits were killed one week after the performance to get tumor tissue for pathologic examination. The comparison between using IL-2 dextran microsphere and dextran microsphere was made through optic and electronic microscopy for pathologic analysis. Results: Obvious increase of IL-2 and apparent decrease of sIL-2R in blood were demonstrated after the performance. The transplanted tumors mass underwent complete necrosis with false membranous capsule formation. In controlled group, slight increase of IL-2 and slight decrease of sIL-2R in blood were shown with partial central necrosis without false membraneous capsule formation of the transplanted tumor. Conclusions: The afficacy of the group IL-2 dextran microsphere was superior to group of arterial infusion of dextran microsphere in outcoming with tumor necrosis and strengthening the immunity of the rabbits. (authors)

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis

  1. Biodistribution of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody in rat recipients of a heart allograft, and its use as a rejection marker in gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thedrez, P.; Paineau, J.; Jacques, Y.; Chatal, J.F.; Pelegrin, A.; Bouchaud, C.; Soulillou, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies have been shown to prevent allograft rejection. This paper reports on the biodistribution of a mouse MoAb directed at the 55 Kd alpha chain of rat interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) during allograft rejection. Only a low percentage (approximately 1%) of intact 125I-labeled MoAb was detected in the rejected graft, and irrelevant control IgG1 was found at a similar level. This suggests that most of the injected intact MoAb bound to graft tissue via its monomorphic Fc segment. In contrast, OX39 F(ab')2 fragments showed a preferential localization in the rejected allograft and did not bind to the LEW-to-LEW syngeneic heart graft. Irrelevant F(ab')2 did not concentrate in the allogeneic graft. Accordingly, F(ab')2 fragments from OX39 or irrelevant MoAb were used for gamma-scintigraphy on allograft recipients together with biodistribution studies. Results show that scintigraphy was able to detect allograft accumulation of 131I OX39 F(ab')2, whereas no imaging was obtained when OX39 F(ab')2 was used in the syngeneic combination or when irrelevant 131-IgG1 F(ab')2 was given to allograft recipients. This method, applied to the clinical situation, could be of interest for detection of early graft rejection episodes by immunoscintigraphy using reagents specific for activation determinants on lymphocyte membranes, such as anti-interleukin-2 receptor MoAb

  2. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  3. Modeling the receptor pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of NKTR-214, a kinetically-controlled interleukin-2 (IL2 receptor agonist for cancer immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Charych

    Full Text Available Cytokines are potent immune modulating agents but are not ideal medicines in their natural form due to their short half-life and pleiotropic systemic effects. NKTR-214 is a clinical-stage biologic that comprises interleukin-2 (IL2 protein bound by multiple releasable polyethylene glycol (PEG chains. In this highly PEG-bound form, the IL2 is inactive; therefore, NKTR-214 is a biologic prodrug. When administered in vivo, the PEG chains slowly release, creating a cascade of increasingly active IL2 protein conjugates bound by fewer PEG chains. The 1-PEG-IL2 and 2-PEG-IL2 species derived from NKTR-214 are the most active conjugated-IL2 species. Free-IL2 protein is undetectable in vivo as it is eliminated faster than formed. The PEG chains on NKTR-214 are located at the region of IL2 that contacts the alpha (α subunit of the heterotrimeric IL2 receptor complex, IL2Rαβγ, reducing its ability to bind and activate the heterotrimer. The IL2Rαβγ complex is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs. Therefore, without the use of mutations, PEGylation reduces the affinity for IL2Rαβγ to a greater extent than for IL2Rβγ, the receptor complex predominant on CD8 T cells. NKTR-214 treatment in vivo favors activation of CD8 T cells over Tregs in the tumor microenvironment to provide anti-tumor efficacy in multiple syngeneic models. Mechanistic modeling based on in vitro and in vivo kinetic data provides insight into the mechanism of NKTR-214 pharmacology. The model reveals that conjugated-IL2 protein derived from NKTR-214 occupy IL-2Rβγ to a greater extent compared to free-IL2 protein. The model accurately describes the sustained in vivo signaling observed after a single dose of NKTR-214 and explains how the properties of NKTR-214 impart a unique kinetically-controlled immunological mechanism of action.

  4. Modeling the receptor pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of NKTR-214, a kinetically-controlled interleukin-2 (IL2) receptor agonist for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charych, Deborah; Khalili, Samira; Dixit, Vidula; Kirk, Peter; Chang, Thomas; Langowski, John; Rubas, Werner; Doberstein, Stephen K; Eldon, Michael; Hoch, Ute; Zalevsky, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines are potent immune modulating agents but are not ideal medicines in their natural form due to their short half-life and pleiotropic systemic effects. NKTR-214 is a clinical-stage biologic that comprises interleukin-2 (IL2) protein bound by multiple releasable polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. In this highly PEG-bound form, the IL2 is inactive; therefore, NKTR-214 is a biologic prodrug. When administered in vivo, the PEG chains slowly release, creating a cascade of increasingly active IL2 protein conjugates bound by fewer PEG chains. The 1-PEG-IL2 and 2-PEG-IL2 species derived from NKTR-214 are the most active conjugated-IL2 species. Free-IL2 protein is undetectable in vivo as it is eliminated faster than formed. The PEG chains on NKTR-214 are located at the region of IL2 that contacts the alpha (α) subunit of the heterotrimeric IL2 receptor complex, IL2Rαβγ, reducing its ability to bind and activate the heterotrimer. The IL2Rαβγ complex is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, without the use of mutations, PEGylation reduces the affinity for IL2Rαβγ to a greater extent than for IL2Rβγ, the receptor complex predominant on CD8 T cells. NKTR-214 treatment in vivo favors activation of CD8 T cells over Tregs in the tumor microenvironment to provide anti-tumor efficacy in multiple syngeneic models. Mechanistic modeling based on in vitro and in vivo kinetic data provides insight into the mechanism of NKTR-214 pharmacology. The model reveals that conjugated-IL2 protein derived from NKTR-214 occupy IL-2Rβγ to a greater extent compared to free-IL2 protein. The model accurately describes the sustained in vivo signaling observed after a single dose of NKTR-214 and explains how the properties of NKTR-214 impart a unique kinetically-controlled immunological mechanism of action.

  5. Interleukin-2 and its receptor complex (α, β and γ chains) in in situ and infiltrative human breast cancer: an immunohistochemical comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Tuñnón, Ignacio; Ricote, Mónica; Ruiz, Antonio; Fraile, Benito; Paniagua, Ricardo; Royuela, Mar

    2004-01-01

    The presence and distribution of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor complex (Rα, Rβ, Rγ) were studied in 52 women who were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with breast tumours (17 in situ and 35 infiltrating), and in 13 women with benign fibrocystic lesions in the breast. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against IL-2, IL-2Rα, IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ was used. A comparative semiquantitative immunohistochemical study between the three breast groups (fibrocystic lesions, in situ tumours and infiltrating tumours) was performed. IL-2 and its three receptor chains were immunodetected in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The three receptor chains were also detected on the cell surface. In fibrocystic lesions, immunoreactions to IL-2 (38.5% of cases), IL-2Rα (53.8%) and IL-2Rβ (30.8%) were very weak, whereas immunoreaction to IL-2Rγ (46.1%) was somewhat more intense. In in situ tumours, the percentages of cases that immunostained positively for IL-2 and its three receptor chains were similar to those observed in fibrocystic lesions, but immunostainings of the four antibodies were more intense. In infiltrative tumours, the percentages of positively stained cases and also immunostaining intensities were approximately twice that found for in situ tumours. Within infiltrating tumours, the percentage of cases showing immunoreaction to IL-2 and their three receptor chains was higher in the patients with lymph node infiltration at the time of surgery. The development of breast tumour is associated with an increased expression of IL-2 and its three receptor chains, and this expression also seems to be associated with the malignancy of the tumour

  6. Biotinylation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) for flow cytometric analysis of IL-2 receptor expression. Comparison of different methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. de Jong (Marg); H. Rozemuller (Henk); J.G.J. Bauman (J. G J); J.W.M. Visser (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe main prerequisites for the use of biotinylated ligands to study the expression of growth factor receptors on heterogeneous cell populations, such as peripheral blood or bone marrow, by flow cytometric methods, are that the biotinylated ligand retains its binding ability and that

  7. Antigen-specific murine T cell clones produce soluble interleukin 2 receptor on stimulation with specific antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.K.; York-Jolley, J.; Malek, T.R.; Berzofsky, J.A.; Nelson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies were used to the murine IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) termed 3C7 and 7D4, which bind to different epitopes on the murine IL 2R, to develop an ELISA to measure soluble murine IL 2R. Surprisingly, stimulated murine spleen cells not only expressed cell-associated IL 2R, but also produced a considerable level of cellfree IL 2R in the culture supernatant fluid. To assess the fine specificity of this response, myoglobin-immune murine T cell clones were stimulated with appropriate or inappropriate antigen and syngeneic or allogeneic presenting cells. Proliferation, measured by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation, and levels of soluble IL 2R were determined at day 4. The production of soluble IL2R displayed the same epitope fine specificity, genetic restriction, and antigen dose-response as the proliferative response. Indeed, in some cases there was sharper discrimination of epitope specificity and genetic restriction with the soluble IL 2R levels. There was also reproducible clone-to-clone variation in the amount of soluble receptor produced in response to antigen among 12 T cell clones and lines tested. In time course experiments, proliferation was greatest at day 3, whereas soluble IL 2R levels continued to rise in subsequent days. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of release of secretion of soluble IL 2R by murine T cells, and the first demonstration of the fine specificity and genetic restriction of the induction of soluble IL 2R by specific antigen

  8. Interleukin 2 (IL 2) up-regulates its own receptor on a subset of human unprimed peripheral blood lymphocytes and triggers their proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harel-Bellan, A.; Bertoglio, J.; Quillet, A.; Marchiol, C.; Wakasugi, H.; Mishall, Z.; Fradelizi, D.

    1986-01-01

    Several reports indicate that human peripheral blood lymphoctyes (PBL) seeded in culture with purified or recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2) immediately after separation from the blood display a substantial level of proliferation at day 5 or 6, even in the absence of any activating signal. The spontaneously IL 2 proliferating cells are large lymphocytes, and they co-purify on a Percoll gradient in the large granular lymphocytes (third (LGL) fraction) together with the natural killer (NK) activity. When LGL were separated into NKH1 (an NK-specific surface marker)-positive and NKH1-negative cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), proliferating cells were mainly found in the NKH1-negative fraction. On the contrary, when cells from Percoll fraction 3 were separated into OKT3-negative and positive cells, the majority of the proliferating cells was found in the OKT3-positive cells. These results indicate that spontaneously IL 2 proliferating (SIP) cells most probably belong to the T cell lineage, but are distinct from NK cells. Additional analysis of Il 2 receptor induced in culture with IL 2 was performed by [ 125 I]anti-TAC binding and by [ 3 H]Il 2 binding. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]IL 2 binding, in the range of concentrations leading to the detection of high-affinity binding sites, showed an affinity constant similar to that of conventional phytohemagglutinin blasts. The results indicate that SIP cells are preactivated cells circulating in the blood. They are large cells and represent a very small proportion of circulating lymphocytes (0.3%). They express a subliminar amount of IL 2 receptor. Cultivated in the presence of IL 2, IL 2 receptor expression is enhanced to a detectable level, and the SIP cells begin to proliferate. These SIP cells could be activated T cells in the course of a current immune response or memory T cells present in every normal individual

  9. The flame retardants tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether suppress the induction of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in murine splenocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, Sabine; Boecker, Ronald; Tiegs, Gisa

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated flame retardants (PBF) are frequently used additives in electronical equipment. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which bioaccumulate with several health effects for humans and the environment. This study investigated immunotoxic effects of the PBF tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP A), tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether (TBBP A-AE), tetrabromobisphenol A-bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl-ether) (TBBP A-PE), decabromodiphenylether (DBDE), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) in vitro. The structurally related polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) and dioxins mediate their immunotoxicity via the Ah-receptor gene complex. A highly relevant function of the Ah receptor, the induction of CYP 1A1 in hepatocytes of C57BL/6 mice by the established inducers 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and PCB77 was compared to the effect of PBF by measurement of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. The PBF did not show any induction of CYP 1A1, while EROD activity of hepatocytes exposed to MC and PCB77 was induced 10.8- and 8.7-fold, respectively. To investigate immunotoxic effects of the flame retardants, splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice were incubated with subtoxic doses of the flame retardants and PCB77 and activated by concanavalin A (Con A). The flame retardants TBBP A and TBBP A-AE significantly inhibited the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in contrast to TBBP A-PE, DBDE, TBP, and PCB77 as shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis by laser scanning cytometry. None of the substances had any effect on the Con A-induced production of cytokines. Hence, TBBP A and TBBP A-AE may act as immunotoxic compounds by specifically inhibiting the expression of CD25

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: association with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul Friedrich; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Hermann; Lusuardi, Lukas; Riedl, Claus R

    2015-04-01

    This study prospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a possible association of these conditions with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IV. The study included 139 consecutive patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and transvesical enucleation of the prostate (n = 82) or radical prostatectomy (n = 57). To characterize inflammatory changes the criteria proposed by Irani et al. [J Urol 1997;157:1301-3] were used. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was studied by a standard immunohistochemical method. Results were correlated with tumour, node, metastasis stage, Gleason scores, total prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score and body mass index. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in neoplastic prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue of prostate cancer patients (p Prostate cancer patients with prostatitis showed significantly higher IL-2R expression than those without inflammation (p prostatitis than in those without (p prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Patients with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV showed significantly greater activity.

  11. Late acute humoral rejection in low-risk renal transplant recipients induced with an interleukin-2 receptor antagonist and maintained with standard therapy: preliminary communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J; Contreras, L; Zehnder, C; Pinto, V; Elberg, M; Araneda, S; Herzog, C; Calabran, L; Aguiló, J; Ferrario, M; Buckel, E; Fierro, J A

    2011-01-01

    Low-risk renal transplant recipients treated with standard immunosuppressive therapy including interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) antagonist show a low incidence of early rejection episodes but few reports have examined the incidence and severity of late rejection processes. This study evaluated retrospectively cellular and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) among 42 recipients selected because they showed low panel-reactive-antibodies, short cold ischemia time, no delayed graft function, and therapy including basiliximab (Simulect) induction. The mean observation time was 6.6 years. Sixty-seven percent of donors were deceased. Ten-year patient and death-censored graft survivals were 81% and 78%, respectively. Seven patients lost their kidneys due to nonimmunologic events. The seven recipients who experienced cellular rejection episodes during the first posttransplant year had them reversed with steroids. Five patients displayed late acute AMR causing functional deterioration in four cases including 1 graft loss. De novo sensitization occurred in 48% of recipients including patients without clinical rejection. In conclusion, long-term follow-up of kidney transplant recipients selected by a low immunologic risk showed a persistent risk of de novo sensitization evolving to acute AMR in 11% of cases. Although immunologic events were related to late immunosuppressive reduction, most graft losses were due to nonimmunologic factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    We have examined signaling roles for CD54 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II as contact ligands during T help for B cell activation. We used a T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent helper system that was previously shown to be contact as well as interleukin 2 (IL-2......) dependent to demonstrate the relative roles of CD54, MHC II, and CD40 signaling in the events leading to the induction of B cell proliferation and responsiveness to IL-2. Paraformaldehyde-fixed activated Th1-induced expression of IL-2R alpha, IL-2R beta, and B7, and upregulated MHC II and CD54 on B cells...... resulted in the upregulated expression of MHC II and of CD54 and B7, respectively, analogous to the effect of fixed activated Th1 cells. B7 expression was further enhanced by co-cross-linking CD54 and MHC II. Cross-linking of CD40 achieved comparable effects. Strikingly, cross-linking ligation of CD54...

  13. Interleukin-2 Therapy of Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, 3-4 (2004), s. 120-130 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : interleukin 2 * cancer therapy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  14. The insulin receptor substrate-1-related 4PS substrate but not the interleukin-2R gamma chain is involved in interleukin-13-mediated signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Michieli, P; Lie, W R; Liu, F; Lee, C C; Minty, A; Sun, X J; Levine, A; White, M F; Pierce, J H

    1995-12-01

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) induced a potent mitogenic response in IL-3-dependent TF-1 cells and DNA synthesis to a lesser extent in MO7E and FDC-P1 cells. IL-13 stimulation of these lines, like IL-4 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of a 170-kD substrate. The tyrosine-phosphorylated 170-kD substrate strongly associated with the 85-kD subunit of phosphoinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase and with Grb-2. Anti-4PS serum readily detected the 170-kD substrate in lysates from both TF-1 and FDC-P1 cells stimulated with IL-13 or IL-4. These data provide evidence that IL-13 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the 4PS substrate, providing an essential interface between the IL-13 receptor and signaling molecules containing SH2 domains. IL-13 and IL-4 stimulation of murine L cell fibroblasts, which endogenously express the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R alpha) and lack expression of the IL-2 receptor gamma subunit (IL-2R gamma), resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/4PS. Enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1/4PS was observed in response to IL-4, but not IL-13 treatment of L cells transfected with the IL-2R gamma chain. These results indicate that IL-13 does not use the IL-2R gamma subunit in its receptor complex and that expression of IL-2R gamma enhances, but is not absolutely required for mediating IL-4-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1/4PS.

  15. Interleukins 2, 4, 7, and 15 stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 in T cells. Potential role of JAK kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J A; Wang, L M; Hanson, E P; Sun, X J; White, M F; Oakes, S A; Pierce, J H; O'Shea, J J

    1995-12-01

    The signaling molecules insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and the newly described IRS-2 (4PS) molecule are major insulin and interleukin 4 (IL-4)-dependent phosphoproteins. We report here that IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15, as well as IL-4, rapidly stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in human peripheral blood T cells, NK cells, and in lymphoid cell lines. In addition, we show that the Janus kinases, JAK1 and JAK3, associate with IRS-1 and IRS-2 in T cells. Coexpression studies demonstrate that these kinases can tyrosine-phosphorylate IRS-2, suggesting a possible mechanism by which cytokine receptors may induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. We further demonstrate that the p85 subunit of phosphoinositol 3-kinase associates with IRS-1 in response to IL-2 and IL-4 in T cells. Therefore, these data indicate that IRS-1 and IRS-2 may have important roles in T lymphocyte activation not only in response to IL-4, but also in response to IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15.

  16. Low interleukin-2 concentration favors generation of early memory T cells over effector phenotypes during chimeric antigen receptor T-cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, Tanja; Luostarinen, Annu; Maliniemi, Pilvi; Keto, Joni; Arvas, Mikko; Belt, Heini; Koponen, Jonna; Loskog, Angelica; Mustjoki, Satu; Porkka, Kimmo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Korhonen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy offers new options for cancer treatment. Clinical results suggest that T-cell persistence, depending on T-cell memory, improves efficacy. The use of interleukin (IL)-2 for in vitro T-cell expansion is not straightforward because it drives effector T-cell differentiation but does not promote the formation of T-cell memory. We have developed a cost-effective expansion protocol for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an early memory phenotype. Lymphocytes were transduced with third-generation lentiviral vectors and expanded using CD3/CD28 microbeads. The effects of altering the IL-2 supplementation (0-300 IU/mL) and length of expansion (10-20 days) on the phenotype of the T-cell products were analyzed. High IL-2 levels led to a decrease in overall generation of early memory T cells by both decreasing central memory T cells and augmenting effectors. T memory stem cells (T SCM , CD95 + CD45RO - CD45RA + CD27 + ) were present variably during T-cell expansion. However, their presence was not IL-2 dependent but was linked to expansion kinetics. CD19-CAR T cells generated in these conditions displayed in vitro antileukemic activity. In summary, production of CAR T cells without any cytokine supplementation yielded the highest proportion of early memory T cells, provided a 10-fold cell expansion and the cells were functionally potent. The number of early memory T cells in a T-cell preparation can be increased by simply reducing the amount of IL-2 and limiting the length of T-cell expansion, providing cells with potentially higher in vivo performance. These findings are significant for robust and cost-effective T-cell manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase 1 trial of ALT-801, an interleukin-2/T cell receptor fusion protein targeting p53 (aa264-272)/HLA-A*0201 complex, in patients with advanced malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Mayer N.; Thompson, John A.; Pennock, Gregory K.; Gonzalez, Rene; Diez, Luz M.; Daud, Adil I.; Weber, Jeffery S.; Huang, Bee Y.; Tang, Shamay; Rhode, Peter R.; Wong, Hing C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose ALT-801 is a bifunctional fusion protein comprising interleukin-2 (IL-2) linked to a soluble, single-chain T cell receptor domain that recognizes a peptide epitope (aa264-272) of the human p53 antigen displayed on cancer cells in the context of HLA-A*0201 (p53+/HLA-A*0201). We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ALT-801 in p53+/HLA-A*0201 patients with metastatic malignancies. Experimental Design p53+/HLA-A*0201 patients were treated with ALT-801 on a schedule of 4 daily 15-minute intravenous infusions, then 10 days rest and 4 more daily infusions. Cohorts of patients were treated at 0.015, 0.040, and 0.080 mg/kg/dose. Results Four, sixteen, and six patients were treated at the 0.015, 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg cohorts, respectively. Two dose limiting toxicities (a grade 4 transient thrombocytopenia and a myocardial infarction) in the 0.08 mg/kg cohort established the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) at 0.04 mg/kg. Patients treated at the MTD experienced toxicities similar to those associated with high-dose IL-2 but of lesser severity. The serum half-life of ALT-801 was 4 hours and ALT-801 serum recovery was as expected based on the dose administered. ALT-801 treatment induced an increase of serum interferon-γ but not tumor necrosis factor-α. Response assessment showed 10 subjects with stable disease at at least 11 weeks, and in one who had melanoma metastasis, there is an ongoing complete absence of identifiable disease after resection of radiographically identified lesions. Conclusion This first-in-man study defines an ALT-801 regimen that can be administered safely and is associated with immunological changes of potential antitumor relevance. PMID:21994418

  18. Interleukin-2 baseret immunterapi af kraeftsygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; Hermann, Helle Graun; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is produced by activated T-helper lymphocytes and stimulates both the antigen-specific and the non-specific immune defence. In vitro, IL-2 activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (LAK-cells) can lyse a broad spectrum of both NK-sensitive and NK-resistant tumour cell lines and IL...

  19. Concentraciones séricas de interleucina 2 y su receptor soluble, antes y después de una cirugía Serum concentrations of interleukin 2 and its soluble receptor, before and after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczy González Rincón

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar las concentraciones séricas de interleucina 2 (IL-2 y su receptor soluble (RsIL-2 antes y después de una cirugía y su relación en cada período de estudio, se determinó, mediante inmunoensayo enzimático, los niveles de IL-2 y RsIL-2 antes y 24 horas después de la cirugía en 40 pacientes sometidos a cirugía menor y cirugía mayor. En cirugía menor se obtuvieron niveles promedio para IL-2 de 0,938 y 0,139 U/mL, para RsIL-2 de 364,8 y 497 pg/mL; mientras que en cirugía mayor los valores fueron: para IL-2 de 2,03 y 0,114 U/mL y RsIL-2 de 319,7 y 600 pg/mL, en cada período respectivamente. La disminución observada de los niveles de IL-2 y el incremento del RsIL-2 en cirugía mayor y menor podría sugerir una alteración de la respuesta inmunitaria celular, generada no sólo por el estrés quirúrgico, sino posiblemente por el efecto reconocido de los anestésicos en la depresión de la función óptima del sistema inmunitario

  20. [Infectious complications during treatments with interleukin-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morère, J F; Darras, C; Boaziz, C; Mihaila, L; Breau, J L; Scavizzi, M; Israël, L

    1993-03-13

    Between January 1989 and May 1991, 97 patients were treated with interleukin 2 in the Oncology Department of the Avicenne Hospital (Bobigny, France). IL 2 was given over 5 days by continuous infusion through an implantable port. Ten patients (4 males, 6 females), mean age 46 years (36-67) with various cancers (breast 3, kidney 1, melanoma 1, colorectal 5), developed infection: 4 local infections around the port, 1 phlebitis, 4 septicemias, 1 bacteremia were observed. In 9 cases blood cultures were positive: Staphylococcus aureus 5, Staphylococcus epidermidis 3, Streptococcus G 1. In 5 cases the same pathogen was isolated from the port and from the blood. The mean leucocyte count was 10,627/mm3 at the time of infection. The delay between the beginning of interleukin 2 treatment and the infection was 3 months. The mean dose of IL 2 administered before infection was 456 million IU. In all cases infection was controlled without lethal complication by antibiotics and catheter removal. This high incidence (8 percent) of staphylococcal infection is partly due to the skin toxicity of IL 2 and to depressed neutrophil chemotactic response. Prophylactic antibiotics are warranted during IL 2 intravenous therapy.

  1. N-(4-F-18-Fluorobenzoyl)Interleukin-2 for PET of Human-Activated T Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; De Vries, Erik F. J.

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) binds with high affinity to the IL2 receptors overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes in various pathologic conditions. Radiolabeling of IL2 with a positron-emitting isotope could provide a tool for noninvasive PET of activated T cells in immune-mediated diseases. We report the

  2. Bach2 represses the AP-1-driven induction of interleukin-2 gene transcription in CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Eunkyeong; Lee, Hye Rim; Lee, Geon Hee; Oh, Ah-Reum; Cha, Ji-Young; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Youn, Jeehee

    2017-01-01

    The transcription repressor Bach2 has been proposed as a regulator of T cell quiescence, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Given the importance of interleukin-2 in T cell activation, we investigated whether Bach2 is a component of the network of factors that regulates interleukin-2 expression. In primary and transformed CD4+ T cells, Bach2 overexpression counteracted T cell receptor/CD28- or PMA/ionomycin-driven induction of interleukin-2 expression, and silencing of Bach2...

  3. Recombinant human interleukin 2 acts as a B cell growth and differentiation promoting factor

    OpenAIRE

    Emmrich, F.; Moll, Heidrun; Simon, Markus M.

    2009-01-01

    Human B cells appropriately activated by a B cell mitogen are rendered susceptible to human Interleukin 2 (IL-2) as demonstrated with recombinant human IL-2 (rec. h IL-2). They show increased proliferation and drastically enhanced immunoglobulin secretion. Susceptibility to IL-2 is accompanied with the expression of the IL-2 receptor (Tac antigen) on B cells. The data suggest that IL-2 is one of the lymphokines directly involved in the activation of B lymphocytes.

  4. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrams, D.; Lévy, Y.; Losso, M. H.; Babiker, A.; Collins, G.; Cooper, D. A.; Darbyshire, J.; Emery, S.; Fox, L.; Gordin, F.; Lane, H. C.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mitsuyasu, R.; Neaton, J. D.; Phillips, A.; Routy, J. P.; Tambussi, G.; Wentworth, D.; Aagaard, B.; Aragon, E.; Arnaiz, J.; Borup, L.; Clotet, B.; Dragsted, U.; Fau, A.; Gey, D.; Grarup, J.; Hengge, U.; Herrero, P.; Jansson, P.; Jensen, B.; Jensen, K.; Juncher, H.; Lopez, P.; Lundgren, J.; Matthews, C.; Mollerup, D.; Pearson, M.; Reilev, S.; Tillmann, K.; Varea, S.; Angus, B.; Cordwell, B.; Dodds, W.; Fleck, S.; Grijsen, M.; Lange, J.; Langebeek, N.; Reiss, P.; van der Horst, C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known. METHODS: We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human

  5. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either...

  6. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H; Babiker, A; Collins, G; Cooper, D A; Darbyshire, J; Emery, S; Fox, L; Gordin, F; Lane, H C; Lundgren, J D; Mitsuyasu, R; Neaton, J D; Phillips, A; Routy, J P; Tambussi, G; Wentworth, D

    2009-10-15

    Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known. We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either 50 to 299 per cubic millimeter (SILCAAT) or 300 or more per cubic millimeter (ESPRIT) were randomly assigned to receive interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy or antiretroviral therapy alone. The interleukin-2 regimen consisted of cycles of 5 consecutive days each, administered at 8-week intervals. The SILCAAT study involved six cycles and a dose of 4.5 million IU of interleukin-2 twice daily; ESPRIT involved three cycles and a dose of 7.5 million IU twice daily. Additional cycles were recommended to maintain the CD4+ cell count above predefined target levels. The primary end point of both studies was opportunistic disease or death from any cause. In the SILCAAT study, 1695 patients (849 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 846 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 202 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled; in ESPRIT, 4111 patients (2071 receiving interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and 2040 receiving antiretroviral therapy alone) who had a median CD4+ cell count of 457 cells per cubic millimeter were enrolled. Over a median follow-up period of 7 to 8 years, the CD4+ cell count was higher in the interleukin-2 group than in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy alone--by 53 and 159 cells per cubic millimeter, on average, in the SILCAAT study and ESPRIT, respectively. Hazard ratios for opportunistic disease or death from

  7. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yao-Chung Liu; Ming-Hung Hu; Yuan-Hao Yang; Jyh-Pyng Gau; Jin-Hwang Liu

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2). This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. T...

  8. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2. This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. The 3rd course of immunochemotherapy was complicated with a thyroid storm manifested by high fever, tachycardia and even transient cardiac arrest. Fortunately, he recovered eventually from this crisis by immediate resuscitation followed by antithyroid dugs. Our case highlights the rare complication of a thyroid storm provoked by IL-2 treatment. Precaution against autoimmune thyroid dysfunction is required during treatment with IL-2 and probably also other kinds of newly-developed immunotherapy to avoid life-threatening complications.

  9. Association of -330 interleukin-2 gene polymorphism with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Gupta, Rajni; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Jain, Amita; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-12-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the development of cancer. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes have been reported to be associated with the development and severity of inflammatory diseases and cancer predisposition. This study was undertaken to evaluate a possible association of interleukin 2 (IL-2) (- 330A>C) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to oral cancer. The SNP in IL-2 (-330A>C) gene was genotyped in 300 oral cancer patients and in similar number of healthy volunteers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and the association of the gene with the disease was evaluated. IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphism was significantly associated with oral cancer whereas it was neither associated with clinicopathological status nor with cancer pain. The AC heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with oral cancer patients as compared to controls [odds ratio (OR): 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 2.14-4.20; Poral cancer (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.39-2.33; PC) gene polymorphism was also associated with oral cancer in tobacco smokers and chewers. Our results showed that oral cancer patients had significantly higher frequency of AA genotype but significantly lower frequency of AC genotype and C allele compared to controls. The IL-2 AC genotype and C allele of IL-2 (-330A>C) gene polymorphisms could be potential protective factors and might reduce the risk of oral cancer in Indian population.

  10. The Role of High Dose Interleukin-2 in the Era of Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gills, Jessie; Parker, William P; Pate, Scott; Niu, Sida; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Mirza, Moben; Holzbeierlein, Jeffery M; Lee, Eugene K

    2017-09-01

    We assessed survival outcomes following high dose interleukin-2 in a contemporary cohort of patients during the era of targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with high dose interleukin-2 between July 2007 and September 2014. Clinicopathological data were abstracted and patient response to therapy was based on RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors), version 1.1 criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free and overall survival in the entire cohort, the response to high dose interleukin-2 in regard to previous targeted agent therapy and the response to the targeted agent in relation to the response to high dose interleukin-2. We identified 92 patients, of whom 87 had documentation of a response to high dose interleukin-2. Median overall survival was 34.4 months from the initiation of high dose interleukin-2 therapy in the entire cohort. Patients who received targeted therapy before high dose interleukin-2 had overall survival (median 34.4 and 30.0 months, p = 0.88) and progression-free survival (median 1.5 and 1.7 months, p = 0.8) similar to those in patients who received no prior therapy, respectively. Additionally, patients with a complete or partial response to high dose interleukin-2 had similar outcomes for subsequent targeted agents compared to patients whose best response was stable or progressive disease (median overall survival 30.1 vs 25.4 months, p = 0.4). Our data demonstrate that patient responses to high dose interleukin-2 and to targeted agents before and after receiving high dose interleukin-2 are independent. As such, carefully selected patients should be offered high dose interleukin-2 for the possibility of a complete and durable response without the fear of limiting the treatment benefit of targeted agents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New approach for in vivo detection of insulitis in type I diabetes: activated lymphocyte targeting with [sup 123]I-labelled interleukin 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, S.; Chianelli, M.; Ferretti, E.; Toscano, A.; Britton, K.E.; Andreani, D.; Gale, E.A.M.; Pozzilli, P. (Clinical Medica II, Univ. of Rome (Italy))

    1994-10-01

    Insulitis is considered the histopathological hallmark of type I diabetes. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, diabetes has never been observed in the absence of insulitis. The in vivo detection of insulitis could be of relevance for early prediction of diabetes. As approximately 15% of islet-infiltrating lymphocytes express interleukin 2 receptors, the authors have labelled recombinant inter-leukin 2 with [sup 123]I and used this radiopharmaceutical to detect insulitis by gamma camera imaging. The authors studied 71 prediabetic NOD and 27 normal Balb/c mice. Labelled [alpha]-lactalbumin was used as the control protein. In the first set of experiments the tissue distribution of radiolabelled interleukin 2 in isolated organs from animals sacrificed at different time points was studied. Higher radioactivity was detected in the pancreas of NOD mice injected with labelled interleukin 2, as compared to NOD mice receiving labelled [alpha]-lactalbumin. In another set of experiments, gamma camera images have been acquired after injection of [sup 123]I-labelled interleukin 2. Radioactivity in the pancreatic region of prediabetic NOD and Balb/c mice showed similar kinetics to those observed by single organ counting, with higher accumulation in the pancreatic region of NOD mice. Finally, a positive correlation was found between the radioactivity in the pancreas and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration. This study demonstrates that [sup 123]I-labelled interleukin 2 administered intravenously accumulates specifically in the inflamed pancreas of diabetes-prone NOD mice, suggesting its potential application in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. New approach for in vivo detection of insulitis in type I diabetes: activated lymphocyte targeting with 123I-labelled interleukin 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, S.; Chianelli, M.; Ferretti, E.; Toscano, A.; Britton, K.E.; Andreani, D.; Gale, E.A.M.; Pozzilli, P.

    1994-01-01

    Insulitis is considered the histopathological hallmark of type I diabetes. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, diabetes has never been observed in the absence of insulitis. The in vivo detection of insulitis could be of relevance for early prediction of diabetes. As approximately 15% of islet-infiltrating lymphocytes express interleukin 2 receptors, the authors have labelled recombinant inter-leukin 2 with 123 I and used this radiopharmaceutical to detect insulitis by gamma camera imaging. The authors studied 71 prediabetic NOD and 27 normal Balb/c mice. Labelled α-lactalbumin was used as the control protein. In the first set of experiments the tissue distribution of radiolabelled interleukin 2 in isolated organs from animals sacrificed at different time points was studied. Higher radioactivity was detected in the pancreas of NOD mice injected with labelled interleukin 2, as compared to NOD mice receiving labelled α-lactalbumin. In another set of experiments, gamma camera images have been acquired after injection of 123 I-labelled interleukin 2. Radioactivity in the pancreatic region of prediabetic NOD and Balb/c mice showed similar kinetics to those observed by single organ counting, with higher accumulation in the pancreatic region of NOD mice. Finally, a positive correlation was found between the radioactivity in the pancreas and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration. This study demonstrates that 123 I-labelled interleukin 2 administered intravenously accumulates specifically in the inflamed pancreas of diabetes-prone NOD mice, suggesting its potential application in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Interleukin-2 activation of cytotoxic cells in postmastectomy seroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercel-Taylor, C; Hoffman, J P; Taylor, D D; Owens, K J; Eisenberg, B L

    1996-02-15

    Lymphocytes were isolated from breast seroma fluids and used to study the mechanism of activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and possible role of immunological potentiation following surgery in breast cancer patients. Single or serial samples were obtained from patients who had undergone mastectomy or lumpectomy with axillary node dissection. Lymphocytes were activated with rIL-2 (interleukin-2) and their cytotoxic activity was studied against Daudi and K562 cells and against a breast tumor line (SKBr-3). All of the patients (21/21) responded to IL-2 stimulation by significant activation of cytotoxic activity. The unstimulated cytotoxic activity of these cells against NK targets was low with less than 10% specific release in cytotoxicity assays. In simultaneous experiments, autologous seroma fluid was included during activation of lymphocytes to study possible regulatory molecules that may be present. In 17/21 patients, the presence of their seroma fluid, during the activation period, enhanced or did not effect the cytotoxic potential of their lymphocytes; inhibition was observed when seroma fluids from 4/21 patients were included. Analysis of the cytotoxic population derived from combined IL-2 and seroma treatments indicates the presence of cells with increased expression of CD56, and CD2, as well as in some cases CD16 expression. Cytotoxic lymphocytes derived from IL-2 and seroma treatments appeared to be more effective killers. Modulation of CD2 expression with seroma alone appeared to result in the generation of this highly cytotoxic population. This study demonstrates the role of CD2 expression in the effectiveness of LAK cell killing and also potential benefit of an immunotherapeutic approach to the postoperative treatment of carcinoma of the breast.

  14. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2) a...... effect. Changes in renal prostaglandin synthesis may contribute to the decrease in renal blood flow. The lithium clearance data suggest that an increased proximal tubular reabsorption rate may contribute to the decreased sodium clearance during recombinant interleukin-2 treatment....

  15. Interleukin-2 production by human leukemia cell lines of pre-B cell origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holan, V.; Minowada, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cells of 7 tested human leukemia cell lines of pre-B cell origin (as characterized by immunophenotyping and by the expression of cytoplasmic micro chains, but not by surface immunoglobulins) produced after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) a lymphokine activity which supported the growth of the interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent CTLL-2 cell line. Three pieces of evidence indicate that the secreted lymphokine was functionally and antigenically very similar, if not identical, to human IL-2: (1) The lymphokine supported the growth of murine IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells, which did not respond to human lymphokines other than IL-2, but it did not stimulate the growth of murine IL-3-dependent FDC-P2 cells, (2) the biological activity of the lymphokine was was inhibited by monoclonal antibody (mAb) anti-human-IL-2, and (3) the proliferation of IL-2-dependent cells in the presence of the active materials was completely inhibited by the inclusion of the anti-mouse-IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) mAb. Since leukemia cells of immature B-cell origin also synthesize IL-2R, the human pre-B cell leukemias could represent another type of hematological malignancy where the autocrine processes of IL-2 production and utilization are involved in the expansion of the disease. (author)

  16. The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J.

    1989-01-01

    The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A) + RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed

  17. Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and cleavage of interleukin-2 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Kharazmi, A; Pedersen, B K

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (AP) and elastase (ELA) on human lymphocyte function. AP at 50 micrograms/ml and ELA at 12 micrograms/ml caused a 50% inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation. There was no difference...... in the effect of proteases on CD4- and CD8-positive cells. To determine the effect of proteases on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced cell proliferation, the proteases and IL-2 were added to the IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell line. AP and ELA inhibited the proliferation of these cells. When IL-2 was added in excess......, the inhibition was partly reversed. ELA at 10 micrograms/ml cleaved IL-2, as judged by size chromatography of a reaction mixture containing 125I-labeled IL-2 and the proteases. The ELA-digested IL-2 exhibited a reduced binding capacity to IL-2 receptors on the lymphocytes. Furthermore, treatment...

  18. Pharmacokinetic properties of radiolabeled mutant Interleukin-2v: a PET imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartimath, Siddesh V; Manuelli, Valeria; Zijlma, Rolf; Signore, Alberto; Nayak, Tapan K; Freimoser-Grundschober, Anne; Klein, Christian; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; de Vries, Erik F J

    2018-01-23

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) is a cytokine that can stimulate cytotoxic immune cells to attack infected and malignant cells. Unfortunately, IL2 can also cause serious immune-related toxicity. Recently, a mutant of IL2 (IL2v) with abolished CD25 binding, increased plasma half-life and less toxicity was engineered. Unlike wild-type IL2 (wt-IL2), mutant IL2v does not bind to the α-subunit (CD25) of the high affinity IL2αβγ receptor, but only to its β and γ subunit. Here, we investigated the biological properties of IL2v and compared with the wt-IL2 using fluorine-18 and PET. [ 18 F]FB-IL2v binds specifically to IL2 receptors (IL2R) on activated human peripheral blood monocytes (hPBMCs) and is cleared mainly by the kidneys (Balb/c mice). [ 18 F]FB-IL2v PET studies in SCID mice injected with hPBMCs revealed high uptake in the implant (0.85 ± 0.15 SUV), which was significantly reduced after pretreatment with wt-IL2 or mutant IL2v (SUV 0.26 ± 0.1 and 0.46 ± 0.1, p FB-IL2v to IL2R was reversible. The volume of distribution (V T ) and the non-displaceable binding potential (BP nd ) of mutant [ 18 F]FB-IL2v in the implant were approximately 3 times lower than those of wild-type [ 18 F]FB-IL2 ( p FB-IL2v in the implant ( p FB-IL2 binds stronger to IL2R and has faster kinetics than [18F]FB-IL2v, which makes it less suitable as a therapeutic drug. [ 18 F]FB-IL2v, on the other hand, seems to have better properties for use as a therapeutic drug.

  19. Intratumoural interleukin-2 therapy can induce regression of non-resectable mastocytoma in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziekman, P.G.P.M; den Otter, W.; Tan, J.F.V.; Teske, E.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Koten, J.W.; Jacobs, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract AIM: Mast cell tumours (MCT) are common skin tumours in dogs. If complete surgical removal of the tumours is not possible, then another therapy is needed. In the current study we tested the therapeutic effect of intratumoural injection of interleukin-2 (IL-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven

  20. Contrast media effect on interleukin-2 levels in human plasma in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolov, Yu.K.; Borsukova, N.M.; Shimanovskij, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    As shown in the study of bilignost, iodamide and triombrast action on interleukin-2 (IL-2) level in human plasma in vitro, these contrast media (2.5x10 -2 -2.5x10 -4 M) elevate IL-2 content in blood plasma of sensitive to contrast media subjects in dose-dependent manner

  1. Delirium after interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon therapy for renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Steijn, JHM; Nieboer, P; Hospers, GAP; De Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    2001-01-01

    A 55-year-old man receiving alpha-interferon and interieukin-2 therapy for renal cell carcinoma presented with seizures and delirium. A CT-scan of the cerebrum did not reveal any disorder. Both alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 were stopped Treatment with steroids led to complete regression of

  2. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2 w...

  3. Tc-99m-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in normal subjects and in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chianelli, M.; Mather, S. J.; Grossman, A.; Sobnak, R.; Fritzberg, A.; Britton, K. E.; Signore, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Radiolabelled interleukin-2 is a radiopharmaceutical used for the study of chronic inflammatory processes. I-123-labelled interleukin-2 has successfully been used in a large number of patients affected by several immune-mediated diseases. I-123, however, is expensive and not readily

  4. Effect of x-ray irradiation ovary on interleukin 2 secretion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hui; Lin Yunlu; Zhang Haijun; Wang Hongfu

    1993-01-01

    The effects of interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion were studied in a rat model by means of x-ray irradiated ovary. It was found that the reduction of estradiol (E 2 )in serum could promote lymphocyte blastogenesis and IL-2 secretion. There was also found a correlation between IL-2 production and the level of E 2 in serum (r = -0.952, P 2 might be associated with a decreased nonspecific immunity

  5. Interleukin-2 and STAT5 in regulatory T cell development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Shawn A.; Manlove, Luke S.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-2 and its downstream target STAT5 have effects on many aspects of immune function. This has been perhaps best documented in regulatory T cells. In this review we summarize the initial findings supporting a role for IL2 and STAT5 in regulatory T cell development and outline more recent studies describing how this critical signaling pathway entrains regulatory T cell differentiation and affects regulatory T cell function.

  6. Encapsulation of interleukin-2 in murine erythrocytes and subsequent deposition in mice receiving a subcutaneous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Andrews, K.; Sheffield, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was successfully encapsulated in both mouse and sheep erythrocytes. Of the added IL-2, 70% was recovered bound to or encapsulated within the carrier cells. Erythrocytes containing IL-2 were stable in vitro and most of the IL-2 remained associated with the cells following a 16-h incubation at 37 degrees C. When carrier erythrocytes containing IL-2 were injected subcutaneously into mice, intact [ 35 S]IL-2 was detectable in a number of tissues 3 days after injection

  7. Interleukin 2 secretion by lectin-activated human blood lymphocytes is markedly augmented by vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, E.C.; Pober, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Since the initial interaction (and possible activation) of a blood borne T lymphocyte involves contact with the endothelial lining of the vasculature at the site of an immune response, the authors have examined the effect of cultured human endothelial cells (HEC) upon polyclonal T cell activation. Addition of 10 4 HEC to 10 4 -10 5 peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 0.3-10 μg/ml) leads to marked augmentation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production. The relative increase in IL-2 (mean of 3 expts. +/- SEM) is present at 24 h (5.8 fold +/- 1.5) and become more marked at 48 h (12.6 fold +/- 3.5) and 72 h (18.5 fold +/- 3.7). This relative enhancement is greater for HEC added to 10 4 than 10 5 PBL and is also greater when 10 4 rather than 2 x 10 3 HEC are added to a given number of PBL. This increased IL-2 concentration has two biological consequences. First, at suboptimal PHA doses or at low PBL number, PBL proliferation as measured by 3 H-thymidine incorporation is increased up to two fold. Second, the phenotype of the proliferating cells appears altered, including a decrease in mean density of IL-2 receptor. The authors hypothesize that such modulation of the concentration of locally produced IL-2 may play a key role in the nature of an immune response, influencing both its magnitude and the functional profile of the activated and amplified effector cells

  8. Interleucina 2 y su receptor soluble en cirugía Interleukin-2 and its soluble receptor in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczy González Rincón

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace más de cuatro decenios el procedimiento quirúrgico ha sido objeto de estudio para determinar su responsabilidad en la posible alteración del sistema inmunitario del individuo que se somete a una cirugía de cierta envergadura y su relación con los episodios infecciosos en el período posoperatorio. Hoy en día, se tiene un poco más claro el papel preponderante que la cirugía tiene en los cambios que sufre el sistema inmunitario después del trauma quirúrgico, y su mayor comprensión ha mejorado la incidencia de las complicaciones infecciosas en el paciente operado. En esta revisión se describen los antecedentes más relevantes que han conducido a un mejor entendimiento de los procesos involucrados en las alteraciones del sistema inmunitario luego de una intervención quirúrgica

  9. Murine inflammatory factor co-chromatographs with murine interleukin-2 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, C.S.; Shinzato, T.O.; Maciel, C.M.M.; Rumjanek, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the in vivo effects of semi-purified mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2), inflammatory activity indicated by edema and plasma protein extravasation (PPE) was detected in those fractions having IL-2 activity. The molecular weight of the inflammatory factor activity from conditioned medium was 30 to 48 kDal on the basis of gel filtration on Sephadex G75. The edema, characterized as maximum paw thickness, occurred at 4 h, whereas the PPE peak (measured with 125 I-albumin) occurred 1.5 to 3 h after injection. Both edema and PPE were inhibited by dexamethasone or indomethacin, suggesting the involvement of prostaglandins in the process. This inflammatory activity may be partly responsible for some of the in vivo activities ascribed to IL-2. (author) [pt

  10. Interleukin-2 based immunotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis consists of 8 published articles focusing on interleukin-2 based immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This disease represents a significant challenge, as the tumor is resistant to current chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and radiation therapy. However, IL-2...... based immunotherapy may induce dramatic durable tumor regression by manipulating the immune system, however, only in a minority of patients. Two critical questions have driven the present thesis. First, which properties of the immune system are responsible for the dramatic tumor regression seen in some...... patients with mRCC following IL-2 administration? And second, can histamine increase the efficacy of IL-2 based immunotherapy by ending the immune suppression induced by phagocyte-generation of reactive oxygen species? 120 Danish patients, 41 UK patients and 20 Swedish patients were treated with low...

  11. The effect of medium composition on interleukin-2 production by murine EL-4 thymoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galesi A. L. L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2 in the mediation of immune response, this cytokine has been used in the treatment of some types of cancer and infectious diseases. However, relatively high levels of this cytokine are required to achieve significant activity. The aim of this work was to study a culture medium composition designed to increase the production of IL-2 by suspended murine EL-4 cells. The cultivations were carried out aiming at producing IL-2 in stirred bioreactors. The effects of concentration of glutamine, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, concanavalin A (Con A, Pluronic F68, and fetal calf serum (FCS on cell viability and IL-2 production were evaluated. PMA alone was more efficient in IL-2 production than it was in association with Con A. The maximum IL-2 production was around 162 ng/mL with 856 ng/mL PMA and 1.45% (v/v FCS.

  12. Effect of interleukin-2 and methylprednisolone on in vitro transformation of uremic lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, E; Ladefoged, J; Ødum, Niels

    1986-01-01

    The functional relationship in vitro between mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation, lymphocyte response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) and steroid, and production of IL-2 was examined in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis (HD) or on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD......). The lymphocyte responses to optimal stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen were depressed in lymphocyte cultures from HD patients, while CAPD lymphocyte cultures responded normally. However, at suboptimal phytohemagglutinin stimulation both CAPD lymphocyte and HD lymphocyte...... responses were subnormal. Uremic lymphocyte cultures were more sensitive to the immunosuppressive effect of methylprednisolone. Addition of IL-2 normalized the phytohemagglutinin responses of suboptimally stimulated CAPD lymphocyte cultures and clearly improved the mitogen responses of the HD lymphocyte...

  13. Predictors of bacterial pneumonia in Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, S L; Carey, C; Lin, E; Wentworth, D; Lazovski, J; Miró, J M; Gordin, F; Angus, B; Rodriguez-Barradas, M; Rubio, R; Tambussi, G; Cooper, D A; Emery, S

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT), a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs. cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4 counts ≥300cells/μL, offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine that increases the risk of some bacterial infections. Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Information on smoking/pneumococcal vaccination history was not collected. IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1-2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 [rate 0.67/100 person-years (PY)] and 86 control (rate 0.63/100 PY) patients experienced a pneumonia event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.42; P=0.68]. Median CD4 counts prior to pneumonia were 570cells/μL (IL-2 arm) and 463cells/μL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, injecting drug use, detectable HIV viral load (VL) and previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log(10) higher VL 1.28; 95% CI 1.11, 1.47; P<0.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4 count prior to the event (HR per 100 cells/μL higher 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 1.0; P=0.04) decreased risk. Compared with controls, the hazard for a pneumonia event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days previously (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.07, 2.60; P=0.02) vs.≥180 days previously (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.70, 1.37; P=0.9). Compared with the control group, pneumonia risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time, with HRs of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7, respectively. Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate

  14. [Allergic asthma and interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 and gamma interferon levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Segura, Diana Lyzbeth; López Velásquez, Benjamin; Castrejón Vázquez, María Isabel; Galicia Tapía, Jorge; Cano Altamirano, Silvia; Miranda Feria, Alfonso Javier

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory chronic illness, in which mastocyt cells, basophils, T lymphocytes, eosinophils and cytokines play a role. Its association with the production of TH2 cytokines is not well known, but it is considered an aberrant immune response, yielding the activation and recruitment of a number of effector cells (mastocyts/eosinophils) and the appearance of clinical symptoms. To determine the serum values of the interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 and gamma interferon in relation to the severity degree of asthma and the time of immunotherapy in patients with stable chronic allergic bronchial asthma. Clinical records of allergic asthmatic patients from the external consultation at Servicio de Alergia e Immunología Clínica were reviewed in a period of 12 months (1st January 2002 to 1st January 2003) and those of healthy volunteers, forming three groups: Group 1, allergic asthmatics with immunotherapy less than 24 months; Group 2, allergic asthmatics with more than 24 months of immunotherapy, and Group 3, healthy volunteers (control group). Previous informed consent, a serum sample was taken of all subjects. Ninety-two subjects were included: 41 (45%) allergic asthmatics and 51 (55%) healthy volunteers. Significant differences were found in interleukins 2, 4, 5, 6 and 12 levels between healthy volunteers and asthmatics without relating the immunotherapy time. In the total group gamma interferon levels were not found. A relation of interleukins Th2 levels with the severity degree of asthma was not found. Differences of serum interleukins Th1 and Th2 in allergic patients related to immunotherapy time were not significant; even though, irrespective of immunotherapy time, IgG levels were always high. Patients with allergic asthma have a predominance of serum interleukins Th2 and, despite of the immunotherapy, in the maintaining phase, these continue high, which may be due to an immune system dysregulation maybe including other factors. Immunotherapy continues

  15. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  16. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, H A; Baan, C C; Hagman, E M; Mol, W M; Niesters, H G; Maat, A P; Zondervan, P E; Weimar, W; Balk, A H

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after transplantation. The presence of IL-2

  17. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  18. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  19. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  20. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  1. A pilot study of autologous bone marrow transplantation followed by recombinant interleukin-2 in malignant lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, N; Blaise, D; Tiberghien, P; Attal, M; Pico, J L; Reiffers, J; Harrousseau, J L; Fiere, D; Tabilio, A; Gabus, R; Brandely, M; Maraninchi, D

    1996-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) after high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) in 25 patients with refractory or relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) (11 patients) and non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (14 patients). 48% of patients had resistant disease, 84% achieved complete remission after ABMT. rIL-2 was started at a median of 54 days post-transplant and consisted of a first cycle of 5 days followed by 4 cycles of 2 days every other week. Patients received a mean of 160 x 10(6) IU/m2 rIL-2 and hematological toxicity was moderate and transient. None of the 5 evaluable patients with measurable disease responded to rIL-2. After a 5 year median follow-up, the probability of survival and DFS is 72% (HD: 73% and NHL: 70%, p = NS) and 45% (HD: 36% and NHL: 48%, p = NS) respectively. These somewhat encouraging results warrant further evaluation of rIL-2 after ABMT in controlled studies, especially in NHL patients stratified for previous chemosensitivity.

  2. Co-immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and taurolidine for progressive metastatic melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant interleukin-2(rIL-2) therapy in metastatic melanoma is limited by toxicities, particularly vascular leak syndrome(VLS). Taurolidine potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of IL-2 while reducing its associated endothelial cell dysfunction in experimental settings. We hypothesized that co-administration of rIL-2 with taurolidine could enhance tolerability without weakening effectiveness. METHODS: Eleven patients with progressive metastatic melanoma received high-dose rIL-2 with co-infusion of taurolidine. Patients were monitored for the development of toxicities and evidence of response. RESULTS: Ten patients tolerated twenty-nine courses of high-dose rIL-2 without dose-reduction. Most toxicities were low-grade. No patient developed VLS. Seven patients died from disease progression. Two had complete clinical and radiological responses to treatment. Two patients remain alive despite evidence of disease progression a mean of 17.5 months after diagnosing metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of taurolidine with high-dose rIL-2 in stage IV melanoma patients appears to greatly enhance the tolerability of this regime without diminishing its therapeutic value.

  3. Recombinant interleukin 2 stimulates in vivo proliferation of adoptively transferred lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinghausen, S.E.; Lipford, E.H. III; Mule, J.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors previously reported that the adoptive transfer of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus repetitive injections of recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2) produced a marked reduction in established pulmonary metastases from a variety of murine sarcomas. The requirement for the exogenous administration of IL 2 prompted a subsequent examination of the role of IL 2 in the in vivo function of transferred LAK cells. The in vivo proliferation and migration patterns of lymphoid cells in C57BL/6 mice were examined after i.v. transfer of LAK cells alone, i.p. injection of IL 2 alone, or the combination of LAK cells and IL 2. A model for in vivo labeling of the DNA of dividing cells was used in which mice were injected with 5-[ 125 I]-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) and, 20 hr later, their tissues were removed and were counted in a gamma analyzer. A proliferation index (PI) was calculated by dividing the mean cpm of organs of experimentally treated mice by the mean cpm of organs of control mice. In animals given LAK cells alone, the lungs and liver demonstrated little if any uptake of 125 IUdR above saline-treated controls, whereas the same organs of mice receiving 6000 U of IL 2 alone displayed higher radiolabel incorporation. When mice were given LAK cells plus 6000 U of IL 2, their tissues showed an additional increase in 125 IUdR uptake

  4. Investigation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelling of recombinant human interleukin-2 via hydrazinonicotinamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmarczyk, Urszula, E-mail: ukarczmarczyk@o2.p [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Garnuszek, Piotr; Maurin, Michal [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Di Gialleonardo, Valentina [Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale S. Andrea, Via di Grottarossa 1035, 00189 Rome (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Galli, Filippo [Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale S. Andrea, Via di Grottarossa 1035, 00189 Rome (Italy); Signore, Alberto [Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale S. Andrea, Via di Grottarossa 1035, 00189 Rome (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Mikolajczak, Renata [Institute of Atomic Energy, Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, 05-400 Swierk (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    Introduction: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) when radiolabelled with {sup 99m}Tc has been proved useful in imaging the side of lymphocytic infiltration in patients with autoimmune disorders and plays a significant role as a T-cell imaging agent. However, the labelling procedures used so far appeared to be rather complex and laborious. The aim of present study was to develop an efficient procedure of {sup 99m}Tc-labelling of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) via hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) to develop a dry kit formulation. Methods: Various molar ratios of rhIL-2/HYNIC (from 1:2 to 1:12) were used at the conjugation step. The conjugates were purified on a PD-10 column to remove the excess of unbound HYNIC, as well as of any aggregates. The final peptide concentration was quantified by the BCA method, and the number of HYNIC molecules incorporated into a rhIL-2 molecule was determined based on the reaction with 2-sulfobenzaldehyde. The {sup 99m}Tc-labelling was optimized using various amounts of HYNIC-rhIL-2, {sup 99m}Tc, SnCl{sub 2}, tricine and nicotinic acid (NA). Quality control included GF-HPLC, ITLC, SDS-PAGE and biological assay. Biodistribution studies were performed in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. Results: Generally, the highest radiolabelling yields were achieved when the HYNIC-rhIL-2 conjugates of ca. 2-4 HYNIC molecule substitution ratios were used. The optimal pH of the reaction medium was found to be in the range of 6.5 to 7.0. GF-HPLC analysis indicated that monomer and aggregates of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-rhIL-2 are formed during radiolabelling. At optimized conditions of wet radiolabelling, the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-rhIL-2 monomer was obtained with radiochemical purity >99%, specific activity of ca. 4 GBq/mg rhIL-2 and overall yield of ca. 65%. The two-vial freeze-dried kit was prepared: the first vial contained 30 {mu}g HYNIC-rhIL-2, co-ligands, buffer and antioxidant; the second vial contained tricine and SnCl{sub 2}. The monomer of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-rhIL-2

  5. Resveratrol prevents endothelial cells injury in high-dose interleukin-2 therapy against melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Guan

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 (HDIL-2 is an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However, it is accompanied by severe toxicity involving endothelial cell injury and induction of vascular leak syndrome (VLS. In this study, we found that resveratrol, a plant polyphenol with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, was able to prevent the endothelial cell injury and inhibit the development of VLS while improving the efficacy of HDIL-2 therapy in the killing of metastasized melanoma. Specifically, C57BL/6 mice were injected with B16F10 cells followed by resveratrol by gavage the next day and continued treatment with resveratrol once a day. On day 9, mice received HDIL-2. On day 12, mice were evaluated for VLS and tumor metastasis. We found that resveratrol significantly inhibited the development of VLS in lung and liver by protecting endothelial cell integrity and preventing endothelial cells from undergoing apoptosis. The metastasis and growth of the tumor in lung were significantly inhibited by HDIL-2 and HDIL-2 + resveratrol treatment. Notably, HDIL-2 + resveratrol co-treatment was more effective in inhibiting tumor metastasis and growth than HDIL-2 treatment alone. We also analyzed the immune status of Gr-1(+CD11b(+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC and FoxP3(+CD4(+ regulatory T cells (Treg. We found that resveratrol induced expansion and suppressive function of MDSC which inhibited the development of VLS after adoptive transfer. However, resveratrol suppressed the HDIL-2-induced expansion of Treg cells. We also found that resveratrol enhanced the susceptibility of melanoma to the cytotoxicity of IL-2-activated killer cells, and induced the expression of the tumor suppressor gene FoxO1. Our results suggested the potential use of resveratrol in HDIL-2 treatment against melanoma. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that MDSC is the dominant suppressor cell than regulatory

  6. Suppression of multiple bioactivities of interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 production by U937 conditioned medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiblin, R.T.; Edmonds, K.; Ellner, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The human macrophage-like cell line U937 spontaneously produces a factor which blocks interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity for mouse thymocytes but not mitosis of T-lymphoblastoid cells. The authors examined the effects of U937 conditioned medium (CM) on other IL-1 activities and on interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. U937 was cultured at 5 x 10 6 /ml in RPMI-1640 at 37 0 C for 5 days. The resulting CM inhibited the mitogenic response of C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes to an IL-1 standard, with an inhibitory of activity of 6.64 U/ml (1 U = reciprocal dilution producing 50% inhibition of maximal response). Similarly, CM inhibited (10.12 U/ml) the fibroblast stimulation promoter activity of IL-1. The effect of CM on IL-2 production was assessed in a direct assay in which IL-2 production by γ-irradiated (12,000 rads) MLA-144 lymphosarcoma cells was assayed as 3 H-thymidine incorporation in CTLL-20 cells. The suppressive activity of CM was 4.95 U/ml; CM did not interfere with the response of CTLL-20 to IL-2. These studies establish that U937 produces factors with multiple, related biological activities; U937 CM blocks IL-2 dependent (thymocyte mitogenesis) and IL-2 independent (fibroblast proliferation) IL-1 activities and interferes with production of, but not response to, IL-2. U937 is an excellent model to study growth inhibitory properties of mononuclear phagocytes

  7. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  8. Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with interleukin-2: a phase II study in 21 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, N; Blaise, D; Lafage, M; Olive, D; Viens, P; Baume, D; Camerlo, J; Stoppa, A M; Gabus, R; Brandely, M; Hercend, T; Maraninchi, D

    1999-03-01

    We designed a phase II study to assess the activity of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Study population included 11 patients in the chronic phase of CML (6 in hematologic remission and 5 with active disease), 6 patients in the accelerated phase, and 4 in blastic phase of CML. Patients received three 5-day cycles administrated every other week. rIL-2 was given as intravenous bolus infusions of 8 x 10(6) IU/m2 three times a day during cycle 1 and twice a day during cycles 2 and 3. Response to rIL-2 was assessed on day 45. No hematologic response was achieved in the patients with evaluable disease. One patient in hematologic remission with rIL-2 achieved a major response (from 72% to 9% Ph+ metaphases), and two patients had some degree of reduction of Ph+ metaphases. Responses were short-lived (< 6 months), but two of these three patients achieved a new cytogenetic response with interferon given post-rIL-2. A significant immune activation was achieved with rIL-2 including a marked increase in CD3+/CD25+ cells, CD56+ cells, and in natural killer/lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxic activity. These results confirm preclinical studies, which showed that IL-2 has antileukemic activity in CML. However, the responses observed were short lived and restricted to a subgroup of patients with low disease burden. This invites further studies testing its impact in situations of minimal disease or in combination with other cytokines.

  9. 99mTc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy for the in vivo imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Scopinaro, Francesco; Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G.; Arca, Marcello; Marcoccia, Antonella; Violi, Francesco; Toma, Giorgio De; Signore, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Several histopathological studies have demonstrated that vulnerable plaques are enriched in inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were: (1a) to test the ability of 99m Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ( 99m Tc-IL2) to bind to IL2R-positive (IL2R+) cells in carotid plaques and (1b) to correlate the plaque uptake of 99m Tc-IL2, measured in vivo, with the number of IL2R+ cells within the plaque, measured ex vivo by histology (transversal study, TS), and (2) to evaluate changes in 99m Tc-IL2 uptake in plaques, before and after treatment with a statin or a hypocholesterolaemic diet (longitudinal study, LS). Ultrasound scan was performed for plaque characterisation and localisation. Fourteen patients (16 plaques) eligible for endoarterectomy were recruited for the TS and underwent 99m Tc-IL2 scintigraphy before surgery. Nine patients (13 plaques) were recruited for the LS; these patients received atorvastatin or a standard hypocholesterolaemic diet and 99m Tc-IL2 scintigraphy was performed before and after 3 months of treatment. The degree of 99m Tc-IL2 uptake was expressed as the plaque/background (T/B) ratio. In patients from TS, T/B ratios correlated with the percentage of IL2R+ cells at histology (r=0.707; p=0.002) and the number of IL2R+ cells at flow cytometry (r=0.711; p=0.006). No correlations were observed between ultrasound scores and either scintigraphic or histological findings. In patients from the LS, the mean 99m Tc-IL2 uptake decreased in statin-treated patients (1.75±0.50 vs 2.16±0.44; p=0.012), while it was unchanged in the patients on the hypocholesterolaemic diet (2.33±0.45 vs 2.34±0.5). 99m Tc-IL2 accumulates in vulnerable carotid plaques; this accumulation is correlated with the amount of IL2R+ cells and is influenced by lipid-lowering treatment with a statin. (orig.)

  10. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  11. Angiosarcoma of the scalp treated with curative radiotherapy plus recombinant interleukin-2 immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Takayuki; Imada, Hajime; Nomoto, Satoshi; Yahara, Katsuya; Hisaoka, Masanori; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Tokura, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Terashima, Hiromi; Moroi, Yoiichi; Furue, Masutaka; Korogi, Yukunori

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of curative radiotherapy (RT) plus recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) immunotherapy regarding the treatment results for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Curative resection of angiosarcoma of the scalp is usually difficult because of the diffuse, clinically undetectable local spread. RT is a rational therapeutic approach, because a wide region of the dermis can be treated, while sparing the underlying normal tissues. Recently, the effectiveness of immunotherapy with rIL-2 has also been reported in the treatment of angiosarcoma of the scalp. Methods and Materials: The data of 20 patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp treated with curative RT plus rIL-2 immunotherapy between January 1988 and June 2002 were retrospectively analyzed. The total radiation dose was 70.3 ± 6.9 Gy. The fractions were 2-3 Gy daily, given 5 d/wk. rIL-2 immunotherapy was performed by transcatheter arterial administration in 10 patients, systemic administration in 11 during the course of RT, and intratumoral injection in 10 during and/or after RT; 12 patients received a combination of two. Five patients underwent limited surgery, and concomitant pacilitaxel chemotherapy was also used in 2 patients. Results: The median survival time for overall, local recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival was 36.2, 11.1, and 17.8 months, respectively. Local recurrence developed in 7 patients (35%), 4 of whom also had evidence of distant metastases. An additional 7 patients (35%) developed distant metastases alone. Recurrence within the radiation field was recognized in 2 patients with systemic rIL-2 administration alone (p < 0.05). Arterial or intratumoral administration combined with systemic administration of rIL-2 resulted in better distant metaststasis-free survival rates (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Curative RT plus rIL-2 immunotherapy provided an efficient, effective means of treating angiosarcoma of the scalp. Arterial or intratumoral administration combined

  12. High-dose interleukin 2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Tala; Arjunan, Ananth; Wang, Hong; Saul, Melissa; Davar, Diwakar; Appleman, Leonard J; Friedland, David; Parikh, Rahul A

    2017-01-01

    High-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) is used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and has an overall response rate (ORR) of 12-20% and a complete response rate (CR) of 8% in unselected populations with predominantly clear cell type renal cell carcinoma. Nearly 10-15% of patients with renal cell carcinoma exhibit sarcomatoid differentiation, a feature which correlates with a median overall survival (OS) of 9 months and overall poor prognosis. We report a single institution experience with 21 patients with mRCC with sarcomatoid features post-nephrectomy who were treated with HD IL-2. Twenty one patients with mRCC with sarcomatoid features post-nephrectomy who underwent therapy with HD IL-2 were identified at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from 2004 to 2016. Baseline patient characteristics, HD IL-2 cycles, time to progression, and subsequent therapies were evaluated. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) in the cohort were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease characteristics were evaluated for significance using the Fischer's exact test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Patients were predominantly Caucasian males with a median age of 54 years. A majority, 86% of these patients, had metastatic disease at time of initial presentation, primarily with lung and lymph node involvement. The ORR and CR with HD IL-2 was 10% and 5%, respectively. Initial localized disease presentation is the only variable that was significantly associated with response to HD IL-2 (p = 0.0158). Number of HD IL-2 doses did not correlate with response with a mean of 16.5 and 15.0 total doses in responders and non-responders, respectively (p = 0.53). Median PFS with HD IL-2 was 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.0-21.3). Median OS was 30.5 months (95% CI 13.3-57.66). Within the subset of patients who had progression on IL-2, median OS was 19.4 months (95% CI, 13.3-35.3). In patients who received second-line therapy, median PFS was 7.9 months (95% CI 2.4-10.2). In

  13. Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase-mediated signal transduction and interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression in the murine T-cell line, EL4.IL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, R; Herring, A; Koh, W S; Lee, M; Kaminski, N E

    1996-05-31

    Cannabinoid receptors negatively regulate adenylate cyclase through a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein. In the present studies, signaling via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway was investigated in the murine thymoma-derived T-cell line, EL4.IL-2. Northern analysis of EL4.IL-2 cells identified the presence of 4-kilobase CB2 but not CB1 receptor-subtype mRNA transcripts. Southern analysis of genomic DNA digests for the CB2 receptor demonstrated identical banding patterns for EL4.IL-2 cells and mouse-derived DNA, both of which were dissimilar to DNA isolated from rat. Treatment of EL4.IL-2 cells with either cannabinol or Delta9-THC disrupted the adenylate cyclase signaling cascade by inhibiting forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation which consequently led to a decrease in protein kinase A activity and the binding of transcription factors to a CRE consensus sequence. Likewise, an inhibition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) protein secretion, which correlated to decreased IL-2 gene transcription, was induced by both cannabinol and Delta9-THC. Further, cannabinoid treatment also decreased PMA/ionomycin-induced nuclear factor binding to the AP-1 proximal site of the IL-2 promoter. Conversely, forskolin enhanced PMA/ionomycin-induced AP-1 binding. These findings suggest that inhibition of signal transduction via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway induces T-cell dysfunction which leads to a diminution in IL-2 gene transcription.

  14. Comparison of daclizumab, an interleukin 2 receptor antibody, to anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius induction therapy in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Jaoude, Maroun M; Ghantous, Imad; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2003-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of daclizumab and anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius (ATG-F) as induction therapy in kidney transplantation (KT) were investigated in 45 KT performed in our center between March and May 2002. Group II (n=10) received daclizumab as induction therapy, and Group I (n=35) were induced with a single intraoperative bolus therapy of ATG-F. All patients were at low-risk, and the recipient and donor demographics, as well the immunosuppression regimen employed were comparable in both groups. Drug safety, assessed by the occurrence of side effects, was almost comparable in the two groups, except for more thrombocytopenia in Group II (P<0.0004). Acute rejection (AR) occurred in 10% in Group I and 11.4% in Group II (P=NS). There were more infections in Group II (42.8%) than in Group I (10%) (P<0.009). Bacterial and viral infections were more common in Group II (69 and 23%) than in Group I (10 and 0%) (P<0.05). The hospital stay was similar in both groups. Mean serum creatinine levels upon discharge, at 1, 3 and 6 months were: 1.23+/-0.11, 1.21+/-0.06, 1.25+/-0.11 and 1.35+/-0.08 in Group I and 2.18+/-0.43, 1.49+/-0.16, 1.49+/-0.16 and 1.35+/-0.08 in Group II, respectively. While better serum creatinine levels were observed in Group I upon discharge (P<0.048), this was due to the presence of more sensitized patients in Group II. The 6 months actuarial patient and graft survival were identical in both groups (100 and 100%, respectively). Although both daclizumab and ATG-F were effective and safe as induction therapy in KT, less bacterial and viral infections and lower early serum creatinine levels were noted in daclizumab-treated patients.

  15. Maintenance immunosuppression with intermittent intravenous IL-2 receptor antibody therapy in renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-01

    To report what we believe to be the first 2 cases of long-term (>24 months) intermittent intravenous interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) therapy for maintenance immunosuppression following renal transplantation.

  16. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  17. Two randomised phase II trials of subcutaneous interleukin-2 and histamine dihydrochloride in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Middleton, M; Fode, K

    2005-01-01

    Histamine inhibits formation and release of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, and thereby protects natural killer and T cells against oxidative damage. Thus, the addition of histamine may potentially improve the efficacy of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Two randomised phase II trials of IL-2...... per week for 3 weeks followed by 2 weeks rest. Histamine dihydrochloride was added twice daily, 1.0 mg s.c., concomitantly with IL-2. A maximum of four cycles were given. The Danish study showed a statistically significant 1-year survival benefit (76 vs 47%, P = 0.03), a trend towards benefit in both...

  18. Interleukin-2 and dendritic cells as adjuvants for surgical therapy of tumours associated with human papillomavirus type 16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Mikyšková, Romana; Vonka, V.; Mendoza, Luis; Šímová, Jana; Šmahel, M.; Indrová, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, 9-10 (2003), s. 891-896 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/00/0114; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA AV ČR IAA7052002; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině(CZ) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : interleukin-2 * HPV 16 * dendritic cells Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2003

  19. In vitro radiosensitivity of human fresh T-lymphocytes by colony formation assay using PHA and recombinant Interleukin-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsugawa, Kaori; Nakamura, Nori; Hakoda, Masayuki; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1988-05-01

    In vitro culture conditions for colony formation of human fresh peripheral T-cells using phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and recombinant Interleukin-2 are defined. Peripheral lymphocytes, from six individuals, were exposed to X or gamma rays in vitro, and dose-survival curves were obtained. The results showed typical sigmoid curves similar to those observed when other mammalian cells are exposed to radiation. The D 10 (dose required to kill 90 % of the cells) was found to be 3.0 to 3.5 Gy. (author)

  20. Construction and characterization in vitro of a bicistronic retroviral vector coding endostatin and interleukin-2 for use in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Fernanda Bernardes

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy has been used in preclinical studies and clinical trials in order to alleviate or cure a disease. Retroviral vectors are a tool for gene transfer is widely used. Bicistronic vectors are an attractive alternative for treatment of complex diseases. A variety of options exists to simultaneously express two genes in genetically modified cells. The most common approach relies on bicistronic vectors in which the genes are linked to each other by an internal ribosome entry site allowing co-translational expression of both cistrons. Endostatin, the C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. At present, ES has been widely used in anti-angiogenic in a variety of experimental tumor models, and clinical trials to test it as an anti-tumor agent are already under way. Immunotherapy has been used as adjuvant treatment for tumors and has been used in several preclinical studies and clinical trials. The objective of this project was to construct and characterize 'in vitro' an IRES-based bicistronic retroviral vector encoding endostatin and interleukin-2. The construction of the vector was performed in three stages, the final construction was analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. Packaging cells were prepared. The endostatin and interleukin-2 levels were determined by Dot blot. Monocistronic and bicistronic mRNA expression were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Bicistronic vector showed high levels of virus trites, ranging from 4.20x10 5 to 1.53x10 6 UFC/ml. Secreted levels of endostatin and interleukin-2 ranged from 1.08 to 2.08μg/10 6 cells.24h and 0.66 - 0.89μg/10 6 cells.24h, respectively. The mRNA expression of ES in the NIH3T3 clone pLend-IRES-IL2SN was 2 times higher than the level presented by the NIH3T3 clone pLendSN. The endostatin promoted inhibition (40%) of endothelial cell proliferation. Interleukin-2 promoted a proliferation of 10.6% lymphocytes CD4 and 8.9% of CD8. We conclude that the IRES bicistronic vector

  1. Recombinant human interleukin 2 directly provides signals for the proliferation and functional maturation of murine B lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Heidrun; Emmrich, F.; Simon, Markus M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the effect of recombinant human interleukin 2 (rec.hIL-2) on the proliferation and maturation of B lymphocytes was investigated. It was found that the presence of rec.hIL 2 results in proliferation of mitogen (LPS)-activated B cell blasts. In addition, it is shown that highly enriched murine B cells can be induced by rec.hIL-2 to proliferate and to develop into antibody-secreting cells (PFC) in the presence of antigen (SRBC). When tested for its effect on B cell preparations enr...

  2. A Case of Low-Grade Primary Cardiac Lymphoma with Pericardial Effusion Diagnosed by Combined 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging and Effusion Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Hisanori; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Shimomura, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shuzo; Terao, Chiaki; Totsune, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Manabu; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2018-03-14

    BACKGROUND Primary cardiac lymphoma is rare and can be an aggressive disease, depending on the grade. A case is reported of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma associated with a pericardial effusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging was useful in the diagnosis and in evaluating the disease activity in this case. CASE REPORT A 72-year-old Japanese woman visited a general practitioner, complaining of dyspnea associated with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and Group V malignant cells were identified by cytology, suspicious for malignant lymphoma. Whole-body FDG-PET/CT scans showed no pleural effusion or lymph node metastasis supporting the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma diagnosed on pericardial effusion. The laboratory investigations showed that levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (sIL-2R), a diagnostic and prognostic marker for malignant lymphoma, were not elevated (258 U/ml). A six-month follow-up FDG-PET/CT scan showed an increased volume of the pericardial effusion and mild but abnormal uptake diffusely in the pericardial space, and the sIL-2R was slightly elevated (860 U/ml). No abnormal FDG accumulation outside the retained pericardial effusion was noted, which was compatible with a clinical picture of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma, and in a period of watchful waiting during the first two years later, the sIL-2R had reduced to 195 U/ml. CONCLUSIONS This is a rare case of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma detected in a pericardial effusion, and highlights the utility of the FDG-PET/CT scan as a valuable diagnostic and follow-up modality.

  3. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NF45/ILF2 tissue expression, promoter analysis, and interleukin-2 transactivating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guohua; Shi Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Hu Hong; Kao, Peter N.

    2005-01-01

    NF45/ILF2 associates with NF90/ILF3 in the nucleus and regulates IL-2 gene transcription at the antigen receptor response element (ARRE)/NF-AT DNA target sequence (P.N. Kao, L. Chen, G. Brock, J. Ng, A.J. Smith, B. Corthesy, J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 20691-20699). NF45 is widely expressed in normal tissues, especially testis, brain, and kidney, with a predominantly nuclear distribution. NF45 mRNA expression is increased in lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. The human and murine NF45 proteins differ only by substitution of valine by isoleucine at amino acid 142. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human NF45 gene to chromosome 1q21.3, and mouse NF45 gene to chromosome 3F1. Promoter analysis of 2.5 kB of the murine NF45 gene reveals that significant activation is conferred by factors, possible including NF-Y, that bind to the CCAAT-box sequence. The function of human NF45 in regulating IL-2 gene expression was characterized in Jurkat T-cells stably transfected with plasmids directing expression of NF45 cDNA in sense or antisense orientations. NF45 sense expression increased IL-2 luciferase reporter gene activity 120-fold, and IL-2 protein expression 2-fold compared to control cells. NF45 is a highly conserved, regulated transcriptional activator, and one target gene is IL-2

  5. The evaluation of subcutaneous proleukin (interleukin-2) in a randomized international trial: rationale, design, and methods of ESPRIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sean; Abrams, Donald I; Cooper, David A; Darbyshire, Janet H; Lane, H Clifford; Lundgren, Jens D; Neaton, James D

    2002-04-01

    The Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT) is a large ongoing randomized trial of subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy versus antiretroviral therapy alone in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) disease and CD4 cell counts of at least 300 cells/mm(3). The primary objective is to determine whether the addition of IL-2 to combination antiretroviral therapy improves morbidity and mortality. The aim is to recruit 4000 participants and follow them for an average of 5 years. Eligible subjects will be recruited at 275 investigational sites in 23 countries around the world. Coupled with broad eligibility criteria this will ensure widely applicable results. A range of secondary objectives will also be addressed in this setting that will include the conduct of observational studies and nested substudies with a public health focus. This article describes the rationale supporting the trial in addition to reviewing the study design, coordination, and governance.

  6. Carbon anhydrase IX specific immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma potentially cured by interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with metastatic renal cell...... of disease (NED) following treatment with IL-2 based immunotherapy, and thus potentially cured. Immune reactivity in these patients was compared with samples from patients with dramatic tumor response obtained immediately at the cessation of therapy, samples from patients that experienced progressive disease...... interest in future cancer vaccines, but more studies are needed to elucidate the immunological mechanisms of action in potentially cured patients treated with an immunotherapeutic agent....

  7. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  8. Sequence of interleukin-2 isolated from human placental poly A+ RNA: possible role in maintenance of fetal allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicky, C L; Tan, H; Burfeind, P; Ilan, J; Ilan, J

    1996-02-01

    There are several cell types within the placenta that produce cytokines which can contribute to the regulatory mechanisms that ensure normal pregnancy. The immunological milieu at the maternofetal interface is considered to be crucial for survival of the fetus. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast, the cell layer between the mother and the fetus. IL-2 appears to be a key factor in maintenance of pregnancy. Therefore, it was important to determine the sequence of human placental interleukin-2. Direct sequencing of human placental IL-2 cDNA was determined for the coding region. Subclone sequencing was carried out for the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR and 3'-UTR). The 5'-UTR for human placental IL-2 cDNA is 294 bp, which is 247 nucleotides longer than that reported for cDNA IL-2 derived from T cells. The sequence of the coding region is identical to that reported for T cell IL-2, while sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product showed that the cDNA from the 3' end was the same as that reported for cDNA from T cells. Human placental IL-2 cDNA is 1,028 base pairs (excluding the poly A tail), which is 247 bp longer at the 5' end than that reported for IL-2 T cell cDNA. Therefore, the extended 5'-UTR of the placental IL-2 cDNA may be a consequence of alternative promoter utilization in the placenta.

  9. Interleukin-2 induces beta2-integrin-dependent signal transduction involving the focal adhesion kinase-related protein B (fakB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Kanner, S B; Nielsen, M

    1998-01-01

    beta2 integrin molecules are involved in a multitude of cellular events, including adhesion, migration, and cellular activation. Here, we studied the influence of beta2 integrins on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mediated signal transduction in human CD4(+) T cell lines obtained from healthy donors...

  10. Nucleolin and YB-1 are required for JNK-mediated interleukin-2 mRNA stabilization during T-cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, C Y; Gherzi, R; Andersen, Jens S.

    2000-01-01

    Regulated mRNA turnover is a highly important process, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Using interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA as a model, we described a role for the JNK-signaling pathway in stabilization of IL-2 mRNA during T-cell activation, acting via a JNK response element (JRE) in the 5' un...

  11. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pett, S. L.; Wand, H.; Law, M. G.; Arduino, R.; Lopez, J. C.; Knysz, B.; Pereira, L. C.; Pollack, S.; Reiss, P.; Tambussi, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells >

  12. The Association of −330 Interleukin-2 Gene Polymorphism with Its Plasma Concentration in Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou Sayad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The cytokine genes are involved in autoimmune diseases such as MS. In this study, we report the influence of −330 interleukin-2 (IL2 gene polymorphism on its plasma levels in a group of Iranian MS patients. In this study 100 MS patients and 100 ethnically, age, and sex matched healthy controls were selected from Medical Genetics Department of Sarem Women Hospital. Blood samples of all individuals were collected in EDTA tubes. The restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP method was applied to determine various alleles and genotypes in these individuals. Plasma concentration of IL2 was measured in all the samples using human IL2 kit. The frequency of −330 T/T IL2 genotype was higher in MS patients compared to normal individuals. Accordingly, the plasma levels of IL2 were significantly higher (P<0.0001 in patients when compared to the control group. In conclusion, in case of MS patients the −330 T/T IL2 genotype is associated with higher plasma levels of IL2.

  13. Use of interleukin-2 for management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Zhang, Yinan; Graves, Donna; DeSena, Allen D.; Frohman, Elliot; Greenberg, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 3-year history of natalizumab use developed expressive aphasia. A brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed left frontotemporal and right parietal lesion with mild contrast enhancement and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for John Cunningham virus (JCV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient received five cycles of plasmapheresis followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite this intervention, her speech deteriorated and she developed right hemiparesis. Upon referral to our institution, CSF quantitative JCV PCR was notable for 834 copies/ml. The patient was given an initial dose of 50,000 units of interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously (SQ) followed by 1 million units IL-2 SQ daily. Due to concern for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the patient also received intravenous methylprednisone weekly. The regimen was tolerated well by the patient with no severe adverse effects. Clinically, the patient showed some improvement, and became more responsive and regained right lower extremity antigravity strength. After 12 weeks of IL-2 therapy, JCV quantitative PCR was notable for 31 copies/ml and the patient was more responsive. Due to persistence of JCV, IL-2 therapy was changed to mefloquine. At follow up after 6 months, the patient showed no clinical deterioration. PMID:27134676

  14. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a local lymph node assay based on ex vivo interleukin-2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Philippe; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Ourlin, Jean-Claude; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine; Tissier, Marie-Hélène; Vian, Laurence; Fabre, Isabelle

    2005-01-15

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a regular method for the detection of sensitizing chemicals in mice which measures the incorporation of tritiated thymidine in lymph node cells. We have evaluated an alternative to this method based on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of lymph node cells. At the mRNA level, no change in the IL-2 gene expression level was detected by real-time PCR analysis. At the protein level, various experimental conditions were checked in order to improve the irritant versus sensitizer discrimination with a restricted set of prototypic compounds. In particular, the use of phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) in an ex vivo cell culture step showed an improvement of both signal and discrimination. In these optimised conditions, a panel of irritants and potency-graded sensitizers was used to assess the performance of the modified method. IFN-gamma production was used as a positive control. For each compound, a dose-response was performed and stimulation indexes (SI) were determined. Effective concentrations (EC) for each sensitizers were then extracted and compared to the literature data of the regular LLNA. The IL-2-based LLNA showed similar performances at both qualitative and quantitative levels compared to regular LLNA.

  15. Influence of tunicamycin, sialidase, and cholera toxin on gangliosides and T-lymphocyte responses to interleukin 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmes, O.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Merritt, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have shown that gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL 2)-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. Tunicamycin (TM), sialidase, and cholera toxin-β subunit (β-CT) are known modulators of cell surface glycoconjugates. To test the possible role of endogenous gangliosides in T cell responses to IL-2, the effect of these agents on ganglioside expression and cell proliferation was studied. Gangliosides were labelled for 24 hrs with 3 H-glucosamine/galactose in the presence of IL-2 and purified sialidase, TM or β-CT. Gangliosides were isolated and the species separated by TLC. Alternatively, proliferation was assayed by 3 H-thymidine uptake after 48 hrs culture. TM treatment at a concentration (10 μg/ml) that completely inhibited proliferation resulted in a 86% reduction of incorporation of saccharide precursors into gangliosides compared to a 50% reduction into proteins. Sialidase treatment (0.1 IU/ml) resulted in a 70% inhibition of proliferation and 30% reduction of radiolabel into gangliosides, of which 3 species were specifically reduced. β-CT, which binds to GM 1 and to a lesser extent GD/sub 1a/, caused a 50% reduction in proliferation response at 35 units/ml. The results support the hypothesis that gangliosides are involved in IL-2-dependent proliferation

  16. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 production between species, between tissues, and between young and old individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.J.; Akagawa, T.; Anderson, D.G.; Makinodan, T.

    1985-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production was assessed of (a) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young humans, dogs, and mice (C57BL/6); (b) PBMC and splenic cells of young mice; and (c) PBMC of young and old humans and the splenic cells of young and old mice. The results indicate that (a) large differences in radiosensitivity exist between the PBMC of humans, dogs, and mice (e.g., the radiation doses which resulted in 37% remaining IL-2 activity (D37) of human, dog, and mouse PBMC were 3771, greater than 10,000, and 1398 rads, respectively); (b) only a small difference exists between the PBMC and splenic cells of mice; and (c) no difference exists between the PBMC of young and old humans and between splenic cells of young and old mice. Topological abnormalities, as judged by scanning electron microscopic analysis, could not be detected in dog PBMC after their exposure to 1800 rads, but could be detected in mouse PBMC after their exposure to 400 rads

  17. Clinical trial of combination therapy using systemic interleukin-2 infusion and low-dose tumor irradiation for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tetsuo; Hiragushi, Junji; Asano, Yoshihide

    1995-01-01

    Although recent progress in surgical techniques and interventional radiology enables patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to survive longer, there are still many who cannot receive them due to disease progression. We are currently investigating the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of systemic recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) administration and local tumor irradiation for HCC patients in the advanced stage. First, the results of the basic experiment to analyze the optimal dose and timing of IL-2 infusion were demonstrated. Intensive administration of high-dose IL-2 caused acute death, whereas intermittent low-dose IL-2 administration resulted in complete tumor regression followed by the acquisition of tumor-specific immunity. Our data suggested that the tumor-bearing state increased the responsiveness to IL-2 treatment, and that an excessively high-dose regimen is not prerequisite for the optimal IL-2 treatment. With regard to the effectiveness of radiotherapy for HCC, human hepatoma cells exhibited apoptotic death when hepatoma cells were cocultured with LAK cells, or were irradiated in vitro with relatively low-dose irradiation. These results suggested the possible synergistic effect of killer cells and low-dose irradiation. Finally, we presented six eligible cases of advanced HCC treated by combination therapy of IL-2 infusion and local low-dose tumor irradiation. Direct anti-tumor effects were one CR, one MR, two NC, and two PD. One CR case and a NC case have survived now for longer than 40 months. In all cases, NK cell activity increased prominently, and side effects wee mild flu-like symptoms except macroscopic hematuria and moderate VLS-like symptoms in two cases in which therapy was continued for longer than 2 years. Hepatic reserve function like prothrombin time or hepaplastic time improved. The apparent clinical effectiveness of the combination therapy presented here might give promising hints for a new therapeutic strategy for HCC. (author)

  18. Imaging active lymphocytic infiltration in coeliac disease with iodine-123-interleukin-2 and the response to diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, A.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Rossi, M.; Greco, M.; Ronga, G.; Picarelli, A.; Maiuri, L.; Britton, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Coeliac disease is diagnosed by the presence of specific antibodies and a jejunal biopsy showing mucosal atrophy and mononuclear cell infiltration. Mucosal cell-mediated immune response is considered the central event in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, and untreated coeliac patients show specific features of T-cell activation in the small intestine. Here we describe the use of iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in coeliac patients as a non-invasive tool for detection of lymphocytic infiltration in the small bowel and its use for therapy follow-up, and we demonstrate the specificity of binding of labelled-IL2 to activated lymphocytes by ex-vivo autoradiography of jejunal biopsies. 123 I-IL2 was administered i.v. [74 MBq (2 mCi)], and gamma camera images were acquired after 1 h. Ten patients were studied with 123 I-IL2 scintigraphy at diagnosis and seven were also investigated after 12-19 months of gluten-free diet. Results were expressed as target-to-background radioactivity ratios in six different bowel regions before and after the diet. At the time of diagnosis all patients showed a significantly higher bowel uptake of 123 I-IL2 than normal subjects (P 2 =0.66; P=0.008). Autoradiography of jejunal biopsies confirmed that labelled-IL2 only binds to activated T-lymphocytes infiltrating the gut mucosa. After 1 year of the diet, bowel uptake of 123 I-IL2 significantly decreased in five out of six regions (P 123 I-IL2 scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing in vivo the presence of activated mononuclear cells in the bowel of patients affected by coeliac disease. Unlike jejunal biopsy, this method provides information from the whole intestine and gives a non-invasive measure of the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet. (orig.)

  19. Antibody-mediated delivery of interleukin-2 to the stroma of breast cancer strongly enhances the potency of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårlind, Jessica; Kaspar, Manuela; Trachsel, Eveline; Sommavilla, Roberto; Hindle, Stuart; Bacci, Camilla; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Neri, Dario

    2008-10-15

    There is an interest in the discovery of biopharmaceuticals, which are well tolerated and which potentiate the action of anthracyclines and taxanes in breast cancer therapy. We have produced a recombinant fusion protein, composed of the human antibody fragment scFv(F16) fused to human interleukin-2 (F16-IL2), and tested its therapeutic performance in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model of human breast cancer. The F16 antibody is specific to the alternatively spliced A1 domain of tenascin-C, which is virtually undetectable in normal tissues but is strongly expressed in the neovasculature and stroma of breast cancer. When used as monotherapy, F16-IL2 displayed a strikingly superior therapeutic benefit compared with unconjugated recombinant IL-2. The administration of doxorubicin either before (8 days, 24 h, or 2 h) or simultaneously with the injection of F16-IL2 did not decrease the accumulation of immunocytokine in the tumor as measured by quantitative biodistribution analysis. Therapy experiments, featuring five once per week coadministrations of 20 mug F16-IL2 and doxorubicin, showed a statistically significant reduction of tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival at a 4 mg/kg doxorubicin dose but not at a 1 mg/kg dose. By contrast, combination of F16-IL2 with paclitaxel (5 and 1 mg/kg) exhibited a significant therapeutic benefit compared with paclitaxel alone at both dose levels. F16-IL2, alone or in combination with doxorubicin, was well tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys at doses equivalent to the ones now used in clinical studies. F16-IL2 may represent a new useful biopharmaceutical for the treatment of breast cancer.

  20. The 20th anniversary of interleukin-2 therapy: bimodal role explaining longstanding random induction of complete clinical responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coventry, Brendon J; Ashdown, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of interleukin-2 (IL2) for use in cancer therapy, initially for renal cell carcinoma and later for melanoma. IL2 therapy for cancer has stood the test of time, with continued widespread use in Europe, parts of Asia, and the US. Clinical complete responses are variably reported at 5%–20% for advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with strong durable responses and sustained long-term 5–10-year survival being typical if complete responses are generated. The literature was reviewed for the actions and clinical effects of IL2 on subsets of T cells. The influence of IL2 on clinical efficacy was also sought. The review revealed that IL2 is capable of stimulating different populations of T cells in humans to induce either T effector or T regulatory responses. This apparent “functional paradox” has confounded a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the clinical effects that are observed during and following administration of IL2 therapy. An average complete response rate of around 7% in small and large clinical trials using IL2 for advanced renal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma has been shown from a recent review of the literature. This review considers the published literature concerning the actions and emerging clinical effects of IL2 therapy, spanning its 20-year period in clinical use. It further details some of the recently described “bimodal” effects of IL2 to explain the apparent functional paradox, and how IL2 might be harnessed to emerge rapidly as a much more effective and predictable clinical agent in the near future

  1. Weekly 24-hour continuous infusion interleukin-2 for metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, E A; Scudder, S A; Meyers, F A; Tanaka, M S; Paradise, C; Gandara, D R

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-nine patients with biopsy-confirmed metastatic melanoma (17) or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (12) were treated with escalating doses or recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) administered as weekly 24-h intravenous infusions. Patients received from 3 to 12 x 10(6) C.U./m2 (18-72 x 10(6) I.U./m2) weekly over a treatment period of 1 to 16 weeks, with a median of eight weekly cycles administered. Patients in all treatment groups experienced non-life-threatening systemic side effects consisting of fever, nausea, vomiting, fluid retention, and diarrhea. Grade III hypotension was seen in four of six patients (67%) at 12 x 10(6) C.U./m2, and represented the dose-limiting toxicity. Grade IV hypotension occurred in 1 of 14 patients at 6 x 10(6) C.U./m2; no other grade IV toxicities were observed. Grade III fever occurred in 3 of 11 patients (27%) treated at 3 x 10(6) C.U./m2, 3 of 14 patients (21%) at 6 x 10(6) C.U./m2, and 3 of 6 patients (50%) at 9 x 10(6) C.U./m2. An objective response was observed in 3 of 28 evaluable patients (10%): 1 complete response and 1 partial response in renal cell cancer, and 1 partial response in a melanoma patient. We conclude that for future studies, the recommended dose of IL-2 given as a weekly 24-h infusion is 9 x 10(6) C.U./m2 and that a low rate of objective tumor response can be obtained in patients with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma using this regimen.

  2. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  3. A prospective randomized evaluation of the prophylactic use of low-dose dopamine in cancer patients receiving interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, J N; Hurst, R; Vasselli, J; Lee, D; Kim, C J; McKee, M; Venzon, D; White, D; Marincola, F M; Rosenberg, S A

    1997-07-01

    The administration of high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) causes tumor regression in 17-25% of patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. Renal dysfunction is a common dose-limiting toxicity of IL-2 administration, limiting 26% of treatment cycles. We have conducted a prospective randomized trial to evaluate whether the prophylactic administration of low-dose dopamine (2 mg/kg/min) can minimize renal toxicity and thus affect the amount of IL-2 administered. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic high-dose IL-2 with standard supportive measures (group A = 21 patients) or with the addition of prophylactic dopamine (group B = 21 patients) at 2 mg/kg/min. For patients in group B, dopamine was instituted 1 h before the initiation of IL-2 administration and was discontinued 6-12 h after the maximum number of doses of IL-2 were given. There was no difference in the amount of IL-2 administered for each course of therapy for groups A and B. Despite differences in urine flow (milliliters per kilogram per day), fluid balance (liters per day), and overall weight gain, prophylactic low-dose dopamine did not significantly alter maximum plasma urea or creatinine levels in group B when compared with the control group (group A). The overall toxicity profile considering all grade 3 and 4 toxicities for patients in groups A and B was comparable. Thus, there is no evidence to support the routine use of prophylactic low-dose dopamine in patients receiving high-dose IL-2.

  4. Specific anti-EL4-lymphoma immunity in mice cured 2 years earlier with doxorubicin and interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Zaleskis, G; Ho, R L; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1996-05-01

    This laboratory has reported the conditions for an effective, non-toxic, chemoimmunotherapy utilizing doxorubicin in combination with prolonged administration of interleukin-2 and the identification of the critical role of activated CD8+ T cells in the therapeutic effect. Mice (C57BL/6) cured in those studies have been followed for the remainder of their life spans. These mice, approximately 2 months of age when initially inoculated with syngeneic EL4 lymphoma, survived for more than 2 years, the normal life span of C57BL/6 mice. Mice 4 months old reinoculated with the EL4 cells all survived. At about 1 year of age mice were sacrificed and the ability of their thymocytes and splenocytes to develop specific CD8+ anti-EL4 activity was as high as it had been at the time of tumor rejection. At about 2 years of age EL4 was reimplanted into mice; all of them survived. These surviving mice, at 2 years 2 months of age, as well as a group of 2-year-old mice not rechallenged, were killed and functional antitumor activity and phenotype characteristics of various lymphocyte populations were determined in comparison to those of young and age-matched control mice. The phenotyping of the lymphocytes from the cured mice indicated very notable differences in subset distribution and increased CD44 expression. Functionally they developed high levels of anti-EL4 activity, which was ablated by combined treatment with monoclonal antibodies against CD8 and CD44, indicating the role of memory cells. Consistent with cells from aged mice, these same cell populations had a very reduced allogeneic responsiveness. It appears that cured mice have developed an immune memory specific for EL4.

  5. Phorbol esters induce interleukin 2 mRNA in sensitive but not in resistant EL4 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.; Lynch, K.R.; Sando, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Phorbol ester (PE) sensitive EL4 cells are growth-inhibited and produce interleukin 2 (IL2) when treated with PE. Resistant EL4 cells lack both responses. To determine whether the defect in resistant cells occurs pre or post-transcriptionally, an assay for IL2 mRNA was developed using a synthetic oligonucleotide to mouse IL2 as a probe. Total RNA (15 μg) from cells +/- PE was electrophoresed, blotted onto a cationic nylon membrane, and probed with radiolabeled oligomer. This probe hybridized to a 1.1 kb band in RNA from PE-treated sensitive cells. This RNA was detectable within 3h of PE administration, was clearly visible by 6h, and peaked by 9 to 12h. No bands hybridizing with the IL2 probe were detected in RNA isolated from unstimulated cells or from resistant EL4 cells at any time following PE stimulation. Since levels of the protooncogene c-myc have been shown to decrease in a number of cell lines during differentiation and growth inhibition, total RNA from EL4 cells was probed with a nick-translated plasmid containing the protein coding region of the c-myc gene. In PE sensitive cells, levels of c-myc RNA are markedly reduced by 3h. In a pilot experiment with resistant cells, c-myc levels appeared to remain constant. These results demonstrate that PE induced IL2 mRNA in PE sensitive but not resistant EL4 cells. Sensitive and resistant EL4 cell lines provide a useful model for the investigation of the regulation of gene expression by PE

  6. Interleukin 2 and alpha interferon induced in vitro modulation of spontaneous cell mediated cytotoxicity in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishna Pillai, M.; Balaram, P.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Abraham, T.; Nair, M.K.; Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum

    1989-01-01

    In vitro modulation of spontaneous cell mediated cytotoxicity by interferon and interleukin 2 was carried out using peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with cancer of the uterine cervix before and at different intervals after commencement of radiation treatment. A total of 150 patients with various stages of the disease were included and cytotoxicity was measured using the single cell cytotoxic assay. These results indicate a beneficial effect in vitro of interleukin 2 and interferon in augmenting spontaneous cell mediated cytotoxicity, a possibly vital antitumour immune mechanism in patients with relatively early cervix cancer. Natural killer cell, lymphokine activated killer cell and interferon activated killer cell activity was depressed immediately following radiotherapy. The activity of these cell types later on increased above pretreatment levels in patients with stages I, IIA and IIB. A similar rebound above pretreatment levels was not observed in patients with stages III and IV. (orig.)

  7. Intratumoural and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing interleukin-2 based immunotherapy: association to objective response and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Bennedsgaard, K M; Von Der Maase, H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse lymphocyte subsets in consecutive peripheral blood samples and consecutive tumour tissue core needle biopsies performed before and during interleukin-2 based immunotherapy, and to correlate the findings with objective response and survival. Twenty...... response or survival. Within the tumour tissue at baseline, a significant positive correlation between CD4 (P=0.027), CD8 (P=0.028), CD57 (P=0.007) and objective response was demonstrated. After one month of immunotherapy, a significant positive correlation between intratumoral CD3 (P=0.026), CD8 (P=0...... of lymphocyte subsets in the tumour reduction in responding patients during interleukin-2 based immunotherapy. Confirmation of the results requires further studies including a larger number of patients....

  8. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  9. Expressions of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and relative cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ (IFN- gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Methods: Two groups of ...

  10. Predictors of bacterial pneumonia in the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, SL; Carey, C; Lin, E; Wentworth, D; Lazovski, J; Miró, JM; Gordin, F; Angus, B; Rodriguez-Barradas, M; Rubio, R; Tambussi, G; Cooper, DA; Emery, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Bacterial pneumonia still contributes to morbidity/mortality in HIV-infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). ESPRIT, a trial of intermittent recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) with cART vs.cART alone (control arm) in HIV-infected adults with CD4+≥300 offered the opportunity to explore associations between bacterial pneumonia and rIL-2, a cytokine which increases some bacterial infections. Methods Baseline and time-updated factors associated with first-episode pneumonia on study were analysed using multivariate proportional hazards regression models. Smoking/pneumococcal vaccination history was not collected. Results IL-2 cycling was most intense in years 1-2. Over ≈7 years, 93 IL-2 (rate 0.67/100PY) and 86 control (rate 0.63/100PY) patients experienced a pneumonia-event, (HR=1.06,95%CI=0.79,1.42,p=0.68). Median CD4+ prior to pneumonia was 570 (IL-2 arm) and 463cells/uL (control arm). Baseline risks for bacterial pneumonia included older age, IVDU, detectable HIV viral load (VL), previous recurrent pneumonia; Asian ethnicity was associated with decreased risk. Higher proximal VL (HR for 1 log10 higher VL=1.28,95%CI=1.11,1.47,p=<.001) was associated with increased risk; higher CD4+ prior to the event (HR per 100 cells higher=0.94,95%CI0.89,1.0,p=0.04) decreased risk. Compared to controls, the hazard for a pneumonia-event was higher if rIL-2 was received <180 days prior (HR=1.66,95%CI=1.07,2.60,p=0.02) vs.≥180 days (HR=0.98,95%CI=0.70,1.37,p=0.9). Compared to the control group, pneumonia-risk in the IL-2 arm decreased over time with HRs of 1.41, 1.71, 1.16, 0.62 and 0.84 in years 1, 2, 3-4,5-6 and 7, respectively. Conclusions Bacterial pneumonia rates in cART-treated adults with moderate immunodeficiency are high. The mechanism of the association between bacterial pneumonia and recent IL-2 receipt and/or detectable HIV-viraemia deserves further exploration. PMID:20812949

  11. {sup 99m}Tc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy for the in vivo imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; D' Alessandria, Calogero; Scopinaro, Francesco [University La Sapienza, Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); Arca, Marcello [University La Sapienza, Department of Clinical and Applied Medical Therapy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Marcoccia, Antonella; Violi, Francesco [University La Sapienza, Medical Clinical Institute 1, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Toma, Giorgio De [University La Sapienza, Department of Surgery Pietro Valdoni, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Signore, Alberto [University La Sapienza, Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Ospedale S. Andrea, Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    Several histopathological studies have demonstrated that vulnerable plaques are enriched in inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were: (1a) to test the ability of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ({sup 99m}Tc-IL2) to bind to IL2R-positive (IL2R+) cells in carotid plaques and (1b) to correlate the plaque uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2, measured in vivo, with the number of IL2R+ cells within the plaque, measured ex vivo by histology (transversal study, TS), and (2) to evaluate changes in {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake in plaques, before and after treatment with a statin or a hypocholesterolaemic diet (longitudinal study, LS). Ultrasound scan was performed for plaque characterisation and localisation. Fourteen patients (16 plaques) eligible for endoarterectomy were recruited for the TS and underwent {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 scintigraphy before surgery. Nine patients (13 plaques) were recruited for the LS; these patients received atorvastatin or a standard hypocholesterolaemic diet and {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 scintigraphy was performed before and after 3 months of treatment. The degree of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake was expressed as the plaque/background (T/B) ratio. In patients from TS, T/B ratios correlated with the percentage of IL2R+ cells at histology (r=0.707; p=0.002) and the number of IL2R+ cells at flow cytometry (r=0.711; p=0.006). No correlations were observed between ultrasound scores and either scintigraphic or histological findings. In patients from the LS, the mean {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake decreased in statin-treated patients (1.75{+-}0.50 vs 2.16{+-}0.44; p=0.012), while it was unchanged in the patients on the hypocholesterolaemic diet (2.33{+-}0.45 vs 2.34{+-}0.5). {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 accumulates in vulnerable carotid plaques; this accumulation is correlated with the amount of IL2R+ cells and is influenced by lipid-lowering treatment with a statin. (orig.)

  12. Immunochemotherapy with interleukin-2, interferon- α and 5-fluorouracil for progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a multicenter phase II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpen, C M L van; Jansen, R L H; Kruit, W H J; Hoekman, K; Groenewegen, G; Osanto, S; Mulder, P H M De

    2000-01-01

    In patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma response rates of 7–26% have been achieved with immunotherapy. A high response rate of 48% in 35 patients has been reported for treatment with the combination of interferon-α (IFN-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (Atzpodien et al (1993 a) Eur J Cancer29A: S6–8). We conducted a multicentre phase II study to confirm these results. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients were treated as outpatients with an 8-week treatment cycle. Recombinant human IL-2 20 MU m−2was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) three times a week (t.i.w) in weeks 1 and 4 and 5 MU m−2t.i.w. in weeks 2 and 3. Recombinant human IFN-α 2a 6 MU m−2was administered s.c. once in weeks 1 and 4 and t.i.w. in weeks 2 and 3, and 9 MU m−2t.i.w. in weeks 5–8. 5-FU (750 mg m−2) was given as a bolus injection intravenous once a week in weeks 5–8. The treatment cycle was repeated once in case of response or minor response. Fifty-two patients entered the study. All had undergone a nephrectomy and had progressive metastatic disease. The median WHO-performance status was 1, the median number of metastatic sites was 2 (range 1–5) and the median time between the diagnosis of the primary tumour and the start of treatment was 12.9 months (range 1–153). Among the 51 patients, including four patients with early progressive disease, who were evaluable for response, the response rate was 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9–20.7%), with no complete responses. Median duration of response was 8.3 (range 3.8–22.4+) months. Median survival was 16.5 (range 1.8–30.5+) months. Grade 3/4 toxicity (WHO) occurred in 29/52 (55.8%) of the patients in cycle 1 and in 6/16 (37.5%) of the patients in cycle 2. It consisted mainly of anorexia, fatigue, nausea, fever and leucocytopenia. We cannot confirm the high response rate in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with the combination of IFN-α, IL-2 and 5-FU, as described

  13. Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC)

  14. In vivo administration of interferon alpha and interleukin 2 induces proliferation of lymphoid cells in the organs of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.K.; Travis, W.D.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously shown that interleukin 2 (IL-2) synergizes with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in mediating the regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases and the reduction of intradermal tumor in various murine tumor models. To understand the mechanism of synergy, we have examined lymphoid cell proliferation in various organs of mice in response to IL-2 and IFN-alpha administration. We have utilized a technique for labeling newly synthesized DNA in vivo with 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine to examine proliferation of endogenous cells in response to IL-2 and IL-2 plus IFN-alpha. A proliferation index was calculated by dividing cpm in the tissues treated with cytokines by cpm obtained in corresponding tissues of control mice. After 4 days of IL-2 administration, a significant uptake of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine was observed in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen (proliferation index of 13, 10.3, 3.6, and 3.2, respectively). IFN-alpha alone mediated very little incorporation of radiolabel but when administered in combination with IL-2 a reduction of IL-2-induced proliferation was seen on day 4. For example 19,272 +/- 4,556 cpm (mean +/- SE) were obtained in the liver of IL-2-treated mice, compared to 8,103 +/- 2,111 cpm in livers of IL-2 plus IFN-alpha-treated mice (P less than 0.05). Similar inhibition of IL-2-induced proliferation was observed in the lungs, kidneys, and spleen. In contrast, on days 7 or 8, higher uptake of radiolabel was obtained in IFN-alpha plus IL-2-treated lungs, liver, and kidneys, compared to organs of mice treated with IL-2 alone or IFN-alpha alone. A proliferation index of 30.5, 9.8, and 10 was obtained in the lungs, liver, and kidneys of IL-2- plus IFN-alpha-treated animals, compared to 9.6, 3.6, and 5.5 in the corresponding organs of IL-2-treated mice

  15. Imaging active lymphocytic infiltration in coeliac disease with iodine-123-interleukin-2 and the response to diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, A.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Rossi, M.; Greco, M.; Ronga, G.; Picarelli, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit (Nu.M.E.D. Group) and Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy); Maiuri, L. [Inst. of Paediatrics, Children' s Hospital Posilipon, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Britton, K.E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    Coeliac disease is diagnosed by the presence of specific antibodies and a jejunal biopsy showing mucosal atrophy and mononuclear cell infiltration. Mucosal cell-mediated immune response is considered the central event in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, and untreated coeliac patients show specific features of T-cell activation in the small intestine. Here we describe the use of iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in coeliac patients as a non-invasive tool for detection of lymphocytic infiltration in the small bowel and its use for therapy follow-up, and we demonstrate the specificity of binding of labelled-IL2 to activated lymphocytes by ex-vivo autoradiography of jejunal biopsies. {sup 123}I-IL2 was administered i.v. [74 MBq (2 mCi)], and gamma camera images were acquired after 1 h. Ten patients were studied with {sup 123}I-IL2 scintigraphy at diagnosis and seven were also investigated after 12-19 months of gluten-free diet. Results were expressed as target-to-background radioactivity ratios in six different bowel regions before and after the diet. At the time of diagnosis all patients showed a significantly higher bowel uptake of {sup 123}I-IL2 than normal subjects (P<0.003 in all regions). A significant correlation was found between jejunal radioactivity and the number of IL2R+ve lymphocytes per millimetre of jejunal mucosa as detected by immunostaining of jejunal biopsy (r{sup 2}=0.66; P=0.008). Autoradiography of jejunal biopsies confirmed that labelled-IL2 only binds to activated T-lymphocytes infiltrating the gut mucosa. After 1 year of the diet, bowel uptake of {sup 123}I-IL2 significantly decreased in five out of six regions (P<0.03), although two patients still had a positive IL2 scintigraphy in one region. We conclude that {sup 123}I-IL2 scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing in vivo the presence of activated mononuclear cells in the bowel of patients affected by coeliac disease. Unlike jejunal biopsy, this method provides

  16. Multicentre, open, noncomparative Phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of fotemustine, cisplatin, alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 in advanced melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; Fiorentini, Giammaria; Guida, Michele; Michiara, Maria; Freschi, Andrea; Aitini, Enrico; Ballardini, Michela; Bichisao, Ettore; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2009-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of fotemustine, cisplatin, alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 biochemotherapy were evaluated in advanced melanoma patients. The schedule consisted of fotemustine (100 mg/m) and cisplatin (75 mg/m) intravenous on day 1, followed by subcutaneous interleukin-2 at a dose of 4.5 MIU on days 3-5 and 8-12 and alpha-interferon at a dose of 3 MU three times/week, every 3 weeks for six cycles. Sixty patients were evaluated for tumour response, 12 of whom had brain metastases (BM). One patient (1.7%) with BM achieved a complete response and partial responses were observed in 10 patients (16.7%), including one BM patient. Overall response rate was 18.4 and 16.6% in BM patients (median response duration 8.2 months). Disease control, defined as overall response and stable disease, was 58.4% in all patients and 75% in patients with BM. Median time to progression was 3.2 months (4.2 months in BM patients). Median overall survival was 8.9 months (7.6 months in BM patients). Toxic events were mild to moderate. This combination was well tolerated and showed acceptable clinical activity, especially in BM patients.

  17. Constitutive STAT3-activation in Sezary syndrome: tyrphostin AG490 inhibits STAT3-activation, interleukin-2 receptor expression and growth of leukemic Sezary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, K W; Kaltoft, K; Mikkelsen, G

    2001-01-01

    are IL-2Ralpha negative. An aberrant expression of IL-2Ralpha has recently been described in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Here, we study the regulation of IL-2Ralpha expression and STATs in a tumor cell line obtained from peripheral blood from a patient with Sezary syndrome (SS), a leukemic variant...... of CTCL. We show that (1) STAT3 (a transcription factor known to regulate IL-2Ralpha transcription) is constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in SS tumor cells, but not in non-malignant T cells; (2) STAT3 binds constitutively to a STAT-binding sequence in the promotor of the IL-2Ralpha gene; (3) the Janus...... kinase inhibitor, tyrphostine AG490, inhibits STAT3 activation, STAT3 DNA binding, and IL-2Ralpha mRNA and protein expression in parallel; and (4) tyrphostine AG490 inhibits IL-2 driven mitogenesis and triggers apoptosis in SS tumor cells. In conclusion, we provide the first example of a constitutive...

  18. Organophosphorous pesticide metabolite (DEDTP) induces changes in the activation status of human lymphocytes by modulating the interleukin 2 receptor signal transduction pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel-Senties, M.S.; Barrera, I.; Ortega, A.; Vega, L.

    2010-01-01

    Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) is a metabolite formed by biotransformation of organophosphorous (OP) compounds that has a longer half-life than its parental compound. Here we evaluate the effects of DEDTP on human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In vitro exposure to DEDTP (1-50 μM) decreased [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in resting cells and increased CD25 surface expression without altering cell viability. DEDTP treatment inhibited anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation determined by CFSE dilution. Decreased CD25 expression and intracellular IL-2 levels were correlated with this defect in cell proliferation. IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-10 secretion were also reduced while IL-4 secretion was not altered. Increased phosphorylation of SOCS3 and dephosphorylation of STAT5 were induced by DEDTP after as little as 5 min of exposure. In addition, DEDTP induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 and NFAT nuclear translocation. These results suggest that DEDTP can modulate phosphorylation of intracellular proteins such as SOCS3, which functions as a negative regulator of cytokine signalling, and that DEDTP exposure may thus cause T cells to fail to respond to further antigen challenges.

  19. T-cell receptor v-alpha and v-Beta gene usage in interleukin-2-cultured tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E; Scholler, J; Straten, P

    1994-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are often found in malignant breast tumors, and have been claimed to be of prognostic value. It has been proposed that TIL may represent an enriched population of tumor-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes, reacting with antigenic determinants on the tumor cell...

  20. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, John A.; Porter, Linsey; Smyth, Deborah J.; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Yang, Jennie H.; Bell, Charles J. M.; Schuilenburg, Helen; Challis, Ben; Clarke, Pamela; Coleman, Gillian; Dawson, Sarah; Goymer, Donna; Kennet, Jane; Brown, Judy; Greatorex, Jane; Goodfellow, Ian; Evans, Mark; Mander, Adrian P.; Bond, Simon; Wicker, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs. Methods and Findings To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D), a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low) from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39) found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = −0

  1. Interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and their precursors express the VGO1 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denegri, J.F.; Peterson, J.; Tilley, P.

    1989-01-01

    Precursor and effector cells of recombinant interleukin-2 (r-IL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity were investigated for their expression of VGO1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors were purified and separated in a FACS 420 into VGO1+- and VGO1- cell fractions before and after culture for 96 hr with 100 U/ml of r-IL-2. Their lytic activity against K 562 and Daudi cells was measured in a 51Cr release assay. The majority, if not all, of the LAK effector and precursor cells was VGO1+ lymphocytes. The expression of VGO1 by LAK precursor cells remained stable under the culture conditions used in our experiments. VGO1- lymphocytes cultured with r-IL-2 demonstrated neither LAK-induced activity nor expression of VGO1 antigen

  2. Site-Mutation of Hydrophobic Core Residues Synchronically Poise Super Interleukin 2 for Signaling: Identifying Distant Structural Effects through Affordable Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longcan Mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A superkine variant of interleukin-2 with six site mutations away from the binding interface developed from the yeast display technique has been previously characterized as undergoing a distal structure alteration which is responsible for its super-potency and provides an elegant case study with which to get insight about how to utilize allosteric effect to achieve desirable protein functions. By examining the dynamic network and the allosteric pathways related to those mutated residues using various computational approaches, we found that nanosecond time scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations can identify the dynamic network as efficient as an ensemble algorithm. The differentiated pathways for the six core residues form a dynamic network that outlines the area of structure alteration. The results offer potentials of using affordable computing power to predict allosteric structure of mutants in knowledge-based mutagenesis.

  3. The immunosuppressives FK 506 and cyclosporin A inhibit the generation of protein factors binding to the two purine boxes of the interleukin 2 enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabletz, T; Pietrowski, I; Serfling, E

    1991-01-11

    Like Cyclosporin A (CsA), the macrolide FK 506 is a potent immunosuppressive that inhibits early steps of T cell activation, including the synthesis of Interleukin 2 (II-2) and numerous other lymphokines. The block of II-2 synthesis occurs at the transcriptional level. At concentrations that block T cell activation, FK 506 and CsA inhibit the proto-enhancer activity of Purine boxes of the II-2 promoter and the generation of lymphocyte-specific factors binding to the Purine boxes. Under the same conditions, the DNA binding of other II-2 enhancer factors remains unaffected by both compounds. These results support the view that FK 506 and CsA, which both inhibit the activity of peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerases, suppress T cell activation by a similar, if not identical mechanism.

  4. Lymphocyte-conditioned medium in combination with interleukin-2 effectively induces antitumour autoimmunity by adoptive transfer of short activated killer (SHAK) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buer, J; Hilse, R; Dallmann, I; Grosse, J; Kirchner, H; Zorn, U; Hänninen, E L; Franzke, A; Duensing, S; Poliwoda, H

    1995-03-01

    In this study, effective antitumour immunity was transferred by autologous short activated killer (SHAK) cells induced over four hours with lymphocyte conditioned medium (LCM) and recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). Among eight patients with progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma refractory to standard therapy, there were six objective tumour responses to SHAKs. Progression-free survival ranged from 0 to 8+ months, and overall survival ranged from 2 to 14+ months, with a median of 9+ months. Systemic toxicity of SHAKs was limited to flulike symptoms. Patient SHAKs provided a tumour-specific immunity, both cellular and humoral (expression and secretion of secondary cytokines, including IL-2, GM-CSF, INF-gamma and TNF-alpha), far superior to rIL-2 activated killer cells.

  5. Structure of the interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase Src homology 2 domain; comparison between X-ray and NMR-derived structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Raji E.; Ginder, Nathaniel D.; Hoy, Julie A.; Nix, Jay C.; Fulton, D. Bruce; Honzatko, Richard B.; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    The interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase Src homology 2 domain was crystallized and its structure was solved to 2.35 Å resolution. The structure reveals a domain-swapped dimer that is related to other dimeric SH2 domains solved previously. The cis–trans-prolyl isomerization that is evident from solution studies of Itk SH2 cannot be observed in the crystal structure. The crystal structure of the interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase Src homology domain (Itk SH2) is described and it is found that unlike in studies of this domain using NMR spectroscopy, cis–trans-prolyl isomerization is not readily detected in the crystal structure. Based on similarities between the Itk SH2 crystal form and the cis form of the Itk SH2 NMR structure, it is concluded that it is likely that the prolyl imide bond at least in part adopts the cis conformation in the crystal form. However, the lack of high-resolution data and the dynamic nature of the proline-containing loop mean that the precise imide-bond conformation cannot be determined and prolyl cis–trans isomerization in the crystal cannot be ruled out. Given the preponderance of structures that have been solved by X-ray crystallography in the Protein Data Bank, this result supports the notion that prolyl isomerization in folded proteins has been underestimated among known structures. Interestingly, while the precise status of the proline residue is ambiguous, Itk SH2 crystallizes as a domain-swapped dimer. The domain-swapped structure of Itk SH2 is similar to the domain-swapped SH2 domains of Grb2 and Nck, with domain swapping occurring at the β-meander region of all three SH2 domains. Thus, for Itk SH2 structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed very different structural features: proline isomerization versus domain-swapped dimerization, respectively

  6. Interleukin-2-induced survival of natural killer (NK) cells involving phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent reduction of ceramide through acid sphingomyelinase, sphingomyelin synthase, and glucosylceramide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Tadakazu; Watanabe, Mitsumasa; Miyaji, Michihiko; Umehara, Hisanori; Kozutsumi, Yasunori; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2004-11-15

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) rescued human natural killer (NK) KHYG-1 cells from apoptosis along with a reduction of ceramide. Conversely, an increase of ceramide inhibited IL-2-rescued survival. IL-2 deprivation-induced activation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) and inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) and sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) were normalized by IL-2 supplementation. A phosphatidyl inositol-3 (PI-3) kinase inhibitor, LY294002, inhibited IL-2-rescued survival, but a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, PD98059, and an inhibitor of Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, AG490, did not. LY294002 inhibited IL-2-induced reduction of ceramide through activation of acid SMase and inhibition of GCS and SMS, suggesting the positive involvement of PI-3 kinase in ceramide reduction through enzymatic regulation. Indeed, a constitutively active PI-3 kinase enhanced growth rate and ceramide reduction through inhibition of acid SMase and activation of GCS and SMS. Further, LY294002 inhibited IL-2-induced changes of transcriptional level as well as mRNA and protein levels in acid SMase and GCS but did not affect the stability of the mRNAs. These results suggest that PI-3 kinase-dependent reduction of ceramide through regulation of acid SMase, GCS, and SMS plays a role in IL-2-rescued survival of NK cells.

  7. Defective production of interleukin 2 in patients with Chagas' disease: purified IL-2 augments in vitro response in patients with chagasic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Briceno

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, from patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease and healthy controls, was evaluated after stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, PPD and PHA. PHA induced higher production of IL-2 in infected patients than healthy controls. No diferences were found between infected groups. With PPD the trend was similar, the only difference was that asymptomatic infected patients (INF showed higher levels of IL-2 production than patients with cardiomyopathy (CDM. With T. cruzi antigen, most patients showed little or no IL-2 production at 24 hr, a peak at 48 hr and an abrupt fall at 72 hr. A similar pattern of IL- 2 production was observed in INF and CDM. To evaluate the physiologic relevance of the deficit in IL-2 production, we studied the effect of non-mitogenic concentratios of IL-2 in the proliferative response to specific antigens. The addition of IL-2 only enhanced the proliferative response of CDM patients. These observations suggest that patients suffering Chagas' disease, particularly CDM, have a significant reduction in the capacity to produce IL-2. These findings could be of importance in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  8. Improved leukemia-free survival after postconsolidation immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 in acute myeloid leukemia: results of a randomized phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Mats; Castaigne, Sylvie; Catalano, John; Gehlsen, Kurt; Ho, Anthony D; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Hogge, Donna E; Nilsson, Bo; Or, Reuven; Romero, Ana I; Rowe, Jacob M; Simonsson, Bengt; Spearing, Ruth; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Szer, Jeff; Wallhult, Elisabeth; Hellstrand, Kristoffer

    2006-07-01

    The primary objective of this phase 3 study was to determine whether postconsolidation immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) improved the leukemia-free survival (LFS) of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR). Three hundred twenty patients with AML (median age, 57 years; range, 18-84 years) were stratified by CR1 or subsequent CR (CR > 1) and randomly assigned to treatment with HDC/IL-2 or no treatment (control). Treatment comprised 10 21-day cycles with IL-2 (16 400 U/kg) plus HDC (0.5 mg); both compounds were administered by subcutaneous injection twice daily. Study arms were balanced for age, sex, previous treatment, leukemic karyotypes, time from CR to inclusion, and frequency of secondary leukemia. Three years after enrollment of the last patient, treatment with HDC/IL-2 was found to improve LFS over control in the study population (CR1 + CR > 1, n = 320; P < .01, log-rank test). For patients in CR1 (n = 261), treatment significantly improved LFS (P = .01) with 3-year LFS estimates of 40% (HDC/IL-2) compared with 26% (control). Side effects were typically mild to moderate. These results indicate that HDC/IL-2 treatment offers an efficacious and tolerable treatment for patients with AML in remission.

  9. Adverse effects to iodinated contrast media in interleukin-2 treated patients; Reacciones adversas a los medio de contraste yodados en pacientes tratados con interleuquina 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vias, I.; Nicolas, A. I.; Lopez Picazo, J. M.; Elduayen, B.; Delgado, C.; Ano, M.; Fernande-villa, T.; Garcia del Barrio, L.; Velazquez, P.; Bilbao, J. I. [Universidad de Navarra. Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent modulator of immune response that provokes tumor regression in cancer patients. IL-2 may induce sensitization to radiological iodinated contrast media (ICM) and this phenomenon has been rarely reported in literature. We report the increased incidence of adverse reactions to ICM patients treated with systemic IL-2, discuss the possible mechanisms of action, and propose patient management strategies. Retrospective study was conducted in 168 patients treated with subcutaneous IL-2 and 544 patients who did not.CT scans were performed with intravenous administration of 80-160 ml of nonionic ICM with a power injector. The incidence of adverse reactions to ICM among our patients was 7.14%. It differs significantly (p<0.001) from that in the control group (1.28%). Thus, patients treated with IL-2 have a relative risk of 5,6 times (CI 95%; 2.2-13.9). The adverse reactions in IL-2 patients were mild and resolved promptly without treatment in 11 patients. In one patient hypotension required intravenous forced hydration. Patients on IL-2 treatment may be at risk of experiencing contrast induced adverse reactions. Potent of the immune system by IL-2 may increase the potential risk for hypersensitivity or other adverse reactions to ICM. Knowledge of this fact may be valuable in clinical decision making and patient follow-up strategies. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. A New Synthetic Compound, 2-OH, Enhances Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ Gene Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woan-Fang Tzeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new synthetic compound, 6-hydroxy-2-tosylisoquinolin-1(2H-one (2-OH, was selected for immunopharmacological activity tests. The effects of 2-OH on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation were determined by tritiated thymidine uptake. Compared to phytohemagglutinin (PHA; 5 μg/mL stimulation, 2-OH significantly enhanced PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% enhancement activity (EC50 for 2-OH was 4.4±0.1 μM. In addition, effects of 2-OH on interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in PBMC were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results demonstrated that 2-OH stimulated IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC. Data from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR indicated that IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in PBMC could be induced by 2-OH. Therefore, 2-OH enhanced IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC by modulation their gene expression. We suggest that 2-OH may be an immunomodulatory agent.

  11. The influence of interleukin-2, feeder cells, and timing of irradiation on the radiosensitivity of human T lymphocytes assessed by the colony-forming assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.; Guichard, M.; Pioch, Y.; Dubois, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of human lymphocytes was investigated by the method of colony formation in the absence of interleukin-2 (IL2) and feeder cells, both of which enhance growth of T-cell colonies. The shape of the survival curve and the radiosensitivity was shown to depend upon the ability of lymphocytes to produce IL2: the survival curve for lymphocytes that were the most competent producers of IL2 is the closest to linearity; the lymphocytes that were poor producers show biphasic survival curves. The radiosensitivity of the lymphocytes from the first group is less than that of the latter, when the comparison is based on the first part of the biphasic survival curve. This is more easily seen when cultures are irradiated 24 h after stimulation by phytohemagglutinin (the time of the peak IL2 production) than when cultures are irradiated 2 h before stimulation. This study demonstrates that growth conditions influence the response of lymphocytes to irradiation and that optimal growth conditions result in a linear survival curve

  12. Natural cytolytic activity in mice with natural or induced cellular defects. I. Differential ability of in vitro interleukin-2 addition to augment natural cytolytic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, E.W.; Hinson, A.; Butler, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of in vitro addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to differentially enhance natural cytotoxicity was assessed using cells from mice with natural and induced cellular defects. In vivo treatment with most immunosuppressive or cytoreductive agents, anti-asialo-GM1 antibody, or gamma irradiation dramatically reduced in vitro cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK) sensitive targets by direct reduction in either percentage specific lysis or lytic units per spleen. In most cases, in vitro addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented NK function in cells from naive Balb/C mice) enhanced cytotoxic activity of cells from treatment groups to a normal value but not within the rIL-2-enhanced range of nontreated animals. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of cells from animals treated with certain drugs or gamma irradiation could be augmented by rIL-2 when measured by percentage lysis but not lytic units per spleen. In vivo treatment with cyclosporin A did not affect natural cytotoxic activity and addition of rIL-2 augmented the NK activity in a similar fashion to the profile of naive cells. In experiments using cells from beige (C57Bl/6-bg) mice which have a natural defect in NK activity against YAC-1 targets, addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented natural cytotoxic function in cells from C57Bl/6 mice) could not effectively enhance in vitro natural cytotoxic function

  13. Natural cytolytic activity in mice with natural or induced cellular defects. I. Differential ability of in vitro interleukin-2 addition to augment natural cytolytic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ades, E.W.; Hinson, A.; Butler, L.D.

    1986-08-01

    The ability of in vitro addition of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) to differentially enhance natural cytotoxicity was assessed using cells from mice with natural and induced cellular defects. In vivo treatment with most immunosuppressive or cytoreductive agents, anti-asialo-GM1 antibody, or gamma irradiation dramatically reduced in vitro cytotoxicity against natural killer (NK) sensitive targets by direct reduction in either percentage specific lysis or lytic units per spleen. In most cases, in vitro addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented NK function in cells from naive Balb/C mice) enhanced cytotoxic activity of cells from treatment groups to a normal value but not within the rIL-2-enhanced range of nontreated animals. Additionally, cytotoxic activity of cells from animals treated with certain drugs or gamma irradiation could be augmented by rIL-2 when measured by percentage lysis but not lytic units per spleen. In vivo treatment with cyclosporin A did not affect natural cytotoxic activity and addition of rIL-2 augmented the NK activity in a similar fashion to the profile of naive cells. In experiments using cells from beige (C57Bl/6-bg) mice which have a natural defect in NK activity against YAC-1 targets, addition of rIL-2 (at concentrations causing augmented natural cytotoxic function in cells from C57Bl/6 mice) could not effectively enhance in vitro natural cytotoxic function.

  14. Secretion of mature mouse interleukin-2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: use of a general secretion vector containing promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, A; Bond, M W; Otsu, K; Arai, K; Arai, N

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a general expression vector which allows the synthesis and secretion of processed gene products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This vector contains yeast DNA, including the promoter of the mating pheromone (alpha-factor), its downstream leader sequence, and the TRP5 terminator. A cDNA [encoding mature mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2); Yokota et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82 (1984) 68-72] was fused immediately downstream to the alpha-factor leader sequence. The resulting recombinant plasmid directed the synthesis of mature mouse IL-2 in S. cerevisiae, with most of the T-cell growth-factor (TCGF) activity secreted into the culture fluid and extracellular space. TCGF activities in the cell extract, as well as in the culture fluid, increased in parallel with cell growth. Production of mature mouse IL-2 was inhibited by tunicamycin (TM), with precursor molecules accumulating in the cell extract. The precursor was processed accurately at the junction between the alpha-factor peptide leader sequence and the coding sequence downstream, yielding mature IL-2. The Mr of the secreted mouse IL-2 determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was 17 kDal, a value expected for the mature mouse IL-2 polypeptide based on the nucleotide (nt) sequence.

  15. In vivo and in vitro evidence that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-interleukin-2 is able to detect T lymphocytes in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Koole, Michel; Luurtsema, Gert; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Bonanno, Elena [Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy). Dept. of Anatomic Pathology; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Surgery (Div. Vascular Surgery); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy; Taurino, Maurizio [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Vascular Surgery Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ, Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit

    2014-09-15

    Recent advances in basic science have established that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory cells are thought to be responsible for the transformation of a stable plaque into a vulnerable one. Lymphocytes constitute at least 20 % of infiltrating cells in these vulnerable plaques. Therefore, the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, being overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes, may represent an attractive biomarker for plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the specificity of radiolabelled IL-2 [{sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-IL-2] for imaging the lymphocytic infiltration in carotid plaques in vivo by planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging and ex vivo by microSPECT and autoradiography. For the in vivo study, ten symptomatic patients with advanced plaques at ultrasound who were scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 scintigraphy. The images were analysed visually on planar and SPECT images and semi-quantitatively on SPECT images by calculating target to background (T/B) ratios. After endarterectomy, immunomorphological evaluation and immunophenotyping were performed on plaque slices. For the ex vivo studies, four additional patients were included and, after in vitro incubation of removed plaques with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2, autoradiography was performed and microSPECT images were acquired. Visual analysis defined clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in seven of the ten symptomatic plaques. SPECT/CT allowed visualization in eight of ten. A significant correlation was found between the number of CD25+ lymphocytes and the total number of CD25+ cells in the plaque and the T/B ratio with adjacent carotid artery as background (Pearson's r = 0.89, p = 0.003 and r = 0.87, p = 0.005, respectively). MicroSPECT imaging showed clear {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake within the plaque wall and not in the lipidic core. With autoradiography

  16. Radiotherapy as an immunological booster in patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma treated with high-dose Interleukin-2: evaluation of biomarkers of immunologic and therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; de Rosa, Francesco; Ridolfi, Ruggero; Gentili, Giorgia; Valmorri, Linda; Scarpi, Emanuela; Parisi, Elisabetta; Romeo, Antonino; Guidoboni, Massimo

    2014-09-23

    Tumor cells killed by radiation therapy (RT) are a potentially good source of antigens for dendritic cell (DC) uptake and presentation to T-cells. RT upregulates cell death receptors such as Fas/CD95 and MHC-I, induces the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on tumor cells, and promotes production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. High-dose interleukin-2 (HD-IL-2) bolus has been shown to obtain objective response rates ranging from 15% to 17% in patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with 6% to 8% of cases experiencing a durable complete response. However, HD-IL-2 is also associated with severe side-effects; if it is to remain a component of the curative treatment strategy in patients with metastatic melanoma or RCC, its therapeutic efficacy must be improved and patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment must be identified a priori. We designed a clinical study combining immunomodulating RT and HD-IL-2 to evaluate their clinical and immunological efficacy and to explore the predictive and prognostic value of 1) tumor-specific immune response and 2) serum levels of proangiogenic cytokines. The primary endpoint of this proof-of-principle phase II study is immune response. Secondary endpoints are the identification of biomarkers potentially predictive of response, toxicity, response rate and overall survival. Three daily doses of booster radiotherapy (XRT) at 6-12 Gy will be administered to at least one metastatic field on days -3 to -1 before the first and third cycle. Treatment with IL-2 (dose 18 MIU/m2/day by continuous IV infusion for 72 hours) will start on day +1 and will be repeated every 3 weeks for up to 4 cycles and then every 4 weeks for a further 2 cycles. Immune response against tumor antigens expressed by melanoma and/or RCC will be evaluated during treatment. Circulating immune effectors and regulators, e.g. cytotoxic T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, as well as serum levels of proangiogenic

  17. Phase I Trial of Anti-PSMA Designer CAR-T Cells in Prostate Cancer: Possible Role for Interacting Interleukin 2-T Cell Pharmacodynamics as a Determinant of Clinical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Richard P; Ma, Qiangzhong; Rathore, Ritesh; Gomes, Erica M; Bais, Anthony J; Lo, Agnes S Y; Abedi, Mehrdad; Davies, Robin A; Cabral, Howard J; Al-Homsi, A Samer; Cohen, Stephen I

    2016-10-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified "designer" T cells (dTc, CAR-T) against PSMA selectively target antigen-expressing cells in vitro and eliminate tumors in vivo. Interleukin 2 (IL2), widely used in adoptive therapies, was proven essential in animal models for dTc to eradicate established solid tumors. Patients under-went chemotherapy condi-tion-ing, followed by dTc dosing under a Phase I escalation with continuous infusion low dose IL2 (LDI). A target of dTc escalation was to achieve ≥20% engraftment of infused activated T cells. Six patients enrolled with doses prepared of whom five were treated. Patients received 10(9) or 10(10) autologous T cells, achieving expansions of 20-560-fold over 2 weeks and engraftments of 5-56%. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses established the impact of conditioning to promote expansion and engraftment of the infused T cells. Unexpectedly, administered IL2 was depleted up to 20-fold with high engraftments of activated T cells (aTc) in an inverse correlation (P < 0.01). Clinically, no anti-PSMA toxicities were noted, and no anti-CAR reactivities were detected post-treatment. Two-of-five patients achieved clinical partial responses (PR), with PSA declines of 50% and 70% and PSA delays of 78 and 150 days, plus a minor response in a third patient. Responses were unrelated to dose size (P = 0.6), instead correlating inversely with engraftment (P = 0.06) and directly with plasma IL2 (P = 0.03), suggesting insufficient IL2 with our LDI protocol to support dTc anti-tumor activity under optimal (high) dTc engraftments. Under a Phase I dose escalation in prostate cancer, a 20% engraftment target was met or exceeded in three subjects with adequate safety, leading to study conclusion. Clinical responses were obtained but were suggested to be restrained by low plasma IL2 when depleted by high levels of engrafted activated T cells. This report presents a unique example of how the pharmaco-dynamics of "drug

  18. Advantages of concurrent biochemotherapy modified by decrescendo interleukin-2, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and tamoxifen for patients with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, S J; Gammon, G; Boasberg, P D; Martin, M A; Kristedja, T S; Guo, M; Stern, S; Edwards, S; Fournier, P; Weisberg, M; Cannon, M; Fawzy, N W; Johnson, T D; Essner, R; Foshag, L J; Morton, D L

    1999-09-01

    Concurrent biochemotherapy results in high response rates but also significant toxicity in patients with metastatic melanoma. We attempted to improve its efficacy and decrease its toxicity by using decrescendo dosing of interleukin-2 (IL-2), posttreatment granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and low-dose tamoxifen. Forty-five patients with poor prognosis metastatic melanoma were treated at a community hospital inpatient oncology unit affiliated with the John Wayne Cancer Institute (Santa Monica, CA) between July 1995 and September 1997. A 5-day modified concurrent biochemotherapy regimen of dacarbazine, vinblastine, cisplatin, decrescendo IL-2, interferon alfa-2b, and tamoxifen was repeated at 21-day intervals. G-CSF was administered beginning on day 6 for 7 to 10 days. The overall response rate was 57% (95% confidence interval, 42% to 72%), the complete response rate was 23%, and the partial response rate was 34%. Complete remissions were achieved in an additional 11% of patients by surgical resection of residual disease after biochemotherapy. The median time to progression was 6.3 months and the median duration of survival was 11.4 months. At a maximum follow-up of 36 months (range, 10 to 36 months), 32% of patients are alive and 14% remain free of disease. Decrescendo IL-2 dosing and administration of G-CSF seemed to reduce toxicity, length of hospital stay, and readmission rates. No patient required intensive care unit monitoring, and there were no treatment-related deaths. The data from this study indicate that the modified concurrent biochemotherapy regimen reduces the toxicity of concurrent biochemotherapy with no apparent decrease in response rate in patients with poor prognosis metastatic melanoma.

  19. DSP30 and interleukin-2 as a mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders including those with a low disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Karen A; Riley, Louise A; Diano, Giuseppe; Adams, Leanne B; Chiu, Eleanor; Sharma, Archna

    2018-05-01

    Chromosome abnormalities detected during cytogenetic investigations for B-cell malignancy offer prognostic information that can have wide ranging clinical impacts on patients. These impacts may include monitoring frequency, treatment type, and disease staging level. The use of the synthetic oligonucleotide DSP30 combined with interleukin 2 (IL2) has been described as an effective mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders, not only in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but also in a range of other B-cell malignancies. Here, we describe the comparison of two B-cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and DSP30 combined with IL2 as mitogens in a range of common B-cell disorders excluding CLL. The results showed that DSP30/IL2 was an effective mitogen in mature B-cell disorders, revealing abnormal cytogenetic results in a range of B-cell malignancies. The abnormality rate increased when compared to the use of LPS to 64% (DSP30/IL2) from 14% (LPS). In a number of cases the disease burden was proportionally very low, less than 10% of white cells. In 37% of these cases, the DSP30 culture revealed abnormal results. Importantly, we also obtained abnormal conventional cytogenetics results in 3 bone marrow cases in which immunophenotyping showed an absence of an abnormal B-cell clone. In these cases, the cytogenetics results correlated with the provisional diagnosis and altered their staging level. The use of DSP30 and IL2 is recommended for use in many B-cell malignancies as an effective mitogen and their use has been shown to enable successful culture of the malignant clone, even at very low levels of disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Phase II trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4 and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitcham Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2 induces durable objective responses in a small cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC but the antigen(s responsible for tumor rejection are not known. 5T4 is a non-secreted membrane glycoprotein expressed on clear cell and papillary RCCs. A modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA encoding 5T4 was tested in combination with high-dose IL-2 to determine the safety, objective response rate and effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Methods 25 patients with metastatic RCC who qualified for IL-2 were eligible and received three immunizations every three weeks followed by IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg after the second and third vaccinations. Blood was collected for analysis of humoral, effector and regulatory T cell responses. Results There were no serious vaccine-related adverse events. While no objective responses were observed, three patients (12% were rendered disease-free after nephrectomy or resection of residual metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48% had stable disease which was associated with improved median overall survival compared to patients with progressive disease (not reached vs. 28 months, p = 0.0261. All patients developed 5T4-specific antibody responses and 13 patients had an increase in 5T4-specific T cell responses. Although the baseline frequency of Tregs was elevated in all patients, those with stable disease showed a trend toward increased effector CD8+ T cells and a decrease in Tregs. Conclusion Vaccination with MVA-5T4 did not improve objective response rates of IL-2 therapy but did result in stable disease associated with an increase in the ratio of 5T4-specific effector to regulatory T cells in selected patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN83977250

  1. Sensitivity tests of combination treatment with interleukin-2 and radiation against renal cell carcinoma using in vivo like growing culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Tetsuro; Machida, Toyohei; Asano, Kouji; Hatano, Takashi; Sawada, Takuko.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the effect of the combined therapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and radiation on renal cell carcinoma using an in vivo like growing culture system. We tested renal cell carcinoma obtained at surgery. After tumors were sliced into 2-mm square specimens, they were placed on a collagen gel-matrix filled with medium, and cultured for 7 days. 5 and 10 Gy were irradiated 3 days after the beginning of cell cultures. We also tested 100 JRU/ml of IL-2 added to each culture medium. The killing activity of each treatment was measured by the rate of 3 H-thymidine uptake. In the 5 Gy groups (n=9), we observed a significant effect in one treated with radiation alone (11.1%) and in 4 treated with the combined therapy (44.4%). Of these 4 having a significant effect with the combined therapy, one also had it with either radiation alone or combined therapy. The combined therapy was significantly effective compared with radiation alone. One had a significant effect with the combined therapy, and the remaining 2 had a significant effect by either combined therapy or radiation alone. In the 10 Gy group (n=12), a significant effect was seen in one with IL-2 treatment alone (8.3%), one with radiation alone (8.3%), and 4 with the combined therapy (33.3%). Of these 4 cases having a significant effects with the combined therapy, one had it by either radiation alone or the combined therapy, and the combined therapy was more effective than radiation alone. Two cases had a significant effect by the combined therapy, and the remaining one had it by either the combined therapy or radiation alone. We conclude that the combined therapy with IL-2 and radiation is effective for renal carcinoma, especially in the group irradiated with 5 Gy. (J.P.N.)

  2. THE CHANGES IN LEVEL OF 8-ENDORPHIN, INTERLEUKIN-2, INTERLEUKIN-4, INTERLEUKIN-6, IMUNOGLOBULIN AND CORTISOL HORMONE ON PRACTICES OF BRETHING EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpis Agus Sudarku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study was to reveal the changes of immunity at breathing exercises. This was an experimental study. With randomized pre-posttest control group design. Methods: The population were students of MA Mu'alimin, in Yogyakarta. Respondents were 15 students for each groups. The unit analysis were data analysis from blood taken from vena cubiti. The dependent variables were levels of IL 6, IL 4, IL 2, cortisol, Beta Endorphin, and lgG. The training programme was conducted in 7 weeks, 3 times per week, sub maximal intensity, and 6 sets per session. The laboratory vanable were the ELISA method. Results: Manova test were p: 0,000 Implied that there were differences (Wilk Lambda pinterleukin 2 and interleukin 4 did not increase Cortisol level did not decrease stgnificantly but there was an indication of level of cortisol decrease. Immunity modulator which caused breathing exercise stressor got by 3 groups with strong contribution on the basis concept of psychoneuroimmunologic. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, modulation

  3. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells.

  4. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells

  5. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, S L; Wand, H; Law, M G; Arduino, R; Lopez, J C; Knysz, B; Pereira, L C; Pollack, S; Reiss, P; Tambussi, G

    2006-01-01

    ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells > or =300 cells/microL. To describe the baseline characteristics of participants randomized to ESPRIT overall and by geographic location. Baseline characteristics of randomized participants were summarized by region. 4,150 patients were enrolled in ESPRIT from 254 sites in 25 countries. 41%, 27%, 16%, 11%, and 5% were enrolled in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australia, respectively. The median age was 40 years, 81% were men, and 76%, 11%, and 9% were Caucasian, Asian, and African American or African, respectively. 44% of women enrolled (n = 769) were enrolled in Thailand and Argentina. Overall, 55% and 38% of the cohort acquired HIV through male homosexual and heterosexual contact, respectively. 25% had a prior history of AIDS-defining illness; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, M. tuberculosis, and esophageal candida were most commonly reported. Median nadir and baseline CD4+ T-cell counts were 199 and 458 cells/muL, respectively. 6% and 13% were hepatitis B or C virus coinfected, respectively. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 4.2 years; the longest median duration was in Australia (5.2 years) and the shortest was in Asia (2.3 years). 17%, 13%, and 69% of participants began ART before 1995, between 1996 and 1997, and from 1998 onward, respectively. 86% used ART from two or more ART classes, with 49% using a protease inhibitor-based regimen and 46% using a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. 78% had plasma HIV RNA below detection (ESPRIT has enrolled a diverse population of HIV-infected individuals including large populations of women and patients of African-American/African and Asian ethnicity often underrepresented in HIV

  6. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  7. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the interleukin 2 gene are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiades, Jessica L; Zabaglia, Luanna M; Sallas, Mayara L; Orcini, Wilson A; Chen, Elizabeth; Smith, Marilia A C; Payão, Spencer L M; Rasmussen, Lucas T

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is mainly synthesized by immunoregulatory T helper cells and which plays an important role in antitumor immunity. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and induces the production of IL-2. This process increases the magnitude of inflammation and may influence the development of gastric pathologies. In light of the possible involvement of IL-2 and the presence of H. pylori in gastric diseases, this study investigated possible associations between the IL-2 polymorphisms +114 T>G (rs2069763) and -330 T>G (rs2069762) and the development of gastric cancer; these associations were then correlated with the presence of H. pylori. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 294 dyspeptic patients (173♀/123♂). Of these samples, 181 were chronic gastritis samples (102♀/79), 62 were samples of intact gastric mucosa (47♀/15♂), and 51 were samples of gastric cancer (22♀/29♂). PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the +114 T>G and -330 T>G polymorphisms. Considering the genetic characteristics of the study population and based on the codominant model, a high risk of gastric cancer among patients with normal gastric tissue and patients with gastric cancer was found in subjects with the IL-2-330 GG genotype (OR=6.43, 95% CI: 1.47-28.10, p=0.044). The data was adjusted for the presence of H. pylori. Among patients with gastritis and patients with gastric cancer, a high risk was found among subjects with the IL-2-330 GG genotype (OR=4.47, 95% CI: 1.84-10.84, p=0.0022). When the IL-2 +114 polymorphism was analyzed, similar results were found. Among the patients with normal gastric tissue and the patients with gastric cancer, subjects carrying the +114 TT genotype were found to be at a high risk of gastric cancer (OR=5.97, 95% CI: 1.60-22.27, p=0.013). This data was also adjusted for the presence of H. pylori. Among patients with gastritis and patients with gastric cancer

  8. Phase II trial of interleukin 2, interferon alpha, and 5-fluorouracil in metastatic renal cell cancer: a cytokine working group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, J P; Logan, T; Gordon, M; Sosman, J; Weiss, G; Margolin, K; Plasse, T; Mier, J; Lotze, M; Clark, J; Atkins, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of alternating two outpatient regimens for the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer. These regimens consisted of 4 weeks of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) plus IFN-alpha2B followed by 4 weeks of 5-fluorouracil plus IFN-alpha2B. Fifty patients meeting eligibility criteria of previous Cytokine Working Group studies were treated on an outpatient basis. Patients received s.c. rIL-2 (Proleukin; Chiron, Emeryville, CA) during weeks 1-4 of the 8-week regimen. During weeks 1 and 4, the dosage for rIL-2 was 10 MIU/m2 twice daily on days 3-5, and the dosage for IFN-alpha2B (Intron; Schering Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) was 6 MIU/m2 on day 1. During weeks 2 and 3, the dosage for rIL-2 was 5 MIU/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5, and the dosage for IFN-alpha2B was 6 MIU/m2 on days 1, 3, 5. During weeks 5-8, 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m2) was administered once weekly by i.v. infusion, and IFN-alpha2B (9 MIU/mZ) was administered as a s.c. injection three times weekly. Throughout the treatment, an assessment of quality of life was made and a symptom-distress scale was evaluated. There were two patients with complete responses (CRs) and seven with partial responses (PRs) for an objective response rate of 18% (95% confidence interval, 10-25). The median response duration was 8 months (range, 3-51+ months). The CRs lasted 5 months and 51+ months and the PRs ranged from 3+ to 18 months. After completing at least one course of treatment, eight patients (three with PR, one with minor response, four with stable disease) became CRs after surgery for remaining metastatic disease. Six remain alive at 43+ to 53+ months, and 5 remain disease-free since surgery. The median survival of the study group is 17.5 months, with a maximal follow-up of 53+ months. The range in survival is 1-53+ months. Toxicity was primarily constitutional. and treatment modifications were designed to maintain toxicity at grade 2/3. The most common toxicities during

  9. Construction and characterization in vitro of a bicistronic retroviral vector coding endostatin and interleukin-2 for use in gene therapy; Construcao e caracterizacao in vitro de um vetor retroviral bicistronico codificando endostatina e interleucina-2 para utilizacao em terapia genica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Fernanda Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    Gene therapy has been used in preclinical studies and clinical trials in order to alleviate or cure a disease. Retroviral vectors are a tool for gene transfer is widely used. Bicistronic vectors are an attractive alternative for treatment of complex diseases. A variety of options exists to simultaneously express two genes in genetically modified cells. The most common approach relies on bicistronic vectors in which the genes are linked to each other by an internal ribosome entry site allowing co-translational expression of both cistrons. Endostatin, the C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. At present, ES has been widely used in anti-angiogenic in a variety of experimental tumor models, and clinical trials to test it as an anti-tumor agent are already under way. Immunotherapy has been used as adjuvant treatment for tumors and has been used in several preclinical studies and clinical trials. The objective of this project was to construct and characterize 'in vitro' an IRES-based bicistronic retroviral vector encoding endostatin and interleukin-2. The construction of the vector was performed in three stages, the final construction was analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. Packaging cells were prepared. The endostatin and interleukin-2 levels were determined by Dot blot. Monocistronic and bicistronic mRNA expression were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Bicistronic vector showed high levels of virus trites, ranging from 4.20x10{sup 5} to 1.53x10{sup 6}UFC/ml. Secreted levels of endostatin and interleukin-2 ranged from 1.08 to 2.08{mu}g/10{sup 6}cells.24h and 0.66 - 0.89{mu}g/10{sup 6}cells.24h, respectively. The mRNA expression of ES in the NIH3T3 clone pLend-IRES-IL2SN was 2 times higher than the level presented by the NIH3T3 clone pLendSN. The endostatin promoted inhibition (40%) of endothelial cell proliferation. Interleukin-2 promoted a proliferation of 10.6% lymphocytes CD4 and 8.9% of CD8. We conclude that

  10. Monocytes and neutrophils as 'bad guys' for the outcome of interleukin-2 with and without histamine in metastatic renal cell carcinoma--results from a randomised phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Hokland, M; Marcussen, N

    2006-01-01

    Histamine (HDC) inhibits formation and release of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, and thereby protects natural killer (NK) and T cells against oxidative damage. Thus, the addition of histamine may potentially improve the efficacy of interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have explored this potential...... mechanism clinically in two randomised phase II trials in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In parallel with the clinical trial in Denmark (n=63), we obtained serial blood samples and tumour biopsies searching for a potential histamine effect in situ. At baseline and on-treatment weeks 3 and 8, we...

  11. Fish oil affects immune function in 9 to 12 month old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    /day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...

  12. Differential effect of gamma-irradiated and heat-treated lymphocytes on T cell activation, and interleukin-2 and interleukin-3 release in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loertscher, R.; Abbud-Filho, M.; Leichtman, A.B.; Ythier, A.A.; Williams, J.M.; Carpenter, C.B.; Strom, T.B.

    1987-01-01

    Heat-inactivated (45 degrees C/1 hr) lymphocytes selectively activate suppressor T cells in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), while no significant proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation can be detected. It is not well understood why hyperthermic treatment abolishes the stimulatory capacity of lymphocytes since HLA-DR molecules remain detectable immediately following heat exposure. In order to further characterize the requirements for Ts activation we studied the effects of hyperthermic treatment on cellular protein and DNA synthesis and cell surface protein expression in proliferating T and B cells; interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, and IL-3 release following allogeneic stimulation with heat treated cells (HMLR); and IL-2 receptor expression as an indicator of T cell activation in the HMLR. Hyperthermic treatment reduced cellular protein synthesis as estimated by 14 C-leucine uptake to about 15%, and DNA synthesis ( 3 H-thymidine incorporation) to about 5% of untreated control cells. In contrast to y-irradiated cells, viability of heated cells rapidly declined within the first 24 hr. Hyperthermic treatment doubled binding of mouse immunoglobulin paralleled by an increased expression of IL-2 and transferrin receptors, while expression of HLA-DR and 4F2 proteins appeared unchanged. Stimulation with heated cells triggered the release of IL-1- and an IL-3-like bioactivity but did not induce IL-2 synthesis and/or release, thus explaining the lack of proliferation in the HMLR. Addition of exogenous IL-2 but not IL-1 restored HMLR proliferation. A comparison of allostimulation with y-irradiated and heat-treated cells revealed that significantly fewer T cells were induced to express IL-2 receptors at day 3 (14% vs. 8%, P less than 0.001) and at day 6 (42% vs. 21%, P less than 0.05) with heat-inactivated stimulators

  13. Species difference in reactivity to lignin-like enzymatically polymerized polyphenols on interferon-γ synthesis and involvement of interleukin-2 production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that lignin-like polymerized polyphenols can activate innate immune systems. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether these polymerized polyphenols could activate leukocytes from different murine strains. Splenocytes from 12 mouse strains were investigated. Our results revealed species differences in reactivity to phenolic polymers on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release. Mice that possessed the H2(a) or H2(k) haplotype antigens were the highly responsive strains. To clarify these different points in soluble factors, multiplex cytokine profiling analysis was carried out and we identified interleukin (IL)-2 as a key molecule for IFN-γ induction by polymerized polyphenols. Furthermore, inhibition of IL-2 and IL-2Rα by neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased cytokine production in the highly responsive mice strains. Our results indicate that species difference in reactivity to phenolic polymers is mediated by adequate release of IL-2 and its receptor, IL-2Rα. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 plus Interleukin-2-Stimulated canine B-Cell lymphoma cells reveals the loss of one X Chromosome as the sole abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Murua Escobar, H; Kiefer, Y; Mischke, R; Willenbrock, S; Eberle, N; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2011-01-01

    Human and canine lymphoid neoplasms are characterized by non-random cytogenetic abnormalities. However, due to the low mitotic activity of the B cells, cytogenetic analyses of B-cell lymphoid proliferations are difficult to perform. In the present study we stimulated canine B-cell lymphoma cells with the immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 in combination with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and obtained an adequate number of metaphases. Cytogenetic analyses revealed the loss of one X chromosome as the sole cytogenetic aberration. Chromosome analysis of the corresponding blood showed a normal female karyotype. Monosomy X as the sole clonal chromosomal abnormality is found in human hematopoietic malignancies as well, thus the dog may serve as a promising animal model. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A pilot study of denileukin diftitox (DD) in combination with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Elizabeth; Eklund, John; Martone, Brenda; Wang, Lili; Gidron, Adi; Macvicar, Gary; Rademaker, Alfred; Goolsby, Charles; Marszalek, Laura; Kozlowski, James; Smith, Norm; Kuzel, Timothy M

    2010-09-01

    High-dose (HD) IL-2 is approved to treat renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with modest response rates and significant toxicity. Enhancement of cytotoxic T-cell activity by IL-2 is 1 mechanism of action. IL-2 also stimulates regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), which are associated with poor prognosis. Favorable outcomes are associated with greater rebound absolute lymphocyte count (Fumagalli 2003). DD depletes IL-2 receptor (CD25 component) expressing cells. We hypothesized that sequential therapy could complement each other; DD would deplete Tregs so IL-2 could more effectively stimulate proliferation and activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Patients (n=18) received standard HD IL-2 and 1 dose of DD daily for 3 days; periodic flow cytometry and complete blood counts were performed. Group A included 3 patients to assess safety only with DD 6 μg/kg between the IL-2 courses. Group B included 9 patients at 9 μg/kg DD before the IL-2 courses. Group C included 6 patients at 9 μg/kg DD between the IL-2 courses. Efficacy using the RECIST criteria was assessed after the treatment. Fifteen patients from a study of IL-2 without DD served as controls for toxicity comparison and 13 of these for flow cytometry comparisons. No unusual toxicity was noted. For group B/C patients receiving DD, the median decline in Tregs was 56.3% from pre-DD to post-DD (P=0.013). Peak absolute lymphocyte count change from baseline was +9980/μL for group B, +4470/μL for group C, and +4720/μL for the controls (P=0.005 B vs. C). The overall response rate was 5 of 15 (33%); 3 of 9 (33%) and 2 of 6 (33%) for groups B and C, respectively, including 2 patients with sarcomatoid RCC and 1 with earlier sunitinib therapy.

  16. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  17. Effect of different ways of intraoperative lymph node dissection on prognosis of patients with thoracic mid-upper esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of different ways of intraoperative lymph node dissection on prognosis of patients with thoracic mid-upper esophageal carcinoma. Methods: 106 cases of patients with thoracic mid-upper esophageal carcinoma were selected and according to different ways of lymph node dissection, divided into three-field group who received three-field lymph node dissection and two-field group who received two-field lymph node dissection, then serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, nitric oxide (NO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA as well as soluble interleukin-2 receptor (SIL- 2R, keratinized protein fragment 19 (Cyfra21-1 and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC levels of two groups were compared, and postoperative follow-up was carried out to record disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate. Results: In three-field group, postoperative average serum LDH levels of patients with thoracic upper esophageal carcinoma and thoracic mid esophageal carcinoma were lower than LDH values of corresponding patients in two-field group (P<0.05; postoperative serum NO value of three-field group was higher than that of two-field group, and NOS, CEA and SIL-2R values were lower than those of two-field group (P<0.05; postoperative serum Cyfra21-1 and SCC values of three-field group were lower than those of two-field group (P<0.05; postoperative disease-free survival rate during the followup period of three-field group was higher than that of two-field group, and overall survival rate at corresponding points in time was also higher than that of two-field group (P<0.05. Conclusion: After patients with thoracic mid-upper esophageal carcinoma receive three-field lymph node dissection, levels of serum indexes with poor prognosis and tumor markers were optimized, long-term disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate are improved. It has positive clinical significance.

  18. Improved detection rate of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms with use of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin 2 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Cipollini, Matthew J; Crowley-Bish, Patricia A; Higgins, Anne W; Yu, Hongbo; Miron, Patricia M

    2013-05-01

    Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities requires successful culture of the clonal population to obtain metaphase chromosomes for study, and as such, has been hampered by low mitotic indices of mature B cells in culture. Our study presents data on the improved abnormality detection rate with the use of a CpG-oligonucleotide/interleukin 2 (OL/IL-2) culture protocol for mature B-cell neoplasms, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-CLL specimens. The increased detection rate of abnormalities, compared with unstimulated culture and traditional pokeweed mitogen culture, was statistically significant for both CLL and non-CLL neoplasms. For CLL specimens, our data also showed that for cytogenetically visible aberrations, OL/IL-2 was as, if not more, sensitive than detection with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Use of OL/IL-2 allowed a number of abnormalities to be detected, which were not covered by specific iFISH panels, especially balanced translocations. Therefore, OL/IL-2 stimulation improves diagnostic sensitivity and increases discovery rate of novel prognostic findings.

  19. Effect of interleukin-2 on cell proliferation, sister-chromatid exchange induction, and nuclear stress protein phosphorylation in PHA-stimulated Fischer 344 rat spleen lymphocytes: Modulation by 2-mercaptoethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.M.; Aidoo, A.; Domon, O.E.; McGarrity, L.J.; Kodell, R.L.; Schol, H.M.; Hinson, W.G.; Pipkin, J.L.; Casciano, D.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on cell proliferation, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency, and the phosphorylation of nuclear stress proteins was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated spleen lymphocytes isolated from Fischer 344 rats. In addition, the ability of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) to modulate the induction of these biological responses was characterized. Cell proliferation, as measured by the mitotic index, increased significantly. The average generation time (AGT) did not respond to IL-2 in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased significantly. The number of SCE increased significantly from control frequencies, to frequencies of 18.5 to 21.5 SCE per cell as the concentration of IL-2 in the culture medium increased to 50 half-maximal units per ml. A reduction in SCE frequency was observed when cells were cultured with 20 {mu}M 2-ME and IL-2 compared to IL-2 alone. Three nuclear proteins, with relative molecular masses of approximately 13,000-18,000, 20,000, and 80,000, were phosphorylated in IL-2-exposed G{sub 1}-phase nuclei. Elicitation of these nuclear proteins in IL-2-exposed cells was not affected by exposure to 2-ME.

  20. Hierarchy of protein tyrosine kinases in interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling: activation of syk depends on Jak3; however, neither Syk nor Lck is required for IL-2-mediated STAT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y J; Magnuson, K S; Cheng, T P; Gadina, M; Frucht, D M; Galon, J; Candotti, F; Geahlen, R L; Changelian, P S; O'Shea, J J

    2000-06-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) activates several different families of tyrosine kinases, but precisely how these kinases interact is not completely understood. We therefore investigated the functional relationships among Jak3, Lck, and Syk in IL-2 signaling. We first observed that in the absence of Jak3, both Lck and Syk had the capacity to phosphorylate Stat3 and Stat5a. However, neither supported IL-2-induced STAT activation, nor did dominant negative alleles of these kinases inhibit. Moreover, pharmacological abrogation of Lck activity did not inhibit IL-2-mediated phosphorylation of Jak3 and Stat5a. Importantly, ligand-dependent Syk activation was dependent on the presence of catalytically active Jak3, whereas Lck activation was not. Interestingly, Syk functioned as a direct substrate of Jak1 but not Jak3. Additionally, Jak3 phosphorylated Jak1, whereas the reverse was not the case. Taken together, our data support a model in which Lck functions in parallel with Jak3, while Syk functions as a downstream element of Jaks in IL-2 signaling. Jak3 may regulate Syk catalytic activity indirectly via Jak1. However, IL-2-mediated Jak3/Stat activation is not dependent on Lck or Syk. While the essential roles of Jak1 and Jak3 in signaling by gammac-utilizing cytokines are clear, it will be important to dissect the exact contributions of Lck and Syk in mediating the effects of IL-2 and related cytokines.

  1. Interleukin-2 therapy for human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoesel, Q G

    1990-01-01

    The concept of immunotherapy is evolving from nonspecific, haphazard stimulation of the immune apparatus to more specific and controlled manipulation of the immune system. IL-2 gives the opportunity to exert influence on the cellular immune system. Why LAK cells are able to lyse tumor cells and leave normal cells intact is not known. How LAK cells behave after reinfusion is not known; are they able to migrate to tumor sites? Can improvements be made in scheduling in order to decrease toxicity and to enhance efficacy? But first of all, the question arises whether the tremendous efforts required by adoptive transfer, in terms of toxicity, logistics, and money, are outweighed by the therapeutic results. For clinical practice inside the frontier of oncology, continuous infusion of IL-2 at an intermediate dose is a quite attractive option in finding a balance between efforts and results.

  2. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    functional units, receptors co-operate. The total receptor apparatus of individual cell types is composed of different-ligand receptors (e.g. SRIF and non-SRIF receptors) and co-expressed receptor subtypes (e.g. sst(2) and sst(5) receptors) in characteristic proportions. In other words, levels of individual......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  3. 马桑内酯致痫大鼠海马IL-2免疫反应性的变化%Study of Changes of Cytokines (Interleukin-2) in Hippocampus Following Coriaria Lactone-induced Kindling in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向赟; 董大翠; 刘庆莹; 文若剑; 朱长庚; 魏英; 蔡秋云

    2003-01-01

    目的:探求细胞因子中的白细胞介素2(Interleukin-2,IL-2)与癫痫发病之间的关系.方法:将Wistar大鼠分成三组,第一组侧脑室注入马桑内酯(Coriari Lactone,CL)2μL,第二组注入等量的生理盐水,第三组不做任何处理.然后运用免疫组织化学方法,对大鼠海马IL-2的免疫反应性进行分析;同时对实验中大鼠的行为及脑电图(eletroencepalograph,EEG)进行观察和记录.结果:第一组大鼠侧脑室注射CL过程中即诱发癫痫,且测到痫性脑电图,第二组、第三组无癫痫症状且未记录到痫性脑电图;第一组大鼠海马IL-2免疫反应性较第二组及第三组显著增强(P<0.01),表现在其海马CA1、CA2、CA3区细胞数目增多,突起及其分支增多,着色明显加深;而第二、三组之间无明显差别(P<0.05).结论:IL-2参与癫痫的发病过程,二者之间存在着一定的联系.

  4. Studies on mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant human interleukin-11 and recombinant human interleukin-2 on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy γ-rays irradiation in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Ou Hongling; Xing Shuang; Huang Haixiao; Xiong Guolin; Xie Ling; Zhao Yanfang; Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Luo Qingliang; Cong Yuwen; Zhang Xueguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of treatment of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) on hematopoietic injuries induced by 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation in beagles, and to provide experimental evidence for the clinical treatment of extremely severe myeloid acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: Sixteen beagle dogs were given 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray total body irradiation (TBI), then randomly assigned into irradiation control group, supportive care group or cytokines + supportive care (abbreviated as cytokines) group. In addition to supportive care, rhG-CSF, rhIL-11 and rhIL-2 were administered subcutaneously to treat dogs in cytokines group. The percentage of CD34 + cells, cell cycle and apoptosis of nucleated cells in peripheral blood were examined by Flow cytometry. Results: After 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation, the CD34 + cells in peripheral blood declined obviously (61.3% and 52.1% of baseline for irradiation control and supportive care group separately). The cell proportion of nucleated cells in G 0 /G 1 phase was increased notably notably (99.27% and 99.49% respectively). The rate of apoptosis (26.93% and 21.29% separately) and necrosis (3.27% and 4.14%, respectively) of nucleated cells were elevated significantly when compared with values before irradiation (P 0 /G 1 phase blockage of nucleated cells became more serious (99.71%). The rate of apoptosis (5.66%) and necrosis (1.60%) of nucleated cells were significantly lower than that of irradiation control and supportive care groups 1 d after exposure. Conclusions: Cytokines maybe mobilize CD34 + cells in bone marrow to peripheral blood, indce cell block at G 0 /G 1 phase and reduce apoptosis, and eventually cure hematopoietic injuries induced by irradiation. (authors)

  5. Adjuvant immunotherapy of feline injection-site sarcomas with the recombinant canarypox virus expressing feline interleukine-2 evaluated in a controlled monocentric clinical trial when used in association with surgery and brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this randomised, controlled, parallel-group monocentric clinical trial was to assess the efficacy (at low and high dose and the safety (at high dose of a recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC® expressing feline interleukin 2 (IL-2. ALVAC IL-2 was administered to cats as an adjunct treatment of feline fibrosarcoma in complement to surgery and brachytherapy (reference treatment. Seventy-one cats with a first occurrence of feline fibrosarcoma were referred to the Veterinary Oncology Centre for post-surgical radiotherapy. They were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: reference treatment group (23 cats, ALVAC IL-2 low dose group (25 cats and ALVAC IL-2 high dose group (23 cats. Two dosages of ALVAC IL-2 were used to assess both safety (high dose and efficacy (high and low doses. The treatment consisted of six consecutive doses of ALVAC IL-2 administered subcutaneously at the tumour site on Day 0 (one day before brachytherapy treatment, Day 7, Day 14, Day 21, Day 35 and Day 49. All cats were evaluated for relapse (i.e. local tumour recurrence and/or metastasis every three months for at least one year (ALVAC IL-2 high dose group or two years (reference treatment and ALVAC IL-2 low dose groups by complete physical examination and regular CT scans. ALVAC IL-2 treatment was well tolerated and adverse effects were limited to mild local reactions. ALVAC IL-2 treatment resulted in a significant longer median time to relapse (>730 days in the ALVAC IL-2 low dose group than in the reference treatment group (287 days, and a significant reduction of the risk of relapse by 56% at one year (ALVAC IL-2 treatment groups versus reference treatment group and 65% at two years (ALVAC IL-2 low dose treatment group versus reference treatment group.

  6. Anti-tumor efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin 2 in vivo: direct correlation between reduction of established metastases and cytolytic activity of lymphokine-activated killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, J.J.; Yang, J.; Shu, S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the incubation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes or murine splenocytes in recombinant interleukin 2 (RIL 2) resulted in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells capable of lysing a broad spectrum of fresh tumors in short-term chromium-release assays. Moreover, injections of LAK cells plus RIL 2 were highly effective in eliminating established 3 day metastases in the lung and liver. We have examined several parameters to define whether or not the cytolytic activity of LAK cells as measured in vitro correlated directly with the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of adoptively transferred LAK cells. LAK cells plus RIL 2 could mediate marked reductions of established pulmonary metastases in mice rendered T cell deficient by adult thymectomy and lethal, total body irradiation followed by reconstitution with T cell-depleted bone marrow and spleen cells. Thus there was no requirement for additional T lymphocytes of host origin for successful therapy with adoptively transferred LAK cells plus RIL 2. Fresh splenocytes depleted of T cells by anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibody plus complement generated LAK cells that were as highly lytic to fresh tumor in vitro and were as effective in reducing established pulmonary metastases as those generated from untreated or complement-treated splenocytes. Thus, the precursor to LAK cells with anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo did not express the Thy-1 antigenic marker. In contrast, treatment of LAK effector cells (those generated from a 3-day incubation of fresh, normal splenocytes in RIL 2) with anti-Thy-1.2 antibody plus complement reduced or abolished their in vitro cytolytic activity

  7. A phase 1b study of humanized KS-interleukin-2 (huKS-IL2) immunocytokine with cyclophosphamide in patients with EpCAM-positive advanced solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Joseph P; Henslee-Downey, Jean; Kramer, Daniel; Neugebauer, Roland; Stupp, Roger; Cristea, Mihaela C; Lewis, Nancy L; Lewis, Lionel D; Komarnitsky, Philip B; Mattiacci, Maria R; Felder, Mildred; Stewart, Sarah; Harter, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    Humanized KS-interleukin-2 (huKS-IL2), an immunocytokine with specificity for epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), has demonstrated favorable tolerability and immunologic activity as a single agent. Phase 1b study in patients with EpCAM-positive advanced solid tumors to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety profile of huKS-IL2 in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide. Treatment consisted of cyclophosphamide (300 mg/m 2 on day 1), and escalating doses of huKS-IL2 (0.5–4.0 mg/m 2 IV continuous infusion over 4 hours) on days 2, 3, and 4 of each 21-day cycle. Safety, pharmacokinetic profile, immunogenicity, anti-tumor and biologic activity were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients were treated for up to 6 cycles; 26 were evaluable for response. The MTD of huKS-IL2 in combination with 300 mg/m 2 cyclophosphamide was 3.0 mg/m 2 . At higher doses, myelosuppression was dose-limiting. Transient lymphopenia was the most common grade 3/4 adverse event (AE). Other significant AEs included hypotension, hypophosphatemia, and increase in serum creatinine. All patients recovered from these AEs. The huKS-IL2 exposure was dose-dependent, but not dose-proportional, accumulation was negligible, and elimination half-life and systemic clearance were independent of dose and time. Most patients had a transient immune response to huKS-IL2. Immunologic activity was observed at all doses. Ten patients (38%) had stable disease as best response, lasting for ≥ 4 cycles in 3 patients. The combination of huKS-IL2 with low-dose cyclophosphamide was well tolerated. Although no objective responses were observed, the combination showed evidence of immunologic activity and 3 patients showed stable disease for ≥ 4 cycles.

  8. Impact of Sequencing Targeted Therapies With High-dose Interleukin-2 Immunotherapy: An Analysis of Outcome and Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma From an On-going Observational IL-2 Clinical Trial: PROCLAIMSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph I; Wong, Michael K K; Kaufman, Howard L; Daniels, Gregory A; Morse, Michael A; McDermott, David F; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lewis, Lionel D; Stewart, John H; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Curti, Brendan; Gonzalez, René; Lutzky, Jose; Rudraptna, Venkatesh; Cranmer, Lee D; Jeter, Joanne M; Hauke, Ralph J; Miletello, Gerald; Milhem, Mohammed M; Amin, Asim; Richart, John M; Fishman, Mayer; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Patel, Sapna P; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Agarwal, Neeraj; Taback, Bret; Treisman, Jonathan S; Ernstoff, Marc S; Perritt, Jessica C; Hua, Hong; Rao, Tharak B; Dutcher, Janice P; Aung, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    This analysis describes the outcome for patients who received targeted therapy (TT) prior to or following high-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2). Patients with renal cell carcinoma (n = 352) receiving HD IL-2 were enrolled in Proleukin R Observational Study to Evaluate the Treatment Patterns and Clinical Response in Malignancy (PROCLAIM SM ) beginning in 2011. Statistical analyses were performed using datasets as of September 24, 2015. Overall, there were 4% complete response (CR), 13% partial response (PR), 39% stable disease (SD), and 43% progressive disease (PD) with HD IL-2. The median overall survival (mOS) was not reached in patients with CR, PR, or SD, and was 15.5 months in patients with PD (median follow-up, 21 months). Sixty-one patients had prior TT before HD IL-2 with an overall response rate (ORR) to HD IL-2 of 19% (1 CR, 9 PR) and an mOS of 22.1 months. One hundred forty-nine patients received TT only after HD IL-2 with an mOS of 35.5 months. One hundred forty-two patients had no TT before or after HD IL-2, and mOS was not reached. The mOS was 8.5 months in PD patients who received HD IL-2 without follow-on TT and 29.7 months in PD patients who received follow-on TT after HD IL-2. HD IL-2 as sole front-line therapy, in the absence of added TT, shows extended clinical benefit (CR, PR, and SD). Patients with PD after HD IL-2 appear to benefit from follow-on TT. Patients who progressed on TT and received follow-on HD IL-2 experienced major clinical benefit. HD IL-2 therapy should be considered in eligible patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly efficient expression of interleukin-2 under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene enhances protective immune responses of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS DNA vaccine in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Du

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV had caused catastrophic losses in swine industry in China. The current inactivated vaccine provided only limited protection, and the attenuated live vaccine could protect piglets against the HP-PRRSV but there was a possibility that the attenuated virus returned to high virulence. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1© was modified under the control of rabbit β-globin intron II gene and the modified vector pMVAX1© was constructed. Porcine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and GP3-GP5 fusion protein of HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN were highly expressed by pMVAX1©. Mice inoculated with pMVAX1©-GP35 developed significantly higher PRRSV-specific antibody responses and T cell proliferation than those vaccinated with pVAX1©-GP35. pMVAX1©-GP35 was selected as PRRS DNA vaccine candidate and co-administrated with pVAX1©-IL-2 or pMVAX1©-IL-2 in pigs. pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 could provide enhanced PRRSV-specific antibody responses, T cell proliferation, Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses and CTL responses than pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35. Following homologous challenge with HP-PRRSV strain SD-JN, similar with attenuated PRRS vaccine group, pigs inoculated with pMVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 showed no clinical signs, almost no lung lesions and no viremia, as compared to those in pMVAX1©-GP35 and pVAX1©-IL-2+pMVAX1©-GP35 groups. It indicated that pMVAX1©-IL-2 effectively increases humoral and cell mediated immune responses of pMVAX1©-GP35. Co-administration of pMVAX1©-IL-2 and pMVAX1©-GP35 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing HP-PRRSV infections.

  10. Variation in melatonin receptors (Mel(1a) and Mel(1b)) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in the spleen of a seasonally breeding bird, Perdicula asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Haldar, C; Singh, S S

    2011-12-01

    Daily variation in the peripheral level of melatonin plays a major role in integrating reproduction and environmental information for seasonally breeding birds. However, the variation in immunity and reproduction has never been assessed in any avian species on a 24 h time scale. Therefore, to understand the relationship between immune function and reproductive phases in a seasonally breeding bird, Perdicula asiatica, the Indian jungle bush quail, we studied the daily variation of melatonin and testosterone levels along with expression of their receptors Mel(1a), Mel(1b), and androgen receptor in the spleen during the reproductively active phase. Immunocytochemistry for the melatonin receptors Mel(1a) and Mel(1b) presented a differential distribution pattern. Western blot of splenic protein suggested a daily rhythm of melatonin receptors, while acrophases for the two melatonin receptors Mel(1a) and Mel(1b) differed by 4 h, suggesting that the expression of the receptors may peak at different times, causing more of either Mel(1a) or Mel(1b) to be available at a particular time to mediate function. The circulatory melatonin level correlated with percentage stimulation ratio of splenocytes and plasma interleukin-2 level, but did not correlate with testosterone or androgen receptor, suggesting that melatonin could be a major hormone imparting a time-of-day effect on the modulation of immune function in a seasonally breeding bird during the reproductively active phase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early disease progression in patients with localized natural killer/T-cell lymphoma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Motoko; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Kim, Seok Jin; Ko, Young Hyeh; Oguchi, Masahiko; Asano, Naoko; Miyazaki, Kana; Terui, Yasuhiko; Kubota, Nobuko; Maeda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Amaki, Jun; Soejima, Toshinori; Saito, Bungo; Shimoda, Emiko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Choi, Ilseung; Utsumi, Takahiko; Ejima, Yasuo; Kim, Won Seog; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2018-03-30

    Prognosis of patients with localized nasal extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) has been improved by non-anthracycline-containing treatments such as concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). However, some patients experience early disease progression. To clarify the clinical features and outcomes of these patients, data from 165 patients with localized nasal ENKL who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 at 31 institutes in Japan and who received radiotherapy with dexamethasone, etoposide, ifosfamide, and carboplatin (RT-DeVIC) were retrospectively analyzed. Progression of disease within 2 years after diagnosis (POD24) was used as the definition of early progression. An independent dataset of 60 patients with localized nasal ENKL who received CCRT at Samsung Medical Center was used in the validation analysis. POD24 was documented in 23% of patients who received RT-DeVIC and in 25% of patients in the validation cohort. Overall survival (OS) from risk-defining events of the POD24 group was inferior to that of the reference group in both cohorts (P < .00001). In the RT-DeVIC cohort, pretreatment elevated levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and detectable Epstein-Barr virus DNA in peripheral blood were associated with POD24. In the validation cohort, no pretreatment clinical factor associated with POD24 was identified. Our study indicates that POD24 is a strong indicator of survival in localized ENKL, despite the different CCRT regimens adopted. In the treatment of localized nasal ENKL, POD24 is useful for identifying patients who have unmet medical needs. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Receptor assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K; Ibayashi, H [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    This paper summarized present status and problems of analysis of hormone receptor and a few considerations on clinical significance of receptor abnormalities. It was pointed that in future clinical field quantitative and qualitative analysis of receptor did not remain only in the etiological discussion, but that it was an epoch-making field of investigation which contained the possiblity of artificial change of sensitivity of living body on drugs and the development connected directly with treatment of various diseases.

  13. Functional isotypes are not encoded by the constant region genes of the beta subunit of the T cell receptor for antigen/major histocompatibility complex

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Human T cell clones and a cDNA probe specific for constant regions of the beta subunit of the antigen/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptor, TiC beta 1 and TiC beta 2, were employed to determine whether these genes were differentially used by functional classes of T lymphocytes. DNA from 10 interleukin-2-dependent T cell clones including class I and class II MHC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (n = 6), T4+ inducer T lymphocytes (n = 2), and T8+ suppressor T lymphocytes (n = 2) show...

  14. In vitro propagation and dynamics of T cells from skin biopsies by methods using interleukins-2 and -4 or anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-coated microbeads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashizume, Hideo; Hansen, Anker; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanisms of inflammatory skin disorders, we established two methods of expanding skin-derived lymphocytes, one using high levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 (method A) and the other using low levels of cytokines and anti-CD3/CD28 microbeads (method B). Both methods...... provide advantages for functional studies. With either of these two, we could obtain more than 10(7) cells/ from a 3 mm skin biopsy in 21 days from 23 out of 26 biopsies of various skin diseases. The relevance of these cells was confirmed by shifted T-cell receptor beta chain variable region (TCR......-Vbeta) repertoire and antigen-dependent proliferation in antigen-driven skin disorders. The propagation of skin-resident lymphocytes, seen especially in method A, seems to be mediated by a functional defect of regulatory T cells residing in skin sequentially expanding under the conditions of our methods....

  15. Marked in Vivo Donor Regulatory T Cell Expansion via Interleukin-2 and TL1A-Ig Stimulation Ameliorates Graft-versus-Host Disease but Preserves Graft-versus-Leukemia in Recipients after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dietlinde; Barreras, Henry; Bader, Cameron S; Copsel, Sabrina; Lightbourn, Casey O; Pfeiffer, Brent J; Altman, Norman H; Podack, Eckhard R; Komanduri, Krishna V; Levy, Robert B

    2017-05-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for self-tolerance. Although adoptive transfer of expanded Tregs limits graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), ex vivo generation of large numbers of functional Tregs remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo targeting of the TNF superfamily receptor TNFRSF25 using the TL1A-Ig fusion protein, along with IL-2, resulted in transient but massive Treg expansion in donor mice, which peaked within days and was nontoxic. Tregs increased in multiple compartments, including blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and colon (GVHD target tissue). Tregs did not expand in bone marrow, a critical site for graft-versus-malignancy responses. Adoptive transfer of in vivo-expanded Tregs in the setting of MHC-mismatched or MHC-matched allogeneic HSCT significantly ameliorated GVHD. Critically, transplantation of Treg-expanded donor cells facilitated transplant tolerance without GVHD, with complete sparing of graft-versus-malignancy. This approach may prove valuable as a therapeutic strategy promoting transplantation tolerance. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA fragmentation and cell death mediated by T cell antigen receptor/CD3 complex on a leukemia T cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Maecker, H T; Levy, R

    1989-10-01

    An anti-T cell receptor (TcR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), LC4, directed against a human leukemic T cell line, SUP-T13, caused DNA fragmentation ("apoptosis") and cell death upon binding to this cell line. Cross-linking of receptor molecules was necessary for this effect since F(ab')2, but not Fab', fragments of LC4 could induce cell death. Five anti-CD3 mAb tested also caused apoptosis, but only when they were presented on a solid phase. Interestingly, soluble anti-CD3 mAb induced calcium flux and had an additive effect on the calcium flux and interleukin 2 receptor expression induced by LC4, but these anti-CD3 mAb reversed the growth inhibition and apoptosis caused by LC4. The calcium ionophore A23187, but not the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), also induced apoptosis, suggesting that protein kinase C activation alone does not cause apoptosis, although PMA is growth inhibitory. These results suggest that two distinct biological phenomena can accompany stimulation of the TcR/CD3 complex. In both cases, calcium flux and interleukin 2 receptor expression is induced, but only in one case is apoptosis and cell death seen. The signal initiating apoptosis can be selectively prevented by binding CD3 portion of the receptor in this cell line. This difference in signals mediated by the TcR/CD3 complex may be important in explaining the process of thymic selection, as well as in choosing anti-TcR mAb for therapeutic use.

  17. Inflammatory reactions in placental blood of Plasmodium falciparum-infected women and high concentrations of soluble E-selectin and a circulating P. falciparum protein in the cord sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Rasheed, F N; Bulmer, J N

    1998-01-01

    concentrations measured in the placenta. Markers of inflammatory reactions: IL-10, sIL-2R, sIL-4R, and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) were found in high concentrations in the placenta, indicating that inflammatory reactions take place in the placenta which has been regarded...... as an immunoprivileged site. Concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), potential adhesion receptors for malaria parasites, were associated with an active P. falciparum infection in the placenta although the associations did not reach...

  18. Role of the multichain IL-2 receptor complex in the control of normal and malignant T-cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Antigen-induced activation of resting T-cells induces the synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), as well as the expression of specific cell surface receptors for this lymphokine. There are at least two forms of the cellular receptors for IL-2, one with a very high affinity and the other with a lower affinity. The authors have identified two IL-2 binding peptides, a 55-kd peptide reactive with the anti-Tac monoclonal antibody, and a novel 75-kd non-Tac IL-2 binding peptide. Cell lines bearing either the p55, Tac, or the p75 peptide along manifested low-affinity IL-2 binding, whereas cell lines bearing both peptides manifested both high- and low-affinity receptors. Fusion of cell membranes from low-affinity IL-2 binding cells bearing the Tac peptide alone with membranes from a cell line bearing the p75 peptide alone generates hybrid membranes bearing high-affinity receptors. They propose a multichain model for the high-affinity IL-2 receptor in which both the Tac and the p75 IL-2 binding peptides are associated in a receptor complex. In contrast to resting T-cells, human T-cell lymphotropic virus I-associated adult T-cell leukemia cells constitutively express large numbers of IL-2 receptors. Because IL-2 receptors are present on the malignant T-cells but not on normal resting cells, clinical trials have been initiated in which patients with adult T-cell leukemia are being treated with either unmodified or toxin-conjugated forms of anti-Tac monoclonal antibody directed toward this growth factor receptor. Cross-linking studies were done using [ 125 I] IL-2

  19. The LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  20. Interleukin-2 signaling pathway analysis by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osinalde, Nerea; Moss, Helle; Arrizabalaga, Onetsine

    2011-01-01

    among which 79 were found with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, including several previously not reported IL-2 downstream effectors. Combinatorial site-specific phosphoproteomic analysis resulted in identification of 99 phosphorylated sites mapping to the identified proteins...... with increased abundance in the tyrosine-phosphorylated complexes, of which 34 were not previously described. In addition, chemical inhibition of the identified IL-2-mediated JAK, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways, resulted in distinct alteration on the IL-2 dependent proliferation....

  1. Comparison effects of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien Abdel-Salam

    Introduction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) possess a very short half-life in the circulation because they constitutively undergo apoptosis [1,2]. Under certain conditions PMN play an impor- tant role in the effectors arm of host immune defense through the clearance of immune complexes, phagocytosis of opsonized.

  2. Homing of radiolabelled recombinant interleukin-2 activated natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    In innate immunity, the surveillance mechanism operates spontaneously as the ... Prior to testing the efficacy of NK cells against tumour cells in vivo, it becomes ..... immunologic effects and expansion of peripheral lymphoid cells in vivo with ...

  3. One step purification of biological active human interleukin-2 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... shown any ligand leakage (Stewart et al., 1992; Lowe et al., 1990). Ligands are .... For immuno detection test, the membrane was incubated in blocking buffer ... Mobile phase A was 0.1 % TFA in water and mobile phase B ...

  4. Ubiquitination of the common cytokine receptor γc and regulation of expression by an ubiquitination/deubiquitination machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesbert, Franck; Malarde, Valerie; Dautry-Varsat, Alice

    2005-01-01

    The common cytokine receptor γ c is shared by the interleukin-2, -4, -7, -9, -15, and -21 receptors, and is essential for lymphocyte proliferation and survival. The regulation of γ c receptor expression level is therefore critical for the ability of cells to respond to these cytokines. We previously reported that γ c is efficiently constitutively internalized and addressed towards a degradation endocytic compartment. We show that γ c is ubiquitinated and also associated to ubiquitinated proteins. We report that the ubiquitin-ligase c-Cbl induces γ c down-regulation. In addition, the ubiquitin-hydrolase, DUB-2, counteracts the effect of c-Cbl on γ c expression. We show that an increase in DUB-2 expression correlates with an increased γ c half-life, resulting in the up-regulation of the receptor. Altogether, we show that γ c is the target of an ubiquitination mechanism and its expression level can be regulated through the activities of a couple of ubiquitin-ligase/ubiquitin-hydrolase enzymes, namely c-Cbl/DUB-2

  5. Brain immune interactions and air pollution: macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), prion cellular protein (PrP(C)), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in cerebrospinal fluid and MIF in serum differentiate urban children exposed to severe vs. low air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Cross, Janet V; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Kavanaugh, Michael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Chao, Chih-Kai; Thompson, Charles; Chang, Jing; Zhu, Hongtu; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area children chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses along with accumulation of misfolded proteins observed in the early stages of Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. A complex modulation of serum cytokines and chemokines influences children's brain structural and gray/white matter volumetric responses to air pollution. The search for biomarkers associating systemic and CNS inflammation to brain growth and cognitive deficits in the short term and neurodegeneration in the long-term is our principal aim. We explored and compared a profile of cytokines, chemokines (Multiplexing LASER Bead Technology) and Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in normal cerebro-spinal-fluid (CSF) of urban children with high vs. low air pollution exposures. PrP(C) and macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) were also measured in serum. Samples from 139 children ages 11.91 ± 4.2 years were measured. Highly exposed children exhibited significant increases in CSF MIF (p = 0.002), IL6 (p = 0.006), IL1ra (p = 0.014), IL-2 (p = 0.04), and PrP(C) (p = 0.039) vs. controls. MIF serum concentrations were higher in exposed children (p = 0.009). Our results suggest CSF as a MIF, IL6, IL1Ra, IL-2, and PrP(C) compartment that can possibly differentiate air pollution exposures in children. MIF, a key neuro-immune mediator, is a potential biomarker bridge to identify children with CNS inflammation. Fine tuning of immune-to-brain communication is crucial to neural networks appropriate functioning, thus the short and long term effects of systemic inflammation and dysregulated neural immune responses are of deep concern for millions of exposed children. Defining the linkage and the health consequences of the brain / immune system interactions in the developing brain chronically exposed to air pollutants ought to be of pressing importance for public health.

  6. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D. [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Furlong, Suzanne J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lin, Tong-Jun [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  7. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M.; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D.; Furlong, Suzanne J.; Lin, Tong-Jun; Hoskin, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Curcumin inhibits CD4 + T-lymphocyte proliferation. → Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4 + T-lymphocytes. → Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. → IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4 + T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 (α chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca 2+ release to inhibit IκB phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  8. Receptor-receptor interactions within receptor mosaics. Impact on neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, K; Marcellino, D; Rivera, A; Diaz-Cabiale, Z; Filip, M; Gago, B; Roberts, D C S; Langel, U; Genedani, S; Ferraro, L; de la Calle, A; Narvaez, J; Tanganelli, S; Woods, A; Agnati, L F

    2008-08-01

    Future therapies for diseases associated with altered dopaminergic signaling, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction or drug dependence may substantially build on the existence of intramembrane receptor-receptor interactions within dopamine receptor containing receptor mosaics (RM; dimeric or high-order receptor oligomers) where it is believed that the dopamine D(2) receptor may operate as the 'hub receptor' within these complexes. The constitutive adenosine A(2A)/dopamine D(2) RM, located in the dorsal striato-pallidal GABA neurons, are of particular interest in view of the demonstrated antagonistic A(2A)/D(2) interaction within these heteromers; an interaction that led to the suggestion and later demonstration that A(2A) antagonists could be used as novel anti-Parkinsonian drugs. Based on the likely existence of A(2A)/D(2)/mGluR5 RM located both extrasynaptically on striato-pallidal GABA neurons and on cortico-striatal glutamate terminals, multiple receptor-receptor interactions within this RM involving synergism between A(2A)/mGluR5 to counteract D(2) signaling, has led to the proposal of using combined mGluR5 and A(2A) antagonists as a future anti-Parkinsonian treatment. Based on the same RM in the ventral striato-pallidal GABA pathways, novel strategies for the treatment of schizophrenia, building on the idea that A(2A) agonists and/or mGluR5 agonists will help reduce the increased dopaminergic signaling associated with this disease, have been suggested. Such treatment may ensure the proper glutamatergic drive from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus to the prefrontal cortex, one which is believed to be reduced in schizophrenia due to a dominance of D(2)-like signaling in the ventral striatum. Recently, A(2A) receptors also have been shown to counteract the locomotor and sensitizing actions of cocaine and increases in A(2A) receptors have also been observed in the nucleus accumbens after extended cocaine self-administration, probably

  9. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of ...

  10. Cooperative ethylene receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of five ethylene receptor members in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that the ethylene response is suppressed by ethylene receptor complexes, but the biochemical nature of the receptor signal is unknown. Without appropriate biochemical measures to trace the ethylene receptor signal and quantify the signal strength, the biological significance of the modulation of ethylene responses ...

  11. Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease - correlations with inflammatory cytokines in serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lindqvist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Motor symptoms are the focus of pharmacotherapy, yet non-motor features of the disease (e.g. fatigue, mood disturbances, sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety are both common and disabling for the patient. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the non-motor symptoms in PD are yet to be untangled. The main objective of this study was to investigate associations between pro-inflammatory substances and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in blood samples from PD patients (n=86 and healthy controls (n=40. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleeping difficulties were assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, and the Scales for Outcome in PD-Sleep Scale respectively. RESULTS: IL-6 was significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients displayed significantly higher mean scores on HAD and lower scores on FACIT, thus indicating more severe symptoms as measured with these scales. Within the PD sample, high levels of both sIL-2R and TNF-α were significantly associated with more severe symptoms assessed by means of FACIT and HAD (depression and anxiety subscales. SIL-2-R levels were able to significantly predict FACIT and HAD scores after the effects of age, gender, anti-parkinsonian medications, and severity of motor symptoms were controlled for. DISCUSSION: We suggest that non-motor symptoms in PD patients, such as fatigue and depressive symptoms, might be generated via inflammatory mechanisms. This knowledge might contribute to the development of novel treatment options in PD, specifically targeting non-motor symptoms.

  12. GABA receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA{sub A}-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA{sub B}-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA{sub A}-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA{sub A}-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with {sup 11}C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, {sup 18}F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome {sup 11}C's short half-life. {sup 18}F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1{sup 1}C-FMZ PET instead of {sup 18}F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA{sub A} receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas.

  13. GABA receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Doo

    2007-01-01

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA A -receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA B -receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA A -receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA A -receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with 11 C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, 18 F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome 11 C's short half-life. 18 F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1 1 C-FMZ PET instead of 18 F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA A receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas

  14. Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Onno C; Koorneef, Lisa L; Kroon, Jan

    2018-06-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol acts throughout the body to support circadian processes and adaptation to stress. The glucocorticoid receptor is the target of cortisol and of synthetic glucocorticoids, which are used widely in the clinic. Both agonism and antagonism of the glucocorticoid receptor may be beneficial in disease, but given the wide expression of the receptor and involvement in various processes, beneficial effects are often accompanied by unwanted side effects. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators are ligands that induce a receptor conformation that allows activation of only a subset of downstream signaling pathways. Such molecules thereby combine agonistic and antagonistic properties. Here we discuss the mechanisms underlying selective receptor modulation and their promise in treating diseases in several organ systems where cortisol signaling plays a role. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  16. Angiotensin type 2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumners, Colin; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    In most situations, the angiotensin AT2-receptor (AT2R) mediates physiological actions opposing those mediated by the AT1-receptor (AT1R), including a vasorelaxant effect. Nevertheless, experimental evidence vastly supports that systemic application of AT2R-agonists is blood pressure neutral...

  17. Glutamate receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The neurotransmitter (S)-glutamate [(S)-Glu] is responsible for most of the excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The effect of (S)-Glu is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Glutamate receptor agonists are generally a-amino acids with one or more...... stereogenic centers due to strict requirements in the agonist binding pocket of the activated state of the receptor. By contrast, there are many examples of achiral competitive antagonists. The present review addresses how stereochemistry affects the activity of glutamate receptor ligands. The review focuses...... mainly on agonists and discusses stereochemical and conformational considerations as well as biostructural knowledge of the agonist binding pockets, which is useful in the design of glutamate receptor agonists. Examples are chosen to demonstrate how stereochemistry not only determines how the agonist...

  18. AMPA receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player in the f......Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPAR), subtype of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (IGRs), mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS), and are involved in many neurological disorders, as well as being a key player...... in the formation of memory. Hence, ligands affecting AMPARs are highly important for the study of the structure and function of this receptor, and in this regard polyamine-based ligands, particularly polyamine toxins, are unique as they selectively block Ca2+ -permeable AMPARs. Indeed, endogenous intracellular...

  19. Lipophorin Receptor: The Insect Lipoprotein Receptor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Director of ... function of the Lp is to deliver lipids throughout the insect body for metabolism ... Lipid is used as a major energy source for development as well as other metabolic .... LpR4 receptor variant was expressed exclusively in the brain and.

  20. Reliability of soluble IL-2 receptor measurements obtained with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Takaishi, Masatoshi; Murakami, Yoshie; Ueda, Ryuzo; Yamakido, Michio; Tsubokura, Tokuo.

    1989-09-01

    Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), human soluble interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) were measured in the serum of patients with various autoimmune system diseases. To study the sensitivity and specificity of the assay, soluble IL-2Rs were measured in the culture supernatants and in the cell extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative of tuberculin, and allogeneic lymphocytes, as well as in the serum of patients with various collagen diseases. The results correlated well with reports from other laboratories. For example, when stimulated by PHA, the greatest amount of soluble IL-2Rs was produced at the fastest rate. In addition, soluble IL-2R levels in the serum of collagen disease patients were significantly higher than those in healthy persons, who themselves exhibited low levels of detectable soluble IL-2Rs. It is hoped that reliable ELISA measurements of soluble IL-2Rs in the serum of atomic bomb survivors will assist in the interpretation of data collected during the work described in RP 2-87, a study of autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases in the Adult Health Study. (author)

  1. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  2. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2008-02-01

    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Our laboratory has recently begun a systematic examination of the role of cytokines in the regulation of rage and aggressive behavior. It was shown that the cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), differentially modulates defensive rage when microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and PAG by acting through separate neurotransmitter systems. The present study sought to determine whether a similar relationship exists with respect to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), whose receptor activation in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage. Thus, the present study identified the effects of administration of IL-1 beta into the PAG upon defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus. Microinjections of IL-1 beta into the dorsal PAG significantly facilitated defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, the facilitative effects of IL-1 beta were blocked by pre-treatment with anti-IL-1 beta receptor antibody, while IL-1 beta administration into the PAG had no effect upon predatory attack elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. The findings further demonstrated that IL-1 beta's effects were mediated through 5-HT(2) receptors since pretreatment with a 5-HT(2C) receptors antagonist blocked the facilitating effects of IL-1 beta. An extensive pattern of labeling of IL-1 beta and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal PAG supported these findings. The present study demonstrates that IL-beta in the dorsal PAG, similar to the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through a 5-HT(2C) receptor mechanism.

  3. Low-dose radiation potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of folate receptor-targeted hapten therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Emanuela I; Lu, Yingjuan; Ringor, Michael; Leamon, Christopher P; Low, Philip S

    2008-06-01

    Human cancers frequently overexpress a high-affinity cell-surface receptor for the vitamin folic acid. Highly immunogenic haptens can be targeted to folate receptor-expressing cell surfaces by administration of folate-hapten conjugates, rendering the decorated tumor cell surfaces more recognizable by the immune system. Treatment of antihapten-immunized mice with folate-hapten constructs results in elimination of moderately sized tumors by the immune system. However, when subcutaneous tumors exceed 300 mm(3) before initiation of therapy, antitumor activity is significantly decreased. In an effort to enhance the efficacy of folate-targeted hapten immunotherapy (FTHI) against large tumors, we explored the combination of targeted hapten immunotherapy with low-dose radiotherapy. Mice bearing 300-mm(3) subcutaneous tumors were treated concurrently with FTHI (500 nmol/kg of folate conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, 20,000 U/dose of interleukin 2, and 25,000 U/dose of interferon alpha) and low-dose radiotherapy (3 Gy/dose focused directly on the desired tumor mass). The efficacy of therapy was evaluated by measuring tumor volume. Tumor growth analyses show that radiotherapy synergizes with FTHI in antihapten-immunized mice, thereby allowing for cures of animals bearing tumors greater than 300 mm(3). More importantly, nonirradiated distal tumor masses in animals containing locally irradiated tumors also showed improved response to hapten immunotherapy, suggesting that not all tumor lesions must be identified and irradiated to benefit from the combination therapy. These results suggest that simultaneous treatment with FTHI and radiation therapy can enhance systemic antitumor activity in tumor-bearing mice.

  4. Low-Dose Radiation Potentiates the Therapeutic Efficacy of Folate Receptor-Targeted Hapten Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, Emanuela I.; Lu Yingjuan; Ringor, Michael; Leamon, Christopher P.; Low, Philip S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Human cancers frequently overexpress a high-affinity cell-surface receptor for the vitamin folic acid. Highly immunogenic haptens can be targeted to folate receptor-expressing cell surfaces by administration of folate-hapten conjugates, rendering the decorated tumor cell surfaces more recognizable by the immune system. Treatment of antihapten-immunized mice with folate-hapten constructs results in elimination of moderately sized tumors by the immune system. However, when subcutaneous tumors exceed 300 mm 3 before initiation of therapy, antitumor activity is significantly decreased. In an effort to enhance the efficacy of folate-targeted hapten immunotherapy (FTHI) against large tumors, we explored the combination of targeted hapten immunotherapy with low-dose radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing 300-mm 3 subcutaneous tumors were treated concurrently with FTHI (500 nmol/kg of folate conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, 20,000 U/dose of interleukin 2, and 25,000 U/dose of interferon α) and low-dose radiotherapy (3 Gy/dose focused directly on the desired tumor mass). The efficacy of therapy was evaluated by measuring tumor volume. Results: Tumor growth analyses show that radiotherapy synergizes with FTHI in antihapten-immunized mice, thereby allowing for cures of animals bearing tumors greater than 300 mm 3 . More importantly, nonirradiated distal tumor masses in animals containing locally irradiated tumors also showed improved response to hapten immunotherapy, suggesting that not all tumor lesions must be identified and irradiated to benefit from the combination therapy. Conclusions: These results suggest that simultaneous treatment with FTHI and radiation therapy can enhance systemic antitumor activity in tumor-bearing mice

  5. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  6. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET(B) receptor cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Helmy, Maged W; Ali, Rabab M; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET(B) receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β₁, TGF-β₁). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET(B) receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET(B) receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET(B) receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  8. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striki...

  9. TLX: An elusive receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benod, Cindy; Villagomez, Rosa; Webb, Paul

    2016-03-01

    TLX (tailless receptor) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and belongs to a class of nuclear receptors for which no endogenous or synthetic ligands have yet been identified. TLX is a promising therapeutic target in neurological disorders and brain tumors. Thus, regulatory ligands for TLX need to be identified to complete the validation of TLX as a useful target and would serve as chemical probes to pursue the study of this receptor in disease models. It has recently been proved that TLX is druggable. However, to identify potent and specific TLX ligands with desirable biological activity, a deeper understanding of where ligands bind, how they alter TLX conformation and of the mechanism by which TLX mediates the transcription of its target genes is needed. While TLX is in the process of escaping from orphanhood, future ligand design needs to progress in parallel with improved understanding of (i) the binding cavity or surfaces to target with small molecules on the TLX ligand binding domain and (ii) the nature of the TLX coregulators in particular cell and disease contexts. Both of these topics are discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glutamate receptor ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA...

  11. Ginkgolides and glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaracz, Stanislav; Nakanishi, Koji; Jensen, Anders A.

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolides from the Ginkgo biloba tree are diterpenes with a cage structure consisting of six five-membered rings and a unique tBu group. They exert a variety of biological properties. In addition to being antagonists of the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR), it has recently been shown ...

  12. adrenergic receptor with preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... due to a post- receptor defect (Karadas et al., 2007). Several polymorphisms have ... the detection of the Arg16Gly polymorphism, overnight digestion at. 37°C with 10 U ..... DW, Wood AJ, Stein CM (2004). Beta2-adrenoceptor ...

  13. Metformin and insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneri, R.; Gullo, D.; Pezzino, V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific 125 I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific 125 I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded

  14. Olfactory Receptor Database: a sensory chemoreceptor resource

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufos, Emmanouil; Marenco, Luis; Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Miller, Perry L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2000-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB) is a WWW-accessible database that has been expanded from an olfactory receptor resource to a chemoreceptor resource. It stores data on six classes of G-protein-coupled sensory chemoreceptors: (i) olfactory receptor-like proteins, (ii) vomeronasal receptors, (iii) insect olfactory receptors, (iv) worm chemoreceptors, (v) taste papilla receptors and (vi) fungal pheromone receptors. A complementary database of the ligands of these receptors (OdorDB) has bee...

  15. Activation of JAK3, but not JAK1, is critical to interleukin-4 (IL4) stimulated proliferation and requires a membrane-proximal region of IL4 receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabarba, M G; Kirken, R A; Rui, H; Koettnitz, K; Kawamura, M; O'Shea, J J; Kalthoff, F S; Farrar, W L

    1995-04-21

    The tyrosine kinases JAK1 and JAK3 have been shown to undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in response to interleukin-2 (IL), IL4, IL7, and IL9, cytokines which share the common IL2 receptor gamma-chain (IL2R gamma), and evidence has been found for a preferential coupling of JAK3 to IL2R gamma and JAK1 to IL2R beta. Here we show, using human premyeloid TF-1 cells, that IL4 stimulates JAK3 to a larger extent than JAK1, based upon three different evaluation criteria. These include a more vigorous tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3 as measured by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting, a more marked activation of JAK3 as determined by in vitro tyrosine kinase assays and a more manifest presence of JAK3 in activated IL4-receptor complexes. These observations suggest that IL4 receptor signal transduction does not depend on equimolar heterodimerization of JAK1 and JAK3 following IL4-induced heterodimerization of IL4R alpha and IL2R gamma. Indeed, when human IL4R alpha was stably expressed in mouse BA/F3 cells, robust IL4-induced proliferation and JAK3 activation occurred without detectable involvement of JAK1, JAK2, or TYK2. The present study suggests that JAK1 plays a subordinate role in IL4 receptor signaling, and that in certain cells exclusive JAK3 activation may mediate IL4-induced cell growth. Moreover, mutational analysis of human IL4R alpha showed that a membrane-proximal cytoplasmic region was critical for JAK3 activation, while the I4R motif was not, which is compatible with a role of JAK3 upstream of the recruitment of the insulin receptor substrate-1/4PS signaling proteins by IL4 receptors.

  16. Prostaglandin Receptor Signaling in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids, consisting of the prostaglandins (PGs and the thromboxanes (TXs, are a group of lipid mediators formed in response to various stimuli. They include PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2, and TXA2. They are released outside of the cells immediately after synthesis, and exert their actions by binding to a G-protein coupled rhodopsin-type receptor on the surface of target cells. There are eight types of the prostanoid receptors conserved in mammals from mouse to human. They are the PGD receptor (DP, four subtypes of the PGE receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, the PGF receptor (FP, PGI receptor (IP, and TXA receptor (TP. Recently, mice deficient in each of these prostanoid receptors were generated and subjected to various experimental models of disease. These studies have revealed the roles of PG receptor signaling in various pathological conditions, and suggest that selective manipulation of the prostanoid receptors may be beneficial in treatment of the pathological conditions. Here we review these recent findings of roles of prostanoid receptor signaling and their therapeutic implications.

  17. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H

    1994-02-01

    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  18. Meeting report: nuclear receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuckermann, Jan; Bourguet, William; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The biannual European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) conference on nuclear receptors was organized by Beatrice Desvergne and Laszlo Nagy and took place in Cavtat near Dubrovnik on the Adriatic coast of Croatia September 25-29, 2009. The meeting brought together researchers from all over...... the world covering a wide spectrum from fundamental mechanistic studies to metabolism, clinical studies, and drug development. In this report, we summarize the recent and exciting findings presented by the speakers at the meeting....

  19. Neurotransmitter receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, M.; Hierholzer, J.; Nikolai-Beyer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of neuroreceptor imaging in vivo using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has increased enormously. The principal neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, GABA/benzodiazepine, acetylcholine, and serotonin, are presented with reference to anatomical, biochemical, and physiological features. The main radioligands for SPECT and PET are introduced, and methodological characteristics of both PET and SPECT presented. Finally, the results of neurotransmitter receptor imaging obtained so far will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  1. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  2. Quantification and molecular characterization of the feline leukemia virus A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A; Cattori, Valentino; Bachler, Barbara; Hartnack, Sonja; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-12-01

    Virus receptors and their expression patterns on the cell surface determine the cell tropism of the virus, host susceptibility and the pathogenesis of the infection. Feline thiamine transport protein 1 (fTHTR1) has been identified as the receptor for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) A. The goal of the present study was to develop a quantitative, TaqMan real-time PCR assay to investigate fTHTR1 mRNA expression in tissues of uninfected and FeLV-infected cats, cats of different ages, in tumor tissues and leukocyte subsets. Moreover, the receptor was molecularly characterized in different feline species. fTHTR1 mRNA expression was detected in all 30 feline tissues investigated, oral mucosa scrapings and blood. Importantly, identification of significant differences in fTHTR1 expression relied on normalization with an appropriate reference gene. The lowest levels were found in the blood, whereas high levels were measured in the oral mucosa, salivary glands and the musculature. In the blood, T lymphocytes showed significantly higher fTHTR1 mRNA expression levels than neutrophil granulocytes. In vitro activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with concanavalin A alone or followed by interleukin-2 led to a transient increase of fTHTR1 mRNA expression. In the blood, but not in the examined tissues, FeLV-infected cats tended to have lower fTHTR1 mRNA levels than uninfected cats. The fTHTR1 mRNA levels were not significantly different between tissues with lymphomas and the corresponding non-neoplastic tissues. fTHTR1 was highly conserved among different feline species (Iberian lynx, Asiatic and Indian lion, European wildcat, jaguarundi, domestic cat). In conclusion, while ubiquitous fTHTR1 mRNA expression corresponded to the broad target tissue range of FeLV, particularly high fTHTR1 levels were found at sites of virus entry and shedding. The differential susceptibility of different species to FeLV could not be attributed to variations in the fTHTR1 sequence. Copyright

  3. Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Miglio, Gianluca; Mesturini, Riccardo; Varsaldi, Federica; Mocellin, Marco; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Dianzani, Chiara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto; Lombardi, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of L-glutamate on activation-induced cell death (AICD) of human activated (1 μg ml−1 phytohemagglutinin plus 2 U ml−1 interleukin-2; 8 days) T lymphocytes were studied by measuring anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (10 μg ml−1; 18 h)-induced cell apoptosis (Annexin V and propidium iodide staining). L-Glutamate (1 × 10−8–1 × 10−4 M) significantly (P⩽0.01) inhibited AICD in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=6.3 × 10−8 M; maximum inhibition 54.8±6.3% at 1 × 10−6 M). The L-glutamate inhibitory effect was pharmacologically characterized as mediated by group I mGlu receptors, since mGlu receptor agonists reproduced this effect. The EC50 values were: 3.2 × 10−7 M for (1S,3R)-ACPD; 4.5 × 10−8 M for quisqualate; 1.0 × 10−6 M for (S)-3,5-DHPG; 2.0 × 10−5 M for CHPG. Group I mGlu receptor antagonists inhibited the effects of quisqualate 1.0 × 10−6 M. The IC50 values calculated were: 8.7 × 10−5, 4.3 × 10−6 and 6.3 × 10−7 M for AIDA, LY 367385 and MPEP, respectively. L-Glutamate (1 × 10−6 M; 18 h) significantly (P⩽0.05) inhibited FasL expression (40.8±11.3%) (cytofluorimetric analysis), whereas it did not affect Fas signalling. Expression of both mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor mRNA by T lymphocytes and T-cell lines, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis, suggests that L-glutamate-mediated inhibition of AICD was exerted on T cells. These data depict a novel role for L-glutamate in the regulation of the immune response through group I mGlu receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16751798

  4. CISH promoter polymorphism effects on T cell cytokine receptor signaling and type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Julia; Ahlert, Heinz; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Baechle, Christina; Roden, Michael; Holl, Reinhard W; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas; Jacobsen, Marc

    2018-02-06

    Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (T REG ), and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) regulates IL-2R signaling as a feedback inhibitor. Previous studies identified association of CISH promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Here we analyzed allele frequencies of three CISH SNPs (i.e., rs809451, rs414171, rs2239751) in a study of T1D patients (n = 260, onset age  10 years). Minor allele frequencies were compared to a control cohort of the 1000 Genomes Project. Assigned haplotypes were determined for effects on T1D manifestation and severity. Finally, the CISH haplotype influence on cytokine signaling and function was explored in T cells from healthy donors. We detected similar minor allele frequencies between T1D patients and the control cohort. T1D onset age, residual serum C-peptide level, and insulin requirement were comparable between different haplotypes. Only minor differences between the haplotypes were found for in vitro cytokine (i.e., IL-2, IL-7)-induced CIS mRNA expression. STAT5 phosphorylation was induced by IL-2 or IL-7, but no differences were found between the haplotypes. T REG purified from healthy donors with the two most common haplotypes showed similar capacity to inhibit heterologous effector T cells. This study provides no evidence for an association of CISH promoter SNPs with susceptibility to T1D or severity of disease. In contrast to previous studies, no influence of different haplotypes on CIS mRNA expression or T cell-mediated functions was found.

  5. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  6. Murine interleukin 1 receptor. Direct identification by ligand blotting and purification to homogeneity of an interleukin 1-binding glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, T.A.; Gearing, A.J.; Saklatvala, J.

    1988-01-01

    Functional receptors (IL1-R) for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) were solubilized from plasma membranes of the NOB-1 subclone of murine EL4 6.1 thymoma cells using the zwitterionic detergent 3[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Membrane extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and ligand blotted with 125 I-labeled recombinant human IL1 alpha in order to reveal proteins capable of specifically binding IL1. A single polydisperse polypeptide of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 was identified in this way, which bound IL1 alpha and IL1 beta with the same affinity as the IL1-R on intact NOB-1 cells (approximately equal to 10(-10) M). The IL1-binding polypeptide was only seen in membranes from IL1-R-bearing cells and did not react with interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or interferon. IL1-R was purified to apparent homogeneity from solubilized NOB-1 membranes by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and IL1 alpha-Sepharose. Gel electrophoresis and silver staining of purified preparations revealed a single protein of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 which reacted positively in the ligand-blotting procedure and which we identify as the ligand-binding moiety of the murine IL1-R. Purified IL1-R exhibited the same affinity and specificity as the receptor on intact cells. The relationship of this protein to proteins identified by covalent cross-linking studies is discussed

  7. Adenosine Receptors and Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce N. Cronstein

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that application of topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists promotes more rapid wound closure and clinical studies are currently underway to determine the utility of topical A2A adenosine receptor agonists in the therapy of diabetic foot ulcers. The effects of adenosine A2A receptors on the cells and tissues of healing wounds have only recently been explored. We review here the known effects of adenosine A2A receptor occupancy on the cells involved in wound healing.

  8. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  9. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Axonal GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M

    2008-09-01

    Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.

  11. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Agnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  12. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D 2 ) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D 2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D 2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3 H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3 H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABA A receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D 2 ) and the ion-channel type (GABA A ). (J.P.N.)

  13. Quantitative analysis of receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhanli; Wang Rongfu

    2004-01-01

    Model-based methods for quantitative analysis of receptor imaging, including kinetic, graphical and equilibrium methods, are introduced in detail. Some technical problem facing quantitative analysis of receptor imaging, such as the correction for in vivo metabolism of the tracer and the radioactivity contribution from blood volume within ROI, and the estimation of the nondisplaceable ligand concentration, is also reviewed briefly

  14. Coronavirus spike-receptor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, H.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses cause important diseases in humans and animals. Coronavirus infection starts with the virus binding with its spike proteins to molecules present on the surface of host cells that act as receptors. This spike-receptor interaction is highly specific and determines the virus’ cell, tissue

  15. Neurobeachin regulates neurotransmitter receptor trafficking to synapses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, R.; Lauks, J.; Jung, S; Cooke, N.E.; de Wit, H.; Brose, N.; Kilimann, M.W.; Verhage, M.; Rhee, J.

    2013-01-01

    The surface density of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. Synaptic receptor accumulation is regulated by the transport, postsynaptic anchoring, and turnover of receptors, involving multiple trafficking, sorting, motor, and scaffold proteins. We found

  16. A Novel Mechanism of Androgen Receptor Action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Jr, Charles T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the authors had determined that the androgen receptor controls the expression of the cell-surface receptor for the hormone IGF-1 at the level of translation of the IGF-1 receptor mRNA...

  17. Quantitative densitometry of neurotransmitter receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Bleisch, W.V.; Biegon, A.; McEwen, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure is described that allows the quantitative measurement of neurotransmitter receptors by optical density readings. Frozen brain sections are labeled in vitro with [ 3 H]ligands under conditions that maximize specific binding to neurotransmitter receptors. The labeled sections are then placed against the 3 H-sensitive LKB Ultrofilm to produce the autoradiograms. These autoradiograms resemble those produced by [ 14 C]deoxyglucose autoradiography and are suitable for quantitative analysis with a densitometer. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat and zebra finch brain and 5-HT receptors in rat brain were visualized by this method. When the proper combination of ligand concentration and exposure time are used, the method provides quantitative information about the amount and affinity of neurotransmitter receptors in brain sections. This was established by comparisons of densitometric readings with parallel measurements made by scintillation counting of sections. (Auth.)

  18. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS. In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist.

  19. Molecular characterization of opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize active opioid receptors and elucidate molecular aspects of opioid receptor heterogeneity. Purification to apparent homogeneity of an opioid binding protein from bovine caudate was achieved by solubilization in the non-ionic detergent, digitonin, followed by sequential chromatography on the opiate affinity matrix, ..beta..-naltrexylethylenediamine-CH-Sepharose 4B, and on the lectine affinity matrix, wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) followed by autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated purified receptor gave a single band. Purified receptor preparations showed a specific activity of 12,000-15,000 fmol of opiate bound per mg of protein. Radioiodinated human beta-endorphin (/sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/) was used as a probe to investigate the ligand binding subunits of mu and delta opioid receptors. /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ was shown to bind to a variety of opioid receptor-containing tissues with high affinity and specificity with preference for mu and delta sites, and with little, if any, binding to kappa sites. Affinity crosslinking techniques were employed to covalently link /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ to opioid receptors, utilizing derivatives of bis-succinimidyl esters that are bifunctional crosslinkers with specificities for amino and sulfhydryl groups. This, and competition experiments with high type-selective ligands, permitted the assignment of two labeled peptides to their receptor types, namely a peptide of M/sub r/ = 65,000 for mu receptors and one of M/sub r/ = 53,000 for delta receptors.

  20. Stargazin Modulation of AMPA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana A. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory synaptic signaling in the mammalian brain is mediated by AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. In neurons, AMPA receptors co-assemble with auxiliary proteins, such as stargazin, which can markedly alter receptor trafficking and gating. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to map distances between the full-length, functional AMPA receptor and stargazin expressed in HEK293 cells and to determine the ensemble structural changes in the receptor due to stargazin. In addition, we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the structural and conformational distribution of the receptor and how this distribution is affected by stargazin. Our nanopositioning data place stargazin below the AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain, where it is well poised to act as a scaffold to facilitate the long-range conformational selection observations seen in single-molecule experiments. These data support a model of stargazin acting to stabilize or select conformational states that favor activation.

  1. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1994-01-01

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [ 123 I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [ 123 I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [ 123 I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  2. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  3. XMRV: usage of receptors and potential co-receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddam Durga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV is a gammaretrovirus first identified in prostate tissues of Prostate Cancer (PC patients and later in the blood cells of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Although XMRV is thought to use XPR1 for cell entry, it infects A549 cells that do not express XPR1, suggesting usage of other receptors or co-receptors. Methods To study the usage of different receptors and co- receptors that could play a role in XMRV infection of lymphoid cells and GHOST (GFP- Human osteosarcoma cells expressing CD4 along with different chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR2, etc., were infected with XMRV. Culture supernatants and cells were tested for XMRV replication using real time quantitative PCR. Results Infection and replication of XMRV was seen in a variety of GHOST cells, LNCaP, DU145, A549 and Caski cell lines. The levels of XMRV replication varied in different cell lines showing differential replication in different cell lines. However, replication in A549 which lacks XPR1 expression was relatively higher than DU145 but lower than, LNCaP. XMRV replication varied in GHOST cell lines expressing CD4 and each of the co- receptors CCR1-CCR8 and bob. There was significant replication of XMRV in CCR3 and Bonzo although it is much lower when compared to DU145, A549 and LNCaP. Conclusion XMRV replication was observed in GHOST cells that express CD4 and each of the chemokine receptors ranging from CCR1- CCR8 and BOB suggesting that infectivity in hematopoietic cells could be mediated by use of these receptors.

  4. Quantitative receptor radioautography in the study of receptor-receptor interactions in the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fior-Chadi D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS in the dorsomedial medulla comprises a wide range of neuropeptides and biogenic amines. Several of them are related to mechanisms of central blood pressure control. Angiotensin II (Ang II, neuropeptide Y (NPY and noradrenaline (NA are found in the NTS cells, as well as their receptors. Based on this observation we have evaluated the modulatory effect of these peptide receptors on a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. Using quantitative receptor radioautography, we observed that NPY and Ang II receptors decreased the affinity of a2-adrenoceptors for their agonists in the NTS of the rat. Cardiovascular experiments agreed with the in vitro data. Coinjection of a threshold dose of Ang II or of the NPY agonists together with an ED50 dose of adrenergic agonists such as NA, adrenaline and clonidine counteracted the depressor effect produced by the a2-agonist in the NTS. The results provide evidence for the existence of an antagonistic interaction between Ang II at1 receptors and NPY receptor subtypes with the a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. This receptor interaction may reduce the transduction over the a2-adrenoceptors which can be important in central cardiovascular regulation and in the development of hypertension

  5. Peripheral adrenergic receptors in hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Brodde, O. E.; Insel, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased sympathoadrenal activity appears to play an important role in the development or maintenance of elevated blood pressure in hypertensive patients and various animal models of hypertension. Alterations of adrenergic receptor number or responsiveness might contribute to this increased

  6. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    environmental conditions. By adopting this standpoint, the functional attribution as olfactory or chemotactic sensors to these receptors should not be seen neither as a cause conditioning receptor gene expression, nor as a final effect resulting from genetically predetermined programs, but as a direct...... and odor-decoding processes. However, this type of explanation does not entirely justify the role olfactory receptors have played during evolution, since they are also expressed ectopically in different organs and/or tissues. Homologous olfactory genes have in fact been found in such diverse cells and....../or organs as spermatozoa, testis and kidney where they are assumed to act as chemotactic sensors or renin modulators. To justify their functional diversity, homologous olfactory receptors are assumed to share the same basic role: that of conferring a self-identity to cells or tissues under varying...

  7. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  8. L-glutamate Receptor In Paramecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Martínez, Juan; Ortega-Soto, Arturo

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological and biochemical experiments were performed in order to establish the presence of a glutamate receptor in the ciliate Paramecium. It was found that an AMPA/KA receptor is functionally expressed in Paramecium and that this receptor is immunologically and fillogenetically related to the AMPA/KA receptor present in vertebrates.

  9. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy

  10. [The receptor theory of atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoded, V G; Bondarenko, V M; Gintsburg, A L

    2010-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria can interact with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and induce atheroma formation. The risk of atherosclerosis is decreased in case of TLR4 mutation. Other bacterial ligands and endogenous ligands of TLRs can also be involved in induction of atherogenesis. The general concept of atherosclerosis pathogentsis is presented. According to this concept atherogenesis can be initiated by some reactions resulting from interaction of exogenous and endogenous microbial ligands with Toll-like receptors.

  11. Xenobiotics and the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliver, Linda S M

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) is present in virtually every human cell type. Representing a nuclear receptor superfamily, GR has several different isoforms essentially acting as ligand-dependent transcription factors, regulating glucocorticoid-responsive gene expression in both a positive and a negative manner. Although the natural ligand of the Glucocorticoid Receptor, glucocorticoids (GC) represent only some of the multiple ligands for GR. Xenobiotics, ubiquitous in the environment, bind to GR and are also capable of activating or repressing GR gene expression, thereby modulating GR cell and tissue-specific downstream effects in a multitude of ways that include responses to inflammatory, allergic, metabolic, neoplastic and autoimmune processes. Many xenobiotics, if inadequately metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and not wholly eliminated, could have deleterious toxic effects with potentially lethal consequences. This review examines GR, the genomic and non-genomic actions of natural and synthetic GC and the body's handling of xenobiotic compounds, before reviewing what is presently known about GR's interactions with many of the more commonly encountered and some of the less well known GR-associated xenobiotics. GR promiscuity and crosstalk with other signaling pathways is discussed, alongside novel roles for GR that include mood disorder and addiction. A knowledge of GR interactions with xenobiotics is increasingly relevant when considering aging populations and the related prevalence of neoplastic disease, together with growing concerns around human exposure to mixtures of chemicals in the environment. Furthermore, escalating rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes; autoimmune, allergy, addiction and mood disorder-related pathologies, require novel targeted interventions and GR appears a promising pharmacological candidate. - Highlights: • Biological impact of xenobiotics acting through Glucocorticoid Receptor. • Promiscuity of Glucocorticoid

  12. Xenobiotics and the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Linda S M, E-mail: linda.gulliver@otago.ac.nz

    2017-03-15

    Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) is present in virtually every human cell type. Representing a nuclear receptor superfamily, GR has several different isoforms essentially acting as ligand-dependent transcription factors, regulating glucocorticoid-responsive gene expression in both a positive and a negative manner. Although the natural ligand of the Glucocorticoid Receptor, glucocorticoids (GC) represent only some of the multiple ligands for GR. Xenobiotics, ubiquitous in the environment, bind to GR and are also capable of activating or repressing GR gene expression, thereby modulating GR cell and tissue-specific downstream effects in a multitude of ways that include responses to inflammatory, allergic, metabolic, neoplastic and autoimmune processes. Many xenobiotics, if inadequately metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and not wholly eliminated, could have deleterious toxic effects with potentially lethal consequences. This review examines GR, the genomic and non-genomic actions of natural and synthetic GC and the body's handling of xenobiotic compounds, before reviewing what is presently known about GR's interactions with many of the more commonly encountered and some of the less well known GR-associated xenobiotics. GR promiscuity and crosstalk with other signaling pathways is discussed, alongside novel roles for GR that include mood disorder and addiction. A knowledge of GR interactions with xenobiotics is increasingly relevant when considering aging populations and the related prevalence of neoplastic disease, together with growing concerns around human exposure to mixtures of chemicals in the environment. Furthermore, escalating rates of obesity, Type 2 diabetes; autoimmune, allergy, addiction and mood disorder-related pathologies, require novel targeted interventions and GR appears a promising pharmacological candidate. - Highlights: • Biological impact of xenobiotics acting through Glucocorticoid Receptor. • Promiscuity of Glucocorticoid

  13. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-03-27

    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  15. Prognostic Value of Estrogen Receptor alpha and Progesterone Receptor Conversion in Distant Breast Cancer Metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, Laurien D. C.; Moelans, Cathy B.; Meijer, S. L.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Wesseling, Jelle; Westenend, Pieter J.; Bart, Joost; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Oudejans, Joost; van der Valk, Paul; van Gils, Carla H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in the receptor profile of primary breast cancers to their metastases (receptor conversion) have been described for the estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of receptor conversion for ER alpha and

  16. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  17. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  18. Studies on insulin receptor, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    The present study is to investigate an influence of starvation and high fat diet on insulin receptor of the plasma membrane by means of radioreceptor assay using 125 I-labelled insulin. Male guinea pigs of Hartley strain were employed for the starvation study, and 125 I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours of the fast after the last meal. Male rats of Wistar strain were employed for the high fat study where the diet containing 35% of butter was fed ad libitum for 38 or 68 days. The animals were killed at the fast of 12 hours, and 125 I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver was determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) An increase in 125 I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was observed by the starvation for 24 to 72 hours. 2) The mechanism of the increase by starvation was considered to be different by the organs; it was due to an increase in number of insulin receptor in the liver, and due to an increase in affinity of insulin receptor in the kidney. 3) In non-obese rats fed with high fat diet, the number of insulin receptor on the liver plasma membrane showed a decrease, and this observation clearly indicated that the decrease in number of the receptor did not depend on the obesity. 4) Obese rats also fed with high fat diet presented a decrease in number of insulin receptor without an elevation of insulin levels in the circulating blood. This indicated that at least in the obese rats fed with high fat diet, the decrease in number of the receptor was not due to hyperinsulinemia. (author)

  19. GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common β chain (CD131 expression as a biomarker of antigen-stimulated CD8+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maric Dragan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon Ag-activation cytotoxic T cells (CTLs produce IFN-γ GM-CSF and TNF-α, which deliver simultaneously pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory signals to the surrounding microenvironment. Whether this secretion affects in an autocrine loop the CTLs themselves is unknown. Methods Here, we compared the transcriptional profile of Ag-activated, Flu-specific CTL stimulated with the FLU M1:58-66 peptide to that of convivial CTLs expanded in vitro in the same culture. PBMCs from 6 HLA-A*0201 expressing donors were expanded for 7 days in culture following Flu M1:58-66 stimulation in the presence of 300 IU/ml of interleukin-2 and than sorted by high speed sorting to high purity CD8+ expressing T cells gated according to FluM1:58-66 tetrameric human leukocyte antigen complexes expression. Results Ag-activated CTLs displayed higher levels of IFN-γ, GM-CSF (CSF2 and GM-CSF/IL-3/IL-5 receptor common β- chain (CD131 but lacked completely expression of IFN-γ receptor-II and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. This observation suggested that Ag-activated CTLs in preparation for the release of IFN-γ and GM-CSF shield themselves from the potentially apoptotic effects of the former entrusting their survival to GM-SCF. In vitro phenotyping confirmed the selective surface expression of CD131 by Ag-activated CTLs and their increased proliferation upon exogenous administration of GM-CSF. Conclusion The selective responsiveness of Ag-activated CTLs to GM-CSF may provide an alternative explanation to the usefulness of this chemokine as an adjuvant for T cell aimed vaccines. Moreover, the selective expression of CD131 by Ag-activated CTLs proposes CD131 as a novel biomarker of Ag-dependent CTL activation.

  20. Growth and apoptosis of human natural killer cell neoplasms: role of interleukin-2/15 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Maeda, Motoi; Ohshima, Koichi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Otsuka, Teruhisa; Harada, Mine

    2004-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the survival of human natural killer (NK) cells. We investigated IL-2/15 signaling in NK cell neoplasms from five patients and in five cell lines (NK-92, KHYG-1, SNK-6, HANK1 and MOTN-1) compared to mature peripheral NK cells from 10 healthy subjects. Apoptosis of NK cell lines was prevented by addition of IL-15 in vitro. Blocking IL-2/15Rbeta on IL-2-stimulated NK-92 cells resulted in reduced expression of Bcl-X(L) and phosphorylated Stat5, which paralleled early apoptosis without altering Bcl-2 expression. These data add IL-2/15Rbeta to the list of factors important for the survival of NK cell neoplasms.

  1. Anti-tumor efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin 2 in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, J.J.; Shu, S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors showed previously that adoptive immunotherapy with the combination of LAK cells and recombinant IL 2 (RIL 2) can markedly reduce pulmonary micrometastases from multiple sarcomas established 3 days after the i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells in C57BL/6 mice. In this report, they analyzed the factors required for successful therapy. Titration analysis in vivo revealed an inverse relationship between the number of pulmonary metastases remaining after treatment and both the number of LAK cells and the amount of RIL 2 administered. Fresh or unstimulated splenocytes had no anti-tumor effect; a 2- to 3-day incubation of splenocytes in RIL 2 was required. LAK cells generated from allogeneic DBA (H-2d) splenocytes were as effective in vivo as syngeneic, C57BL/6 (H-2b) LAK cells. The anti-metastatic capacity of LAK cells was significantly reduced or eliminated when irradiated with 3000 rad before adoptive transfer. The combined therapy of LAK cells plus RIL 2 was shown to be highly effective in mice immunosuppressed by 500 rad total body irradiation and in treating macrometastases established in the lung 10 days after the i.v. injection of sarcoma cells. Further, reduction of both micrometastases and macrometastases could also be achieved by RIL 2 alone when administered at higher levels than were required with LAK cells. The value of LAK cell transfer and of IL 2 administration for the treatment of tumors established at other sites is currently under investigation

  2. Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-8 Gene Polymorphisms and Acquired Aplastic Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Lin, Shengyun; Yang, Yan; Rong, Liucheng; He, Guangsheng; He, Hailong; Xue, Yao; Fang, Yongjun; Wang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines IL-2 and IL-8 both participate in immune regulation. However, the relationship between polymorphisms in these two cytokines and the risk of acquired aplastic anemia (acquired AA) has not been explored. We selected five SNPs including rs11575812, rs2069772 and rs2069762 of IL-2, rs2227306 and rs2227543 of IL-8. SNaPshot genotyping was used to test the genotypes of IL-2 and IL-8 polymorphisms in a population of 101 acquired AA patients and 165 healthy controls. The rs2069762 G allele appeared to be a protective mutation, but no significant differences were found in other four SNPs. We also found that rs2069762 had an impact on the transcriptional regulation. It could be assumed that the rs2069762 polymorphism might reduce the risk of acquired aplastic anemia, while the remaining four SNPs might not contribute to susceptibility to acquired AA in a Chinese population. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Association of −330 interleukin-2 gene polymorphism with oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithvi Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    >Results: IL-2 (−330A>C gene polymorphism was significantly associated with oral cancer whereas it was neither associated with clinicopathological status nor with cancer pain. The AC heterozygous genotype was significantly associated with oral cancer patients as compared to controls [odds ratio (OR: 3.0; confidence interval (CI: 2.14-4.20; PC gene polymorphism was also associated with oral cancer in tobacco smokers and chewers. >Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that oral cancer patients had significantly higher frequency of AA genotype but significantly lower frequency of AC genotype and C allele compared to controls. The IL-2 AC genotype and C allele of IL-2 (−330A>C gene polymorphisms could be potential protective factors and might reduce the risk of oral cancer in Indian population.

  4. CORRECTION OF DISTURBED NEUROIMMUNE INTERACTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY BY MEANS OF RECOMBINANT INTERLEUKIN 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Shanin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly proceeds as a severe disease with high morbidity that can lead to neurological disorders in some of these patients. TBI is associated by multidirectional abnormalities of immune system, which affect quantity and functions of T-, B-, and NK-lymphocytes leading to infectious complications or autosensibilization. Restoration of the disturbances in neuroimmune interactions after TBI may be achieved by means of immunomodulators that have neuroprotective properties and may potentially initiate regenerative CNS activity. IL-2 is a cytokine that possesses neurooperative and neuroprotective properties. In immune system, IL-2 is produced by T-cells in response to antigen stimuli; in CNS, by brain cells. Lack of IL-2 production by both T-lymphocytes and brain cells increases a possibility of autoimmune and inflammatory pathologies. The objective of present study was to evaluate possible effects of human recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2, Roncoleukin®, Biothech Ltd., Russia upon state and correction of immune and neuro-endocrine TBI consequences. The study was performed in adult Wistar rats. Mechanical TBI was produced by the dropping load model. 72 hours after inflicting the TBI, r-IL-2, at dose 30 mg/kg was injected once a day for three times. The animals from control group received 0.15M NaCl solution over the same period. The results have shown that, within first hours and days after TBI, corticosterone levels showed a sharp increase, whereas testosterone concentrations were decreased.In parallel, an increase in cytotoxic and proliferative activity of splenocytes was revealed, as well as increased number of splenocytes at their late apoptotic stage. Three daily injections of rIL-2 resulted into a significant increase in corticosterone and testosterone levels in injured animals on the day 7 after TBI. The animals treated with rIL-2 have exhibited more rapid normalization of cytotoxic and proliferative activity of splenocytes and return to normal ratio of proliferating splenocytes vs. apoptotic cells. Therefore, usage of rIL-2 may correct neuro-endocrine and immune interaction disturbances after TBI and decrease risk of chronic neurological disorders in TBI patients.

  5. Interleukin 2 gene therapy of residual disease in mice carrying tumours induced by HPV 16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Sobota, Vesna; Jandlová, Táňa; Šmahel, M.; Sobotková, E.; Vonka, V.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (1999), s. 593-597 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ3516; GA MZd IZ4069; GA MZd NC45011; GA ČR GA312/96/1211; GA ČR GA312/98/0826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.381, year: 1999

  6. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group. Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy subjects: mean 34.1 ± 9.7 versus 7.3 ± 3.0 pg/mL; P < .001 . Patients with BMS had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 compared to control: mean 30.8 ± 5.6 versus 5.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL; P < .001 . In patients with BMS, IL-2 and IL-6 levels in saliva are elevated, correlating with the severity of illness.

  7. Metastatic melanoma patients treated with dendritic cell vaccination, Interleukin-2 and metronomic cyclophosphamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and have proven effective in stimulation of specific immune responses in vivo. Competing immune inhibition could limit the clinical efficacy of DC vaccination. In this phase II trial, metronomic Cyclophosphamide and a Cox-2 inhibitor...... have been added to a DC vaccine with the intend to dampen immunosuppressive mechanisms. Twenty-eight patients with progressive metastatic melanoma were treated with autologous DCs pulsed with survivin, hTERT, and p53-derived peptides (HLA-A2(+)) or tumor lysate (HLA-A2(-)). Concomitantly the patients...... were treated with IL-2, Cyclophosphamide, and Celecoxib. The treatment was safe and tolerable. Sixteen patients (57 %) achieved stable disease (SD) at 1st evaluation and 8 patients had prolonged SD (7-13.7 months). The median OS was 9.4 months. Patients with SD had an OS of 10.5 months while patients...

  8. Interleukin-2 treatment potentiates induction of oral tolerance in a murine model of autoimmunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, L V; Miller-Rivero, N E; Chan, C C; Wiggert, B; Nussenblatt, R B; Caspi, R R

    1994-01-01

    The present study addresses the feasibility of potentiating oral tolerance by immunomanipulation, using the murine model of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) induced by immunization with the retinal antigen interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP). Three feedings of 0.2 mg IRBP every other day before immunization did not protect against EAU, whereas a similar regimen of five doses was protective. However, supplementing the nonprotective 3x regimen with as little as one inj...

  9. Decreased interleukin-2 responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Tanja Skuldbøl; Løbner, Morten; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    with disease-relevant pathogens. METHODS: Mononuclear cells (MNCs) from 10 white patients with GAgP and 10 white controls were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33277 (Pg), Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 49256 (Fn), and similar...

  10. Human, recombinant interleukin-2 induces in vitro histamine release in a dose-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Petersen, L J; Skov, P S

    1995-01-01

    significantly in the supernatant from cells stimulated by rIL-2 in a dose-dependent manner both in patients and volunteers. Total cell-bound histamine was 49.3 +/- 4.1 ng/ml in patients compared to 78.5 +/- 7.7 ng/ml in volunteers (p ... was significantly enhanced in cancer patients compared to volunteers (*p manner in both cancer patients and volunteers. This may in part explain the severe toxicity observed during high...

  11. Antibodies to Interleukin-2 Elicit Selective T Cell Subset Potentiation through Distinct Conformational Mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spangler, J.; Tomala, Jakub; Luca, V.C.; Jude, K.M.; Dong, S.; Ring, A.M.; Votavová, Petra; Pepper, M.; Kovář, Marek; Garcia, K.Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 815-825 ISSN 1074-7613 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IN-VIVO EXPANSION * AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE * SMALL-MOLECULE Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 24.082, year: 2015

  12. Interleukin-2 induces tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of stat3 in human T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A; Skov, S

    1994-01-01

    that stimulation through the IL-2R induced tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of stat3, a newly identified member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins. In contrast, stat1 proteins were not tyrosine phosphorylated after IL-2 ligation, whereas...... an apparent molecular mass of 84 kDa and was not recognized by stat3 or stat1 mAb or antisera. Since IL-2 induced nuclear translocation of the 84 kDa protein and stat3 followed identical kinetics, p84 is a candidate for a new, yet undefined, member of the STAT family. Taken together, we report that IL-2...... induces tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of stat3 and an as yet undefined 84-kDa protein in antigen-specific human T cell lines....

  13. Can interleukin-2 and interleukin-1β be specific biomarkers of negative symptoms in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Blanco, Leticia; García-Portilla, María P; García-Álvarez, Leticia; de la Fuente-Tomás, Lorena; Iglesias García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Rodríguez-González, Susana; Coto-Montes, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2018-04-30

    Evidence suggests the existence of cytokine disturbances in patients with schizophrenia but their association with psychopathology is still unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine if pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-1RA) are increased in stable outpatients compared with healthy subjects, and to analyze if they could be specific biomarkers of clinical dimensions in schizophrenia. We studied 73 stable outpatients with schizophrenia in their first 10 years of illness and 73 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. An accurate assessment of clinical dimensions (positive, negative, depressive, cognitive) was performed in patients. Only IL-6 levels were significantly increased in patients after controlling for body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, and psychopharmacological treatment, compared with healthy subjects. After adjusting for several confounders, multiple linear regression models identified that Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, general psychopathology, and global severity are predicted by IL-1β concentrations, while motivation and pleasure domain of Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms and Personal and Social Performance global functioning scores are predicted by IL-2 levels. Cognitive performance, positive, and depressive symptom severity did not correlate with any cytokine. Our findings suggested that IL-6 concentrations are elevated in stable patients with schizophrenia. Whereas IL-2 specifically marks severity of the motivation and pleasure domain of negative symptoms, IL-1β is not specific to this dimension as it also predicts severity of general and global symptomatology. Copyright © 2018 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Specific Cytotoxicity Against Autologous Tumour and Proliferative Responses of Human Lymphocytes Grown in Interleukin 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-11

    reactivity against tumour cells. These cellular reagents will be useful in defining the antigenicity of human neoplasms and possibly in therapy . S, N 0) 02...Stjernswird. of human neoplasms and possibly in therapy . 1979; Vose et al., 1978; Vinky et al., 1979). Purifica- The derivation of cultured T cells...mononuclear cells were sepa- had increased 100- to 200-fold. Cells were cultured in rated by floatation on Ficoll-Hypaque (LSM, Litton- medium without IL-2 for

  15. Detection of Salivary Interleukin 2 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simčić, Daria; Pezelj-Ribarić, Sonja; Gržić, Renata; Horvat, Jelena; Brumini, Gordana; Muhvić-Urek, Miranda

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of BMS remains unknown. Role of various cytokines has been implicated in the development of BMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of salivary IL-2 and IL-6 in patients with BMS, compared with age-matched healthy volunteers (control group). Whole saliva from 30 patients with BMS, age range 55–65, was tested for the presence of IL-6 and IL-2 by enzyme immunoassay. Control group consisted of 30 healthy participants, aged 55–65 years. Saliva IL-2 concentrations in BMS were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy subjects: mean 34.1 ± 9.7 versus 7.3 ± 3.0 pg/mL; P < .001. Patients with BMS had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 compared to control: mean 30.8 ± 5.6 versus 5.2 ± 2.8 pg/mL; P < .001. In patients with BMS, IL-2 and IL-6 levels in saliva are elevated, correlating with the severity of illness. PMID:16864905

  16. Interleukin 2 and 15 activate Stat3alpha in human T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Nordahl, M; Svejgaard, A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) has recently been shown to exist in two alternatively spliced isoforms, a short form, Stat3beta, and a longer form, Stat3alpha, displaying differences in transcriptional activity. It is unknown which Stat3 isoform(s) is activated in respo...

  17. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  18. Scavenger receptors in homeostasis and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Johnathan; Neculai, Dante; Grinstein, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Scavenger receptors were originally identified by their ability to recognize and to remove modified lipoproteins; however, it is now appreciated that they carry out a striking range of functions, including pathogen clearance, lipid transport, the transport of cargo within the cell and even functioning as taste receptors. The large repertoire of ligands recognized by scavenger receptors and their broad range of functions are not only due to the wide range of receptors that constitute this family but also to their ability to partner with various co-receptors. The ability of individual scavenger receptors to associate with different co-receptors makes their responsiveness extremely versatile. This Review highlights recent insights into the structural features that determine the function of scavenger receptors and the emerging role that these receptors have in immune responses, notably in macrophage polarization and in the pathogenesis of diseases such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Photo-antagonism of the GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Martin; Iqbal, Favaad; Pandurangan, Arun P; Hannan, Saad; Huckvale, Rosemary; Topf, Maya; Baker, James R; Smart, Trevor G

    2014-07-29

    Neurotransmitter receptor trafficking is fundamentally important for synaptic transmission and neural network activity. GABAA receptors and inhibitory synapses are vital components of brain function, yet much of our knowledge regarding receptor mobility and function at inhibitory synapses is derived indirectly from using recombinant receptors, antibody-tagged native receptors and pharmacological treatments. Here we describe the use of a set of research tools that can irreversibly bind to and affect the function of recombinant and neuronal GABAA receptors following ultraviolet photoactivation. These compounds are based on the competitive antagonist gabazine and incorporate a variety of photoactive groups. By using site-directed mutagenesis and ligand-docking studies, they reveal new areas of the GABA binding site at the interface between receptor β and α subunits. These compounds enable the selected inactivation of native GABAA receptor populations providing new insight into the function of inhibitory synapses and extrasynaptic receptors in controlling neuronal excitation.

  20. TAM receptor signaling in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn-Cohen, Tal

    2017-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL and MERTK comprise the TAM family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Activated by their ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), they mediate numerous cellular functions throughout development and adulthood. Expressed by a myriad of cell types and tissues, they have been implicated in homeostatic regulation of the immune, nervous, vascular, bone and reproductive systems. The loss-of-function of TAM signaling in adult tissues culminates in the destruction of tissue homeostasis and diseased states, while TAM gain-of-function in various tumors promotes cancer phenotypes. Combinatorial ligand-receptor interactions may elicit different molecular and cellular responses. Many of the TAM regulatory functions are essentially developmental, taking place both during embryogenesis and postnatally. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of TAM receptors and their ligands during these developmental processes in the immune, nervous, vascular and reproductive systems.

  1. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K

    2014-01-01

    of the receptor. Endosomal acidification and calcium efflux lead to the essential ligand-receptor affinity switch and separation. Recent data, including crystal structures of receptor-ligand complexes, now reveal how calcium, in different types of domain scaffolds, functions in a common way as a removable...... 'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect...... the receptor calcium sites....

  2. Lessons from crystal structures of kainate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S

    2017-01-01

    Kainate receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors. These receptors assemble from five subunits (GluK1-5) into tetrameric ion channels. Kainate receptors are located at both pre- and postsynaptic membranes in the central nervous system where they contribute to excitatory...... synaptic transmission and modulate network excitability by regulating neurotransmitter release. Dysfunction of kainate receptors has been implicated in several neurological disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression. Here we provide a review on the current understanding of kainate receptor...

  3. The lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81/hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Lauritzen, Knut Huso; Puchades, Maja

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed that lactate is a “volume transmitter” in the brain and underpinned this by showing that the lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81, also known as HCA1 or HCAR1), which promotes lipid storage in adipocytes, is also active in the mammalian brain. This includes......, energy metabolism, and energy substrate availability, including a glucose- and glycogen-saving response. HCAR1 may contribute to optimizing the cAMP concentration. For instance, in the prefrontal cortex, excessively high cAMP levels are implicated in impaired cognition in old age, fatigue, stress...

  4. Maintenance immunosuppression with intermittent intravenous IL-2 receptor antibody therapy in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Catella, Jennifer; Martin, Spencer T; Perrone, Ronald; Chandraker, Anil; Magee, Colm C; McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M

    2011-09-01

    To report what we believe to be the first 2 cases of long-term (>24 months) intermittent intravenous interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) therapy for maintenance immunosuppression following renal transplantation. The first patient is a 52-year-old female with a history of intolerance to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and sirolimus. Following her second transplant, the patient received mycophenolate mofetil 100 mg twice daily, a tapering corticosteroid regimen (initial dose of methylprednisolone 500 mg tapered over 1 week to prednisone 30 mg/day), and biweekly intravenous daclizumab 1-1.2 mg/kg/dose; 33 months after transplant the IL-2RA was changed to intravenous basiliximab 40 mg once a month. At 40 months after transplant, the patient continued to have stable renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate 48 mL/min/1.73 m²) with excellent tolerability. The second patient is a 59-year-old female also intolerant to CNIs and sirolimus who required intermittent maintenance therapy with intravenous basiliximab 20 mg/dose. Despite an initial rejection episode, the patient tolerated more than 2 years of basiliximab therapy with good renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate 103 months after transplant 69 mL/min/1.73 m²) and no adverse events. The IL-2RAs basiliximab and daclizumab possess several characteristics of ideal maintenance immunosuppressive agents (ie, nondepleting, long half-lives, limited adverse events). Based on a MEDLINE search (through December 31, 2010) using the search terms basiliximab, daclizumab, organ transplant, immunosuppression, and/or maintenance immunosuppression, and an advanced search in the published abstracts from the American Transplant Congress and World Transplant Congress (2000-2010), it appears that IL-2RAs have been used successfully as short-term therapy in both renal and extrarenal transplant recipients to allow for renal recovery following CNI-induced nephrotoxicity. In heart transplant recipients, the IL-2

  5. Stability of solubilized benzodiazepine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R.A

    1997-01-01

    According to the observations of other researchers, benzodiazepine receptors solubilized with sodium deoxycholate are unstable, but stability can be improved by exchanging deoxycholate for Triton X-100. In our experiments we conclude that the choice of detergent is not the restrictive factor for the

  6. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  7. FMRFamide receptors of Helix aspersa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payza, K.

    1988-01-01

    A receptor binding assay and an isolated heart bioassay were used to identify and characterize the FMRFamide receptors in Helix. In the heart bioassay, FMRFamide increased myocardial contraction force. A potent FMRFamide analog, desaminoTyr-Phe-norLeu-arg-Phe-amide (daYFnLRFamide), was used as a radioiodinated receptor ligand. The high affinity binding of 125 I-daYFnLRFamide at 0 degree C to Helix brain membranes was reversible, saturable, pH-dependent and specific, with a K D of 13-14 nM. A lower affinity (245 nM) site was also observed. Radioligand binding sites were also identified in the heart, male reproductive organs and digestive organs. The structure-activity relations (SAR) of cardiostimulation correlated with the specificity of 125 I-daYFnLRFamide binding to brain and heart receptors. The SAR were similar to those of other molluscan FMRFamide bioassays, except that they showed a marked preference for some analogs with blocked amino-terminals

  8. Pharmacological approach of the receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper explains the three main goals for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies: detection of receptor abnormalities in groups of patients to propose therapeutic indication of new ligands; validation of current hypothesis of drug effect; rational clinical drug development specially for dose-finding studies. (H.W.)

  9. Uncompetitive antagonism of AMPA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine F; Tikhonov, Denis B; Bølcho, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Philanthotoxins are uncompetitive antagonists of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors presumed to bind to the pore-forming region, but a detailed molecular mechanism for this interaction is missing. Here a small library of novel philanthotoxins was designed and synthesized using a solid-phase strategy. ...

  10. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  11. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jennifer L.; Kuntz, Steven G.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement and cell polarity. Although Ror proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species have now established that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either act...

  12. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  13. Synaptic Bistability Due to Nucleation and Evaporation of Receptor Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.; Emptage, N.; Goriely, A.; Bressloff, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    interacting receptors and is stabilized against clustering by a high nucleation barrier. The other state contains a receptor gas in equilibrium with a large cluster of immobile receptors, which is stabilized by the turnover rate of receptors into and out

  14. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B. R.; Korte, S. M.; Buwalda, B.; La Fleur, S. E.; Bohus, B.; Luiten, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  15. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, BRK; Korte, SM; Buwalda, B; la Fleur, SE; Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  16. Receptores de progesterona en meningioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminio Ojeda Di Ninno

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de los receptores de progesterona en meningiomas y su frecuencia mediante la inmunohistoquímica. Material y Métodos: Se analizaron 24 muestras provenientes de pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas entre los años 1990 y 1992 con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de meningioma. La determinación de los receptores se hizo mediante una técnica de inmunohistoquímica rápida que permite el estudio de tejidos fijados previamente en parafina. Resultados: De los 24 casos estudiados, nueve resultaron ser positivos en la determinación de receptores de progesterona (37%. Se pudo observar un marcado predominio dentro del grupo femenino quienes constituyeron 8/9 casos positivos. Conclusiones: El empleo de esta reciente técnica de inmunohistoquímica aplicada a tejido de fijado en parafina, nos ha permitido confirmar la presencia de receptores de progesterona en meningiomas con una frecuencia elevada que creemos amerita un estudio más amplio de manera sistemática que incluya la intervención terapéutica mediante el uso de antiprogestágenos, como el Mifepristone o RU 486. De este estudio podrían beneficiarse no sólo pacientes operados recientemente sino aquellos que, intervenidos en el pasado sean detectados como portadores de receptores de progesterona mediante la aplicación de esta novedosa técnica (Rev Med Hered 1995; 6: 121-130.

  17. A new family of insect tyramine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klærke, Dan Arne; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2005-01-01

    in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The Drosophila tyramine...

  18. Imaging of receptors in clinical neurosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, J

    This article deals with the question why should one determine receptors in the brain with positron and single photon emission tomography (PET and SPECT, respectively). Radiopharmaceuticals for a wide variety of receptors are available now. Receptors studies with PET and SPECT have thus far focused

  19. Receptor conversion in distant breast cancer metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, L.D.C.

    2013-01-01

    The routine pathological work-up of breast cancer includes the evaluation of the estrogen receptor (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) which reveals biological information about the tumour as well as provides predictive biomarkers regarding hormonal

  20. Molecular pharmacology of human NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard

    2012-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ionotropic glutamate receptors that mediate excitatory neurotransmission. NMDA receptors are also important drug targets that are implicated in a number of pathophysiological conditions. To facilitate the transition from lead compounds in pre-clinical ani...

  1. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  2. [Ceruloplasmin receptor on human erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, E L; Basevich, V V; Iaropolov, A I

    1988-08-01

    The structural fragments of the human ceruloplasmin (CP) molecule and of erythrocyte receptors which provide for the specific interaction of CP with erythrocytes were identified, and their properties were investigated. The interaction of CP with erythrocytes, both intact and treated with neuroaminidase and proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, papaine, pronase E) is described. Experiments with CP reception were performed at 4 degrees C, using [125I]CP and [125I]asialo-CP. The parameters of binding were determined in Scatchard plots. It was demonstrated that the specific binding of CP to erythrocyte receptors is determined by its interaction with two structural sites of the carbohydrate moiety of the CP molecule, i.e., the terminal residues of sialic acids and a site, (formula; see text) located at a large distance from the chain terminus.

  3. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtaran, A.; Virgolini, I.

    1994-01-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of 'cold spots' for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of 'cold spots' identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author)

  4. PAF receptor structure: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, J J; Dive, G; Lamotte-Brasseur, J; Batt, J P; Heymans, F

    1991-12-01

    Different hypotheses of the structure of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor based on structure-activity relationships of agonists and antagonists are reviewed. For an agonistic effect, strong hydrophobic interactions and an ether function are required in position-1 of the glycerol backbone; chain length limitations and steric hindrance demand a small group in position-2. The unusual structural properties of non-PAF-like antagonists required 3-D electrostatic potential calculations. This method applied to seven potent antagonists suggests a strong "Cache-orielles" (ear-muff) effect, i.e., two strong electronegative wells (isocontour at -10 Kcal/mole) are located at 180 degrees to each other and at a relatively constant distance. Initial consideration of the "Cache-oreilles" effect implied the structure of a bipolarized cylinder of 10-12 A diameter for the receptor. However, very recent results on studies with agonists and antagonists structurally similar to PAF suggest that the receptor may in fact be a multi-polarized cylinder.

  5. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtaran, A; Virgolini, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Angelberger, P [Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria)

    1994-10-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of `cold spots` for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of `cold spots` identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author).

  6. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  7. The two-state dimer receptor model: a general model for receptor dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Ferrada, Carla; Ferré, Sergi; Fuxe, Kjell; Cortés, Antoni; Ciruela, Francisco; Lluis, Carmen; Canela, Enric I

    2006-06-01

    Nonlinear Scatchard plots are often found for agonist binding to G-protein-coupled receptors. Because there is clear evidence of receptor dimerization, these nonlinear Scatchard plots can reflect cooperativity on agonist binding to the two binding sites in the dimer. According to this, the "two-state dimer receptor model" has been recently derived. In this article, the performance of the model has been analyzed in fitting data of agonist binding to A(1) adenosine receptors, which are an example of receptor displaying concave downward Scatchard plots. Analysis of agonist/antagonist competition data for dopamine D(1) receptors using the two-state dimer receptor model has also been performed. Although fitting to the two-state dimer receptor model was similar to the fitting to the "two-independent-site receptor model", the former is simpler, and a discrimination test selects the two-state dimer receptor model as the best. This model was also very robust in fitting data of estrogen binding to the estrogen receptor, for which Scatchard plots are concave upward. On the one hand, the model would predict the already demonstrated existence of estrogen receptor dimers. On the other hand, the model would predict that concave upward Scatchard plots reflect positive cooperativity, which can be neither predicted nor explained by assuming the existence of two different affinity states. In summary, the two-state dimer receptor model is good for fitting data of binding to dimeric receptors displaying either linear, concave upward, or concave downward Scatchard plots.

  8. Localization of mineralocorticoid receptors at mammalian synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Prager

    Full Text Available In the brain, membrane associated nongenomic steroid receptors can induce fast-acting responses to ion conductance and second messenger systems of neurons. Emerging data suggest that membrane associated glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors may directly regulate synaptic excitability during times of stress when adrenal hormones are elevated. As the key neuron signaling interface, the synapse is involved in learning and memory, including traumatic memories during times of stress. The lateral amygdala is a key site for synaptic plasticity underlying conditioned fear, which can both trigger and be coincident with the stress response. A large body of electrophysiological data shows rapid regulation of neuronal excitability by steroid hormone receptors. Despite the importance of these receptors, to date, only the glucocorticoid receptor has been anatomically localized to the membrane. We investigated the subcellular sites of mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral amygdala of the Sprague-Dawley rat. Immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of mineralocorticoid receptors in the amygdala. Using electron microscopy, we found mineralocorticoid receptors expressed at both nuclear including: glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and extra nuclear sites including: presynaptic terminals, neuronal dendrites, and dendritic spines. Importantly we also observed mineralocorticoid receptors at postsynaptic membrane densities of excitatory synapses. These data provide direct anatomical evidence supporting the concept that, at some synapses, synaptic transmission is regulated by mineralocorticoid receptors. Thus part of the stress signaling response in the brain is a direct modulation of the synapse itself by adrenal steroids.

  9. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Eismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures.

  10. Characterization of astrocytic and neuronal benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons express benzodiazepine receptors. Neuronal benzodiazepine receptors were of high-affinity, K{sub D} values were 7.5-43 nM and the densities of receptors (B{sub max}) were 924-4131 fmol/mg protein. Astrocytes posses a high-affinity benzodiazepine receptor, K{sub D} values were 6.6-13 nM. The B{sub max} values were 6,033-12,000 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological profile of the neuronal benzodiazepine receptor was that of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor, where clonazepam has a high-affinity and Ro 5-4864 (4{prime}-chlorodiazepam) has a low-affinity. Whereas astrocytic benzoidazepine receptor was characteristic of the so called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, which shows a high-affinity towards Ro 5-4863, and a low-affinity towards clonazepam. The astrocytic benzodiazepine receptors was functionally correlated with voltage dependent calcium channels, since dihydropyridines and benzodiazepines interacted with ({sup 3}H) diazepam and ({sup 3}H) nitrendipine receptors with the same rank order of potency, showing a statistically significant correlation. No such correlation was observed in neurons.

  11. Identification of a second T-cell antigen receptor in human and mouse by an anti-peptide γ-chain-specific monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, C.G.; Itoh, K.; Fox, F.E.; Pahwa, R.; Good, R.A.; Platsoucas, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (9D7) against a synthetic peptide (P13K) selected from the deduced amino acid sequence of the constant region of the λ chain of the murine T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) (amino acids 118-130). Using this mAb, they identified a putative second TCR expressed on peripheral blood lymphocytes from a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that were propagated in culture with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and Con A. This mAb immunoprecipitated two polypeptide chains of 40 and 58 kDa under nonreducing conditions and of 40 and 56 kDa under reducing conditions from 125 I-labeled denatured lysates of T3 + WT31 - lymphocytes expanded in culture from a SCID patient. Chemical crosslinking of 125 I-labeled cells followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-Leu-4 mAb under nonreducing or reducing conditions revealed that the 40- and 56-kDa polypeptide chains were associated with the T3 differentiation antigen. These experiments were done with polyclonal cell populations. Cloned T3 + WT31 - cell populations are required to determine whether the TCR contains two λ polypeptide chains. Using the same 9D7 anti-P18K mAb and immunoblotting analysis, they identified a 35 kDa γ-chain polypeptide under reducing conditions expressed on purified L3T4 - Lyt2 - BALB/c mouse thymocytes. This γ-chain TCR is disulfide linked and has a molecular mass of 80 kDa under nonreducing conditions

  12. Complementarity-Determining Region 3 Size Spectratypes of T Cell Receptor β Chains in CD8+ T Cells following Antiviral Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Wu; Li, Yong-Yin; Zhang, Guang-Wen; Huang, Xuan; Sun, Jian; Li, Chris; Abbott, William G. H.; Hou, Jin-Lin

    2011-01-01

    An increased CD8+ T cell response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) peptides occurs between 12 and 24 weeks after starting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B. It is not known whether these cells have antiviral function. The aim of this study was to determine whether clonal expansions of CD8+ T cells at these time points predict the virological response to therapy. Peripheral blood CD8+ T cells were obtained from 20 patients treated with lamivudine or telbivudine for chronic hepatitis B at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. The CDR3 spectratype of each T cell receptor (TCR) β chain variable region (Vβ) gene family was analyzed, and the changes in the numbers of Vβ families with clonal expansions were compared in subjects with (n = 12) and without (n = 8) a virological response (52 week HBV DNA < 300 copies/ml). The number of CD8+ TCR Vβ families with clonal expansions at 12 weeks relative to baseline (median [10th to 90th percentile], +2.5 [0 to +7] versus +1 [0 to +2], P = 0.03) and at 24 weeks relative to 12 weeks (+1 [0 to +2] versus −1 [−3 to +4], P = 0.006) was higher in subjects with a virological response versus subjects without a virological response, as were interleukin-2 (IL-2) but not IL-21 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The duration of new expansions at 12 weeks was higher (P < 0.0001) in responders. Increased numbers of CD8+ T cell expansions after antiviral therapy are associated with a virological response to treatment. These CD8+ T cells are a potential target for a therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B. PMID:21098256

  13. Stable, Nonviral Expression of Mutated Tumor Neoantigen-specific T-cell Receptors Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon/Transposase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniger, Drew C; Pasetto, Anna; Tran, Eric; Parkhurst, Maria R; Cohen, Cyrille J; Robbins, Paul F; Cooper, Laurence JN; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Neoantigens unique to each patient's tumor can be recognized by autologous T cells through their T-cell receptor (TCR) but the low frequency and/or terminal differentiation of mutation-specific T cells in tumors can limit their utility as adoptive T-cell therapies. Transfer of TCR genes into younger T cells from peripheral blood with a high proliferative potential could obviate this problem. We generated a rapid, cost-effective strategy to genetically engineer cancer patient T cells with TCRs using the clinical Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system. Patient-specific TCRs reactive against HLA-A*0201-restriced neoantigens AHNAKS2580F or ERBB2H473Y or the HLA-DQB*0601-restricted neoantigen ERBB2IPE805G were assembled with murine constant chains and cloned into Sleeping Beauty transposons. Patient peripheral blood lymphocytes were coelectroporated with SB11 transposase and Sleeping Beauty transposon, and transposed T cells were enriched by sorting on murine TCRβ (mTCRβ) expression. Rapid expansion of mTCRβ+ T cells with irradiated allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes feeders, OKT3, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-15, and IL-21 resulted in a preponderance of effector (CD27−CD45RA−) and less-differentiated (CD27+CD45RA+) T cells. Transposed T cells specifically mounted a polyfunctional response against cognate mutated neoantigens and tumor cell lines. Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposition of mutation-specific TCRs can facilitate the use of personalized T-cell therapy targeting unique neoantigens. PMID:26945006

  14. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  15. Receptor binding studies of the living heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors form a class of intrinsic membrane proteins (or glycoproteins) defined by the high affinity and specificity with which they bind ligands. Many receptors are associated directly or indirectly with membrane ion channels that open or close after a conformational change of the receptor induced by the binding of the neurotransmitter. Changes in number and/or affinity of cardiac neurotransmitter receptors have been associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction, congestive heart failure, and cardiomyopathy as well as diabetes or thyroid-induced heart muscle disease. These alterations of cardiac receptors have been demonstrated in vitro on membrane homogenates from samples collected mainly during surgery or postmortem. The disadvantage of these in vitro binding techniques is that receptors lose their natural environment and their relationships with the other components of the tissue

  16. Subtype selective kainic acid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl

    2009-01-01

    (S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, activating the plethora of glutamate receptors (GluRs). In broad lines, the GluRs are divided into two major classes: the ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic Glu receptors (m......GluRs). Within the iGluRs, five subtypes (KA1, KA2, iGluR5-7) show high affinity and express full agonist activity upon binding of the naturally occurring amino acid kainic acid (KA). Thus these receptors have been named the KA receptors. This review describes all-to our knowledge-published KA receptor agonists...

  17. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June

    2015-02-13

    Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetylcholine receptors in the human retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, J.B.; Hollyfield, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence for a population of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors in the human retina is presented. The authors have used the irreversible ligand 3 H-propylbenzilylcholine mustard ( 3 H-PrBCM) to label muscarinic receptors. 3 H- or 125 I-alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTx) was used to label putative nicotinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors are apparently present in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Autoradiographic grain densities are reduced in the presence of saturating concentrations of atropine, quinuclidinyl benzilate or scopolamine; this indicates that 3 H-PrBCM binding is specific for a population of muscarinic receptors in the human retina. Binding sites for radiolabeled alpha-BTx are found predominantly in the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Grain densities are reduced in the presence of d-tubocurarine, indicating that alpha-BTx may bind to a pharmacologically relevant nicotinic ACh receptor. This study provides evidence for cholinergic neurotransmission in the human retina

  19. Studies on insulin receptor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    The present study was designed for the purpose of establishing a method of insulin radioreceptor assay using plasma membranes of guinea pigs as receptor sites. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Insulin receptor in the renal plasma membranes of guinea pigs showed a significantly high affinity to porcine insulin compared with that in the plasma membranes of guinea pig liver or rat kidney and liver. 2) In the insulin radioreceptor assay, an optimum condition was observed by the incubation at 4 0 C for 24 - 48 hours with 100 μg membrane protein of guinea pig kidney and 0.08 ng of 125 I-insulin. This assay method was specific for insulin and showed an accurate biological activity of insulin. 3) The recovery rate of insulin radioreceptor assay was 98.4% and dilution check up to 16 times did not influence on the result. An average of coefficient variation was 3.92% within assay. All of these results indicated the method to be satisfactory. 4) Glucose induced insulin release by perfusion method in isolated Langerhans islets of rats showed an identical pattern of reaction curves between radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay, although the values of radioreceptor assay was slightly low. 5) Insulin free serum produced by ultra filtration method was added to the standard assay medium. By this procedure, direct measurement of human serum by radioreceptor assay became possible. 6) The value of human serum insulin receptor binding activity by the radioreceptor assay showed a high correlation with that of insulin radioimmunoassay in sera of normal, borderline or diabetic type defined by glucose tolerance test. (author)

  20. Seventh Symposium on Subtypes of Musccarinic Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    nociceptive pain, are less than ideal. For mild to moderate pain, the first line of therapy includes aspirin, acetaminophen/ paracetamol , and nonsteroidal...due to receptor degradation triggered by prolonged carbachol occupancy. This down-regulation was accompanied by uncoupling of the M2-receptors after 24...be under control by the m3 mAChR, suggesting a complex receptor regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism, including degradation and synthesis. Future

  1. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars M; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    , an impressive sequence conservation (67-77% amino acid sequence identities between the seven-transmembrane areas; 82-87% sequence similarities). The identification of well-conserved SIFamide receptor orthologues in all other insects with a sequenced genome, suggests that the SIFamide/receptor couple must have...... an essential function in arthropods. This paper is the first report on the identification of a SIFamide receptor....

  2. Progesterone receptor modulators in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WIEHLE, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has been treated successfully with selective estrogen receptor antagonists (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, receptor-depleting agents such as fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs or PRMs) have not been studied as much and are currently under investigation for inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animal models and breast cancer prevention trials in women. They might follow tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in t...

  3. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  4. Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Kelly

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of pharmacological and medical aspects of the muscarinic class of acetylcholine agonists and antagonists is presented. The therapeutic benefits of achieving receptor subtype selectivity are outlined and applications in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. A selection of chemical routes are described, which illustrate contemporary methodology for the synthesis of chiral medicinal compounds (asymmetric synthesis, chiral pool, enzymes. Routes to bicyclic intrannular amines and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions are highlighted.

  5. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  6. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  7. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone: an ancestral ligand of neurotrophin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediaditakis, Iosif; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Theologidis, Ioannis; Delivanoglou, Nickoleta; Margioris, Andrew N; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Gravanis, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), the most abundant steroid in humans, affects multiple cellular functions of the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. However, up to quite recently, no receptor has been described specifically for it, whereas most of its physiological actions have been attributed to its conversion to either androgens or estrogens. DHEA interacts and modulate a variety of membrane and intracellular neurotransmitter and steroid receptors. We have recently reported that DHEA protects neuronal cells against apoptosis, interacting with TrkA, the high-affinity prosurvival receptor of the neurotrophin, nerve growth factor. Intrigued by its pleiotropic effects in the nervous system of a variety of species, we have investigated the ability of DHEA to interact with the other two mammalian neurotrophin receptors, ie, the TrkB and TrkC, as well as their invertebrate counterparts (orthologs) in mollusks Lymnaea and Aplysia and in cephalochordate fish Amphioxus. Amazingly, DHEA binds to all Trk receptors, although with lower affinity by 2 orders of magnitude compared with that of the polypeptidic neurotrophins. DHEA effectively induced the first step of the TrkA and TrkC receptors activation (phosphorylation at tyrosine residues), including the vertebrate neurotrophin nonresponding invertebrate Lymnaea and Aplysia receptors. Based on our data, we hypothesize that early in evolution, DHEA may have acted as a nonspecific neurotrophic factor promoting neuronal survival. The interaction of DHEA with all types of neurotrophin receptors offers new insights into the largely unidentified mechanisms of its actions on multiple tissues and organs known to express neurotrophin receptors.

  9. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

  10. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civelli, Olivier (Portland, OR); Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie (Toronto, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  11. Chapter 8. Activation mechanisms of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2009-01-01

    binding. Attempts to unravel the activation mechanism of 7TM receptors have led to the conclusion that activation involves movements of the transmembrane segments VI and VII in particular, as recently gathered in the Global Toggle Switch Model. However, to understand the activation mechanism completely......, more research has to be done in this field. Chemokine receptors are interesting tools in this matter. First, the chemokine system has a high degree of promiscuity that allows several chemokines to target one receptor in different ways, as well as a single chemokine ligand to target several receptors...

  12. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2010-08-22

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knock-In Mice with NOP-eGFP Receptors Identify Receptor Cellular and Regional Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Akihiko; Brunori, Gloria; Mercatelli, Daniela; Wu, Jinhua; Cippitelli, Andrea; Zou, Bende; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Williams, Melissa; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Low, Sarah; Scherrer, Grégory; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-08-19

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor, the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in many processes common to the opioid receptors including pain and drug abuse. To better characterize receptor location and trafficking, knock-in mice were created by inserting the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into the NOP receptor gene (Oprl1) and producing mice expressing a functional NOP-eGFP C-terminal fusion in place of the native NOP receptor. The NOP-eGFP receptor was present in brain of homozygous knock-in animals in concentrations somewhat higher than in wild-type mice and was functional when tested for stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding in vitro and in patch-clamp electrophysiology in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and hippocampal slices. Inhibition of morphine analgesia was equivalent when tested in knock-in and wild-type mice. Imaging revealed detailed neuroanatomy in brain, spinal cord, and DRG and was generally consistent with in vitro autoradiographic imaging of receptor location. Multicolor immunohistochemistry identified cells coexpressing various spinal cord and DRG cellular markers, as well as coexpression with μ-opioid receptors in DRG and brain regions. Both in tissue slices and primary cultures, the NOP-eGFP receptors appear throughout the cell body and in processes. These knock-in mice have NOP receptors that function both in vitro and in vivo and appear to be an exceptional tool to study receptor neuroanatomy and correlate with NOP receptor function. The NOP receptor, the fourth member of the opioid receptor family, is involved in pain, drug abuse, and a number of other CNS processes. The regional and cellular distribution has been difficult to determine due to lack of validated antibodies for immunohistochemical analysis. To provide a new tool for the investigation of receptor localization, we have produced knock-in mice with a fluorescent-tagged NOP receptor in place of the native NOP receptor. These

  14. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  15. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C.; Teichmann, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may in...

  16. Interaction of epidermal growth factor receptors with the cytoskeleton is related to receptor clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belzen, N.; Spaargaren, M.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently it has been established that cytoskeleton-associated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors are predominantly of the high-affinity class and that EGF induces a recruitment of low-affinity receptors to the cytoskeleton. The nature of this EGF-induced receptor-cytoskeleton interaction,

  17. Receptor saturation in roentgen films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, K G; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Roentgen-film recording of small object details of low attenuation differences (e.g. pulmonary vessels) is regularly seen to be impaired when the film is exposed to yield high values of optical density (D). This high-density failure is due to receptor saturation, which implies that at high exposure values most silver halide grains of the film are made developable, leaving few grains available to receive additional informative photons. The receptor saturation is analysed by means of a mathematical model of a non-screen film yielding Dsub(max) = 2.0. Optimum recording, defined by maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the image, is found at D approximately 0.64, corresponding to, on an average, 1.6 photons absorbed per grain. On the other hand, maximum contrast occurs at D approximately 1.4, where, on the average, 3.6 photons are absorbed per grain. The detective quantum efficiency of the film, i.e. the fraction of the photons actually contributing to the information content of the image, drops from 41 per cent at maximum signal-to-noise ratio to a mere 10 per cent at maximum contrast.

  18. Androgen receptor drives cellular senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Mirochnik

    Full Text Available The accepted androgen receptor (AR role is to promote proliferation and survival of prostate epithelium and thus prostate cancer progression. While growth-inhibitory, tumor-suppressive AR effects have also been documented, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we for the first time link AR anti-cancer action with cell senescence in vitro and in vivo. First, AR-driven senescence was p53-independent. Instead, AR induced p21, which subsequently reduced ΔN isoform of p63. Second, AR activation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS and thereby suppressed Rb phosphorylation. Both pathways were critical for senescence as was proven by p21 and Rb knock-down and by quenching ROS with N-Acetyl cysteine and p63 silencing also mimicked AR-induced senescence. The two pathways engaged in a cross-talk, likely via PML tumor suppressor, whose localization to senescence-associated chromatin foci was increased by AR activation. All these pathways contributed to growth arrest, which resolved in senescence due to concomitant lack of p53 and high mTOR activity. This is the first demonstration of senescence response caused by a nuclear hormone receptor.

  19. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  20. Posttransplant chimeric antigen receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Zakrzewski, Johannes; James, Scott; Sadelain, Michel

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic T-cell engineering is emerging as a powerful approach to treat refractory hematological malignancies. Its most successful embodiment to date is based on the use of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19, a cell surface molecule found in most B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Remarkable complete remissions have been obtained with autologous T cells expressing CD19 CARs in patients with relapsed, chemo-refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Allogeneic CAR T cells may also be harnessed to treat relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the use of donor T cells poses unique challenges owing to potential alloreactivity. We review different approaches to mitigate the risk of causing or aggravating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including CAR therapies based on donor leukocyte infusion, virus-specific T cells, T-cell receptor-deficient T cells, lymphoid progenitor cells, and regulatory T cells. Advances in CAR design, T-cell selection and gene editing are poised to enable the safe use of allogeneic CAR T cells without incurring GVHD. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Microarray-Based Determination of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and HER2 Receptor Status in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roepman, Paul; Horlings, Hugo M.; Krijgsman, Oscar; Kok, Marleen; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Bender, Richard; Linn, Sabine C.; Glas, Annuska M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The level of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 aids in the determination of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry is currently the predominant method for assessment, but differences in methods and interpretation can substantially affect

  2. Identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of retinoid X and retinoic acid receptors via quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Motonori; Shudo, Koichi; Kagechika, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Understanding and identifying the receptor subtype selectivity of a ligand is an important issue in the field of drug discovery. Using a combination of classical molecular mechanics and quantum mechanical calculations, this report assesses the receptor subtype selectivity for the human retinoid X receptor (hRXR) and retinoic acid receptor (hRAR) ligand-binding domains (LBDs) complexed with retinoid ligands. The calculated energies show good correlation with the experimentally reported binding affinities. The technique proposed here is a promising method as it reveals the origin of the receptor subtype selectivity of selective ligands.

  3. Excitatory amino acid receptors and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1992-08-01

    Recent advances in the molecular biology of excitatory amino acid receptors are reviewed. Evidence that drugs blocking the excitatory action of glutamate at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors may be of clinical use in epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischaemia and trauma, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) encephalopathy and neuropathic pain is summarized.

  4. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...

  5. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that play important roles in control of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are important therapeutic targets for development of drugs...

  6. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented

  7. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  8. Receptor study of psychiatric disorders using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1992-01-01

    Recent receptor studies of psychiatric disorders using PET have been focused on the change in the number of D 2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. One study confirmed an increase in D 2 receptors, while another study denied it. Although there were some differences in the approaches of the two groups, the reason for the discrepancy is not clear yet. Looking to psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, our recent study revealed a possible role of dopamine D 1 receptors in bipolar mood disorders. However, some problems must be resolved for further receptor studies with PET. For example, our recent study shows that desipamine decreases the in vivo binding of dopramine D 1 and D 2 receptors whereas these is no effect on dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in vitro. Additionally significant methodological problems lie in the method of evaluation of the non-specific binding and the effect of endogenous neurotransmitters. Moreover, difficulties in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and ethical problems in psychiatric research are critical factors in receptor studies with PET in psychiatric disorders. (author)

  9. P2X receptors in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ubiquitously expressed in all epithelial tissues but their functional roles are less well studied. Here we review the current state of knowledge by focusing on functional effects of P2X receptor in secretory and in absorptive tissues. In glandular tissue like the parotid gland...

  10. Structural Mapping of Adenosine Receptor Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespers, Willem; Schiedel, Anke C; Heitman, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    The four adenosine receptors (ARs), A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, constitute a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with exceptional foundations for structure-based ligand design. The vast amount of mutagenesis data, accumulated in the literature since the 1990s, has been recently supplemente...

  11. Emerging functions for neuropeptide Y5 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Y5 subtype of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors has raised considerable interest as a mediator of NPY-stimulated food intake, but with the advent of recent data, this hypothesis has come into question. Moreover, Y5 receptor-selective drugs might not be specific for food intake because additional

  12. Immunohistochemical assessment of oestrogen and progesterone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabau, D A; Thorpe, S M; Knoop, A

    2000-01-01

    Two different methods to determine steroid receptors were analysed with respect to their ability to estimate prognosis in primary breast cancer patients. The immunohistochemical assay (IHA) was compared with the dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) method of receptor determination. A random sample of 28...... distinction between benign and malignant tissue is possible using the IHAmethod. Thus, IHAresults appear to be more clinically relevant....

  13. Lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfer, A.E.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, receptors that may be involved in the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and low density lipoproteins which have been modified by acetylation (AcLDL), were characterized. Aortic epithelial cells were used and a cell culture system which closely resembled the in vivo monolayer was established. Endothelial cell and lipoprotein interactions were examined by incubating the cells with 125 l-labelled lipoproteins under various conditions. The receptor affinity of bovine aortic endothelial cells was higher for AcLDL than that for LDL. Competition studies demonstrated that there were two distinct receptors for LDL and AcLDL on the endothelial cells. AcLDL did not compete with LDL for the LDL receptor, and conversely LDL did not compete with AcLDL for the AcLDL receptor. The receptor activities for LDL and AcLDL were examined as a function of culture age. Whereas the LDL receptor could be regulated, the AcLDL receptor was not as susceptible to regulation. Upon exposing endothelial cells for 72 h to either LDL or AcLDL, it was found that the total amount of cellular cholesterol increased by about 50%. However, the increase of total cholesterol was largely in the form of free cholesterol. This is in contrast to macrophages, where the increase in total cholesterol upon exposure to AcLDL is largely in the form cholesteryl esters

  14. Thermogenic characterization of ghrelin receptor null mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that increases food intake and promotes adiposity, and these physiological functions of ghrelin are mediated through its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin/GHS-R signaling plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis....

  15. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  16. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  17. NRSAS: Nuclear Receptor Structure Analysis Servers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettler, E.J.M.; Krause, R.; Horn, F.; Vriend, G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a coherent series of servers that can perform a large number of structure analyses on nuclear hormone receptors. These servers are part of the NucleaRDB project, which provides a powerful information system for nuclear hormone receptors. The computations performed by the servers include

  18. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  19. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: a view from quantitative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-01-01

    Growth factor receptor signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is one of the basic cellular communication principals found in all metazoans. Extracellular signals are transferred via membrane spanning receptors into the cytoplasm, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation being the hallmark of all...

  20. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  1. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  2. Gβ promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. The ABA receptors -- we report you decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Peter; Creelman, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated in a variety of physiological responses ranging from seed dormancy to stomatal conductance. Recently, three groups have reported the molecular identification of three disparate ABA receptors. Unlike the identification of other hormone receptors, in these three cases high affinity binding to ABA rather than the isolation of ABA insensitive mutants led to these receptor genes. Interestingly, two of the receptors encode genes involved in floral timing and chlorophyll biosynthesis, which are not considered traditional ABA responses. And the third receptor has been clouded in issues of its molecular identity. To clearly determine the roles of these genes in ABA perception it will require placing of these ABA-binding proteins into the rich ABA physiological context that has built up over the years.

  4. Sigma-2 receptor ligands QSAR model dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rescifina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data have been obtained from the Sigma-2 Receptor Selective Ligands Database (S2RSLDB and refined according to the QSAR requirements. These data provide information about a set of 548 Sigma-2 (σ2 receptor ligands selective over Sigma-1 (σ1 receptor. The development of the QSAR model has been undertaken with the use of CORAL software using SMILES, molecular graphs and hybrid descriptors (SMILES and graph together. Data here reported include the regression for σ2 receptor pKi QSAR models. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the σ2 receptor pKi values of the FDA approved drugs that are herewith included.

  5. Computer modeling of Cannabinoid receptor type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapundzhi Fatima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid receptors are important class of receptors as they are involved in various physiological processes such as appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. It is important to design receptor-selective ligands in order to treat a particular disorder. The aim of the present study is to model the structure of cannabinoid receptor CB1 and to perform docking between obtained models and known ligands. Two models of CBR1 were prepared with two different methods (Modeller of Chimera and MOE. They were used for docking with GOLD 5.2. It was established a high correlation between inhibitory constant Ki of CB1 cannabinoid ligands and the ChemScore scoring function of GOLD, which concerns both models. This suggests that the models of the CB1 receptors obtained could be used for docking studies and in further investigation and design of new potential, selective and active cannabinoids with the desired effects.

  6. The AT2 Receptor and Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquitino, Veronica Valero; Danyel, Leon Alexander; Steckelings, Ulrike M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor in inflammation. The first section provides an overview about molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of the AT2 receptor. This section is followed...... by a review of the existing literature addressing the role of the AT2 receptor in a wide range of disorders, in which acute or chronic inflammation is an essential contributor to the pathology. These disorders comprise cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases.Taken as a whole......, the vast majority of data support an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role of the AT2 receptor. In light of the current development of AT2 receptor agonists as future drugs for clinical use, diseases with a marked inflammatory component may become a major area of therapeutic use...

  7. Ror receptor tyrosine kinases: orphans no more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer L; Kuntz, Steven G; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors that function in developmental processes including skeletal and neuronal development, cell movement and cell polarity. Although Ror proteins were originally named because the associated ligand and signaling pathway were unknown, recent studies in multiple species have now established that Ror proteins are Wnt receptors. Depending on the cellular context, Ror proteins can either activate or repress transcription of Wnt target genes and can modulate Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnt ligands. New evidence implicates Ror proteins in planar cell polarity, an alternative Wnt pathway. Here, we review the progress made in understanding these mysterious proteins and, in particular, we focus on their function as Wnt receptors.

  8. Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi-Vamos Ferenc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several in vitro and in vivo studies have examined the positive and negative effects of retinoids (vitamin A analogs in premalignant and malignant lesions. Retinoids have been used as chemopreventive and anticancer agents because of their pleiotropic regulator function in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis through interaction with two types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the function of retinoids and their signaling pathways and may explain the failure of earlier chemopreventive studies. In this review we have compiled basic and recent knowledge regarding the role of retinoid receptors in lung carcinogenesis. Sensitive and appropriate biological tools are necessary for screening the risk population and monitoring the efficacy of chemoprevention. Investigation of retinoid receptors is important and may contribute to the establishment of new strategies in chemoprevention for high-risk patients and in the treatment of lung cancer.

  9. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: gonadal androgen receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulam, C.B.; Graham, M.L.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of the androgen receptor previously observed in skin fibroblasts from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome also occur in the gonads of affected individuals, androgen receptor activity in the gonads of a patient with testicular feminization syndrome was investigated. Using conditions for optimal recovery of androgen receptor from human testes established by previous studies, we detected the presence of a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 3.2 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (4.2 X 10(-12) mol/mg DNA), androgen-binding protein when tritium-labeled R1881 was incubated at 4 degrees C with nuclear extracts from the gonads of control patients or from a patient with testicular feminization syndrome but not when incubated at 37 degrees C. Thus this patient has an androgen receptor with a temperature lability similar to that of receptors from normal persons

  10. Functionally biased signalling properties of 7TM receptors - opportunities for drug development for the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, B; Holliday, N; Madsen, A N

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The ghrelin receptor is a 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor involved in a variety of physiological functions including growth hormone secretion, increased food intake and fat accumulation as well as modulation of reward and cognitive functions. Because of its important role in metabolism...... and energy expenditure, the ghrelin receptor has become an important therapeutic target for drug design and the development of anti-obesity compounds. However, none of the compounds developed so far have been approved for commercial use. Interestingly, the ghrelin receptor is able to signal through several...... review, we have described how ligands and mutations in the 7TM receptor may bias the receptors to favour either one G-protein over another or to promote G-protein independent signalling pathways rather than G-protein-dependent pathways. For the ghrelin receptor, both agonist and inverse agonists have...

  11. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa

    2009-01-01

    an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased......Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...

  12. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Ørgaard, Anne; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    , the glucagon receptor, and the receptors for parathyroid hormone (PTHR1 and PTHR2). The dysregulation of several family B1 receptors is involved in diseases, such as diabetes, chronic inflammation, and osteoporosis which underlines the pathophysiological importance of this GPCR subfamily. In spite of this......, investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality......The superfamily of the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) is the largest family of membrane-associated receptors. GPCRs are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous human diseases, and they constitute an estimated 30-40% of all drug targets. During the last two decades...

  13. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  14. The repertoire of trace amine G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David E.; Bjarnadóttir, Thóra K; Yan, Yi-Lin

    2005-01-01

    eukaryotic species for receptors similar to the mammalian trace amine (TA) receptor subfamily. We identified 18 new receptors in rodents that are orthologous to the previously known TA-receptors. Remarkably, we found 57 receptors (and 40 pseudogenes) of this type in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), while fugu...... (Takifugu rubripes) had only eight receptors (and seven pseudogenes). We mapped 47 of the zebrafish TA-receptors on chromosomes using radiation hybrid panels and meiotic mapping. The results, together with the degree of conservation and phylogenetic relationships displayed among the zebrafish receptors...

  15. Action mechanisms of Liver X Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbi, Chiara; Warner, Margaret [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 3056 Cullen Blv, 77204 Houston, Texas (United States); Gustafsson, Jan-Åke, E-mail: jgustafs@central.uh.edu [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, University of Houston, 3056 Cullen Blv, 77204 Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum S-141 86 (Sweden)

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • LXRα and LXRβ are ligand-activated nuclear receptors. • They share oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, RXR. • LXRs regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, CNS and immune functions, and water transport. - Abstract: The two Liver X Receptors, LXRα and LXRβ, are nuclear receptors belonging to the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. They share more than 78% homology in amino acid sequence, a common profile of oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, Retinoid X Receptor. LXRs play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways: lipid metabolism, in particular in preventing cellular cholesterol accumulation; glucose homeostasis; inflammation; central nervous system functions and water transport. As with all nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of LXR is the result of an orchestration of numerous cellular factors including ligand bioavailability, presence of corepressors and coactivators and cellular context i.e., what other pathways are activated in the cell at the time the receptor recognizes its ligand. In this mini-review we summarize the factors regulating the transcriptional activity and the mechanisms of action of these two receptors.

  16. Action mechanisms of Liver X Receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbi, Chiara; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LXRα and LXRβ are ligand-activated nuclear receptors. • They share oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, RXR. • LXRs regulate lipid and glucose metabolism, CNS and immune functions, and water transport. - Abstract: The two Liver X Receptors, LXRα and LXRβ, are nuclear receptors belonging to the superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. They share more than 78% homology in amino acid sequence, a common profile of oxysterol ligands and the same heterodimerization partner, Retinoid X Receptor. LXRs play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways: lipid metabolism, in particular in preventing cellular cholesterol accumulation; glucose homeostasis; inflammation; central nervous system functions and water transport. As with all nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of LXR is the result of an orchestration of numerous cellular factors including ligand bioavailability, presence of corepressors and coactivators and cellular context i.e., what other pathways are activated in the cell at the time the receptor recognizes its ligand. In this mini-review we summarize the factors regulating the transcriptional activity and the mechanisms of action of these two receptors

  17. The cellular receptors of exogenous RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Reniewicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key determinants of survival for organisms is proper recognition of exogenous and endogenous nucleic acids. Therefore, high eukaryotes developed a number of receptors that allow for discrimination between friend or foe DNA and RNA. Appearance of exogenous RNA in cytoplasm provides a signal of danger and triggers cellular responses that facilitate eradication of a pathogen. Recognition of exogenous RNA is additionally complicated by fact that large amount of endogenous RNA is present in cytoplasm Thus, number of different receptors, found in eukaryotic cells, is able to recognize that nucleic acid. First group of those receptors consist endosomal Toll like receptors, namely TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR13. Those receptors recognize RNA released from pathogens that enter the cell by endocytosis. The second group includes cytoplasmic sensors like PKR and the family of RLRs comprised of RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2. Cytoplasmic receptors recognize RNA from pathogens invading the cell by non-endocytic pathway. In both cases binding of RNA by its receptors results in activation of the signalling cascades that lead to the production of interferon and other cytokines.

  18. Receptor mapping in psychiatric patients with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes some data of our studies with the single-photon-emission-computerized tomography (SPECT), focussing on the dopamine-D2- and the benzodiazepine receptor mapping. Benzodiazepine receptors: Central benzodiazepine receptors (BZr) can be visualized with iomazenil which is an analogue of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, labeled with 123-iodine. Since the involvement of the BZr system is discussed in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, patients with these disorders were investigated. A third study investigated the BZr-occupancy during benzodiazepine treatment (lorazepam). Results: (a) Patients with panic disorders had lower iomazenil uptake values compared to epileptic patients. (b) Depressed patients showed a positive correlation between severity of illness and frontal uptake. (c) BZr occupancy during lorazepam treatment was measurable, but not associated with lorazepam plasma levels. Dopamine-D2-receptors: With 123-I-iodobenzamide (IBZM), and iodine-labeled dopamine receptor ligand, the D2 receptor density can be measured by a semiquantitative approach (striatum/frontal cortex=ST/FC). Therefore, we investigated the D2-receptor occupancy during treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics in relationship to dosages (normalized with different formulas of chlorpromazine equivalents), side effects, and prolactin plasma levels. Results: Dependent on the selected formula for chlorpromazine equivalents, the ST/FC ratio was correlated with dosages. Side effects and prolactin plasma levels showed a negative association with lower ST/FC ratios. (orig.) [de

  19. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  20. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  1. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  2. Psychopharmacology of 5-HT1A receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, Philip J.

    2000-01-01

    Serotonin 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptors are located on both 5-HT cell bodies where they act as inhibitory autoreceptors and at postsynaptic sites where they mediate the effects of 5-HT released from nerve terminals. The sensitivity of 5-HT 1A receptors in humans can be measured using the technique of pharmacological challenge. For example, acute administration of a selective 5-HT 1A receptor agonist, such as ipsapirone, decreases body temperature and increases plasma cortisol through activation of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT 1A receptors, respectively. Use of this technique has demonstrated that unmedicated patients with major depression have decreased sensitivity of both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT 1A receptors. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors further down-regulates 5-HT 1A receptor activity. Due to the hypotheses linking decreased sensitivity of 5-HT 1A autoreceptors with the onset of antidepressant activity, there is current interest in the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and 5-HT 1A receptor antagonists

  3. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonea, I.M.; Wilson, D.V.; Bowker, R.M.; Robinson, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype

  4. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)[ 3 H]desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) [ 3 H]desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor

  5. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Chiow, KH; Huang, D; Wong, SH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Andrographolide is the active component of Andrographis paniculata, a plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. However, not much is known about how it may affect the key receptors implicated in cancer. Knowledge of how andrographolide affects receptor trafficking will allow us to better understand new mechanisms by which andrographolide may cause death in cancer cells. Experimental approach: We utilized the well-characterized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transferrin receptor (TfR) expressed in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells as a model to study the effect of andrographolide on receptor trafficking. Receptor distribution, the total number of receptors and surface receptors were analysed by immunofluorescence, Western blot as well as flow-cytometry respectively. Key results: Andrographolide treatment inhibited cell growth, down-regulated EGFRs on the cell surface and affected the degradation of EGFRs and TfRs. The EGFR was internalized into the cell at an increased rate, and accumulated in a compartment that co-localizes with the lysosomal-associated membrane protein in the late endosomes. Conclusion and implications: This study sheds light on how andrographolide may affect receptor trafficking by inhibiting receptor movement from the late endosomes to lysosomes. The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death. PMID:20233216

  6. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists.

  7. Calcitonin and calcitonin receptor-like receptors: common themes with family B GPCRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwell, James; Gingell, Joseph J; Watkins, Harriet A; Archbold, Julia K; Poyner, David R; Hay, Debbie L

    2012-05-01

    The calcitonin receptor (CTR) and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) are two of the 15 human family B (or Secretin-like) GPCRs. CTR and CLR are of considerable biological interest as their pharmacology is moulded by interactions with receptor activity-modifying proteins. They also have therapeutic relevance for many conditions, such as osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, lymphatic insufficiency, migraine and cardiovascular disease. In light of recent advances in understanding ligand docking and receptor activation in both the family as a whole and in CLR and CTR specifically, this review reflects how applicable general family B GPCR themes are to these two idiosyncratic receptors. We review the main functional domains of the receptors; the N-terminal extracellular domain, the juxtamembrane domain and ligand interface, the transmembrane domain and the intracellular C-terminal domain. Structural and functional findings from the CLR and CTR along with other family B GPCRs are critically appraised to gain insight into how these domains may function. The ability for CTR and CLR to interact with receptor activity-modifying proteins adds another level of sophistication to these receptor systems but means careful consideration is needed when trying to apply generic GPCR principles. This review encapsulates current thinking in the realm of family B GPCR research by highlighting both conflicting and recurring themes and how such findings relate to two unusual but important receptors, CTR and CLR. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. N-glycosylation of the β2 adrenergic receptor regulates receptor function by modulating dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaona; Zhou, Mang; Huang, Wei; Yang, Huaiyu

    2017-07-01

    N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, it remains unknown how N-glycosylation affects GPCR signaling. β 2 adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) has three N-glycosylation sites: Asn6, Asn15 at the N-terminus, and Asn187 at the second extracellular loop (ECL2). Here, we show that deletion of the N-glycan did not affect receptor expression and ligand binding. Deletion of the N-glycan at the N-terminus rather than Asn187 showed decreased effects on isoproterenol-promoted G-protein-dependent signaling, β-arrestin2 recruitment, and receptor internalization. Both N6Q and N15Q showed decreased receptor dimerization, while N187Q did not influence receptor dimerization. As decreased β 2 AR homodimer accompanied with reduced efficiency for receptor function, we proposed that the N-glycosylation of β 2 AR regulated receptor function by influencing receptor dimerization. To verify this hypothesis, we further paid attention to the residues at the dimerization interface. Studies of Lys60 and Glu338, two residues at the receptor dimerization interface, exhibited that the K60A/E338A showed decreased β 2 AR dimerization and its effects on receptor signaling were similar to N6Q and N15Q, which further supported the importance of receptor dimerization for receptor function. This work provides new insights into the relationship among glycosylation, dimerization, and function of GPCRs. Peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F, EC 3.2.2.11); endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase A (Endo-A, EC 3.2.1.96). © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  10. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  11. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity

  12. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken

    2016-01-01

    known as HCAR1, may contribute importantly to the control of retinal cell functions in health and disease. GPR81, a G-protein coupled receptor, is known to downregulate cAMP both in adipose and nervous tissue. The receptor also acts through other down-stream mechanisms to control functions......In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also...

  13. Transcriptional targets shared by estrogen receptor- related receptors (ERRs) and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, but not by ERbeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Pettersson, K; Gustafsson, J A; Laudet, V

    1999-01-01

    The physiological activities of estrogens are thought to be mediated by specific nuclear receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. However, certain tissues, such as the bone, that are highly responsive to estrogens only express a low level of these receptors. Starting from this apparent contradiction, we have evaluated the potentials of two related receptors ERRalpha and ERRbeta to intervene in estrogen signaling. ERalpha, ERRalpha and ERRbeta bind to and activate transcription through both the classical estrogen response element (ERE) and the SF-1 response element (SFRE). In contrast, ERbeta DNA-binding and transcriptional activity is restricted to the ERE. Accordingly, the osteopontin gene promoter is stimulated through SFRE sequences, by ERRalpha as well as by ERalpha, but not by ERbeta. Analysis of the cross-talk within the ER/ERR subgroup of nuclear receptors thus revealed common targets but also functional differences between the two ERs. PMID:10428965

  14. Molecular modeling of ligand-receptor interactions in the OR5 olfactory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M S; Shepherd, G M

    1994-06-02

    Olfactory receptors belong to the superfamily of seven transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors. In order to begin analysis of mechanisms of receptor activation, a computer model of the OR5 olfactory receptor has been constructed and compared with other members of this superfamily. We have tested docking of the odor molecule lyral, which is known to activate the OR5 receptor. The results point to specific ligand-binding residues on helices III through VII that form a binding pocket in the receptor. Some of these residues occupy sequence positions identical to ligand-binding residues conserved among other superfamily members. The results provide new insights into possible molecular mechanisms of odor recognition and suggest hypotheses to guide future experimental studies using site-directed mutagenesis.

  15. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  16. Receptor binding radiotracers for the angiotensin II receptor: radioiodinated [Sar1, Ile8]angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.E.; Beauchamp, H.T.; Fioravanti, C.; Brenner, N.; Burns, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for imaging the angiotensin II receptor was evaluated using the radioiodinated peptide antagonist [ 125 I][Sar 1 , Ile 8 ]angiotensin II. The radioligand provides a receptor-mediated signal in several tissues in rat (kidneys, adrenal and liver). The receptor-mediated signal of 3% ID/g kidney cortex should be sufficient to permit imaging, at least via SPECT. The radiotracer is sensitive to reductions in receptor concentration and can be used to define in vivo dose-occupancy curves of angiotensin II receptor ligands. Receptor-mediated images of [ 123 I][Sar 1 , Ile 8 ]angiotensin II were obtained in the rat kidney and Rhesus monkey liver. (author)

  17. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  18. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  19. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Bird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly.

  20. Modulating Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor-α Activity Inhibits Cell Proliferation*

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Lanvin, Olivia; Tribollet, Violaine; Macari, Claire; North, Sophie; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    High expression of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR)-α in human tumors is correlated to a poor prognosis, suggesting an involvement of the receptor in cell proliferation. In this study, we show that a synthetic compound (XCT790) that modulates the activity of ERRα reduces the proliferation of various cell lines and blocks the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in an ERR...

  1. Acetylcholine Receptor: Complex of Homologous Subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael A.; Hunkapiller, Michael W.; Strader, Catherine D.; Hood, Leroy E.

    1980-06-01

    The acetylcholine receptor from the electric ray Torpedo californica is composed of five subunits; two are identical and the other three are structurally related to them. Microsequence analysis of the four polypeptides demonstrates amino acid homology among the subunits. Further sequence analysis of both membrane-bound and Triton-solubilized, chromatographically purified receptor gave the stoichiometry of the four subunits (40,000:50,000:60,000:65,000 daltons) as 2:1:1:1, indicating that this protein is a pentameric complex with a molecular weight of 255,000 daltons. Genealogical analysis suggests that divergence from a common ancestral gene occurred early in the evolution of the receptor. This shared ancestry argues that each of the four subunits plays a functional role in the receptor's physiological action.

  2. C-Type Lectin Receptors in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabelo Hadebe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, largely in developed countries. The etiology of the disease is poorly understood, but is likely to involve specific innate and adaptive responses to inhaled microbial components that are found in allergens. Fungal-derived allergens represent a major contributing factor in the initiation, persistence, exacerbation, and severity of allergic asthma. C-type lectin like receptors, such as dectin-1, dectin-2, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin, and mannose receptor, recognize many fungal-derived allergens and other structurally similar allergens derived from house dust mites (HDM. In some cases, the fungal derived allergens have been structurally and functionally identified alongside their respective receptors in both humans and mice. In this review, we discuss recent understanding on how selected fungal and HDM derived allergens as well as their known or unknown receptors shape allergic airway diseases.

  3. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  4. Probing Biased Signaling in Chemokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptors...... of others has been termed signaling bias and can accordingly be grouped into ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue bias. Bias has so far been broadly overlooked in the process of drug development. The low number of currently approved drugs targeting the chemokine system, as well as the broad range...... of failed clinical trials, reflects the need for a better understanding of the chemokine system. Thus, understanding the character, direction, and consequence of biased signaling in the chemokine system may aid the development of new therapeutics. This review describes experiments to assess G protein...

  5. Tripodal receptors for cation and anion sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman, [Unknown; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  6. Fluctuation correlation models for receptor immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoscale dynamics with cycles of receptor diffusion and immobilization by cell-external-or-internal factors is a key process in living cell adhesion phenomena at the origin of a plethora of signal transduction pathways. Motivated by modern correlation microscopy approaches, the receptor correlation functions in physical models based on diffusion-influenced reaction is studied. Using analytical and stochastic modeling, this paper focuses on the hybrid regime where diffusion and reaction are not truly separable. The time receptor autocorrelation functions are shown to be indexed by different time scales and their asymptotic expansions are given. Stochastic simulations show that this analysis can be extended to situations with a small number of molecules. It is also demonstrated that this analysis applies when receptor immobilization is coupled to environmental noise.

  7. Mediator-dependent Nuclear Receptor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Roeder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As gene-specific transcription factors, nuclear hormone receptors are broadly involved in many important biological processes. Their function on target genes requires the stepwise assembly of different coactivator complexes that facilitate chromatin remodeling and subsequent preinitiation complex (PIC) formation and function. Mediator has proved to be a crucial, and general, nuclear receptor-interacting coactivator, with demonstrated functions in transcription steps ranging from chromatin remodeling to subsequent PIC formation and function. Here we discuss (i) our current understanding of pathways that nuclear receptors and other interacting cofactors employ to recruit Mediator to target gene enhancers and promoters, including conditional requirements for the strong NR-Mediator interactions mediated by the NR AF2 domain and the MED1 LXXLLL motifs and (ii) mechanisms by which Mediator acts to transmit signals from enhancer-bound nuclear receptors to the general transcription machinery at core promoters to effect PIC formation and function. PMID:21854863

  8. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... 3. eaudet . New. Recurrent LDL-receptor mutation causes familial hypercholesterolaemia in ... amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)" and single- strand conformation .... Location. Afrikaner. Mixed race. ApaLl.

  9. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  10. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Dopamine Receptor Mediated Neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sealfon, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    ... of the cellular changes characteristic of this process. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of dopamine receptors can oppose the induction of apoptosis in dopamine neurons...

  12. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new...... insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been...... shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B'29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR...

  13. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  14. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S

    1999-01-01

    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  15. Dopamine receptors - physiological understanding to therapeutic intervention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilien, G; Maloteaux, JM; Hoogenberg, K; Cragg, S

    There are two families of dopamine (DA) receptors, called D(1) and D(2), respectively. The D(1) family consists of D(1)- and D(5)-receptor subtypes and the D(2) family consists of D(2)-, D(3)-, and D(4)-receptor subtypes. The amino acid sequences of these receptors show that they all belong to a

  16. NK-1 receptor antagonists as anti-cancer drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The substance P (SP)/neurokinin (NK)-1 receptor system plays an important role in cancer. SP promotes the proliferation of tumour cells, angiogenesis and the migration of tumour cells. We review the involvement of SP, the NK-1 receptor and NK-1 receptor antagonists in cancer. Tumour cells overexpress NK-1 receptors, ...

  17. The MC4 receptor and control of appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, R. A. H.; Tiesjema, B.; Hillebrand, J. J. G.; La Fleur, S. E.; Kas, M. J. H.; de Krom, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the human melanocortin (MC)4 receptor have been associated with obesity, which underscores the relevance of this receptor as a drug target to treat obesity. Infusion of MC4R agonists decreases food intake, whereas inhibition of MC receptor activity by infusion of an MC receptor

  18. Clinical and Genomic Crosstalk between Glucocorticoid Receptor and Estrogen Receptor α In Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Vahrenkamp

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Steroid hormone receptors are simultaneously active in many tissues and are capable of altering each other’s function. Estrogen receptor α (ER and glucocorticoid receptor (GR are expressed in the uterus, and their ligands have opposing effects on uterine growth. In endometrial tumors with high ER expression, we surprisingly found that expression of GR is associated with poor prognosis. Dexamethasone reduced normal uterine growth in vivo; however, this growth inhibition was abolished in estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. We observed low genomic-binding site overlap when ER and GR are induced with their respective ligands; however, upon simultaneous induction they co-occupy more sites. GR binding is altered significantly by estradiol with GR recruited to ER-bound loci that become more accessible upon estradiol induction. Gene expression responses to co-treatment were more similar to estradiol but with additional regulated genes. Our results suggest phenotypic and molecular interplay between ER and GR in endometrial cancer. : Estrogen receptor α (ER and glucocorticoid receptor (GR are expressed in the uterus and have differential effects on growth. Vahrenkamp et al. find that expression of both receptors is associated with poor outcome in endometrial cancer and that simultaneous induction of ER and GR leads to molecular interplay between the receptors. Keywords: estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, endometrial cancer

  19. Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0226 TITLE: Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rafael Fridman...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Discoidin Domain Receptors in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0226 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...response to collagen in prostate cancer. The project’s goal is to define the expression and therapeutic potential of DDRs in prostate cancer. During

  20. Agonist discrimination between AMPA receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquelle, T; Christensen, J K; Banke, T G

    2000-01-01

    The lack of subtype-selective compounds for AMPA receptors (AMPA-R) led us to search for compounds with such selectivity. Homoibotenic acid analogues were investigated at recombinant GluR1o, GluR2o(R), GluR3o and GluR1o + 3o receptors expressed in Sf9 insect cells and affinities determined in [3H...

  1. Selectivity of Odorant Receptors in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    Luetje, C. W., and Robertson, H. M. (2007). A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A...since they might be exposed to a greater number of pharmacolog- ically active compounds than other conventional ligand-gated ion channels and G- protein ...2008). Drosophila odorant receptors are novel seven transmembrane domain proteins that can signal independently of heterotrimeric G proteins

  2. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  3. Methodological aspects on drug receptor binding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, A.

    1978-01-01

    Although drug receptors occur in relatively low concentrations, they can be visualized by the use of appropriate radioindicators. In most cases the procedure is rapid and can reach a high degree of accuracy. Specificity of the interaction is studied by competition analysis. The necessity of using several radioindicators to define a receptor population is emphasized. It may be possible to define isoreceptors and drugs with selectivity for one isoreceptor. (Author)

  4. Neurokinin-1 receptor activation in globus pallidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The undecapeptide substance P has been demonstrated to modulate neuronal activity in a number of brain regions by acting on neurokinin-1 receptors. Anatomical studies revealed a moderate level of neurokinin-1 receptor in rat globus pallidus. To determine the electrophysiological effects of neurokinin-1 receptor activation in globus pallidus, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in the present study. Under current-clamp recordings, neurokinin-1 receptor agonist, [Sar9, Met(O211] substance P (SM-SP at 1 μM, depolarized globus pallidus neurons and increased their firing rate. Consistently, SM-SP induced an inward current under voltage-clamp recording. The depolarization evoked by SM-SP persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, glutamate and GABA receptor antagonists, indicating its direct postsynaptic effects. The neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, SR140333B, could block SM-SP-induced depolarization. Further experiments showed that suppression of potassium conductance was the predominant ionic mechanism of SM-SP-induced depolarization. To determine if neurokinin-1 receptor activation exerts any effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, the action of SM-SP on synaptic currents was studied. SM-SP significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents, but only induced a transient increase in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. No change was observed in both spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Based on the direct excitatory effects of SM-SP on pallidal neurons, we hypothesize that neurokinin-1 receptor activation in globus pallidus may be involved in the beneficial effect of substance P in Parkinson’s disease.

  5. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  6. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eAllouche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization and post-endocytic fate of the receptor.

  7. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  8. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Madeline G; Minson, Katherine A; Earp, H Shelton; DeRyckere, Deborah; Graham, Douglas K

    2016-11-08

    Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK) cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  9. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc

    2018-05-07

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.

  10. Functional reconstitution of the glycine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Calvo, M.; Ruiz-Gomez, A.; Vazquez, J.; Morato, E.; Valdivieso, F.; Mayor, F. Jr. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain))

    1989-07-25

    The functional reconstitution of the chloride channel coupled glycine receptor is described. Glycine receptors were purified from the cholate extract of rat spinal cord membranes by affinity chromatography and incorporated into phospholipid vesicles by the addition of phosphatidylcholine and removal of detergent by gel filtration. The reconstituted vesicles showed the same polypeptide composition as the purified receptor. The pharmacological characteristics of the glycine receptor were also preserved in the proteoliposomes, as demonstrated by the displacement of ({sup 3}H)strychnine binding by several glycinergic ligands and by photoaffinity labeling experiments. In order to observe functional responses (i.e., specific agonist-induced anion translocation), the authors have developed an assay based on the fluorescence quenching of an anion-sensitive entrapped probe, SPQ (6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium). Reconstituted vesicles were loaded with the fluorescent probe during a freeze-thaw-sonication cycle in the presence of added liposomes containing cholesterol. In such a reconstituted system, glycine receptor agonists are able to increase the rate of anion influx into the vesicles. The action of agonists is blocked by the simultaneous presence of strychnine or other glycine antagonists. The results show that the purified 48,000- and 58,000-dalton polypeptides reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles can bind ligands and promote specific ion translocation in a way similar to the glycine receptor in its native environment.

  11. Purification of a putative brain somatostatin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Haitao; Johnson, K.; Thermos, K.; Reisine, T.

    1989-01-01

    The brain somatostatin receptor was purified by affinity chromatographic techniques. A protein of 60 kDa could be purified from rat brain. The protein was eluted from a [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF affinity column with either sodium acetate (pH 5.5) or free [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF. The binding of the protein to the affinity column was prevented by free [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF or the stable SRIF analogue SMS 201-996 but not by the inactive somatostatin 28-(1-14). The purified receptor could be covalently labeled by the 125 I-labeled SRIF analogue CGP 23996. Excess [D-Trp 8 ]SRIF blocked the binding of 125 I-labeled CGP 23996 to the purified receptor, but somatostatin 28-(1-14) did not affect the binding. A 60-kDa protein was also purified from the anterior pituitary cell line AtT-20, which has a high expression of SRIF receptors. In contrast, no 60-kDa protein could be purified from CHO cells, which have no detectable SRIF receptors. These findings present evidence for the purification of the SRIF receptor

  12. Targeting the TAM Receptors in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline G. Huey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeted inhibition of members of the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases has recently been investigated as a novel strategy for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The physiologic functions of the TAM receptors in innate immune control, natural killer (NK cell differentiation, efferocytosis, clearance of apoptotic debris, and hemostasis have previously been described and more recent data implicate TAM kinases as important regulators of erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. The TAM receptors are aberrantly or ectopically expressed in many hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia, B- and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. TAM receptors contribute to leukemic phenotypes through activation of pro-survival signaling pathways and interplay with other oncogenic proteins such as FLT3, LYN, and FGFR3. The TAM receptors also contribute to resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted agents, making them attractive therapeutic targets. A number of translational strategies for TAM inhibition are in development, including small molecule inhibitors, ligand traps, and monoclonal antibodies. Emerging areas of research include modulation of TAM receptors to enhance anti-tumor immunity, potential roles for TYRO-3 in leukemogenesis, and the function of the bone marrow microenvironment in mediating resistance to TAM inhibition.

  13. Cloning the interleukin 1 receptor from human T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.E.; Acres, R.B.; Grubin, C.E.; McMahan, C.J.; Wignall, J.M.; March, C.J.; Dower, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    cDNA clones of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor expressed in a human T-cell clone have been isolated by using a murine IL-1 receptor cDNA as a probe. The human and mouse receptors show a high degree of sequence conservation. Both are integral membrane proteins possessing a single membrane-spanning segment. Similar to the mouse receptor, the human IL-1 receptor contains a large cytoplasmic region and an extracellular, IL-1 binding portion composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains. When transfected into COS cells, the human IL-1 receptor cDNA clone leads to expression of two different affinity classes of receptors, with K a values indistinguishable from those determined for IL-1 receptors in the original T-cell clone. An IL-1 receptor expressed in human dermal fibroblasts has also been cloned and sequenced and found to be identical to the IL-1 receptor expressed in T cells

  14. Characterization of melanocortin receptor ligands on cloned brain melanocortin receptors and on grooming behavior in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Adan, R.A.H.; Szklarczyk, A.W.; Oosterom, J.; Brakkee, J.H.; Nijenhuis, W.A.; Schaaper, W.M.; Meloen, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the melanocortin MC3 and melanocortin MC4 receptors are the main melanocortin receptor subtypes expressed in rat brain, we characterized the activity and affinity of nine melanocortin receptor ligands using these receptors in vitro, as well as their activity in a well-defined

  15. Receptor autoradiography in the hippocampus of man and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilles, K.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter deals with the following questions: regional distribution of binding sites for 5-HT, glutamate, and acetylcholine in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus of rat and human brain; comparison of receptor distribution and neuronal pathways with identified transmitters; correlation of region-specific densities between different receptors and receptor subtypes (colocalization of different receptors on the level of hippocampal layers) and comparison of receptor distribution in human and rat hippocampus

  16. Determination of HIV-1 co-receptor usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly the β-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the α-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. In this chapter, methods to determine the co-receptor usage of HIV-1 variants are described.

  17. Central alpha2 adrenergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex: repopulation kinetics and receptor reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    The alpha 2 adrenergic receptor subtype is thought to play a role in the mechanism of action of antidepressant and antihypertensive drugs. This thesis has attempted to shed light on the regulation of central alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex. Repopulation kinetics analysis allows for the determination of the rate of receptor production, rate constant of degradation, and half-life of the receptor. This analysis was carried out using both radioligand binding and functional receptor assays at various times following the irreversible inactivation of central alpha 2 adrenergic receptors by in vivo administration of N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethyoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ). Both alpha 2 agonist and antagonist ligand binding sites recovered with a t/sub 1/2/ equal to approximately 4 days. The function of alpha 2 adrenergic autoreceptors, which inhibit stimulation-evoked release of 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) and alpha 2 adrenergic heteroreceptors which inhibit stimulation-evoked release of 3 H-serotonin ( 3 H-5-HT) were assayed. The t/sub 1/2/ for recovery of maximal autoreceptor and heteroreceptor function was 2.4 days and 4.6 days, respectively. The demonstration of a receptor reserve is critical to the interpretation of past and future studies of the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor since it demonstrates that: (1) alterations in the number of alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites cannot be extrapolated to the actual function of the alpha 2 adrenergic receptor; and (2) alterations in the number of alpha 2 receptors is not necessarily accompanied by a change in the maximum function being studied, but may only result in shifting of the dose-response curve

  18. Receptor downregulation and desensitization enhance the information processing ability of signalling receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Haluk

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. Acute attenuation of signaling can be accomplished either via ligand-induced internalization of receptors (endocytic downregulation or via ligand-induced receptor desensitization. These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. Results Using a mathematical model, we show that downregulation and desensitization mechanisms can lead to tight and efficient input-output coupling thereby ensuring synchronous processing of ligand inputs. Frequency response analysis indicates that upstream elements of the EGFR and GPCR networks behave like low-pass filters with the system being able to faithfully transduce inputs below a critical frequency. Receptor downregulation and desensitization increase the filter bandwidth thereby enabling the receptor systems to decode inputs in a wider frequency range. Further, system-theoretic analysis reveals that the receptor systems are analogous to classical mechanical over-damped systems. This analogy enables us to metaphorically describe downregulation and desensitization as phenomena that make the systems more resilient in responding to ligand perturbations thereby improving the stability of the system resting state. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in addition to serving as mechanisms for adaptation, receptor downregulation and desensitization can play a critical role in temporal information

  19. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  20. Pathophysiological consequences of receptor mistraffic: Tales from the platelet P2Y12 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Mundell, Stuart J

    2017-07-05

    Genetic variations in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes can disrupt receptor function in a wide variety of human genetic diseases, including platelet bleeding disorders. Platelets are critical for haemostasis with inappropriate platelet activation leading to the development of arterial thrombosis, which can result in heart attack and stroke whilst decreased platelet activity is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. GPCRs expressed on the surface of platelets play key roles in regulating platelet activity and therefore function. Receptors include purinergic receptors (P2Y 1 and P2Y 12 ), proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR4) and thromboxane receptors (TPα), among others. Pharmacological blockade of these receptors forms a powerful therapeutic tool in the treatment and prevention of arterial thrombosis. With the advance of genomic technologies, there has been a substantial increase in the identification of naturally occurring rare and common GPCR variants. These variants include single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion or deletions that have the potential to alter GPCR expression or function. A number of defects in platelet GPCRs that disrupt receptor function have now been characterized in patients with mild bleeding disorders. This review will focus on rare, function-disrupting variants of platelet GPCRs with particular emphasis upon mutations in the P2Y 12 receptor gene that affect receptor traffic to modulate platelet function. Further this review will outline how the identification and characterization of function-disrupting GPCR mutations provides an essential link in translating our detailed understanding of receptor traffic and function in cell line studies into relevant human biological systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Atypical chemokine receptors in cancer: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Matteo; Bonavita, Ornella; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The chemokine system is a fundamental component of cancer-related inflammation involved in all stages of cancer development. It controls not only leukocyte infiltration in primary tumors but also angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation, and migration to metastatic sites. Atypical chemokine receptors are a new, emerging class of regulators of the chemokine system. They control chemokine bioavailability by scavenging, transporting, or storing chemokines. They can also regulate the activity of canonical chemokine receptors with which they share the ligands by forming heterodimers or by modulating their expression levels or signaling activity. Here, we summarize recent results about the role of these receptors (atypical chemokine receptor 1/Duffy antigen receptor for chemokine, atypical chemokine receptor 2/D6, atypical chemokine receptor 3/CXC-chemokine receptor 7, and atypical chemokine receptor 4/CC-chemokine receptor-like 1) on the tumorigenesis process, indicating that their effects are strictly dependent on the cell type on which they are expressed and on their coexpression with other chemokine receptors. Indeed, atypical chemokine receptors inhibit tumor growth and progression through their activity as negative regulators of chemokine bioavailability, whereas, on the contrary, they can promote tumorigenesis when they regulate the signaling of other chemokine receptors, such as CXC-chemokine receptor 4. Thus, atypical chemokine receptors are key components of the regulatory network of inflammation and immunity in cancer and may have a major effect on anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic strategies. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  2. Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references

  3. Constitutive dimerization of the G-protein coupled receptor, neurotensin receptor 1, reconstituted into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Peter J; Attrill, Helen; Boehringer, Jonas; Ross, Simon; Wadhams, George H; Smith, Eleanor; Armitage, Judith P; Watts, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1), a Family A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with the fluorescent proteins eCFP or eYFP. A fluorophore-tagged receptor was used to study the multimerization of NTS1 in detergent solution and in brain polar lipid bilayers, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A detergent-solubilized receptor was unable to form FRET-competent complexes at concentrations of up to 200 nM, suggesting that the receptor is monomeric in this environment. When reconstituted into a model membrane system at low receptor density, the observed FRET was independent of agonist binding, suggesting constitutive multimer formation. In competition studies, decreased FRET in the presence of untagged NTS1 excludes the possibility of fluorescent protein-induced interactions. A simulation of the experimental data indicates that NTS1 exists predominantly as a homodimer, rather than as higher-order multimers. These observations suggest that, in common with several other Family A GPCRs, NTS1 forms a constitutive dimer in lipid bilayers, stabilized through receptor-receptor interactions in the absence of other cellular signaling components. Therefore, this work demonstrates that well-characterized model membrane systems are useful tools for the study of GPCR multimerization, allowing fine control over system composition and complexity, provided that rigorous control experiments are performed.

  4. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor TR4 Is a Vitamin A-activated Nuclear Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Xu, Yong; Chan, Cee-Wah; Tanabe, Osamu; Kruse, Schoen W.; Reynolds, Ross; Engel, James Douglas; Xu, H. Eric (Michigan-Med); (Van Andel)

    2015-11-30

    Testicular receptors 2 and 4 (TR2/4) constitute a subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors that play important roles in spermatogenesis, lipid and lipoprotein regulation, and the development of the central nervous system. Currently, little is known about the structural features and the ligand regulation of these receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the ligand-free TR4 ligand binding domain, which reveals an autorepressed conformation. The ligand binding pocket of TR4 is filled by the C-terminal half of helix 10, and the cofactor binding site is occupied by the AF-2 helix, thus preventing ligand-independent activation of the receptor. However, TR4 exhibits constitutive transcriptional activity on multiple promoters, which can be further potentiated by nuclear receptor coactivators. Mutations designed to disrupt cofactor binding, dimerization, or ligand binding substantially reduce the transcriptional activity of this receptor. Importantly, both retinol and retinoic acid are able to promote TR4 to recruit coactivators and to activate a TR4-regulated reporter. These findings demonstrate that TR4 is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor and suggest that retinoids might have a much wider regulatory role via activation of orphan receptors such as TR4.

  5. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors

  6. Ligand-independent recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators to estrogen receptor by cyclin D1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R.M.L.; Buckle, R.S.; Hijmans, E.M.; Loomans, C.J.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is an important regulator of growth and differentiation of breast epithelium. Transactivation by ER depends on a leucine-rich motif, which constitutes a ligand-regulated binding site for steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs). Cyclin D1 is frequently amplified in breast

  7. The WSXWS motif in cytokine receptors is a molecular switch involved in receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; Knudsen, Maiken J.; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt

    2012-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is activated by binding of prolactin in a 2:1 complex, but the activation mechanism is poorly understood. PRLR has a conserved WSXWS motif generic to cytokine class I receptors. We have determined the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the membrane...

  8. Lipid raft integrity affects GABAA receptor, but not NMDA receptor modulation by psychopharmacological compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurfter, Caroline; Tanasic, Sascha; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Uhr, Manfred; Wagner, Eva-Maria; Gilling, Kate E; Parsons, Chris G; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Rammes, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Lipid rafts have been shown to play an important role for G-protein mediated signal transduction and the function of ligand-gated ion channels including their modulation by psychopharmacological compounds. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the membrane distribution of NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits in relation to the accumulation of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) and the benzodiazepine diazepam (Diaz). In the presence of Triton X-100, which allowed proper separation of the lipid raft marker proteins caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 from the transferrin receptor, all receptor subunits were shifted to the non-raft fractions. In contrast, under detergent-free conditions, NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits were detected both in raft and non-raft fractions. Diaz was enriched in non-raft fractions without Triton X-100 in contrast to DMI, which preferentially accumulated in lipid rafts. Impairment of lipid raft integrity by methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD)-induced cholesterol depletion did not change the inhibitory effect of DMI at the NMDA receptor, whereas it enhanced the potentiating effect of Diaz at the GABAA receptor at non-saturating concentrations of GABA. These results support the hypothesis that the interaction of benzodiazepines with the GABAA receptor likely occurs outside of lipid rafts while the antidepressant DMI acts on ionotropic receptors both within and outside these membrane microdomains.

  9. Homologous histamine H1 receptor desensitization results in reduction of H1 receptor agonist efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, R; Smit, M J; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of the guinea-pig intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle to histamine caused homologous desensitization of the H1 receptor, which led to reduced H1 receptor-mediated production of [3H]inositol phosphates as well as to reduced H1 agonist-induced contractions. [3H]Mepyramine binding

  10. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis: expression of FSJH receptor and androgen receptor genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFSH and testosterone are the main hormonal regulators of spermatogenesis. The actions of androgens and FSH are mediated by their respective receptors. Receptor gene expression (mRNA and protein). is an important determinant of hormone action. Biochemical aspects of the regulation of

  11. Arrestin scaffolds NHERF1 to the P2Y12 receptor to regulate receptor internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista P; Cunningham, Margaret; Saxena, Kunal; Pope, Robert J; Kelly, Eamonn; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-07-13

    We have recently shown in a patient with mild bleeding that the PDZ-binding motif of the platelet G protein-coupled P2Y(12) receptor (P2Y(12)R) is required for effective receptor traffic in human platelets. In this study we show for the first time that the PDZ motif-binding protein NHERF1 exerts a major role in potentiating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization. NHERF1 interacts with the C-tail of the P2Y(12)R and unlike many other GPCRs, NHERF1 interaction is required for effective P2Y(12)R internalization. In vitro and prior to agonist stimulation P2Y(12)R/NHERF1 interaction requires the intact PDZ binding motif of this receptor. Interestingly on receptor stimulation NHERF1 no longer interacts directly with the receptor but instead binds to the receptor via the endocytic scaffolding protein arrestin. These findings suggest a novel model by which arrestin can serve as an adaptor to promote NHERF1 interaction with a GPCR to facilitate effective NHERF1-dependent receptor internalization.

  12. Multiple kisspeptin receptors in early Osteichthyans provide new insights into the evolution of this receptor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasquier, J.; Lafont, A._G.; Jeng, S.-R.

    2012-01-01

    Deorphanization of GPR54 receptor a decade ago led to the characterization of the kisspeptin receptor (Kissr) in mammals and the discovery of its major role in the brain control of reproduction. While a single gene encodes for Kissr in eutherian mammals including human, other vertebrates present ...

  13. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4 0 C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37 0 C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation

  14. Interaction of chemokines with their receptors--from initial chemokine binding to receptor activating steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Stefanie; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    and surveillance. Chemokines are a group of 8-12 kDa large peptides with a secondary structure consisting of a flexible N-terminus and a core-domain usually stabilized by two conserved disulfide bridges. They mainly interact with the extracellular domains of their cognate 7TM receptors. Affinityand activity......-contributing interactions are attributed to different domains and known to occur in two steps. Here, knowledge on chemokine and receptor domains involved in the first binding-step and the second activation-step is reviewed. A mechanism comprising at least two steps seems consistent; however, several intermediate...... interactions possibly occur, resulting in a multi-step process, as recently proposed for other 7TM receptors. Overall, the N-terminus of chemokine receptors is pivotal for binding of all chemokines. During receptor activation, differences between the two major chemokine subgroups occur, as CC-chemokines mainly...

  15. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. II. Serotonin-2 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Cortes, R.; Palacios, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-2 (5-HT 2 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with four ligands: [ 3 H]ketanserin, [ 3 H]mesulergine, [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]spiperone, which are reported to show high affinity for 5-HT 2 receptors. Very high concentrations were localized in the claustrum, olfactory tubercle and layer IV of the neocortex. The anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex and layer I of neocortex were also rich in 5-HT 2 receptors. The specificity of the different ligands used is discussed in terms of the other populations of sites recognized by them. The distribution of 5-HT 2 receptors here reported is discussed in correlation with (a) the known distribution of serotoninergic terminals, (b) the specific anatomical systems and (c) the central effects reported to be mediated by 5-HT 2 -selective drugs. (Auth.)

  16. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  17. G-protein coupling of cannabinoid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the cloning of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the early 1990's extensive research has focused on understanding their signal transduction pathways. While it has been known for sometime that both receptors can couple to intracellular signalling via pertussis toxin sensitive G-proteins (Gi/Go), the specificity and kinetics of these interactions have only recently been elucidated. We have developed an in situ reconstitution approach to investigating receptor-G-protein interactions. This approach involves chaotropic extraction of receptor containing membranes in order to inactivate or remove endogenous G-proteins. Recombinant or isolated brain G-proteins can then be added back to the receptors, and their activation monitored through the binding of [ 35 S]-GTPγS. This technique has been utilised for an extensive study of cannabinoid receptor mediated activation of G-proteins. In these studies we have established that CB1 couples with high affinity to both Gi and Go type G-proteins. In contrast, CB2 couples strongly to Gi, but has a very low affinity for Go. This finding correlated well with the previous findings that while CB1 and CB2 both couple to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, CB1 but not CB2 could also inhibit calcium channels. We then examined the ability of a range of cannabinoid agonists to activate the Gi and Go via CB1. Conventional receptor theory suggests that a receptor is either active or inactive with regard to a G-protein and that the active receptor activates all relevant G-proteins equally. However, in this study we found that agonists could produce different degrees of activation, depending on which G-protein was present. Further studies have compared the ability of the two endocannabinoids to drive the activation of Gi or Go. These studies show that agonists can induce multiple forms of activated receptor that differ in their ability to catalyse the activation of Gi or Go. The ability of an agonist to drive a receptor

  18. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, PO Box 62, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the {sup 125}iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with {sup 125}I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  19. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the 125 iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with 125 I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  20. Cocaine Disrupts Histamine H3 Receptor Modulation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Signaling: σ1-D1-H3 Receptor Complexes as Key Targets for Reducing Cocaine's Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Fuentes, Silvia; Rosell-Vilar, Santi; Gasperini, Paola; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Medrano, Mireia; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi; Ortiz, Jordi; Canela, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The general effects of cocaine are not well understood at the molecular level. What is known is that the dopamine D1 receptor plays an important role. Here we show that a key mechanism may be cocaine's blockade of the histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of D1 receptor function. This blockade requires the σ1 receptor and occurs upon cocaine binding to σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes. The cocaine-mediated disruption leaves an uninhibited D1 receptor that activates Gs, freely recruits β-arrestin, increases p-ERK 1/2 levels, and induces cell death when over activated. Using in vitro assays with transfected cells and in ex vivo experiments using both rats acutely treated or self-administered with cocaine along with mice depleted of σ1 receptor, we show that blockade of σ1 receptor by an antagonist restores the protective H3 receptor-mediated brake on D1 receptor signaling and prevents the cell death from elevated D1 receptor signaling. These findings suggest that a combination therapy of σ1R antagonists with H3 receptor agonists could serve to reduce some effects of cocaine. PMID:24599455