WorldWideScience

Sample records for interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

  1. Interleukin-2 based immunotherapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis consists of 8 published articles focusing on interleukin-2 based immunotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This disease represents a significant challenge, as the tumor is resistant to current chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and radiation therapy. However, IL-2...... based immunotherapy may induce dramatic durable tumor regression by manipulating the immune system, however, only in a minority of patients. Two critical questions have driven the present thesis. First, which properties of the immune system are responsible for the dramatic tumor regression seen in some...... patients with mRCC following IL-2 administration? And second, can histamine increase the efficacy of IL-2 based immunotherapy by ending the immune suppression induced by phagocyte-generation of reactive oxygen species? 120 Danish patients, 41 UK patients and 20 Swedish patients were treated with low...

  2. Tumour-associated macrophages are related to progression in patients with metastatic melanoma following interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bettina Dencker; Schmidt, Henrik; von der Maase, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze whether leukocyte subsets in peripheral blood and tumour biopsies obtained before treatment were able to predict response or survival in patients with metastatic melanoma following Interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy. Flow cytometry was performed...... biopsies were statistically significantly associated with poor response to treatment. Our data suggest that tumour-associated macrophages may correlate negatively with response, which may be of biological importance for IL-2 based immunotherapy of malignant melanoma....

  3. Carbon anhydrase IX specific immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma potentially cured by interleukin-2 based immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The majority of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with metastatic renal cell car...... interest in future cancer vaccines, but more studies are needed to elucidate the immunological mechanisms of action in potentially cured patients treated with an immunotherapeutic agent.......Abstract The majority of clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) show high and homogeneous expression levels of the tumor associated antigen (TAA) carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL-2) based immunotherapy can lead to cure in patients with metastatic renal cell...... of disease (NED) following treatment with IL-2 based immunotherapy, and thus potentially cured. Immune reactivity in these patients was compared with samples from patients with dramatic tumor response obtained immediately at the cessation of therapy, samples from patients that experienced progressive disease...

  4. Bystander activation and anti-tumor effects of CD8+ T cells following Interleukin-2 based immunotherapy is independent of CD4+ T cell help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta M Monjazeb

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that immunotherapy combining agonistic anti-CD40 and IL-2 (IT results in synergistic anti-tumor effects. IT induces expansion of highly cytolytic, antigen-independent "bystander-activated" (CD8(+CD44high T cells displaying a CD25(-NKG2D(+ phenotype in a cytokine dependent manner, which were responsible for the anti-tumor effects. While much attention has focused on CD4(+ T cell help for antigen-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion, little is known regarding the role of CD4(+ T cells in antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8(+ T cell expansion. Utilizing CD4 deficient mouse models, we observed a significant expansion of bystander-memory T cells following IT which was similar to the non-CD4 depleted mice. Expanded bystander-memory CD8(+ T cells upregulated PD-1 in the absence of CD4(+ T cells which has been published as a hallmark of exhaustion and dysfunction in helpless CD8(+ T cells. Interestingly, compared to CD8(+ T cells from CD4 replete hosts, these bystander expanded cells displayed comparable (or enhanced cytokine production, lytic ability, and in vivo anti-tumor effects suggesting no functional impairment or exhaustion and were enriched in an effector phenotype. There was no acceleration of the post-IT contraction phase of the bystander memory CD8(+ response in CD4-depleted mice. The response was independent of IL-21 signaling. These results suggest that, in contrast to antigen-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion, CD4(+ T cell help is not necessary for expansion and activation of antigen-nonspecific bystander-memory CD8(+ T cells following IT, but may play a role in regulating conversion of these cells from a central memory to effector phenotype. Additionally, the expression of PD-1 in this model appears to be a marker of effector function and not exhaustion.

  5. Recombinant interleukin-2-based treatments for advanced melanoma: the experience of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilholz, U.; Stoter, G.; Punt, C. J.; Scheibenbogen, C.; Lejeune, F.; Eggermont, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the currently available data on phase II and III trials regarding the efficacy of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-based regimens in the treatment of stage IV melanoma, and discusses the rationale and outcome of past and currently ongoing rIL-2-based chemo-immunotherapy phase

  6. Co-immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and taurolidine for progressive metastatic melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant interleukin-2(rIL-2) therapy in metastatic melanoma is limited by toxicities, particularly vascular leak syndrome(VLS). Taurolidine potentiates the anti-neoplastic effects of IL-2 while reducing its associated endothelial cell dysfunction in experimental settings. We hypothesized that co-administration of rIL-2 with taurolidine could enhance tolerability without weakening effectiveness. METHODS: Eleven patients with progressive metastatic melanoma received high-dose rIL-2 with co-infusion of taurolidine. Patients were monitored for the development of toxicities and evidence of response. RESULTS: Ten patients tolerated twenty-nine courses of high-dose rIL-2 without dose-reduction. Most toxicities were low-grade. No patient developed VLS. Seven patients died from disease progression. Two had complete clinical and radiological responses to treatment. Two patients remain alive despite evidence of disease progression a mean of 17.5 months after diagnosing metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of taurolidine with high-dose rIL-2 in stage IV melanoma patients appears to greatly enhance the tolerability of this regime without diminishing its therapeutic value.

  7. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  8. Immunotherapy of murine sarcomas using lymphokine activated killer cells: optimization of the schedule and route of administration of recombinant interleukin-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinghausen, S.E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) at high doses or at low doses in concert with lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can produce regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases from a variety of tumors in mice. IL-2 appears to mediate its antitumor effect through the generation of LAK cells in vivo from endogenous lymphocytes and by the stimulation of host and transferred LAK cell proliferation in tissues. In this paper we have investigated different strategies for IL-2 administration to determine which regimen produced maximal in vivo proliferation and optimal immunotherapeutic efficacy of LAK cells. Tissue expansion of lymphoid cells was assessed using an assay of in vivo labeling of dividing cells by the thymidine analogue, 5-[ 125 I]iododeoxyuridine. The therapeutic effect of the different IL-2 administration protocols was determined by evaluating their efficacy in the treatment of established, 3-day pulmonary metastases from sarcomas in mice. The selection of IL-2 injection regimens for evaluation was based upon pharmacokinetic studies of IL-2 in mice. A single i.v. or i.p. dose yielded high peak IL-2 levels that could be measured for only a few hours after injection, while IL-2 given i.p. thrice daily produced titers that were detectable throughout the study periods (greater than or equal to 6 units/ml of serum after 100,000 units of IL-2 i.p. thrice daily). Using the proliferation and therapy models, we tested the same cumulative daily doses of IL-2 administered by i.v. or i.p. once daily, or i.p. thrice daily regimens. The i.p. thrice daily protocol stimulated greater lymphoid cell proliferation in the lungs, for example, than did the other regimens

  9. Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as foreign invaders. Immunotherapy is based on the concept that immune cells or antibodies that can recognize ... Other Disease Studies Managing Side Effects Anxiety and Depression Cancer-Related Fatigue 'Chemobrain' Dental and Oral Complications ...

  10. Modeling the receptor pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of NKTR-214, a kinetically-controlled interleukin-2 (IL2 receptor agonist for cancer immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Charych

    Full Text Available Cytokines are potent immune modulating agents but are not ideal medicines in their natural form due to their short half-life and pleiotropic systemic effects. NKTR-214 is a clinical-stage biologic that comprises interleukin-2 (IL2 protein bound by multiple releasable polyethylene glycol (PEG chains. In this highly PEG-bound form, the IL2 is inactive; therefore, NKTR-214 is a biologic prodrug. When administered in vivo, the PEG chains slowly release, creating a cascade of increasingly active IL2 protein conjugates bound by fewer PEG chains. The 1-PEG-IL2 and 2-PEG-IL2 species derived from NKTR-214 are the most active conjugated-IL2 species. Free-IL2 protein is undetectable in vivo as it is eliminated faster than formed. The PEG chains on NKTR-214 are located at the region of IL2 that contacts the alpha (α subunit of the heterotrimeric IL2 receptor complex, IL2Rαβγ, reducing its ability to bind and activate the heterotrimer. The IL2Rαβγ complex is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs. Therefore, without the use of mutations, PEGylation reduces the affinity for IL2Rαβγ to a greater extent than for IL2Rβγ, the receptor complex predominant on CD8 T cells. NKTR-214 treatment in vivo favors activation of CD8 T cells over Tregs in the tumor microenvironment to provide anti-tumor efficacy in multiple syngeneic models. Mechanistic modeling based on in vitro and in vivo kinetic data provides insight into the mechanism of NKTR-214 pharmacology. The model reveals that conjugated-IL2 protein derived from NKTR-214 occupy IL-2Rβγ to a greater extent compared to free-IL2 protein. The model accurately describes the sustained in vivo signaling observed after a single dose of NKTR-214 and explains how the properties of NKTR-214 impart a unique kinetically-controlled immunological mechanism of action.

  11. Modeling the receptor pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of NKTR-214, a kinetically-controlled interleukin-2 (IL2) receptor agonist for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charych, Deborah; Khalili, Samira; Dixit, Vidula; Kirk, Peter; Chang, Thomas; Langowski, John; Rubas, Werner; Doberstein, Stephen K; Eldon, Michael; Hoch, Ute; Zalevsky, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines are potent immune modulating agents but are not ideal medicines in their natural form due to their short half-life and pleiotropic systemic effects. NKTR-214 is a clinical-stage biologic that comprises interleukin-2 (IL2) protein bound by multiple releasable polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. In this highly PEG-bound form, the IL2 is inactive; therefore, NKTR-214 is a biologic prodrug. When administered in vivo, the PEG chains slowly release, creating a cascade of increasingly active IL2 protein conjugates bound by fewer PEG chains. The 1-PEG-IL2 and 2-PEG-IL2 species derived from NKTR-214 are the most active conjugated-IL2 species. Free-IL2 protein is undetectable in vivo as it is eliminated faster than formed. The PEG chains on NKTR-214 are located at the region of IL2 that contacts the alpha (α) subunit of the heterotrimeric IL2 receptor complex, IL2Rαβγ, reducing its ability to bind and activate the heterotrimer. The IL2Rαβγ complex is constitutively expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, without the use of mutations, PEGylation reduces the affinity for IL2Rαβγ to a greater extent than for IL2Rβγ, the receptor complex predominant on CD8 T cells. NKTR-214 treatment in vivo favors activation of CD8 T cells over Tregs in the tumor microenvironment to provide anti-tumor efficacy in multiple syngeneic models. Mechanistic modeling based on in vitro and in vivo kinetic data provides insight into the mechanism of NKTR-214 pharmacology. The model reveals that conjugated-IL2 protein derived from NKTR-214 occupy IL-2Rβγ to a greater extent compared to free-IL2 protein. The model accurately describes the sustained in vivo signaling observed after a single dose of NKTR-214 and explains how the properties of NKTR-214 impart a unique kinetically-controlled immunological mechanism of action.

  12. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Clay, Timothy M; Woo, Christopher Y; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the induction of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and therefore their use for the active immunotherapy of malignancies has been studied with considerable interest. More than a decade has passed since the publication of the first clinical data of DC-based vaccines, and through this and subsequent studies, a number of important developmental insights have been gleaned. These include the ideal source and type of DCs, the discovery of novel antigens and methods of loading DCs, the role of DC maturation, and the most efficient route of immunization. The generation of immune responses against tumor antigens after DC immunization has been demonstrated, and favorable clinical responses have been reported in some patients; however, it is difficult to pool the results as a whole, and thus the body of data remains inconclusive, in part because of varying DC preparation and vaccination protocols, the use of different forms of antigens, and, most importantly, a lack of rigorous criteria for defining clinical responses. As such, the standardization of clinical and immunologic criteria utilized, as well as DC preparations employed, will allow for the comparison of results across multiple clinical studies and is required in order for future trials to measure the true value and role of this treatment modality. In addition, issues regarding the optimal dose and clinical setting for the application of DC vaccines remain to be resolved, and recent clinical studies have been designed to begin to address these questions.

  13. A randomized phase II trial of interleukin-2 and interferon-α plus bevacizumab versus interleukin-2 and interferon-α in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, Frede; Jensen, Niels Viggo; Smidt-Hansen, Torben

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-2 (IL2)-based immunotherapy is curative for a small subset of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC). Preclinical data suggests that bevacizumab (BEV), a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, has potential immunomodulatory effects by permitting efficient...

  14. 4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl grafted gold electrode based platform for label free electrochemical detection of interleukin-2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sunil K; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2014-11-15

    A new platform based on 4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl (FNP) grafted gold disk electrode prepared via electrochemical reduction of 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzene diazonium ion has been developed and utilized for biosensor fabrication. Anti-interleukin-2 (anti-IL2) antibody has been covalently immobilized onto FNP/Au surface and utilized for label free electrochemical impedance based detection of cytokine IL2. FNP acts as a bridge (cross-linker) between gold surface and anti-IL2, where fluoro group of FNP undergoes nucleophilic substitution by amino group of biomolecule and results in its covalent immobilization. The immobilization process and fabricated electrode have been characterized using contact angle (CA) measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. CV studies show that FNP grafted surface provides conductive surface for anti-IL2 immobilization. The EIS response of studies as a function of IL2 concentrations exhibits a detection in linear range from 1 pg ml(-1) to 10 ng ml(-1) with minimum detectable concentration of 1 pg ml(-1). The electrode has been found to be selective against other cytokine molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Homing of radiolabelled recombinant interleukin-2 activated natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homing of radiolabelled recombinant interleukin-2 activated natural killer cells and their efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy against murine fibrosarcoma. Anuradha Rai Ashim ... Department of Zoology, St Joseph's College, Darjeeling 734 104, India; Centre for Life Sciences, North Bengal University, Siliguri 734 430, India ...

  16. Poor induction of interleukin-2 receptor expression on cd8bright+ cells in whole-blood cell-cultures with cd3 mab - implications for immunotherapy with cd3 mab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R. A. J.; Heijn, A. A.; The, T. Hauw; de Leij, L

    To induce better stimulation of T cells during recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) therapy of renal cell carcinoma patients, pretreatment with low-dose CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been proposed. However, in our clinic, such a treatment did not induce additional activation of T cells. To

  17. Interleukin-2 Therapy of Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, 3-4 (2004), s. 120-130 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : interleukin 2 * cancer therapy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  18. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Nanoparticle based-immunotherapy against allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Carlos; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María L; Irache, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are one of the most prevalent diseases, reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries. An allergic reaction occurs after contact with an environmental protein, such as inhalants allergens (pollen, animal dander, house dust mites), or food proteins. This response is known as part of the type 2 immunity that is counterbalanced by Type 1 immunity and Tregs. Widely used allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is a long term treatment to induce such switch from Th2 to Th1 response. However, conventional IT requires multiple allergen injections over a long period of time and is not free of risk of producing allergic reactions. As a consequence, new safer and faster immunotherapeutic methods are required. This review deals with allergen IT using nanoparticles as allergen delivery system that will allow a different way of administration, reduce dose and diminish allergen exposure to IgE bound to mast cells or basophils.

  20. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25524383

  1. Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy for Myeloid Leukemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Christian M.; Riether, Carsten; Ochsenbein, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20 years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD), reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to “malignant” DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias

  2. Increased intratumoral FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells during interleukin-2 treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Krogh; Donskov, Frede; Nordsmark, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) may increase the frequency of peripherally circulating FOXP3-positive regulatory immune cells, thus potentially compromising this treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The impact of IL-2-based therapy...... on the accumulation of FOXP3-positive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Baseline (n = 58) and on-treatment (n = 42) tumor core biopsies were prospectively obtained from patients with clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma before...... and during IL-2-based immunotherapy. Immunohistochemical expression of FOXP3 was estimated by stereological counting technique and correlated with other immune cell subsets and overall survival. RESULTS: A significant increase in absolute intratumoral FOXP3-positive immune cells was observed comparing...

  3. Synthetic biology in cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Wong, Wilson W

    2015-08-01

    The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells with cancer-targeting receptors has shown tremendous promise for eradicating tumors in clinical trials. This form of cellular immunotherapy presents a unique opportunity to incorporate advanced systems and synthetic biology approaches to create cancer therapeutics with novel functions. We first review the development of synthetic receptors, switches, and circuits to control the location, duration, and strength of T cell activity against tumors. In addition, we discuss the cellular engineering and genome editing of host cells (or the chassis) to improve the efficacy of cell-based cancer therapeutics, and to reduce the time and cost of manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Antibody-Based Proteins for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenmayor, Jaheli; Montaño, Ramon F., E-mail: jfuenmay@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Patología Celular y Molecular, Centro de Medicina Experimental, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas. Caracas, 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-08-19

    The relative success of monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy and the vast manipulation potential of recombinant antibody technology have encouraged the development of novel antibody-based antitumor proteins. Many insightful reagents have been produced, mainly guided by studies on the mechanisms of action associated with complete and durable remissions, results from experimental animal models, and our current knowledge of the human immune system. Strikingly, only a small percent of these new reagents has demonstrated clinical value. Tumor burden, immune evasion, physiological resemblance, and cell plasticity are among the challenges that cancer therapy faces, and a number of antibody-based proteins are already available to deal with many of them. Some of these novel reagents have been shown to specifically increase apoptosis/cell death of tumor cells, recruit and activate immune effectors, and reveal synergistic effects not previously envisioned. In this review, we look into different approaches that have been followed during the past few years to produce these biologics and analyze their relative success, mainly in terms of their clinical performance. The use of antibody-based antitumor proteins, in combination with standard or novel therapies, is showing significant improvements in objective responses, suggesting that these reagents will become important components of the antineoplastic protocols of the future.

  5. Nanocarrier-based immunotherapy in cancer management and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh MS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Manu Smriti Singh,1 Sangeeta Bhaskar21Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 2Product Development Cell, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Research in cancer immunotherapy has gained momentum in the last two decades, with many studies and clinical trials showing positive therapeutic outcomes. Immunotherapy can elicit not only a strong anticancer immune response which could even control metastases, but could also induce immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting protection in the prophylactic setting and protection against possible recurrence. Nanocarriers offer an attractive means for delivery of a multitude of therapeutic immunomodulators which are readily taken up by immune cells and can initiate a particular arm of an immunostimulatory cascade leading to tumor cell killing. This review focuses on recent advances in nanocarrier-mediated immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical progress are discussed in various sections. Description of the specific role of nanoparticle technology in immunotherapy highlights the way particles can be tailor-made in terms of size, structure, payload, and surface properties for active targeting to antigen-presenting cells and/or enhanced accumulation in the solid tumor.Keywords: cancer, immunotherapy, nanocarriers

  6. High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) for the treatment of melanoma: safety considerations and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabondo, Stephen; Kaufman, Howard L

    2017-12-01

    In 1998, high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) was the first immunotherapy approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on durable objective responses documented in a subset of patients but widespread utilization was limited by significant toxicity. Advances in targeted therapy and the emergence of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, which can generally be given in the ambulatory setting, have further limited consideration of IL-2 for melanoma patients and the role of IL-2 in the current landscape of melanoma treatment is uncertain. Areas covered: In this review, we will describe advances in clinical diagnostic and management strategies that have improved the therapeutic window for IL-2 therapy in patients with melanoma. Further, we will describe the potential for using IL-2 in patients whose disease has progressed after other interventions or as part of combination immunotherapy approaches that are now in clinical development. We will also review the common toxicities of IL-2 therapy and their current management will be discussed. Expert opinion: High-dose IL-2 remains an important option for patients with melanoma and has an improved therapeutic window in the contemporary era. The reasons why IL-2 is not utilized more frequently and measures for enhancing its use will be detailed.

  7. Construction and characterization in vitro of a bicistronic retroviral vector coding endostatin and interleukin-2 for use in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Fernanda Bernardes

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy has been used in preclinical studies and clinical trials in order to alleviate or cure a disease. Retroviral vectors are a tool for gene transfer is widely used. Bicistronic vectors are an attractive alternative for treatment of complex diseases. A variety of options exists to simultaneously express two genes in genetically modified cells. The most common approach relies on bicistronic vectors in which the genes are linked to each other by an internal ribosome entry site allowing co-translational expression of both cistrons. Endostatin, the C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. At present, ES has been widely used in anti-angiogenic in a variety of experimental tumor models, and clinical trials to test it as an anti-tumor agent are already under way. Immunotherapy has been used as adjuvant treatment for tumors and has been used in several preclinical studies and clinical trials. The objective of this project was to construct and characterize 'in vitro' an IRES-based bicistronic retroviral vector encoding endostatin and interleukin-2. The construction of the vector was performed in three stages, the final construction was analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. Packaging cells were prepared. The endostatin and interleukin-2 levels were determined by Dot blot. Monocistronic and bicistronic mRNA expression were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Bicistronic vector showed high levels of virus trites, ranging from 4.20x10 5 to 1.53x10 6 UFC/ml. Secreted levels of endostatin and interleukin-2 ranged from 1.08 to 2.08μg/10 6 cells.24h and 0.66 - 0.89μg/10 6 cells.24h, respectively. The mRNA expression of ES in the NIH3T3 clone pLend-IRES-IL2SN was 2 times higher than the level presented by the NIH3T3 clone pLendSN. The endostatin promoted inhibition (40%) of endothelial cell proliferation. Interleukin-2 promoted a proliferation of 10.6% lymphocytes CD4 and 8.9% of CD8. We conclude that the IRES bicistronic vector

  8. Interleukin-2 inhalation therapy in renal cell cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monte, Girolamo; Ferroni, Patrizia; Mariotti, Sabrina; Fossile, Emanuela; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. One third of RCC presents metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, usually leading to a fatal outcome. Small response rates were seen with most cytotoxic agents including gemcitabine and vinorelbine, whereas systemic therapy with high doses of interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to provide durable complete remissions. However, in consideration of its severe toxicity, IL-2 immunotherapy is restricted to selected patients. Aerosol IL-2 has been introduced as an alternative therapy in cancer patients. However, only very few data are available on its use in patients with pulmonary metastatic RCC. This paper briefly summarizes current clinical experience with the use of inhaled IL-2 therapy, either as a single therapy or in combination with other treatments. In addition, we report on a male patient with pulmonary metastasized RCC who achieved a durable complete response to combined gemcitabine/vinorelbine and interleukin-2 inhalation therapy.

  9. Novel IL-2-Poly(HPMA)Nanoconjugate Based Immunotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, Petra; Tomala, Jakub; Šubr, Vladimír; Strohalm, Jiří; Ulbrich, Karel; Říhová, Blanka; Kovář, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 9 (2015), s. 1662-1673 ISSN 1550-7033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0802 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Interleukin-2 * N-(2-hydroxypropyl)Methacrylamide * Poly(HPMA) Conjugate Subject RIV: EC - Immunology; EC - Immunology (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.929, year: 2015

  10. Development of Interleukin-2 Loaded Chitosan-Based Nanogels Using Artificial Neural Networks and Investigating the Effects on Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Canan; Çelebi, Nevin; Değim, I Tuncer; Atak, Ayşegül; Özer, Çiğdem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize rh- IL-2 loaded chitosan-based nanogels for the healing of wound incision in rats. Nanogels were prepared using chitosan and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by ionic gelation method and high temperature application, respectively. Particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index were measured for characterization of nanogels. The morphology of nanogels was examined by using SEM and AFM. The IL-2 loading capacity of nanogels was determined using ELISA method. In vitro release of IL-2 from nanogels was performed using Franz diffusion cells. Artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed using selected input parameters (stirring rate, chitosan%, BSA%, TPP%) where particle size was an output parameter for IL-2 free nanogels. Wound healing effect of IL-2 loaded chitosan-TPP nanogel was evaluated by determining the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels of wound tissues in rats. The particle size of IL-2 loaded chitosan-TPP nanogels was found to be larger than that of IL-2 loaded BSA-based chitosan nanogels. Drug loading capacity of nanogels was found 100% ± 0.010 for both nanogels. IL-2 was released slowly after the initial burst effect. According to SEM and AFM imaging, BSA-chitosan nanogel particles were of nanometer size and presented a swelling tendency, and chitosan-TPP nanogel particles were found to be spherical and homogenously dispersed. IL-2 loaded chitosan-TPP nanogel was found suitable for improving wound healing because it decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels wound tissues comparing to control group.

  11. Liposome-based synthetic long peptide vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varypataki, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic long peptides (SLP) derived from cancer-associated antigens hold great promise as well-defined antigens for cancer immunotherapy. Clinical studies showed that SLP vaccines have functional potency when applied to pre-malignant stage patients, but need to be improved for use as a therapeutic

  12. [Infectious complications during treatments with interleukin-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morère, J F; Darras, C; Boaziz, C; Mihaila, L; Breau, J L; Scavizzi, M; Israël, L

    1993-03-13

    Between January 1989 and May 1991, 97 patients were treated with interleukin 2 in the Oncology Department of the Avicenne Hospital (Bobigny, France). IL 2 was given over 5 days by continuous infusion through an implantable port. Ten patients (4 males, 6 females), mean age 46 years (36-67) with various cancers (breast 3, kidney 1, melanoma 1, colorectal 5), developed infection: 4 local infections around the port, 1 phlebitis, 4 septicemias, 1 bacteremia were observed. In 9 cases blood cultures were positive: Staphylococcus aureus 5, Staphylococcus epidermidis 3, Streptococcus G 1. In 5 cases the same pathogen was isolated from the port and from the blood. The mean leucocyte count was 10,627/mm3 at the time of infection. The delay between the beginning of interleukin 2 treatment and the infection was 3 months. The mean dose of IL 2 administered before infection was 456 million IU. In all cases infection was controlled without lethal complication by antibiotics and catheter removal. This high incidence (8 percent) of staphylococcal infection is partly due to the skin toxicity of IL 2 and to depressed neutrophil chemotactic response. Prophylactic antibiotics are warranted during IL 2 intravenous therapy.

  13. T cell exhaustion and Interleukin 2 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhi, Mumtaz Y; Ma, Qiangzhong; Ahmad, Shazia; Junghans, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    T cells reactive to tumor antigens and viral antigens lose their reactivity when exposed to the antigen-rich environment of a larger tumor bed or viral load. Such non-responsive T cells are termed exhausted. T cell exhaustion affects both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. T cell exhaustion is attributed to the functional impairment of T cells to produce cytokines, of which the most important may be Interleukin 2 (IL2). IL2 performs functions critical for the elimination of cancer cells and virus infected cells. In one such function, IL2 promotes CD8+ T cell and natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activities. Other functions include regulating naïve T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 subsets upon exposure to antigens. Thus, the signaling pathways contributing to T cell exhaustion could be linked to the signaling pathways contributing to IL2 loss. This review will discuss the process of T cell exhaustion and the signaling pathways that could be contributing to T cell exhaustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lyophilization cycle development for interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, S

    1992-01-01

    The effects of temperature and pressure variation on the lyophilization of interleukin-2 (IL-2) were studied. The human recombinant IL-2 used in this study was synthesized in and purified from E. coli, formulated, and then submitted to experimental lyophilization procedures. The collapse temperature of the formulation was first determined to be -25 degrees C by differential scanning calorimetry. The effects of chamber pressure and shelf temperature on IL-2 during lyophilization were evaluated. Lyophilization chamber pressures were varied from 100 mu to 300 mu in combination with the different chamber pressures. Lyophilized cake quality was assessed by evaluating three of its properties: residual moisture, by the Karl Fischer method; the monomeric content of the protein, by RP-HPLC; and oligomeric content, by SDS-PAGE. Process uniformity was checked by determining residual moisture in cakes collected from various locations in the chamber. The experimental data show that IL-2 can be lyophilized in a pilot unit within 30 hours. The IL-2 lyophilized at various primary drying conditions retained its purity and potency throughout the stability study period (12 months).

  15. The contribution of interleukin-2 to effective wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelloStritto, Daniel J; Newell-Rogers, M Karen

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective skin wound healing is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Roughly 6.5 million Americans experience chronically open wounds and the cost of treating these wounds numbers in the billions of dollars annually. In contrast, robust wound healing can lead to the development of either hypertrophic scarring or keloidosis, both of which can cause discomfort and can be cosmetically undesirable. Appropriate wound healing requires the interplay of a variety of factors, including the skin, the local microenvironment, the immune system, and the external environment. When these interactions are perturbed, wounds can be a nidus for infection, which can cause them to remain open an extended period of time, or can scar excessively. Interleukin-2, a cytokine that directs T-cell expansion and phenotypic development, appears to play an important role in wound healing. The best-studied role for Interleukin-2 is in influencing T-cell development. However, other cell types, including fibroblasts, the skin cells responsible for closing wounds, express the Interleukin-2 receptor, and therefore may respond to Interleukin-2. Studies have shown that treatment with Interleukin-2 can improve the strength of healed skin, which implicates Interleukin-2 in the wound healing process. Furthermore, diseases that involve impaired wound healing, such as diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, have been linked to deficiencies in Interleukin-2 or defects Interleukin-2-receptor signaling. The focus of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of Interleukin-2 in wound healing, to highlight diseases in which Interleukin-2 and its receptor may contribute to impaired wound healing, and to assess Interleukin-2-modulating approaches as potential therapies to improve wound healing. PMID:27798123

  16. Genetically Modified T-Cell-Based Adoptive Immunotherapy in Hematological Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baixin; Gao, Qingping; Wang, Qiongyu; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of hematological malignancies remain limited in treatment options. Immune system modulation serves as a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a central role in antitumor immunity; unfortunately, nonspecific approaches for targeted recognition of tumor cells by CTLs to mediate tumor immune evasion in hematological malignancies imply multiple mechanisms, which may or may not be clinically relevant. Recently, genetically modified T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and engineered T-cell receptor (TCR) T-cell therapy, promise to overcome immune evasion by redirecting the specificity of CTLs to tumor cells. In clinic trials, CAR-T-cell- and TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy have produced encouraging clinical outcomes, thereby demonstrating their therapeutic potential in mitigating tumor development. The purpose of the present review is to (1) provide a detailed overview of the multiple mechanisms for immune evasion related with T-cell-based therapies; (2) provide a current summary of the applications of CAR-T-cell- as well as neoantigen-specific TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy and routes taken to overcome immune evasion; and (3) evaluate alternative approaches targeting immune evasion via optimization of CAR-T and TCR-T-cell immunotherapies. PMID:28116322

  17. Genetically Modified T-Cell-Based Adoptive Immunotherapy in Hematological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixin Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of hematological malignancies remain limited in treatment options. Immune system modulation serves as a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs play a central role in antitumor immunity; unfortunately, nonspecific approaches for targeted recognition of tumor cells by CTLs to mediate tumor immune evasion in hematological malignancies imply multiple mechanisms, which may or may not be clinically relevant. Recently, genetically modified T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy approaches, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T-cell therapy and engineered T-cell receptor (TCR T-cell therapy, promise to overcome immune evasion by redirecting the specificity of CTLs to tumor cells. In clinic trials, CAR-T-cell- and TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy have produced encouraging clinical outcomes, thereby demonstrating their therapeutic potential in mitigating tumor development. The purpose of the present review is to (1 provide a detailed overview of the multiple mechanisms for immune evasion related with T-cell-based therapies; (2 provide a current summary of the applications of CAR-T-cell- as well as neoantigen-specific TCR-T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy and routes taken to overcome immune evasion; and (3 evaluate alternative approaches targeting immune evasion via optimization of CAR-T and TCR-T-cell immunotherapies.

  18. Consolidative dendritic cell-based immunotherapy elicits cytotoxicity against malignant mesothelioma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegmans, J.P.; Veltman, J.D.; Lambers, M.E.; Vries, I.J.M. de; Figdor, C.G.; Hendriks, R.W.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Lambrecht, B.N.; Aerts, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: We previously demonstrated that dendritic cell-based immunotherapy induced protective antitumor immunity with a prolonged survival rate in mice. However, the clinical relevance is still in question. To examine this, we designed a clinical trial using chemotherapy followed by

  19. Interleukin-2 therapy for human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoesel, Q G

    1990-01-01

    The concept of immunotherapy is evolving from nonspecific, haphazard stimulation of the immune apparatus to more specific and controlled manipulation of the immune system. IL-2 gives the opportunity to exert influence on the cellular immune system. Why LAK cells are able to lyse tumor cells and leave normal cells intact is not known. How LAK cells behave after reinfusion is not known; are they able to migrate to tumor sites? Can improvements be made in scheduling in order to decrease toxicity and to enhance efficacy? But first of all, the question arises whether the tremendous efforts required by adoptive transfer, in terms of toxicity, logistics, and money, are outweighed by the therapeutic results. For clinical practice inside the frontier of oncology, continuous infusion of IL-2 at an intermediate dose is a quite attractive option in finding a balance between efforts and results.

  20. Low-Dose Cyclophosphamide Synergizes with Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris D. Veltman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical immunotherapy trials like dendritic cell-based vaccinations are hampered by the tumor's offensive repertoire that suppresses the incoming effector cells. Regulatory T cells are instrumental in suppressing the function of cytotoxic T cells. We studied the effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide on the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and investigated if the success rate of dendritic cell immunotherapy could be improved. For this, mesothelioma tumor-bearing mice were treated with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose of cyclophosphamide. Proportions of regulatory T cells and the cytotoxic T cell functions at different stages of disease were analyzed. We found that low-dose cyclophosphamide induced beneficial immunomodulatory effects by preventing the induction of Tregs, and as a consequence, cytotoxic T cell function was no longer affected. Addition of cyclophosphamide improved immunotherapy leading to an increased median and overall survival. Future studies are needed to address the usefulness of this combination treatment for mesothelioma patients.

  1. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrams, D.; Lévy, Y.; Losso, M. H.; Babiker, A.; Collins, G.; Cooper, D. A.; Darbyshire, J.; Emery, S.; Fox, L.; Gordin, F.; Lane, H. C.; Lundgren, J. D.; Mitsuyasu, R.; Neaton, J. D.; Phillips, A.; Routy, J. P.; Tambussi, G.; Wentworth, D.; Aagaard, B.; Aragon, E.; Arnaiz, J.; Borup, L.; Clotet, B.; Dragsted, U.; Fau, A.; Gey, D.; Grarup, J.; Hengge, U.; Herrero, P.; Jansson, P.; Jensen, B.; Jensen, K.; Juncher, H.; Lopez, P.; Lundgren, J.; Matthews, C.; Mollerup, D.; Pearson, M.; Reilev, S.; Tillmann, K.; Varea, S.; Angus, B.; Cordwell, B.; Dodds, W.; Fleck, S.; Horton, J.; Hudson, F.; Moraes, Y.; Pacciarini, F.; Palfreeman, A.; Paton, N.; Smith, N.; van Hooff, F.; Bebchuk, J.; Denning, E.; DuChene, A.; Fosdick, L.; Harrison, M.; Herman-Lamin, K.; Krum, E.; Larson, G.; Neaton, J.; Nelson, R.; Quan, K.; Quan, S.; Schultz, T.; Thompson, G.; Wyman, N.; Carey, C.; Chan, F.; Cooper, D.; Courtney-Rodgers, D.; Drummond, F.; Harrod, M.; Jacoby, S.; Kearney, L.; Law, M.; Lin, E.; Pett, S.; Robson, R.; Seneviratne, N.; Stewart, M.; Watts, E.; Finley, E.; Sánchez, A.; Standridge, B.; Vjecha, M.; Belloso, W.; Davey, R.; Duprez, D.; Gatell, J.; Hoy, J.; Lifson, A.; Pederson, C.; Perez, G.; Price, R.; Prineas, R.; Rhame, F.; Sampson, J.; Worley, J.; Modlin, J.; Beral, V.; Chaisson, R.; Fleming, T.; Hill, C.; Kim, K.; Murray, B.; Pick, B.; Seligmann, M.; Weller, I.; Cahill, K.; Luzar, M.; Martinez, A.; McNay, L.; Pierson, J.; Tierney, J.; Vogel, S.; Costas, V.; Eckstrand, J.; Brown, S.; Abusamra, L.; Angel, E.; Aquilia, S.; Benetucci, J.; Bittar, V.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Cahn, P.; Casiro, A.; Contarelli, J.; Corral, J.; Daciuk, L.; David, D.; Dobrzanski, W.; Duran, A.; Ebenrstejin, J.; Ferrari, I.; Fridman, D.; Galache, V.; Guaragna, G.; Ivalo, S.; Krolewiecki, A.; Lanusse, I.; Laplume, H.; Lasala, M.; Lattes, R.; Lazovski, J.; Lopardo, G.; Losso, M.; Lourtau, L.; Lupo, S.; Maranzana, A.; Marson, C.; Massera, L.; Moscatello, G.; Olivia, S.; Otegui, I.; Palacios, L.; Parlante, A.; Salomon, H.; Sanchez, M.; Somenzini, C.; Suarez, C.; Tocci, M.; Toibaro, J.; Zala, C.; Agrawal, S.; Ambrose, P.; Anderson, C.; Anderson, J.; Baker, D.; Beileiter, K.; Blavius, K.; Bloch, M.; Boyle, M.; Bradford, D.; Britton, P.; Brown, P.; Busic, T.; Cain, A.; Carrall, L.; Carson, S.; Chenoweth, I.; Chuah, J.; Clark, F.; Clemons, J.; Clezy, K.; Cortissos, P.; Cunningham, N.; Curry, M.; Daly, L.; D'Arcy-Evans, C.; del Rosario, R.; Dinning, S.; Dobson, P.; Donohue, W.; Doong, N.; Downs, C.; Edwards, E.; Edwards, S.; Egan, C.; Ferguson, W.; Finlayson, R.; Forsdyke, C.; Foy, L.; Franic, T.; Frater, A.; French, M.; Gleeson, D.; Gold, J.; Habel, P.; Haig, K.; Hardy, S.; Holland, R.; Hudson, J.; Hutchison, R.; Hyland, N.; James, R.; Johnston, C.; Kelly, M.; King, M.; Kunkel, K.; Lau, H.; Leamy, J.; Lester, D.; Leung, J.; Lohmeyer, A.; Lowe, K.; MacRae, K.; Magness, C.; Martinez, O.; Maruszak, H.; Medland, N.; Miller, S.; Murray, J.; Negus, P.; Newman, R.; Ngieng, M.; Nowlan, C.; Oddy, J.; Orford, N.; Orth, D.; Patching, J.; Plummer, M.; Price, S.; Primrose, R.; Prone, I.; Ree, H.; Remington, C.; Richardson, R.; Robinson, S.; Rogers, G.; Roney, J.; Roth, N.; Russell, D.; Ryan, S.; Sarangapany, J.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, K.; Shields, C.; Silberberg, C.; Shaw, D.; Skett, J.; Smith, D.; Soo, T. Meng; Sowden, D.; Street, A.; tee, B. Kiem; Thomson, J. I.; Topaz, S.; Vale, R.; Villella, C.; Walker, A.; Watson, A.; Wendt, N.; Williams, L.; Youds, D.; Aichelburg, A.; Cichon, P.; Gemeinhart, B.; Rieger, A.; Schmied, B.; Touzeau-Romer, V.; Vetter, N.; Colebunders, R.; Clumeck, N.; DeRoo, A.; Kabeya, K.; O'Doherty, E.; de Wit, S.; Amorim, C. De Salles; Basso, C.; Flint, S.; Kallas, E.; Levi, G.; Lewi, D.; Pereira, L.; da Silva, M.; Souza, T.; Toscano, A.; Angel, J.; Arsenault, M.; Bast, M.; Beckthold, B.; Bouchard, P.; Chabot, I.; Clarke, R.; Cohen, J.; Coté, P.; Ellis, M.; Gagne, C.; Gill, J.; Houde, M.; Johnston, B.; Jubinville, N.; Kato, C.; Lamoureux, N.; Latendre-Paquette, J.; Lindemulder, A.; McNeil, A.; McFarland, N.; Montaner, J.; Morrisseau, C.; O'Neill, R.; Page, G.; Piche, A.; Pongracz, B.; Preziosi, H.; Puri, L.; Rachlis, A.; Ralph, E.; Raymond, I.; Rouleau, D.; Sandre, R.; Seddon, T.; Shafran, S.; Sikora, C.; Smaill, F.; Stromberg, D.; Trottier, S.; Walmsley, S.; Weiss, K.; Williams, K.; Zarowny, D.; Baadegaard, B.; Andersen, A. Bengaard; Boedker, K.; Collins, P.; Gerstoft, J.; Jensen, L.; Moller, H.; Andersen, P. Lehm; Loftheim, I.; Mathiesen, L.; Nielsen, H.; Obel, N.; Pedersen, C.; Petersen, D.; Jensen, L. Pors; Black, F. Trunk; Aboulker, J. P.; Aouba, A.; Bensalem, M.; Berthe, H.; Blanc, C.; Bornarel, D.; Bouchaud, O.; Boue, F.; Bouvet, E.; Brancon, C.; Breaud, S.; Brosseau, D.; Brunet, A.; Capitant, C.; Ceppi, C.; Chakvetadze, C.; Cheneau, C.; Chennebault, J. M.; de Truchis, P.; Delavalle, A. M.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dumont, C.; Edeb, N.; Fabre, G.; Ferrando, S.; Foltzer, A.; Foubert, V.; Gastaut, J. A.; Gerbe, J.; Girard, P. M.; Goujard, C.; Hoen, B.; Honore, P.; Hue, H.; Hynh, T.; Jung, C.; Kahi, S.; Katlama, C.; Lang, J. M.; Le Baut, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Leturque, N.; Loison, J.; Maddi, G.; Maignan, A.; Majerholc, C.; de Boever, C.; Meynard, J. L.; Michelet, C.; Michon, C.; Mole, M.; Netzer, E.; Pialoux, G.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Raffi, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Ravaux, I.; Reynes, J.; Salmon-Ceron, D.; Sebire, M.; Simon, A.; Tegna, L.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Tramoni, C.; Viard, J. P.; Vidal, M.; Viet-Peaucelle, C.; Weiss, L.; Zeng, A.; Zucman, D.; Adam, A.; Arastéh, K.; Behrens, G.; Bergmann, F.; Bickel, M.; Bittner, D.; Bogner, J.; Brockmeyer, N.; Darrelmann, N.; Deja, M.; Doerler, M.; Esser, S.; Faetkenheuer, G.; Fenske, S.; Gajetzki, S.; Goebel, F.; Gorriahn, D.; Harrer, E.; Harrer, T.; Hartl, H.; Hartmann, M.; Heesch, S.; Jakob, W.; Jäger, H.; Klinker, H.; Kremer, G.; Ludwig, C.; Mantzsch, K.; Mauss, S.; Meurer, A.; Niedermeier, A.; Pittack, N.; Plettenberg, A.; Potthoff, A.; Probst, M.; Rittweger, M.; Rockstroh, J.; Ross, B.; Rotty, J.; Rund, E.; Ruzicka, T.; Schmidt, R. T.; Schmutz, G.; Schnaitmann, E.; Schuster, D.; Sehr, T.; Spaeth, B.; Staszewski, S.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Stephan, C.; Stockey, T.; Stoehr, A.; Trein, A.; Vaeth, T.; Vogel, M.; Wasmuth, J.; Wengenroth, C.; Winzer, R.; Wolf, E.; Mulcahy, F.; Reidy, D. I.; Cohen, Y.; Drora, G.; Eliezer, I.; Godo, O.; Kedem, E.; Magen, E.; Mamorsky, M.; Pollack, S.; Sthoeger, Z.; Vered, H.; Yust, I.; Aiuti, F.; Bechi, M.; Bergamasco, A.; Bertelli, D.; Bruno, R.; Butini, L.; Cagliuso, M.; Carosi, G.; Casari, S.; Chrysoula, V.; Cologni, G.; Conti, V.; Costantini, A.; Corpolongo, A.; D'Offizi, G.; Gaiottino, F.; Di Pietro, M.; Esposito, R.; Filice, G.; Francesco, M.; Gianelli, E.; Graziella, C.; Magenta, L.; Martellotta, F.; Maserati, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Murdaca, G.; Nardini, G.; Nozza, S.; Puppo, F.; Pogliaghi, M.; Ripamonti, D.; Ronchetti, C.; Rusconi, S.; Rusconi, V.; Sacchi, P.; Silvia, N.; Suter, F.; Uglietti, A.; Vechi, M.; Vergani, B.; Vichi, F.; Vitiello, P.; Iwamoto, A.; Kikuchi, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Mori, M.; Nakamura, T.; Odawara, T.; Oka, S.; Shirasaka, T.; Tabata, M.; Takano, M.; Ueta, C.; Watanabe, D.; Yamamoto, Y.; Erradey, I.; Himmich, H.; El Filali, K. Marhoum; Blok, W.; van Boxtel, R.; Doevelaar, K. Brinkman H.; van Eeden, A.; Grijsen, M.; Groot, M.; Juttmann, J.; Kuipers, M.; Ligthart, S.; van der Meulen, P.; Lange, J.; Langebeek, N.; Reiss, P.; Richter, C.; Schoemaker, M.; Schrijnders-Gudde, L.; Septer-Bijleveld, E.; Sprenger, H.; Vermeulen, J.; ten Kate, R.; van de Ven, B.; Bruun, J.; Kvale, D.; Maeland, A.; Bakowska, E.; Beniowski, M.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Inglot, M.; Knysz, B.; Mularska, E.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Rymer, W.; Szymczak, A.; Aldir, M.; Antunes, F.; Baptista, C.; Vera, J. da Conceicao; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; dos Santos, C. Raquel A.; Valadas, E.; Pinto, I. Vaz; Chia, E.; Foo, E.; Karim, F.; Lim, P. L.; Panchalingam, A.; Quek, A.; Alcázar-Caballero, R.; Arrizabalaga, J.; de Barron, X.; Blanco, F.; Bouza, E.; Bravo, I.; Calvo, S.; Carbonero, L.; Carpena, I.; Castro, M.; Cortes, L.; del Toro, M.; Domingo, P.; Elias, M.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, V.; Fernandez-Cruz, E.; Fernández, P.; Freud, H.; Fuster, M.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, G.; Garrido, R.; Gijón, P.; Gonzalez-García, J.; Gil, I.; González, A.; González-Lahoz, J.; López Grosso, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Guzmán, E.; Iribarren, J.; Jiménez, M.; Jou, A.; Juega, J.; Lopez, J.; Lozano, F.; Martín-Carbonero, L.; Mata, R.; Mateo, G.; Menasalvas, A.; Mirelles, C.; de Miguel Prieto, J.; Montes, M.; Moreno, A.; Moreno, J.; Moreno, V.; Muñoz, R.; Ocampo, A.; Ortega, E.; Ortiz, L.; Padilla, B.; Parras, A.; Paster, A.; Pedreira, J.; Peña, J.; Perea, R.; Portas, B.; Puig, J.; Pulido, F.; Rebollar, M.; de Rivera, J.; Roca, V.; Rodríguez- Arrondo, F.; Rubio, R.; Santos, J.; Sanz, J.; Sebastian, G.; Segovia, M.; Soriano, V.; Tamargo, L.; Viciana, P.; von Wichmann, M.; Bratt, G.; Hollander, A.; Pehrson, P. Olov; Petz, I.; Sandstrom, E.; Sönnerborg, A.; Bernasconi, E.; Gurtner, V.; Ampunpong, U.; Auchieng, C.; Bowonwatanuwong, C.; Chanchai, P.; Chetchotisakd, P.; Chuenyan, T.; Duncombe, C.; Horsakulthai, M.; Kantipong, P.; Laohajinda, K.; Phanuphak, P.; Pongsurachet, V.; Pradapmook, S.; Ruxruntham, K.; Seekaew, S.; Sonjai, A.; Suwanagool, S.; Techasathit, W.; Ubolyam, S.; Wankoon, J.; Alexander, I.; Dockrell, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Edwards, B.; Evans, E.; Fisher, M.; Fox, R.; Gazzard, B.; Gilleran, G.; Hand, J.; Heald, L.; Higgs, C.; Jeakumar, S.; Jendrulek, I.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, S.; Kinghorn, G.; Kuldanek, K.; Leen, C.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; McLean, L.; Morris, S.; Murphy, M.; O'Farrell, S.; Ong, E.; Peters, B.; Stroud, C.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.; Weber, J.; White, D.; Williams, I.; Wiselka, M.; Yee, T.; Adams, S.; Allegra, D.; Andrews, L.; Aneja, B.; Anstead, G.; Arduino, R.; Artz, R.; Bailowitz, J.; Banks, S.; Baxter, J.; Baum, J.; Benator, D.; Black, D.; Boh, D.; Bonam, T.; Brito, M.; Brockelman, J.; Bruzzese, V.; Burnside, A.; Cafaro, V.; Casey, K.; Cason, L.; Childress, G.; Clark, C. I.; Clifford, D.; Climo, M.; Cohn, D.; Couey, P.; Cuervo, H.; Deeks, S.; Dennis, M.; Diaz-Linares, M.; Dickerson, D.; Diez, M.; Di Puppo, J.; Dodson, P.; Dupre, D.; Elion, R.; Elliott, K.; El-Sadr, W.; Estes, M.; Fabre, J.; Farrough, M.; Flamm, J.; Follansbee, S.; Foster, C.; Frank, C.; Franz, J.; Frechette, G.; Freidland, G.; Frische, J.; Fuentes, L.; Funk, C.; Geisler, C.; Genther, K.; Giles, M.; Goetz, M.; Gonzalez, M.; Graeber, C.; Graziano, F.; Grice, D.; Hahn, B.; Hamilton, C.; Hassler, S.; Henson, A.; Hopper, S.; John, M.; Johnson, L.; Johnson, R.; Jones, R.; Kahn, J.; Klimas, N.; Kolber, M.; Koletar, S.; Labriola, A.; Larsen, R.; Lasseter, F.; Lederman, M.; Ling, T.; Lusch, T.; MacArthur, R.; Machado, C.; Makohon, L.; Mandelke, J.; Mannheimer, S.; Markowitz, N.; Martínez, M.; Martinez, N.; Mass, M.; Masur, H.; McGregor, D.; McIntyre, D.; McKee, J.; McMullen, D.; Mettinger, M.; Middleton, S.; Mieras, J.; Mildvan, D.; Miller, P.; Miller, T.; Mitchell, V.; Moanna, A.; Mogridge, C.; Moran, F.; Murphy, R.; Mushatt, D.; Nahass, R.; Nixon, D.; O'Brien, S.; Ojeda, J.; Okhuysen, P.; Olson, M.; Osterberger, J.; Owen, W.; Pablovich, S.; Patel, S.; Pierone, G.; Poblete, R.; Potter, A.; Preston, E.; Rappoport, C.; Regevik, N.; Reyelt, M.; Riney, L.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rodriguez, J.; Roland, R.; Rosmarin-DeStefano, C.; Rossen, W.; Rouff, J.; Saag, M.; Santiago, S.; Sarria, J.; Wirtz, S.; Schmidt, U.; Scott, C.; Sheridan, A.; Shin, A.; Shrader, S.; Simon, G.; Slowinski, D.; Smith, K.; Spotkov, J.; Sprague, C.; States, D.; Suh, C.; Sullivan, J.; Summers, K.; Sweeton, B.; Tan, V.; Tanner, T.; Tedaldi, E.; Temesgen, Z.; Thomas, D.; Thompson, M.; Tobin, C.; Toro, N.; Towner, W.; Upton, K.; Uy, J.; Valenti, S.; van der Horst, C.; Vita, J.; Voell, J.; Walker, J.; Walton, T.; Wason, K.; Watson, V.; Wellons, A.; Weise, J.; White, M.; Whitman, T.; Williams, B.; Williams, N.; Windham, J.; Witt, M.; Workowski, K.; Wortmann, G.; Wright, T.; Zelasky, C.; Zwickl, B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Used in combination with antiretroviral therapy, subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 raises CD4+ cell counts more than does antiretroviral therapy alone. The clinical implication of these increases is not known. METHODS: We conducted two trials: the Subcutaneous Recombinant, Human

  2. Optimizing complement-activating antibody-based cancer immunotherapy: a feasible strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maio Michele

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAb targeted to specific tumor-associated antigens is amongst the most rapidly expanding approaches to biological therapy of cancer. However, until now a limited number of therapeutic mAb has demonstrated clinical efficacy in selected neoplasia. Results emerging from basic research point to a deeper characterization of specific biological features of neoplastic cells as crucial to optimize the clinical potential of therapeutic mAb, and to identify cancer patients who represent the best candidates to antibody-based immunotherapy. Focus on the tissue distribution and on the functional role of membrane complement-regulatory proteins such as Protectin (CD59, which under physiologic conditions protects tissues from Complement (C-damage, might help to optimize the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies based on C-activating mAb.

  3. Hurdles of CAR-T cell-based cancer immunotherapy directed against solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Lan; Qin, Di-Yuan; Mo, Ze-Ming; Li, Yi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    Recent reports on the impressive efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells against hematologic malignancies have inspired oncologists to extend these efforts for the treatment of solid tumors. Clinical trials of CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy for solid tumors showed that the efficacies are not as remarkable as in the case of hematologic malignancies. There are several challenges that researchers must face when treating solid cancers with CAR-T cells, these include choosing an ideal target, promoting efficient trafficking and infiltration, overcoming the immunosuppressive microenvironment, and avoiding associated toxicity. In this review, we discuss the obstacles imposed by solid tumors on CAR-T cell-based immunotherapy and strategies adopted to improve the therapeutic potential of this approach. Continued investigations are necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes and decrease the adverse effects of CAR-T cell therapy in patients with solid malignancies in the future.

  4. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists as induction therapy after heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Gustafsson, Finn; Gluud, Christian

    2008-01-01

    About half of the transplantation centers use induction therapy after heart transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ras) are used increasingly for induction therapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials assessing IL-2Ras.......About half of the transplantation centers use induction therapy after heart transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ras) are used increasingly for induction therapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials assessing IL-2Ras....

  5. Multistaged Nanovaccines Based on Porous Silicon@Acetalated Dextran@Cancer Cell Membrane for Cancer Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontana, Flavia; Shahbazi, Mohammad Ali; Liu, Dongfei

    2017-01-01

    A novel porous silicon (Psi)-based nanovaccines for cancer immunotherapy was developed by nanoprecipitation in glass capillary microfluidics. One of these systems, thermally oxidized Psi (TOPSi)@AcDEX (Acetalated dextran), was then encapsulated with vesicles derived from cancer cells, in order...... promising adjuvant properties and the possibility of encapsulating the nanosystems with materials derived from the patient's tumor opens new prospects in the field of personalized cancer medicine....

  6. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-stimulated peripheral blood leukocytes and to examine their ability to stimulate the production of connective tissue. METHODS: Culture medium from human peripheral blood leukocytes incubated with or without IL-2...... was tested for induction of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and expression of cytokine genes. RESULTS: Supernatants from IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes induced six times more fibroblast proliferation than medium from leukocytes cultured without IL-2. The expression of type I....... CONCLUSION: Mediators that induce connective tissue production are secreted by IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes. These cytokines may be responsible, in part, for the stimulation of abdominal adhesions in patients receiving intraperitoneal immunotherapy....

  7. An update on antibody-based immunotherapies for Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussack G

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Greg Hussack,1 Jamshid Tanha1–3 1Human Health Therapeutics Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, 2School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Abstract: Clostridium difficile continues to be one of the most prevalent hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the developed world, despite the recent introduction of a novel and effective antibiotic agent (fidaxomicin. Alternative approaches under investigation to combat the anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria include fecal transplantation therapy, vaccines, and antibody-based immunotherapies. In this review, we catalog the recent advances in antibody-based approaches under development and in the clinic for the treatment of C. difficile infection. By and large, inhibitory antibodies that recognize the primary C. difficile virulence factors, toxin A and toxin B, are the most popular passive immunotherapies under investigation. We provide a detailed summary of the toxin epitopes recognized by various antitoxin antibodies and discuss general trends on toxin inhibition efficacy. In addition, antibodies to other C. difficile targets, such as surface-layer proteins, binary toxin, motility factors, and adherence and colonization factors, are introduced in this review. Keywords: antibody, Clostridium difficile, immunotherapy, toxin

  8. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  9. Generation of IgE-based immunotherapies against HER-2 overexpressing tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittelfelder, R.

    2010-01-01

    In combination with chemotherapy or radiation, passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies is state of the art in cancer therapy. For this purpose, two properties of antibodies are harnessed: i) via the Fab fragment they bind a specific tumour antigen and ii) via the Fc portion they recruit effector cells and activate the complement system. One of these antibodies is trastuzumab (Herceptin), a growth-inhibitory humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody recognizing the tumour antigen HER-2, which is overexpressed in 30% of human breast cancers. Interestingly, all antibodies applied for passive immunotherapy are so far exclusively of the IgG subclass. In contrast, antibodies of the IgE subclass are best-known for their detrimental function in type I hypersensitivity. It is little-known that IgE has anti-tumour capacity which could be exploited for immunotherapy of cancer. Thus, the aim of this doctoral thesis was to examine alternative strategies for cancer treatment based on IgE antibodies, and to compare their efficacy with that of IgG. The oral immunization route is well suited for the induction of a Th2 immunity including high affine IgE responses to administered antigens. Therefore, the establishment of an IgE dependent food allergy model in mice is described, which we applied also for our cancer studies. When mice were fed with different concentrations of ovalbumin under concomitant anti-acid medication, an antigen-specific IgE induction in a Th2 environment could be achieved. This oral vaccination regimen was also used for feeding HER-2 mimotopes, i.e. epitope-mimics of the anti-HER-2 IgG antibody trastuzumab. Indeed, these mimotopes induced IgE antibodies recognizing the tumour antigen which were able to bind HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer cells and led to tumour cell lysis. Complementary to this active immunotherapeutic approach a trastuzumab-like IgE antibody for passive immunotherapy was constructed. We could show that this trastuzumab IgE exhibited the

  10. Single venom-based immunotherapy effectively protects patients with double positive tests to honey bee and Vespula venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Referring to individuals with reactivity to honey bee and Vespula venom in diagnostic tests, the umbrella terms “double sensitization” or “double positivity” cover patients with true clinical double allergy and those allergic to a single venom with asymptomatic sensitization to the other. There is no international consensus on whether immunotherapy regimens should generally include both venoms in double sensitized patients. Objective We investigated the long-term outcome of single venom-based immunotherapy with regard to potential risk factors for treatment failure and specifically compared the risk of relapse in mono sensitized and double sensitized patients. Methods Re-sting data were obtained from 635 patients who had completed at least 3 years of immunotherapy between 1988 and 2008. The adequate venom for immunotherapy was selected using an algorithm based on clinical details and the results of diagnostic tests. Results Of 635 patients, 351 (55.3%) were double sensitized to both venoms. The overall re-exposure rate to Hymenoptera stings during and after immunotherapy was 62.4%; the relapse rate was 7.1% (6.0% in mono sensitized, 7.8% in double sensitized patients). Recurring anaphylaxis was statistically less severe than the index sting reaction (P = 0.004). Double sensitization was not significantly related to relapsing anaphylaxis (P = 0.56), but there was a tendency towards an increased risk of relapse in a subgroup of patients with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests (P = 0.15). Conclusions Single venom-based immunotherapy over 3 to 5 years effectively and long-lastingly protects the vast majority of both mono sensitized and double sensitized Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Double venom immunotherapy is indicated in clinically double allergic patients reporting systemic reactions to stings of both Hymenoptera and in those with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests who have not reliably identified the

  11. Homing of radiolabelled recombinant interleukin-2 activated natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    A defined ascitic fibrosarcoma cell line obtained from the. Chittaranjan National Cancer Research Institute, Kolkata, was maintained in our laboratory by serial .... solid tumours by adoptive immunotherapy. Before NK cell adoptive immunotherapy was given, IL-2 therapy was carried out mainly to activate endogenous NK.

  12. Monitoring circulating gammadelta T cells in cancer patients to optimize gammadelta T cell-based immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Heinrich eOberg; Christian eKellner; Matthias ePeipp; Susanne eSebens; Sabine eAdam-Klages; Martin eGramatzki; Dieter eKabelitz; Daniela eWesch

    2014-01-01

    The success of gammadelta (gd) T cell-based immunotherapy, where the cytotoxic activity of circulating gd T lymphocytes is activated by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (n-BP), or possibly by bispecific antibodies or the combination of both, requires a profound knowledge of patients´ gd T cells. A possible influence of radio- or chemotherapy on gd T cells as well as their reported exhaustion after repetitive treatment with n-BP or their lack of response to various cancers can be easily det...

  13. One step purification of biological active human interleukin-2 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... Pharmacological importance of recombinant human interleukin-2 protein has increased the demand to establish effective ... Extracellular expression of mrhIL-2 in the culture supernatant was ~210 mg/L. Cell free culture .... bottomed micro plate (tissue culture grade) starting with 10 ng/ml in a volume of 100 ...

  14. Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy Treatment for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most malignant glioma and patients diagnosed with this disease had poor outcomes even treated with the combination of conventional treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Dendritic cells (DCs are the most powerful antigen presenting cells and DC-based vaccination has the potential to target and eliminate GBM cells and enhance the responses of these cells to the existing therapies with minimal damage to the healthy tissues around them. It can enhance recognition of GBM cells by the patients’ immune system and activate vast, potent, and long-lasting immune reactions to eliminate them. Therefore, this therapy can prolong the survival of GBM patients and has wide and bright future in the treatment of GBM. Also, the efficacy of this therapy can be strengthened in several ways at some degree: the manipulation of immune regulatory components or costimulatory molecules on DCs; the appropriate choices of antigens for loading to enhance the effectiveness of the therapy; regulation of positive regulators or negative regulators in GBM microenvironment.

  15. NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy: from basic biology to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yin, Jie; Li, Ting; Huang, Shan; Yan, Han; Leavenworth, JianMei; Wang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize and kill target cells independent of antigen specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, play pivotal roles in immune defence against tumors. However, tumor cells often acquire the ability to escape NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Thus, understanding mechanisms underlying regulation of NK cell phenotype and function within the tumor environment is instrumental for designing new approaches to improve the current cell-based immunotherapy. In this review, we elaborate the main biological features and molecular mechanisms of NK cells that pertain to regulation of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity. We further overview current clinical approaches regarding NK cell-based cancer therapy, including cytokine infusion, adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic NK cells, applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing NK cells and adoptive transfer of memory-like NK cells. With these promising clinical outcomes and fuller understanding the basic questions raised in this review, we foresee that NK cell-based approaches may hold great potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Immunotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Immunotherapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Immunotherapy What's in this article? ... Types of Immunotherapy Side Effects Outlook Print About Immunotherapy Immunotherapy, also known as targeted therapy or biotherapy, ...

  17. Strategies to Improve the Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian M. Hargadon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer that frequently metastasizes to vital organs, where it is often difficult to treat with traditional therapies such as surgery and radiation. In such cases of metastatic disease, immunotherapy has emerged in recent years as an exciting treatment option for melanoma patients. Despite unprecedented successes with immune therapy in the clinic, many patients still experience disease relapse, and others fail to respond at all, thus highlighting the need to better understand factors that influence the efficacy of antitumor immune responses. At the heart of antitumor immunity are dendritic cells (DCs, an innate population of cells that function as critical regulators of immune tolerance and activation. As such, DCs have the potential to serve as important targets and delivery agents of cancer immunotherapies. Even immunotherapies that do not directly target or employ DCs, such as checkpoint blockade therapy and adoptive cell transfer therapy, are likely to rely on DCs that shape the quality of therapy-associated antitumor immunity. Therefore, understanding factors that regulate the function of tumor-associated DCs is critical for optimizing both current and future immunotherapeutic strategies for treating melanoma. To this end, this review focuses on advances in our understanding of DC function in the context of melanoma, with particular emphasis on (1 the role of immunogenic cell death in eliciting tumor-associated DC activation, (2 immunosuppression of DC function by melanoma-associated factors in the tumor microenvironment, (3 metabolic constraints on the activation of tumor-associated DCs, and (4 the role of the microbiome in shaping the immunogenicity of DCs and the overall quality of anti-melanoma immune responses they mediate. Additionally, this review highlights novel DC-based immunotherapies for melanoma that are emerging from recent progress in each of these areas of investigation, and it

  18. Strategies to Improve the Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Kristian M

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer that frequently metastasizes to vital organs, where it is often difficult to treat with traditional therapies such as surgery and radiation. In such cases of metastatic disease, immunotherapy has emerged in recent years as an exciting treatment option for melanoma patients. Despite unprecedented successes with immune therapy in the clinic, many patients still experience disease relapse, and others fail to respond at all, thus highlighting the need to better understand factors that influence the efficacy of antitumor immune responses. At the heart of antitumor immunity are dendritic cells (DCs), an innate population of cells that function as critical regulators of immune tolerance and activation. As such, DCs have the potential to serve as important targets and delivery agents of cancer immunotherapies. Even immunotherapies that do not directly target or employ DCs, such as checkpoint blockade therapy and adoptive cell transfer therapy, are likely to rely on DCs that shape the quality of therapy-associated antitumor immunity. Therefore, understanding factors that regulate the function of tumor-associated DCs is critical for optimizing both current and future immunotherapeutic strategies for treating melanoma. To this end, this review focuses on advances in our understanding of DC function in the context of melanoma, with particular emphasis on (1) the role of immunogenic cell death in eliciting tumor-associated DC activation, (2) immunosuppression of DC function by melanoma-associated factors in the tumor microenvironment, (3) metabolic constraints on the activation of tumor-associated DCs, and (4) the role of the microbiome in shaping the immunogenicity of DCs and the overall quality of anti-melanoma immune responses they mediate. Additionally, this review highlights novel DC-based immunotherapies for melanoma that are emerging from recent progress in each of these areas of investigation, and it discusses current

  19. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Brian I; McDermott, David F; Hammers, Hans; Bro, William; Bukowski, Ronald M; Faba, Bernard; Faba, Jo; Figlin, Robert A; Hutson, Thomas; Jonasch, Eric; Joseph, Richard W; Leibovich, Bradley C; Olencki, Thomas; Pantuck, Allan J; Quinn, David I; Seery, Virginia; Voss, Martin H; Wood, Christopher G; Wood, Laura S; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has produced durable clinical benefit in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). In the past, patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have achieved complete responses, many of which have lasted for multiple decades. More recently, a large number of new agents have been approved for RCC, several of which attack tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR), as well as tumor metabolism, inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Additionally, a new class of immunotherapy agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, is emerging and will play a significant role in the treatment of patients with RCC. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force, which met to consider the current role of approved immunotherapy agents in RCC, to provide guidance to practicing clinicians by developing consensus recommendations and to set the stage for future immunotherapeutic developments in RCC.

  20. Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy of Breast Cancer: Modulation by CpG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baar, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    ... in the United States in 2004. Thus, patients with MBC who fail conventional therapies are candidates for clinical trials using novel therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DC...

  1. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham

    2018-01-01

    immunotherapy, has been informed by a formal systematic review and meta-analysis and produced using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) approach. The process included representation from a range of stakeholders. Venom immunotherapy is indicated in venom allergic children...... practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article...

  2. Should high-dose interleukin-2 still be the preferred treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert O; Barth, Neil M; VanderMolen, Louis A; Mahdavi, Khosrow; McClure, Stephanie E

    2012-08-01

    For more than 20 years interleukin-2 (IL2) was the preferred treatment for medically fit metastatic melanoma patients, but recently two new agents, ipilimumab and vemurafenib, were approved for stage IV disease. Single-institution data were used to determine the long-term survival rate for IL2-treated melanoma patients, and whether use of inpatient IL2 had declined recently. Between May 1987 and April 2010, 150 patients were hospitalized for high-dose, intravenous (i.v.) IL2. The average number of IL2 patients increased from 5.4 per year during 1987-1991 to 5.8 during 1992-1997 after regulatory approval of IL2, to 8.3 during 1998-2006 after a marketing indication in metastatic melanoma was granted, but dropped to 3.0 during 2007-2010. At the time of treatment, median age was 52 years; 27% were 60 years of age or older. At the time of analysis 122 patients were deceased. Median survival from the start date of IL2 treatment was 15.6 months, with a 20% 5-year survival. Among patients enrolled in clinical trials, there were as many nonresponders who survived 5 years as responders, which is consistent with a delayed immunotherapy benefit. In the absence of long-term survival data for these newer agents, IL2 probably should still be the preferred initial treatment for most patients with metastatic melanoma who are medically fit.

  3. Systemic nickel allergy: oral desensitization and possible role of cytokines interleukins 2 and 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, L; Carni, A; Loschiavo, G; Gangemi, S; Tigano, V; Arena, E; Mannucci, C; Calapai, G

    2013-01-01

    Nickel ingested with food can elicit either systemic cutaneous or gastrointestinal symptoms causing a systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS) that can be treated with tolerance by oral ingestion of the metal. It has been suggested that interleukins 2 (IL-2) and 10 (IL-10) are involved in the mechanisms underlying oral tolerance. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of oral desensitization therapy in SNAS consisting in the administration of nickel sulphate. Because nickel allergy prevalently affects women, only female subjects (N = 22) were recruited. Oral nickel desensitizing therapy was associated with low-nickel diet for three months. Before and after therapy, clinical conditions were evaluated, and circulating cytokines IL-2 and IL-10 were measured. After the two-year treatment, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for symptoms were significantly reduced (P less than 0.001). Patients were released by either cutaneous or gastrointestinal symptoms and by tolerating nickel-containing food. At the end of the treatment, nickel oral challenge test was negative in 18 patients, and IL-2 level in the serum was significantly reduced while IL-10 was increased, although this datum was not statistically significant. Our study confirms the clinical efficacy of nickel oral immunotherapy and focuses on the mechanisms triggered by oral tolerance indicating that reduction of IL-2 can be associated with success of oral nickel desensitizing therapy.

  4. Integrating signals from the T-cell receptor and the interleukin-2 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Beyer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response, making them targets for immunotherapy. Although immunosuppressive therapies prevent disease progression, they also leave patients susceptible to opportunistic infections. To identify novel drug targets, we established a logical model describing T-cell receptor (TCR signaling. However, to have a model that is able to predict new therapeutic approaches, the current drug targets must be included. Therefore, as a next step we generated the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R signaling network and developed a tool to merge logical models. For IL-2R signaling, we show that STAT activation is independent of both Src- and PI3-kinases, while ERK activation depends upon both kinases and additionally requires novel PKCs. In addition, our merged model correctly predicted TCR-induced STAT activation. The combined network also allows information transfer from one receptor to add detail to another, thereby predicting that LAT mediates JNK activation in IL-2R signaling. In summary, the merged model not only enables us to unravel potential cross-talk, but it also suggests new experimental designs and provides a critical step towards designing strategies to reprogram T cells.

  5. Immunomodulation with CD40 Stimulation and Interleukin-2 Protects Mice from Disseminated Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Gault, Ruth A.; Kozel, Thomas R.; Murphy, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous fungus that can cause life-threatening infections during immunosuppressive states such as AIDS and after bone marrow transplantation. In this study we investigated the antifungal efficacy of an agonist antibody to CD40, an important costimulator of immune function, in combination with interleukin 2 (IL-2) in a murine model of disseminated cryptococcosis. Only the combination of anti-CD40 and IL-2 significantly prolonged the survival time of infected mice. This protection was correlated with decreased yeast burdens in the brain and kidney. Increased immune cell populations in the spleens, as well as increased serum gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were observed in infected mice treated with anti-CD40 and IL-2. Further experiments with IFN-γ knockout mice demonstrated that the protection induced by anti-CD40 and IL-2 treatment was dependent on IFN-γ. Depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect the increased serum IFN-γ levels induced by anti-CD40 and IL-2 treatment and, importantly, did not affect the antifungal effect of combination therapy. These studies indicate that immunotherapy using anti-CD40 and IL-2 has therapeutic potential in augmenting host resistance to disseminated cryptococcosis and that IFN-γ is essential for efficacy. PMID:16552046

  6. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  7. Construction and characterization in vitro of a bicistronic retroviral vector coding endostatin and interleukin-2 for use in gene therapy; Construcao e caracterizacao in vitro de um vetor retroviral bicistronico codificando endostatina e interleucina-2 para utilizacao em terapia genica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Fernanda Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    Gene therapy has been used in preclinical studies and clinical trials in order to alleviate or cure a disease. Retroviral vectors are a tool for gene transfer is widely used. Bicistronic vectors are an attractive alternative for treatment of complex diseases. A variety of options exists to simultaneously express two genes in genetically modified cells. The most common approach relies on bicistronic vectors in which the genes are linked to each other by an internal ribosome entry site allowing co-translational expression of both cistrons. Endostatin, the C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII, is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. At present, ES has been widely used in anti-angiogenic in a variety of experimental tumor models, and clinical trials to test it as an anti-tumor agent are already under way. Immunotherapy has been used as adjuvant treatment for tumors and has been used in several preclinical studies and clinical trials. The objective of this project was to construct and characterize 'in vitro' an IRES-based bicistronic retroviral vector encoding endostatin and interleukin-2. The construction of the vector was performed in three stages, the final construction was analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. Packaging cells were prepared. The endostatin and interleukin-2 levels were determined by Dot blot. Monocistronic and bicistronic mRNA expression were analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Bicistronic vector showed high levels of virus trites, ranging from 4.20x10{sup 5} to 1.53x10{sup 6}UFC/ml. Secreted levels of endostatin and interleukin-2 ranged from 1.08 to 2.08{mu}g/10{sup 6}cells.24h and 0.66 - 0.89{mu}g/10{sup 6}cells.24h, respectively. The mRNA expression of ES in the NIH3T3 clone pLend-IRES-IL2SN was 2 times higher than the level presented by the NIH3T3 clone pLendSN. The endostatin promoted inhibition (40%) of endothelial cell proliferation. Interleukin-2 promoted a proliferation of 10.6% lymphocytes CD4 and 8.9% of CD8. We conclude that

  8. Intratumoral Injection of an Adenovirus Expressing Interleukin 2 Induces Regression and Immunity in a Murine Breast Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Christina L.; Braciak, Todd; Ralston, Robert; Muller, William J.; Gauldie, Jack; Graham, Frank L.

    1995-08-01

    Rodent tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) or IL-4 are rejected by syngeneic recipients due to an enhanced antitumor host immune response. An adenovirus vector (AdCAIL-2) containing the human IL-2 gene has been constructed and shown to direct secretion of high levels of human IL-2 in infected tumor cells. AdCAIL-2 induces regression of tumors in a transgenic mouse model of mammary adenocarcinoma following intratumoral injection. Elimination of existing tumors in this way results in immunity against a second challenge with tumor cells. These findings suggest that adenovirus vectors expressing cytokines may form the basis for highly effective immunotherapies of human cancers.

  9. New targets for immunotherapy-based treatment of HPV-related cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at the Center for Cancer Research and three other cancer research institutions show that immunotherapy treatments that resulted in complete regression of metastatic cervical cancer largely targeted two non-viral antigens. Read more…  

  10. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H

    2009-01-01

    . The SILCAAT study involved six cycles and a dose of 4.5 million IU of interleukin-2 twice daily; ESPRIT involved three cycles and a dose of 7.5 million IU twice daily. Additional cycles were recommended to maintain the CD4+ cell count above predefined target levels. The primary end point of both studies...... receiving antiretroviral therapy alone--by 53 and 159 cells per cubic millimeter, on average, in the SILCAAT study and ESPRIT, respectively. Hazard ratios for opportunistic disease or death from any cause with interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy (vs. antiretroviral therapy alone) were 0.91 (95......% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.18; P=0.47) in the SILCAAT study and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.16; P=0.55) in ESPRIT. The hazard ratios for death from any cause and for grade 4 clinical events were 1.06 (P=0.73) and 1.10 (P=0.35), respectively, in the SILCAAT study and 0.90 (P=0.42) and 1.23 (P=0...

  11. Natural Killer Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapies: From Immune Evasion to Promising Targeted Cellular Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard Hofer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapies based on natural killer (NK cells are among the most promising therapies under development for the treatment of so far incurable forms of leukemia and other types of cancer. The importance of NK cells for the control of viral infections and cancer is supported among others by the findings that viruses and tumors use a multitude of mechanisms to subvert and evade the NK cell system. Infections and malignant diseases can further lead to the shaping of NK cell populations with altered reactivity. Counter measures of potential therapeutic impact include the blocking of inhibitory interactions between NK cell receptors and their cellular ligands, the enhancement of activating receptor signals, and the infusion of large numbers of ex vivo generated and selected NK cells. Moreover, the specific cross-linking of NK cells to their target cells using chimeric antigen receptors or therapeutic bi-/trispecific antibody reagents is a promising approach. In this context, NK cells stand out by their positive effects and safety demonstrated in most clinical trials so far. Based in part on results of the recent EC-sponsored project “NATURIMMUN” and considering additional published work in the field, we discuss below new developments and future directions that have the potential to further advance and establish NK cell-based therapies at the clinics on a broader scale.

  12. Natural Killer Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapies: From Immune Evasion to Promising Targeted Cellular Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Erhard; Koehl, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapies based on natural killer (NK) cells are among the most promising therapies under development for the treatment of so far incurable forms of leukemia and other types of cancer. The importance of NK cells for the control of viral infections and cancer is supported among others by the findings that viruses and tumors use a multitude of mechanisms to subvert and evade the NK cell system. Infections and malignant diseases can further lead to the shaping of NK cell populations with altered reactivity. Counter measures of potential therapeutic impact include the blocking of inhibitory interactions between NK cell receptors and their cellular ligands, the enhancement of activating receptor signals, and the infusion of large numbers of ex vivo generated and selected NK cells. Moreover, the specific cross-linking of NK cells to their target cells using chimeric antigen receptors or therapeutic bi-/trispecific antibody reagents is a promising approach. In this context, NK cells stand out by their positive effects and safety demonstrated in most clinical trials so far. Based in part on results of the recent EC-sponsored project "NATURIMMUN" and considering additional published work in the field, we discuss below new developments and future directions that have the potential to further advance and establish NK cell-based therapies at the clinics on a broader scale.

  13. An Endogenous Vaccine Based on Fluorophores and Multivalent Immunoadjuvants Regulates Tumor Micro-Environment for Synergistic Photothermal and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Suleixin; Song, Linjiang; Zeng, Yan; He, Tao; Wang, Ning; Yu, Chuan; Yin, Tao; Liu, Li; Wei, Xiawei; Wu, Qinjie; Wei, Yuquan; Yang, Li; Gong, Changyang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, near-infrared (NIR) light-based photothermal therapy (PTT) has been widely applied in cancer treatment. However, in most cases, the tissue penetration depth of NIR light is not sufficient and thus photothermal therapy is unable to completely eradicate deep, seated tumors inevitably leading to recurrence of the tumor. Due to this significant limitation of NIR, improved therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Methods: We developed an endogenous vaccine based on a novel nanoparticle platform for combinatorial photothermal ablation and immunotherapy. The design was based on fluorophore-loaded liposomes (IR-7-lipo) coated with a multivalent immunoadjuvant (HA-CpG). In vitro PTT potency was assessed in cells by LIVE/DEAD and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays. The effect on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) maturation and antigen presentation was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM) with specific antibodies. After treatment, the immune cell populations in tumor micro-environment and the cytokines in the serum were detected by FCM and Elisa assay, respectively. Finally, the therapeutic outcome was investigated in an animal model. Results: Upon irradiation with 808 nm laser, IR-7-lipo induced tumor cell necrosis and released tumor-associated antigens, while the multivalent immunoadjuvant improved the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on BMDC and promoted antigen presentation. The combination therapy of PTT and immunotherapy regulated the tumor micro-environment, decreased immunosuppression, and potentiated host antitumor immunity. Most significantly, due to an enhanced antitumor immune response, combined photothermal immunotherapy was effective in eradicating tumors in mice and inhibiting tumor metastasis. Conclusion: This endogenous vaccination strategy based on synergistic photothermal and immunotherapy may provide a potentially effective approach for treatment of cancers, especially those difficult to be surgically removed.

  14. Natural killer cell dysfunction in hepatocellular carcinoma and NK cell-based immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Sun, Hao-yu; Xiao, Wei-hua; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms linking hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unknown. Natural killer (NK) cells account for 25%–50% of the total number of liver lymphocytes, suggesting that NK cells play an important role in liver immunity. The number of NK cells in the blood and tumor tissues of HCC patients is positively correlated with their survival and prognosis. Furthermore, a group of NK cell-associated genes in HCC tissues is positively associated with the prolonged survival. These facts suggest that NK cells and HCC progression are strongly associated. In this review, we describe the abnormal NK cells and their functional impairment in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection, which contribute to the progression of HCC. Then, we summarize the association of NK cells with HCC based on the abnormalities in the numbers and phenotypes of blood and liver NK cells in HCC patients. In particular, the exhaustion of NK cells that represents lower cytotoxicity and impaired cytokine production may serve as a predictor for the occurrence of HCC. Finally, we present the current achievements in NK cell immunotherapy conducted in mouse models of liver cancer and in clinical trials, highlighting how chemoimmunotherapy, NK cell transfer, gene therapy, cytokine therapy and mAb therapy improve NK cell function in HCC treatment. It is conceivable that NK cell-based anti-HCC therapeutic strategies alone or in combination with other therapies will be great promise for HCC treatment. PMID:26073325

  15. Oral Immunotherapy With Partially Hydrolyzed Wheat-Based Cereals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lauener

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, only few studies have assessed oral immunotherapy (OIT for wheat allergy and often describe severe adverse reactions during therapy. We developed partially hydrolyzed wheat-based cereals (pHC, which were used in a multicenter, open-label, OIT pilot study, in immunoglobulin E–mediated wheat allergy children (NCT01332084. The primary objective of the study was to test whether wheat allergic patients tolerate pHC and primary end point was the presence or not of immediate adverse reactions to pHC during the 1-day initial escalation phase (stepwise increased doses of pHC, with evaluation of the maximum dose tolerated. Of the 9 patients enrolled in the trial, 4 discontinued OIT because of mild to severe reactions at the initial escalation phase. The 5 patients who passed the escalation phase consumed pHC daily for 1 to 6 months. One of these patients withdrew due to noncompliance, whereas the 4 others completed the study and successfully passed the wheat challenge test at the end of the study. About 60% of the adverse events were unrelated to the study product. Our study provides preliminary evidence that pHC is tolerated by a subset of wheat allergic patients. Further studies are warranted to test its efficacy as a potential therapeutic option for wheat allergic patients.

  16. Dosing of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: evidence-based review with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Bryan D; Khalid, Ayesha; Lee, Stella; McMains, Kevin; Peltier, Jacques; Platt, Michael P; Stachler, Robert J; Toskala, Elina; Tropper, Guy; Venkatraman, Giri; Lin, Sandra Y

    2015-09-01

    Since the mid 1980s, the clinical use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has dramatically increased. However, 1 of the primary barriers to providing SLIT is lack of a published dosing recommendations. The purpose of this work is to provide a range of effective SLIT dosing based upon a rigorous review of the existing evidence base. An appendix with SLIT dosing recommendations is also included. A comprehensive search of the past 25 years of the medical literature using PubMed was performed for specific antigens. Inclusion criteria for articles included: randomized, placebo-controlled studies of SLIT, studies with clinical allergic rhinitis outcomes, and dosing units available to determine the micrograms per month of major allergen administered. The extracted data was used to compile a range of effective SLIT dosing for individual antigens. Seventy-five articles met the inclusion criteria, providing a range of effective dosing for some allergens. There was commonly a wide range in doses for particular antigens between the individual studies. For some antigens, there was significant overlap in dosage amount between studies showing efficacy and lack of efficacy. Clinical trials meeting inclusion criteria are not available for many allergens. This study provided a comprehensive review of the published sublingual dosing ranges for specific antigens. The review provided a range of effective sublingual doses for some allergens, whereas for other allergens there was insufficient published data to determine specific doses. Recommendations for SLIT dosing were produced based on the data revealed in the review and expert opinion. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  17. Anti-metastatic immunotherapy based on mucosal administration of flagellin and immunomodulatory P10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Filipe M; Braga, Catarina J M; Pereira, Felipe V; Maricato, Juliana T; Origassa, Clarice S T; Souza, Mariana F; Melo, Amanda C; Silva, Priscila; Tomaz, Samanta L; Gimenes, Karina P; Scutti, Jorge A B; Juliano, Maria A; Zamboni, Dario S; Câmara, Niels O; Travassos, Luiz R; Ferreira, Luis C S; Rodrigues, Elaine G

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies against malignant melanoma generally fail to increase survival in most patients, and immunotherapy is a promising approach as it could reduce the dosage of toxic therapeutic drugs. In the present study, we show that an immunotherapeutic approach based on the use of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5 ligand flagellin (Salmonella Typhimurium FliCi) combined with the major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted P10 peptide, derived from the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis gp43 major surface protein, reduced the number of lung metastasis in a murine melanoma model. Compounds were administered intranasally into C57Bl/6 mice intravenously challenged with syngeneic B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells, aiming at the local (pulmonary) immune response modulation. Along with a marked reduction in the number of lung nodules, a significant increase in survival was observed. The immunization regimen induced both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Lung macrophages were polarized towards a M1 phenotype, lymph node cells, and splenocytes secreted higher interleukin-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels when re-stimulated with tumor antigens. The protective effect of the FliCi+P10 formulation required TLR-5, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and IFN-γ expression, but caspase-1 knockout mice were only partially protected, suggesting that intracellular flagellin receptors are not involved with the anti-tumor effect. The immune therapy resulted in the activation of tumor-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which conferred protection to metastatic melanoma growth after adoptive transfer. Taken together, our results report a new immunotherapeutic approach based on TLR-5 activation and IFN-γ production capable to control the metastatic growth of B16F10-Nex2 melanoma, being a promising alternative to be associated with chemotherapeutic drugs for an effective anti-tumor responses.

  18. Innate immunity based cancer immunotherapy: B16-F10 murine melanoma model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caisová, V.; Vieru, A.; Kumžáková, Z.; Glaserová, S.; Husniková, H.; Vácová, N.; Krejčová, G.; Paďouková, L.; Jochmanová, I.; Wolf, K. I.; Chmelař, J.; Kopecký, Jan; Ženka, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 940. ISSN 1471-2407 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cancer immunotherapy * innate immunity * melanoma * neutrophils * resiquimod * mannan * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.288, year: 2016

  19. Structure-function relationships for the interleukin 2 receptor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Robb

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptors for interleukin 2 (IL-2 esit in at least three forms which differ in their subunit compositio, their affinity for ligand and their ability to mediate a cellular reponse. Type I receptors occur following cellular acitivation and consist of the 55,000 m. w. glycoprotein Tac. These receptors bind IL-2 with a low affinity, do not internalize ligand and have not been definitively associated with any response. Type II receptors, on the other hand, conssit of one or more glycoproteins of 70,000 m. w. which have been termed "beta ([beta] chains." They bind IL-2 with an intermediate affinity and rapidly internalize the ligand. [Beta] proteins mediate many cellular IL-2-dependent reponses, including the short-term activation of natural killer cells and the induction of Tac protein expression. Type III receptors consist of a ternary complex of the Tac protein, the [beta] chain(s and IL-2. They are characterized by a paricularly high affinity for ligand association. Type III receptors also internalize ligand and mediate IL-2-dependent responses at low factor concentrations. The identification of two independent IL-2-binding molecules, Tac and [beta], thus provides the elusive molecular explanation for the differences in IL-2 receptor affinity and suggests the potential for selective therapeutic manipulation of IL-2 reponses.

  20. Sarcoma Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouw, Launce G., E-mail: launce.gouw@hsc.utah.edu [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Jones, Kevin B. [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Randall, R. Lor [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis.

  1. Regulatory T Cells As Supporters of Psychoimmune Resilience: Toward Immunotherapy of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ellul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a role in major depressive disorder (MDD. As the main role of regulatory T cells (Tregs is to control inflammation, this might denote a Treg insufficiency in MDD. However, neither a qualitative nor a quantitative defect of Tregs has been ascertained and no causality direction between inflammation and depression has been established. Here, after reviewing the evidence supporting a relation between Treg insufficiency and MDD, we conclude that a novel therapeutic approach based on Treg stimulation could be valuable in at least the subset of patients with inflammatory MDD. Low-dose interleukin-2 appears to be a good candidate as it is not only a safe stimulator of Tregs in humans but also an inhibitor of pro-inflammatory Th17 lymphocytes. Here, we discuss that a thorough immune investigation as well as immunotherapy will be heuristic for deciphering the pathophysiology of MDD.

  2. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    1. Renal haemodynamics, lithium and sodium clearance were measured in 14 patients treated with recombinant interleukin-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Patients were studied before and after 72 h of continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2 (18x10(6) i.u..24 h-1.m-2...

  3. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  4. [Specific immunotherapy in allergic asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, K-Ch

    2003-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways considered as the result of a deregulated immune response, with a pivotal role played the TH2 cytokine phenotype. The treatment of allergic asthma is based on allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy, allergen-specific immunotherapy, and patient education. Specific immunotherapy is able to normalize the upraised TH2 cytokine phenotype and indicated for patients who have demonstrable evidence of IgE-mediated clinically relevant sensitisation to pollens, house-dust mites and cat or dog allergens. The exposure to the allergens must be related to the appearance of symptoms. Randomised controlled trials in asthma have found that immunotherapy was effective (evidence 1a, strength of recommendation A) in reducing specific and non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity, asthmatic symptoms, and medication requirements. Patient selection is important and efficacy must be balanced against the risk of side effects. Immunotherapy should be used by pneumologists with a training in allergology in patients with mild asthma.

  5. Bacteriolytic Activity Of Human Interleukin-2, Chicken Egg Lysozyme In The Presence Of Potential Effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Levashov, P. A.; Matolygina, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, E. D.; Atroshenko, D. L.; Savin, S. S.; Belogurova, N. G.; Smirnov, S. A.; Tishkov, V. I.; Levashov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and chicken egg lysozyme in the presence of various substances has been studied. Glycine and lysine do not affect the activity of interleukin-2 but increase that of lysozyme, showing a bell-shape concentration dependence peaking at 1.5 mM glycine and 18 mM lysine. Arginine and glutamate activate both interleukin-2 and lysozyme with a concentration dependence of the saturation type. Aromatic amino acids have almost no effect on the activity of both i...

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. Canonica (Giorgio Walter); L. Cox (Linda); R. Pawankar (Ruby); C.E. Baena-Cagnani (Carlos); M.S. Blaiss (Michael); S. Bonini (Sergio); J. Bousquet (Jean); M. Calderon (Moises); E. Compalati (Enrico); S.R. Durham (Stephen); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); D. Larenas-Linnemann (Désirée); H. Nelson (Harold); G. Passalacqua (Giovanni); O. Pfaar (Oliver); K. Rosario (Karyna); D. Ryan (Dermot); L. Rosenwasser (Lanny); P. Schmid-Grendelmeier (Peter); G.E. Senna (Gianenrico); E. Valovirta (Erkka); H.P. van Bever (Hugo); P. Vichyanond (Pakit); U. Wahn (Ulrich); O.M. Yusuf (Osman)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe have prepared this document, "Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update", according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, "Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position

  7. Interleukin- 2 production during murine infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Barral-Netto

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly susceptible BALB/c mice, resistant C57B1/6 and their F1 progeny (BDF1 were infected subcutaneously in the foot pad with Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis. At various times after infection, spleen or draining popliteal lymph node cells were assayed for their capacity to generate Interleukin-2 (I1-2 by Concanavalin A (ConA stimulation. In both BALB/c and C57B1/6 strains there was a transient increase in their capacity to produce I1-2, from the 3rd to the 10th week post-infection. Return to pre-infection levels ocurred between 13th to 16th week post-infection in all three strains. BALB/c mice always produced higher titers of 11-2 than C57B1/6, but such differences were statistically significant only at 3 and 10 weeks post-infection. BDF1 mice had titers similar to those observed in BALB/c mice. I1-2 production by ConA-stimulated lymph node cells was lower as compared to the spleen, but with a similar pattern among the three mice strains. Our data show that susceptibility to infection by l. mexicana amazonenesis is not associated with deficient ConA-stimulated I1-2 production.Camundongos BALB/c (susceptíveis, C57B1/6 (resistentes ou sua geração F1 (BDF foram infectados subcutaneamente na pata traseira com Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. Avaliamos, em diferentes períodos de infecção, a capacidade de células do baço ou de linfonodo poplíteo, de produzir Interleucina-2 (I1-2 em resposta à estimulação por Conconavalina A (ConA. Nos camundongos BALB/c e C57B1/6 observamos, da 3ª à 10ª semana pós-infecção transitória da capacidade de produzir I1-2. Da 13ª à 16ª semana pós-infecção houve um retorno dos níveis de produção pré-infecção. Camundongos BALB/c produziram títulos mais elevados de I2- que os C57B1/6, mas tais diferenças só foram estatisticamente significantes na 3ª e 10ª semanas pós-infecção. Camundongos BDF1 apresentaram títulos semelhantes aos dos BALB/c. Os níveis de I1-2 (estimulada por Con

  8. Potential use of [gammadelta] T cell-based vaccines in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Wajid A. Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is a fast advancing methodology involving one of two approaches: 1 compounds targeting immune checkpoints, and 2 cellular immunomodulators. The latter approach is still largely experimental and features in vitro generated, live immune effector cells or antigen-presenting cells (APC. [gammadelta] T cells are known for their efficient in vitro tumor killing activities. Consequently, many laboratories worldwide are currently testing the tumor killing function of [gammadelta] T cells in clinical trials. Reported benefits are modest; however, these studies have demonstrated that large [gammadelta] T cell infusions were well tolerated. Here, we discuss the potential of using human [gammadelta] T cells not as effector cells but as a novel cellular vaccine for treatment of cancer patients. Antigen-presenting [gammadelta] T cells do not require to home to tumor tissues but, instead, need to interact with endogenous, tumor-specific [alphabeta] T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Newly mobilised effector [alphabeta] T cells are then thought to overcome the immune blockade by creating proinflammatory conditions fit for effector T cell homing to and killing of tumor cells. Immunotherapy may include tumor antigen-loaded [gammadelta] T cells alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  9. Effect of antimalarial drugs on stimulation and interleukin 2 production of human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    Effect of pyrimethamine, an antimalarial antifolate, and of mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine, which belong to the quinoline group of antimalarials, on proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production of human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. Pyrimethamine at concentrations above therapeutic...

  10. Toll-like receptor expression and function in human dendritic cell subsets: implications for dendritic cell-based anti-cancer immunotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreibelt, G.; Tel, J.; Sliepen, K.H.; Benitez-Ribas, D.; Figdor, C.G.; Adema, G.J.; Vries, I.J.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are central players of the immune response. To date, DC-based immunotherapy is explored worldwide in clinical vaccination trials with cancer patients, predominantly with ex vivo-cultured monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs). However, the extensive culture period and compounds required

  11. P53-specific T cell responses in patients with malignant and benign ovarian tumors : Implications for p53 based immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Annechien; Leffers, Ninke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Sluiter, Wim; Hamming, Ineke; Klip, Harry; ten Hoor, Klaske; Esajas, Martha; van Oven, Magda; Drijfhout, Jan-Wouter; Platteel, Inge; Offringa, Rienk; Hollema, Harry; Melief, Kees; van der Burg, Sjoerd; van der Zee, Ate; Daemen, Toos; Nijman, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive treatment, 70% of the ovarian cancer patients will develop recurrent disease, emphasizing the need for new approaches such as immunotherapy. A promising antigenic target for immunotherapy in ovarian cancer is the frequently overexpressed p53 protein. The aim of the study was to

  12. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy induces transient clinical response in advanced rat fibrosarcoma - comparison with preventive anti-tumour vaccination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, A.; Pýcha, K.; Pajer, Petr; Špíšek, R.; Škába, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 119-125 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : dendritic cells * immunotherapy * cancer immunotherapy * chemotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2009

  13. Immunotherapy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenori Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have improved clinical outcomes of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas, the prognosis of patients has plateaued over these 20 years. Immunotherapies have shown the effectiveness for several types of advanced tumors. Immunotherapies, such as cytokine therapies, vaccinations, and adoptive cell transfers, have also been investigated for bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Cytokine therapies with interleukin-2 or interferons have limited efficacy because of their cytotoxicities. Liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE, an activator of the innate immune system, has been approved as adjuvant therapeutics in combination with conventional chemotherapy in Europe, which has improved the 5-year overall survival of patients. Vaccinations and transfer of T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors have shown some efficacy for sarcomas. Ipilimumab and nivolumab are monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit immune checkpoint mechanisms. These antibodies have recently been shown to be effective for patients with melanoma and also investigated for patients with sarcomas. In this review, we provide an overview of various trials of immunotherapies for bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and discuss their potential as adjuvant therapies in combination with conventional therapies.

  14. Analysis of aluminium in rat following administration of allergen immunotherapy using either aluminium or microcrystalline-tyrosine-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart A; Heath, Matthew D; Kramer, Matthias F; Skinner, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Investigation into the absorption, distribution and elimination of aluminium in rat after subcutaneous aluminium adjuvant formulation administration using ICP-MS is described. Assays were verified under the principles of a tiered approach. There was no evidence of systemic exposure of aluminium, in brain or in kidney. Extensive and persistent retention of aluminium at the dose site was observed for at least 180 days after administration. This is the first published work that has quantified aluminium adjuvant retention based on the quantity of aluminium delivered in a typical allergy immunotherapy course. The results indicate that the repeated administration of aluminium-containing adjuvants will likely contribute directly and significantly to an individual's body burden of aluminium.

  15. CDK5 A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    combination with immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint blockers, a prostate cancer vaccine , and other agents will be conducted and optimized...combination with immunotherapies, including immune checkpoint blockers, a prostate cancer vaccine , and other agents based on our findings in Specific...KEYWORDS: Prostate cancer, CDK5, immunotherapy, vaccine , tumor microenvironment 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? Major

  16. Interleukin 2-regulated in vitro antibody production following a single spinal manipulative treatment in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorczyk-Injeyan Julita A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our recent investigations have demonstrated that cell cultures from subjects, who received a single spinal manipulative treatment in the upper thoracic spine, show increased capacity for the production of the key immunoregulatory cytokine, interleukin-2. However, it has not been determined if such changes influence the response of the immune effector cells. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in the same subjects, spinal manipulation-related augmentation of the in vitro interleukin-2 synthesis is associated with the modulation of interleukin 2-dependent and/or interleukin-2-induced humoral immune response (antibody synthesis. Methods A total of seventy-four age and sex-matched healthy asymptomatic subjects were studied. The subjects were assigned randomly to: venipuncture control (n = 22, spinal manipulative treatment without cavitation (n = 25 or spinal manipulative treatment associated with cavitation (n = 27 groups. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from the subjects before (baseline and then at 20 minutes and 2 hours post-treatment. Immunoglobulin (antibody synthesis was induced in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by stimulation with conventional pokeweed mitogen or by application of human recombinant interleukin-2. Determinations of the levels of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M production in culture supernatants were performed by specific immunoassays. Results The baseline levels of immunoglobulin synthesis induced by pokeweed mitogen or human recombinant interleukin-2 stimulation were comparable in all groups. No significant changes in the production of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulins were observed during the post-treatment period in any of the study groups. In contrast, the production of interleukin-2 -induced immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M was significantly increased in cultures from subjects treated with spinal manipulation. At 20 min post

  17. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  18. Dendritic cell based PSMA immunotherapy for prostate cancer using a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Jill Williams

    Full Text Available Human prostate tumor vaccine and gene therapy trials using ex vivo methods to prime dendritic cells (DCs with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA have been somewhat successful, but to date the lengthy ex vivo manipulation of DCs has limited the widespread clinical utility of this approach. Our goal was to improve upon cancer vaccination with tumor antigens by delivering PSMA via a CD40-targeted adenovirus vector directly to DCs as an efficient means for activation and antigen presentation to T-cells. To test this approach, we developed a mouse model of prostate cancer by generating clonal derivatives of the mouse RM-1 prostate cancer cell line expressing human PSMA (RM-1-PSMA cells. To maximize antigen presentation in target cells, both MHC class I and TAP protein expression was induced in RM-1 cells by transduction with an Ad vector expressing interferon-gamma (Ad5-IFNγ. Administering DCs infected ex vivo with CD40-targeted Ad5-huPSMA, as well as direct intraperitoneal injection of the vector, resulted in high levels of tumor-specific CTL responses against RM-1-PSMA cells pretreated with Ad5-IFNγ as target cells. CD40 targeting significantly improved the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of Ad5-huPSMA encoding PSMA when combined with Ad5-IFNγ in the RM-1-PSMA model. These results suggest that a CD-targeted adenovirus delivering PSMA may be effective clinically for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Transient stimulatory effects on pituitary-thyroid axis in patients treated with interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, O; Winterhagen, T; Saller, B; Roggenbuck, U; Lehr, I; Philipp, T; Mann, K; Reinhardt, W

    2001-07-01

    It has been shown that various cytokine therapies may influence thyroid hormone parameters that may lead to serious side effects including nonthyroidal illness. Interleukin-2 is effective in increasing CD4-T cell numbers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and it is used in the treatment of various malignant tumours. However, the association of interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy and thyroid function is not clearly established as serial systematic measurements of thyroid parameters have not been performed with interleukin-2 as the sole therapeutic agent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to examine prospectively the impact of a 5-day interleukin-2 therapy on thyroid parameters in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Twenty male euthyroid patients (mean age, 42.6 +/- 3.2 years; body weight, 73.4 +/- 3.0 kg) received 9,000,000 IU/d interleukin-2. Thyroid function was evaluated by measurements of serum thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), reverse T3 (rT3), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and anti-thyroid-peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies from day 1-4 and on days 7, 14, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100. All results are given as mean +/- SD. On day 4, we observed a significant increase that was still within normal range of T4 and T3 (p thyroid axis. The increase of TSH suggests a central stimulation directed by the action of IL-2 as the major mechanism.

  20. EAACI Guidelines on allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajno, G. B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Arasi, S.

    2017-01-01

    . This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery......Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impairment of quality of life, and healthcare expenditure. There is therefore interest in novel strategies for its treatment, particularly food allergen immunotherapy (FA-AIT) through the oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), or epicutaneous (EPIT) routes...... with an extensive experience in FA-AIT. Patients and their families should be provided with information about the use of FA-AIT for IgE-mediated food allergy to allow them to make an informed decision about the therapy....

  1. Cancer testis antigen and immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnadas DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Kolaseri Krishnadas, Fanqi Bai, Kenneth G Lucas Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The identification of cancer testis (CT antigens has been an important advance in determining potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Multiple previous studies have shown that CT antigen vaccines, using both peptides and dendritic cell vaccines, can elicit clinical and immunologic responses in several different tumors. This review details the expression of melanoma antigen family A, 1 (MAGE-A1, melanoma antigen family A, 3 (MAGE-A3, and New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 (NY-ESO-1 in various malignancies, and presents our current understanding of CT antigen based immunotherapy. Keywords: cancer testis antigens, immunotherapy, vaccine

  2. Immunotherapy of tumor with vaccine based on basic fibroblast growth factor-activated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuying; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Yuwei; Yang, Hengxiu; Tong, Aiping; Zhao, Chengjian; Shi, Huashan; Li, Yang; Wang, Zhenlin; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-02-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts play a key role in tumor progression. It is conceivable that the breaking of immune tolerance of "self-antigens" associated with tumor cells and tumor stromal is an attractive approach for tumor immunotherapy. To test this concept, we used basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to activate normal fibroblasts and used these activated fibroblasts as one vaccine against tumor. Normal fibroblasts were treated with bFGF; their expressions of a-SMA and FAP were assessed by Western blot. We immunized mice with bFGF-activated fibroblasts. Auto-antibodies were assessed by flow cytometric and Western blot analysis. The deposition of auto-antibodies within the tumor tissues was assessed. The inhibition of proliferation of tumor cells and fibroblasts by purified immunoglobulins was investigated. The anti-tumor effects of purified immunoglobulins and lymphocytes of immunized mice were assessed. The bFGF-activated fibroblasts were effective in affording protection from tumor onset, growth, and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. The immunized sera exhibited positive staining for fibroblasts and tumor cells in FCAS and Western blot analysis. The purified immunoglobulins of immunized serum could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells and fibroblasts in vitro and had the anti-tumor activity in vivo. There was the deposition of auto-antibodies within the tumor tissues. Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes of immunized mice revealed that cellular immune response is also involved. The anti-tumor activity could be abrogated by the depletion of CD4(+), CD8(+) T lymphocytes and NK cells. In summary, bFGF-activated fibroblasts could induce an autoimmune response which was simultaneously against both cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor cells in a cross-reaction.

  3. Novel immunotherapy and treatment modality for severe food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Sakura; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many studies on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been conducted; however, few have focused on severe food allergies. The purpose of this review was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapies for patients with severe food allergy. We reviewed multiple immunotherapy reports published within a few years or reports focusing on severe food allergies. We also investigated recent studies on OIT and novel food allergy management. Immunotherapies targeting low-dose antigen exposure and oral food challenges using low-dose target volumes may be safer than conventional OIT. It is necessary to consider which immunotherapy regimen is appropriate based on allergy severity of the patient.

  4. Unsaturated fatty acids suppress interleukin-2 production and transferrin receptor expression by concanavalin A-stimulated rat Iymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, Philip C.; Newsholme, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The proliferation of T-lymphocytes is dependent upon their ability to synthesize and secrete the cytokine, interleukin-2, and to express cell surface receptors for interleukin-2 and transferrin. We have previously reported that certain fatty acids inhibit mitogen-stimulated T-lymphocyte proliferation. We now report that unsaturated fatty acids decrease the concentration of interleukin-2 in the culture medium of such cells by up to 45%. This suggests that unsaturated fatty acids inhibit lympho...

  5. Dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy evokes potent anti-tumor immune responses in CD105+ human renal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Weng, De-Sheng; Pan, Ke; Zhou, Zi-Qi; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Chang-Long; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Chang, Alfred E; Wicha, Max S; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapeutic agents; they are usually less sensitive to conventional cancer therapies, and could cause tumor relapse. An ideal therapeutic strategy would therefore be to selectively target and destroy CSCs, thereby preventing tumor relapse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with antigen derived from CD105+ human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) CSCs against renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified "stem-like" characteristics of CD105+ cells in two human RCC cell lines: A498 and SK-RC-39. Loading with cell lysates did not change the characteristics of the DCs. However, DCs loaded with lysates derived from CD105+ CSCs induced more functionally specific active T cells and specific antibodies against CSCs, and clearly depressed the tumor growth in mice. Our results could form the basis for a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for human RCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. N-(4-F-18-Fluorobenzoyl)Interleukin-2 for PET of Human-Activated T Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; De Vries, Erik F. J.

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) binds with high affinity to the IL2 receptors overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes in various pathologic conditions. Radiolabeling of IL2 with a positron-emitting isotope could provide a tool for noninvasive PET of activated T cells in immune-mediated diseases. We report the

  7. Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma by continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; Hermann, G G; von der Maase, H

    1992-01-01

    PURPOSE: A single-center phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) administered by continuous infusion to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with RCC were entered onto the study. rIL-2...

  8. Intratumoural interleukin-2 therapy can induce regression of non-resectable mastocytoma in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziekman, P.G.P.M; den Otter, W.; Tan, J.F.V.; Teske, E.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Koten, J.W.; Jacobs, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract AIM: Mast cell tumours (MCT) are common skin tumours in dogs. If complete surgical removal of the tumours is not possible, then another therapy is needed. In the current study we tested the therapeutic effect of intratumoural injection of interleukin-2 (IL-2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven

  9. Iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in metastatic hypernephroma : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, V.; Staelens, L.; Signore, A.; Van Belle, S.; Dierckx, R. A.; De Wiele, C. Van

    2007-01-01

    Aim This pilot study reports on the uptake of I-123-interleukin 2 (IL-2) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (MRCC) patients and its relationship to prognostic factors of response or failure of MRCC to cytokines treatment. Methods. Nine consecutive patients with MRCC underwent an I-123-IL-2 scan (6

  10. Renal haemodynamics, sodium and water reabsorption during continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; von der Maase, H; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1998-01-01

    /82) ml/min (P=0.04). The urinary excretion rate of thromboxane B2 and the ratio between excretion rates of thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1alpha increased by 98% (P=0.022) and 175% (P=0.022) respectively. 4. The study suggests a specific recombinant interleukin-2-induced renal vasoconstrictor...

  11. Delirium after interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon therapy for renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Steijn, JHM; Nieboer, P; Hospers, GAP; De Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH

    2001-01-01

    A 55-year-old man receiving alpha-interferon and interieukin-2 therapy for renal cell carcinoma presented with seizures and delirium. A CT-scan of the cerebrum did not reveal any disorder. Both alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 were stopped Treatment with steroids led to complete regression of

  12. Trends in Cancer Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of the immune system for therapeutic ends has a long history, stretching back to Edward Jenner?s use of cowpox to induce immunity to smallpox in 1796. Since then, immunotherapy, in the form of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, has enabled doctors to treat and prevent a variety of infectious diseases, including cholera, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles and mumps. Immunotherapy is now increasingly being applied to oncology. Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the power an...

  13. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses...... in allergic patients. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been approved, notably in the European Union, as an effective alternative to subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) for allergic rhinitis patients. Compared with SCIT, SLIT has a better safety profile. This is possibly because oral antigen...

  14. HLA-Bw4-I-80 Isoform Differentially Influences Clinical Outcome As Compared to HLA-Bw4-T-80 and HLA-A-Bw4 Isoforms in Rituximab or Dinutuximab-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Amy K; Wang, Wei; Reville, Patrick K; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Mendonca, Eneida A; Song, Yiqiang; Hank, Jacquelyn A; London, Wendy B; Naranjo, Arlene; Hong, Fangxin; Hogarty, Michael D; Maris, John M; Park, Julie R; Ozkaynak, M F; Miller, Jeffrey S; Gilman, Andrew L; Kahl, Brad; Yu, Alice L; Sondel, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of glycoproteins expressed primarily on natural killer cells that can regulate their function. Inhibitory KIRs recognize MHC class I molecules (KIR-ligands) as ligands. We have reported associations of KIRs and KIR-ligands for patients in two monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based trials: (1) A Children's Oncology Group (COG) trial for children with high-risk neuroblastoma randomized to immunotherapy treatment with dinutuximab (anti-GD2 mAb) + GM-CSF + IL-2 + isotretinion or to treatment with isotretinoin alone and (2) An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) trial for adults with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma responding to an induction course of rituximab (anti-CD20 mAb) and randomized to treatment with maintenance rituximab or no-maintenance rituximab. In each trial, certain KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes were associated with clinical benefit for patients randomized to immunotherapy treatment (immunotherapy in COG; maintenance rituximab in ECOG) as compared to patients that did not receive the immunotherapy [isotretinoin alone (COG); no-maintenance (ECOG)]. Namely, patients with both KIR3DL1 and its HLA-Bw4 ligand (KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype) had improved clinical outcomes if randomized to immunotherapy regimens, as compared to patients with the KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype randomized to the non-immunotherapy regimen. Conversely, patients that did not have the KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype showed no evidence of a difference in outcome if receiving the immunotherapy vs. no-immunotherapy. For each trial, HLA-Bw4 status was determined by assessing the genotypes of three separate isoforms of HLA-Bw4: (1) HLA-B-Bw4 with threonine at amino acid 80 (B-Bw4-T80); (2) HLA-B-Bw4 with isoleucine at amino acid 80 (HLA-B-Bw4-I80); and (3) HLA-A with a Bw4 epitope (HLA-A-Bw4). Here, we report on associations with clinical outcome for patients with KIR3DL1 and these separate isoforms of HLA-Bw4. Patients

  15. HLA-Bw4-I-80 Isoform Differentially Influences Clinical Outcome As Compared to HLA-Bw4-T-80 and HLA-A-Bw4 Isoforms in Rituximab or Dinutuximab-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K. Erbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of glycoproteins expressed primarily on natural killer cells that can regulate their function. Inhibitory KIRs recognize MHC class I molecules (KIR-ligands as ligands. We have reported associations of KIRs and KIR-ligands for patients in two monoclonal antibody (mAb-based trials: (1 A Children’s Oncology Group (COG trial for children with high-risk neuroblastoma randomized to immunotherapy treatment with dinutuximab (anti-GD2 mAb + GM-CSF + IL-2 + isotretinion or to treatment with isotretinoin alone and (2 An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG trial for adults with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma responding to an induction course of rituximab (anti-CD20 mAb and randomized to treatment with maintenance rituximab or no-maintenance rituximab. In each trial, certain KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes were associated with clinical benefit for patients randomized to immunotherapy treatment (immunotherapy in COG; maintenance rituximab in ECOG as compared to patients that did not receive the immunotherapy [isotretinoin alone (COG; no-maintenance (ECOG]. Namely, patients with both KIR3DL1 and its HLA-Bw4 ligand (KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype had improved clinical outcomes if randomized to immunotherapy regimens, as compared to patients with the KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype randomized to the non-immunotherapy regimen. Conversely, patients that did not have the KIR3DL1+/HLA-Bw4+ genotype showed no evidence of a difference in outcome if receiving the immunotherapy vs. no-immunotherapy. For each trial, HLA-Bw4 status was determined by assessing the genotypes of three separate isoforms of HLA-Bw4: (1 HLA-B-Bw4 with threonine at amino acid 80 (B-Bw4-T80; (2 HLA-B-Bw4 with isoleucine at amino acid 80 (HLA-B-Bw4-I80; and (3 HLA-A with a Bw4 epitope (HLA-A-Bw4. Here, we report on associations with clinical outcome for patients with KIR3DL1 and these separate isoforms of HLA-Bw4. Patients

  16. In Vivo Murine-Matured Human CD3+ Cells as a Preclinical Model for T Cell-Based Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Haworth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cellular immunotherapy is a promising and powerful method for the treatment of a broad range of malignant and infectious diseases. Although the concept of cellular immunotherapy was originally proposed in the 1990s, it has not seen successful clinical application until recent years. Despite significant progress in creating engineered receptors against both malignant and viral epitopes, no efficient preclinical animal models exist for rapidly testing and directly comparing these engineered receptors. The use of matured human T cells in mice usually leads to graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, which severely limits the effectiveness of such studies. Alternatively, adult apheresis CD34+ cells engraft in neonatal non-obese diabetic (NOD-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-common γ chain–/– (NSG mice and lead to the development of CD3+ T cells in peripheral circulation. We demonstrate that these in vivo murine-matured autologous CD3+ T cells from humans (MATCH can be collected from the mice, engineered with lentiviral vectors, reinfused into the mice, and detected in multiple lymphoid compartments at stable levels over 50 days after injection. Unlike autologous CD3+ cells collected from human donors, these MATCH mice did not exhibit GvHD after T cell administration. This novel mouse model offers the opportunity to screen different immunotherapy-based treatments in a preclinical setting.

  17. Immunotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Current and Future Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Rapidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC are at considerable risk for death, with 5-year relative survival rates of approximately 60%. The profound multifaceted deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity that persist in most patients after treatment may be related to the high rates of treatment failure and second primary malignancies. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy commonly have severe acute and long-term side effects on immune responses. The development of immunotherapies reflects growing awareness that certain immune system deficiencies specific to HNSCC and some other cancers may contribute to the poor long-term outcomes. Systemic cell-mediated immunotherapy is intended to activate the entire immune system and mount a systemic and/or locoregional antitumor response. The delivery of cytokines, either by single cytokines, for example, interleukin-2, interleukin-12, interferon-, interferon-, or by a biologic mix of multiple cytokines, such as IRX-2, may result in tumor rejection and durable immune responses. Targeted immunotherapy makes use of monoclonal antibodies or vaccines. All immunotherapies for HNSCC except cetuximab remain investigational, but a number of agents whose efficacy and tolerability are promising have entered phase 2 or phase 3 development.

  18. Leveraging natural killer cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2017-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are potent antitumor effector cells of the innate immune system. Based on their ability to eradicate tumors in vitro and in animal models, significant enthusiasm surrounds the prospect of leveraging human NK cells as vehicles for cancer immunotherapy. While interest in manipulating the effector functions of NK cells has existed for over 30 years, there is renewed optimism for this approach today. Although T cells receive much of the clinical and preclinical attention when it comes to cancer immunotherapy, new strategies are utilizing adoptive NK-cell immunotherapy and monoclonal antibodies and engineered molecules which have been developed to specifically activate NK cells against tumors. Despite the numerous challenges associated with the preclinical and clinical development of NK cell-based therapies for cancer, NK cells possess many unique immunological properties and hold the potential to provide an effective means for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Tc-99m-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in normal subjects and in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chianelli, M.; Mather, S. J.; Grossman, A.; Sobnak, R.; Fritzberg, A.; Britton, K. E.; Signore, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Radiolabelled interleukin-2 is a radiopharmaceutical used for the study of chronic inflammatory processes. I-123-labelled interleukin-2 has successfully been used in a large number of patients affected by several immune-mediated diseases. I-123, however, is expensive and not readily

  20. Novel antibody-based drugs for PD-L1 and TRAIL-R targeted cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Djoke

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy aims to destroy cancer cells using cells or molecules of the immune system. This can be achieved by either targeting cancer cells directly or by improving an ongoing anticancer immune response in the patient. It was recently discovered that cancer cells overexpress PD-L1 protein on

  1. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Keum-Joo; Choi, Ki Ryung; Lee, Seog Jae; Lee, Hyunah

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT(+) CD11c(+) cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy.

  2. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  3. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Bernard A; Schendel, Dolores J; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2011-01-01

    into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from...... companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed...... in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances...

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat upregulates interleukin-2 secretion in activated T cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Westendorp, M O; Li-Weber, M; Frank, R W; Krammer, P H

    1994-01-01

    Dysregulation of cytokines secreted by T cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS. To investigate the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat on interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression, we used IL-2 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs and IL-2-secreting Jurkat T cells as a model system. Transient expression of HIV-1 Tat induced a five- to eightfold increase in IL-2 promoter activity in Jurkat T cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and phorb...

  5. Interleukin-2 and STAT5 in regulatory T cell development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Shawn A.; Manlove, Luke S.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-2 and its downstream target STAT5 have effects on many aspects of immune function. This has been perhaps best documented in regulatory T cells. In this review we summarize the initial findings supporting a role for IL2 and STAT5 in regulatory T cell development and outline more recent studies describing how this critical signaling pathway entrains regulatory T cell differentiation and affects regulatory T cell function.

  6. Surface-Engineering of Red Blood Cells as Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells Promising for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Han, Xiao; Xu, Ligeng; Gao, Min; Xu, Jun; Yang, Rong; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-10-01

    The development of artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) to mimic the functions of APCs such as dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate T cells and induce antitumor immune responses has attracted substantial interests in cancer immunotherapy. In this work, a unique red blood cell (RBC)-based aAPC system is designed by engineering antigen peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex-I and CD28 activation antibody on RBC surface, which are further tethered with interleukin-2 (IL2) as a proliferation and differentiation signal. Such RBC-based aAPC-IL2 (R-aAPC-IL2) can not only provide a flexible cell surface with appropriate biophysical parameters, but also mimic the cytokine paracrine delivery. Similar to the functions of matured DCs, the R-aAPC-IL2 cells can facilitate the proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and increase the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. As a proof-of-concept, we treated splenocytes from C57 mice with R-aAPC-IL2 and discovered those splenocytes induced significant cancer-cell-specific lysis, implying that the R-aAPC-IL2 were able to re-educate T cells and induce adoptive immune response. This work thus presents a novel RBC-based aAPC system which can mimic the functions of antigen presenting DCs to activate T cells, promising for applications in adoptive T cell transfer or even in direct activation of circulating T cells for cancer immunotherapy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bernard A; Schendel, Dolores J; Butterfield, Lisa H; Aamdal, Steinar; Allison, James P; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Atkins, Michael B; Bartunkova, Jirina; Bergmann, Lothar; Berinstein, Neil; Bonorino, Cristina C; Borden, Ernest; Bramson, Jonathan L; Britten, Cedrik M; Cao, Xuetao; Carson, William E; Chang, Alfred E; Characiejus, Dainius; Choudhury, A Raja; Coukos, George; de Gruijl, Tanja; Dillman, Robert O; Dolstra, Harry; Dranoff, Glenn; Durrant, Lindy G; Finke, James H; Galon, Jerome; Gollob, Jared A; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Grizzi, Fabio; Guida, Michele; Håkansson, Leif; Hege, Kristen; Herberman, Ronald B; Hodi, F Stephen; Hoos, Axel; Huber, Christoph; Hwu, Patrick; Imai, Kohzoh; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Janetzki, Sylvia; June, Carl H; Kalinski, Pawel; Kaufman, Howard L; Kawakami, Koji; Kawakami, Yutaka; Keilholtz, Ulrich; Khleif, Samir N; Kiessling, Rolf; Kotlan, Beatrix; Kroemer, Guido; Lapointe, Rejean; Levitsky, Hyam I; Lotze, Michael T; Maccalli, Cristina; Maio, Michele; Marschner, Jens-Peter; Mastrangelo, Michael J; Masucci, Giuseppe; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelius; Murphy, William J; Nelson, Brad; Nicolini, Andrea; Nishimura, Michael I; Odunsi, Kunle; Ohashi, Pamela S; O'Donnell-Tormey, Jill; Old, Lloyd J; Ottensmeier, Christian; Papamichail, Michael; Parmiani, Giorgio; Pawelec, Graham; Proietti, Enrico; Qin, Shukui; Rees, Robert; Ribas, Antoni; Ridolfi, Ruggero; Ritter, Gerd; Rivoltini, Licia; Romero, Pedro J; Salem, Mohamed L; Scheper, Rik J; Seliger, Barbara; Sharma, Padmanee; Shiku, Hiroshi; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Song, Wenru; Straten, Per Thor; Tahara, Hideaki; Tian, Zhigang; van Der Burg, Sjoerd H; von Hoegen, Paul; Wang, Ena; Welters, Marij Jp; Winter, Hauke; Withington, Tara; Wolchok, Jedd D; Xiao, Weihua; Zitvogel, Laurence; Zwierzina, Heinz; Marincola, Francesco M; Gajewski, Thomas F; Wigginton, Jon M; Disis, Mary L

    2011-12-14

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  8. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  9. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  10. microRNA-Based Immunotherapy for Control of Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    an essential role in innate immunity against lung cancer but they can be compromised in the tumor microenvironment due to immunosuppressive factors...to develop miR-based therapeutics that restores NK cells, which are critical for early immune surveillance against lung cancer. What was...complex molecular technical training to clone and construct viral vectors and second in becoming proficient in all the immune assays required to

  11. Anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibodies—basiliximab and daclizumab—for the prevention of acute rejection in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichiro Sageshima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Junichiro Sageshima, Gaetano Ciancio, Linda Chen, George W Burke IIIDewitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Division of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, The Lillian Jean Kaplan Renal Transplant Center, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The use of antibody induction after kidney transplantation has increased from 25% to 63% in the past decade and roughly one half of the induction agent used is anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA, ie, basiliximab or daclizumab. When combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression, IL-2RAs have been shown to reduce the incidence of acute rejection, one of the predictors of poor graft survival, without increasing risks of infections and malignancies in kidney transplantation. For low-immunological-risk patients, IL-2RAs, as compared with lymphocyte-depleting antibodies, are equally efficacious and have better safety profiles. For high-risk patients, however, IL-2RAs may be inferior to lymphocyte-depleting antibodies for the prophylaxis of acute rejection. In an effort to reduce toxicities of other immunosuppressive medications without increasing the risk of acute rejection and chronic graft loss, IL-2RAs have often been combined with steroid- and CNI-sparing immunosuppression protocols. More data support the benefits of early steroid withdrawal with IL-2RA in low-risk patients, but preferred induction therapy for high-risk patients has yet to be determined. Although CNI-sparing protocols with IL-2RA may preserve renal function and improve long-term survival in selected patients, further studies are needed to identify those who benefit most from this strategy.Keywords: basiliximab, daclizumab, interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, kidney transplantation, monoclonal antibody

  12. Therapeutic Response in Patients with Advanced Malignancies Treated with Combined Dendritic Cell–Activated T Cell Based Immunotherapy and Intensity–Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasumi, Kenichiro; Aoki, Yukimasa; Watanabe, Ryuko; Hankey, Kim G.; Mann, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    Successful cancer immunotherapy is confounded by the magnitude of the tumor burden and the presence of immunoregulatory elements that suppress an immune response. To approach these issues, 26 patients with advanced treatment refractory cancer were enrolled in a safety/feasibility study wherein a conventional treatment modality, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), was combined with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. We hypothesized that radiation would lower the tumor burdens, decrease the number/function of regulatory cells in the tumor environment, and release products of tumor cells that could be acquired by intratumoral injected immature dendritic cells (iDC). Metastatic lesions identified by CT (computed tomography) were injected with autologous iDC combined with a cytokine-based adjuvant and KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin), followed 24 h later by IV-infused T-cells expanded with anti-CD3 and IL-2 (AT). After three to five days, each of the injected lesions was treated with fractionated doses of IMRT followed by another injection of intratumoral iDC and IV-infused AT. No toxicity was observed with cell infusion while radiation-related toxicity was observed in seven patients. Five patients had progressive disease, eight demonstrated complete resolution at treated sites but developed recurrent disease at other sites, and 13 showed complete response at various follow-up times with an overall estimated Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival of 345 days. Most patients developed KLH antibodies supporting our hypothesis that the co-injected iDC are functional with the capacity to acquire antigens from their environment and generate an adaptive immune response. These results demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of this multimodality strategy combining immunotherapy and IMRT in patients with advanced malignancies

  13. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Optimizing Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy: Tackling the Complexity of Different Arms of the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Brussel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier investigations have revealed a surprising complexity and variety in the range of interaction between cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Our understanding of the specialized roles of dendritic cell (DC subsets in innate and adaptive immune responses has been significantly advanced over the years. Because of their immunoregulatory capacities and because very small numbers of activated DC are highly efficient at generating immune responses against antigens, DCs have been vigorously used in clinical trials in order to elicit or amplify immune responses against cancer and chronic infectious diseases. A better insight in DC immunobiology and function has stimulated many new ideas regarding the potential ways forward to improve DC therapy in a more fundamental way. Here, we discuss the continuous search for optimal in vitro conditions in order to generate clinical-grade DC with a potent immunogenic potential. For this, we explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adequate immune responses and focus on most favourable DC culture regimens and activation stimuli in humans. We envisage that by combining each of the features outlined in the current paper into a unified strategy, DC-based vaccines may advance to a higher level of effectiveness.

  15. Immunotherapy compliance: comparison of subcutaneous versus sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Brittany A; Rotella, Melissa; Stillman, Leisa; DelGaudio, John M; Patel, Zara M; Wise, Sarah K

    2016-05-01

    Patient compliance is critical for successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Previous studies suggest that AIT compliance is worse outside of controlled clinical trials, with reported subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) noncompliance at 11% to 50% and 3% to 25%, respectively. A retrospective review of 384 AIT patients at a single, tertiary care otolaryngic allergy practice evaluated SCIT and SLIT compliance, based on treatment stage. SCIT compliance was defined as the number of 2-week breaks per year or in compliance with their defined schedule: excellent = 2 or fewer; good = 3 to 4; fair = 5 to 6; and poor = 7 or more. Compliance with SLIT was defined as the number of days vials were refilled within the defined expiration date: excellent = 10 days or fewer; good = 11 to 15 days, fair = 16 to 20 days; and poor = 25 or more days. Fisher exact and chi square tests were used for statistical analysis. Seventy-four SCIT and 200 SLIT patients had data appropriate for analysis. Compliance rates were excellent (62%) or good (22%) in 62 SCIT patients and excellent (31%) or good (35%) in 131 SLIT patients. Comparing excellent compliance rates, SCIT patients had a higher rate of excellent compliance at all stages of treatment compared to SLIT patients (p 0.05). The results of this study showed higher rates of patient adherence to treatment protocols among SCIT patients. There was no decrease in SCIT compliance rates across treatment stages. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy targeting Wilms' tumor 1 in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Maejima, Shinya; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Higuchi, Yumiko; Koya, Terutsugu; Ochiai, Takanaga; Koide, Masanori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Midori; Sugiyama, Haruo; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Masato; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is considered a potentially effective therapy against advanced cancer. The authors conducted a Phase I study to investigate the safety and immunomonitoring of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-pulsed DC vaccination therapy for patients with relapsed malignant glioma. WT1-pulsed and/or autologous tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccination therapy was performed in patients with relapsed malignant gliomas. Approximately 1 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(7) pulsed DCs loaded with WT1 peptide antigen and/or tumor lysate were intradermally injected into the axillary areas with OK-432, a streptococcal preparation, at 2-week intervals for at least 5-7 sessions (1 course) during an individual chemotherapy regimen. Ten patients (3 men, 7 women; age range 24-64 years [median 39 years]) with the following tumors were enrolled: glioblastoma (6), anaplastic astrocytoma (2), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (1), and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (1). Modified WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccine was administered to 7 patients, tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine to 2 patients, and both tumor lysate-pulsed and WT1-pulsed DC vaccine to 1 patient. The clinical response was stable disease in 5 patients with WT1-pulsed DC vaccination. In 2 of 5 patients with stable disease, neurological findings improved, and MR images showed tumor shrinkage. No serious adverse events occurred except Grade 1-2 erythema at the injection sites. WT1 tetramer analysis detected WT1-reactive cytotoxic T cells after vaccination in patients treated with WT1-pulsed therapy. Positivity for skin reaction at the injection sites was 80% (8 of 10 patients) after the first session, and positivity remained for these 8 patients after the final session. This study of WT1-pulsed DC vaccination therapy demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and feasibility in the management of relapsed malignant gliomas.

  17. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  18. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  19. Immunotherapy for infectious diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M

    2002-01-01

    .... The review of the current state of anti-HIV immunotherapy covers HIV-specific passive and active immunization strategies, gene therapy, and host cell-targeted approaches for treating HIV infection...

  20. Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Anil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an immunologic disorder that develops in individuals who have produced allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental exposures (most commonly to pollens, animal dander, insect debris, and molds. For patients with a severe allergy that is not responsive to environmental controls and pharmacotherapy or for those who do not wish to use medication for a lifetime, immunotherapy may be offered. Specific immunotherapy as practiced since hundred years in Western Europe and the USA. Different routes for specific immunotherapy have been evaluated, such as the subcutaneous, sublingual, oral, nasal, bronchial, and intra-lymphatic, the first 2 of these routes being the most commonly used today in clinical practice. In this article, subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis is reviewed.

  1. Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hulya Anil; Koray Harmanci

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunologic disorder that develops in individuals who have produced allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental exposures (most commonly to pollens, animal dander, insect debris, and molds). For patients with a severe allergy that is not responsive to environmental controls and pharmacotherapy or for those who do not wish to use medication for a lifetime, immunotherapy may be offered. Specific immunotherapy as practiced since hundred years in Wester...

  2. Phase I/II trial of dendritic cell-based active cellular immunotherapy with DCVAC/PCa in patients with rising PSA after primary prostatectomy or salvage radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucikova, Jitka; Podrazil, Michal; Jarolim, Ladislav; Bilkova, Pavla; Hensler, Michal; Becht, Etienne; Gasova, Zdenka; Klouckova, Jana; Kayserova, Jana; Horvath, Rudolf; Fialova, Anna; Vavrova, Katerina; Sochorova, Klara; Rozkova, Daniela; Spisek, Radek; Bartunkova, Jirina

    2018-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer has the potential to be effective mostly in patients with a low tumour burden. Rising PSA (prostate-specific antigen) levels in patients with prostate cancer represents such a situation. We performed the present clinical study with dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy in this patient population. The single-arm phase I/II trial registered as EudraCT 2009-017259-91 involved 27 patients with rising PSA levels. The study medication consisted of autologous DCs pulsed with the killed LNCaP cell line (DCVAC/PCa). Twelve patients with a favourable PSA response continued with the second cycle of immunotherapy. The primary and secondary objectives of the study were to assess the safety and determine the PSA doubling time (PSADT), respectively. No significant side effects were recorded. The median PSADT in all treated patients increased from 5.67 months prior to immunotherapy to 18.85 months after 12 doses (p PSA-reacting T lymphocytes were increased significantly already after the fourth dose, and a stable frequency was detected throughout the remainder of DCVAC/PCa treatment. Long-term immunotherapy of prostate cancer patients experiencing early signs of PSA recurrence using DCVAC/PCa was safe, induced an immune response and led to the significant prolongation of PSADT. Long-term follow-up may show whether the changes in PSADT might improve the clinical outcome in patients with biochemical recurrence of the prostate cancer.

  3. Mechanisms of Aeroallergen Immunotherapy: Subcutaneous Immunotherapy and Sublingual Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Cevdet; Kucuksezer, Umut Can; Akdis, Mübeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2016-02-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective way to treat allergic disorders, targeting the underlying mechanisms and altering the disease course by inducing a long-lasting clinical and immune tolerance to allergens. Although sublingual and subcutaneous routes are used in daily practice, many novel ways to decrease side effects and duration and increase efficacy have been pursued. Further studies are needed to develop biomarkers for the identification of AIT responder patients and also to use the developed knowledge in allergy prevention studies. Future directions in AIT include treatments for autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, organ transplantation, and breaking immune tolerance to cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dacarbazine, cisplatin, and interferon-alfa-2b with or without interleukin-2 in metastatic melanoma: a randomized phase III trial (18951) of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilholz, Ulrich; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Gore, Martin; Kruit, Wim; Patel, Poulam; Lienard, Danielle; Thomas, Jose; Proebstle, Thomas M.; Schmittel, Alexander; Schadendorf, Dirk; Velu, Thierry; Negrier, Sylvie; Kleeberg, Ulrich; Lehman, Frederic; Suciu, Stefan; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on phase II trial results, chemoimmunotherapy combinations have become the preferred treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma in many institutions. This study was performed to determine whether interleukin-2 (IL-2) as a component of chemoimmunotherapy influences survival of patients

  5. Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The goals of treating patients with cancer are to cure the disease, prolong survival, and improve quality of life. Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment have an important role in regulating tumor progression. Therefore, stimulating immune reactions to tumors can be an attractive therapeutic and prevention strategy. CONTENT: During immune surveillance, the host provides defense against foreign antigens, while ensuring it limits activation against self antigens. By targeting surface antigens expressed on tumor cells, monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated efficacy as cancer therapeutics. Recent successful antibody-based strategies have focused on enhancing antitumor immune responses by targeting immune cells, irrespective of tumor antigens. The use of antibodies to block pathways inhibiting the endogenous immune response to cancer, known as checkpoint blockade therapy, has stirred up a great deal of excitement among scientists, physicians, and patients alike. Clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of antibodies that block the T cell inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 have reported success in treating subsets of patients. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT is a highly personalized cancer therapy that involve administration to the cancer-bearing host of immune cells with direct anticancer activity. In addition, the ability to genetically engineer lymphocytes to express conventional T cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors has further extended the successful application of ACT for cancer treatment. SUMMARY: For cancer treatment, 2011 marked the beginning of a new era. The underlying basis of cancer immunotherapy is to activate a patient’s own T cells so that they can kill their tumors. Reports of amazing recoveries abound, where patients remain cancer-free many years after receiving the therapy. The idea of harnessing immune cells to fight cancer is

  6. A case series of histoplasmosis patients with elevated serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tatsuro; Takazono, Takahiro; Iwata, Kazuma; Senju, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Takaharu; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Kojiro, Maiko; Miyazaki, Taiga; Tsukamoto, Misuzu; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Morimoto, Konosuke; Muraosa, Yasunori; Matsubara, Yuichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Shigeru; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis that is usually asymptomatic but occasionally results in severe illness. Histoplasmosis and its causative agent, Histoplasma capsulatum, are found worldwide but rarely in Japan. In recent years, however, the number of histoplasmosis patients in Japan has increased. In addition, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of increased serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels in patients with histoplasmosis. We report a case series of histoplasmosis in three Japanese temporary workers in Manzanillo, Mexico. All three patients developed a persistent high fever and general fatigue. Laboratory tests showed increased C-reactive protein levels and mild liver dysfunction. All patients also showed increased soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple nodules in both lung fields. All patients were positive for serum anti-Histoplasma antibodies, and two patients were positive for Histoplasma on polymerase chain reaction tests. After treatment that included antifungals, their conditions gradually improved and laboratory data normalized. Although one patient developed respiratory failure, this patient recovered with antifungal therapy in combination with methylprednisolone. Serum sIL-2R levels in all patients gradually declined to normal levels, indicating their recovery from Histoplasma infection. From our experience with these patients, sIL-2R levels may be a useful biomarker for patients with histoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  8. Sarcoma Immunotherapy: Past Approaches and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, S. P.; Tap, W. D.; Schwartz, G. K.; Carvajal, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcomas are heterogeneous malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin characterized by more than 100 distinct subtypes. Unfortunately, 25–50% of patients treated with initial curative intent will develop metastatic disease. In the metastatic setting, chemotherapy rarely leads to complete and durable responses; therefore, there is a dire need for more effective therapies. Exploring immunotherapeutic strategies may be warranted. In the past, agents that stimulate the immune system such as interferon and interleukin-2 have been explored and there has been evidence of some clinical activity in selected patients. In addition, many cancer vaccines have been explored with suggestion of benefit in some patients. Building on the advancements made in other solid tumors as well as a better understanding of cancer immunology provides hope for the development of new and exciting therapies in the treatment of sarcoma. There remains promise with immunologic checkpoint blockade antibodies. Further, building on the success of autologous cell transfer in hematologic malignancies, designing chimeric antigen receptors that target antigens that are over-expressed in sarcoma provides a great deal of optimism. Exploring these avenues has the potential to make immunotherapy a real therapeutic option in this orphan disease. PMID:24778572

  9. A case of malignant melanoma of the maxilla treated by adoptive immunotherapy after fast neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morifuji, Masayo; Ohishi, Masamichi; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Ozeki, Satoru; Tashiro, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A 77-year-old male patient with malignant melanoma was treated by fast neutron therapy and immunotherapy. Total dose of fast neutron applied to the primary lesion was 1905 cGy per 21 fractionation for 46 days. For adoptive immunotherapy, lymphocytes were collected from the peripheral blood drawn from the patient 2 days after the injection of cyclophosphamide. T cells were further purified by passing the lymphocytes through nylon wool. Cytotoxic T cells were induced by incubating the T cells mixed with allogeneic malignant melanoma cells and a small number of patient's adherent cells, and activated with recombinant interleukin-2 (γ IL-2). Our patient and the patient from whom stimulating melanoma cells were derived shared A locous 24 and B locous 51 of MHC class I antigens in common. Thus prepared cytotoxic T cells were inoculated to the patient via the maxillary artery, 3 to 4 times a week for one month. Total amount of cells transferred was 5.6 x 10 8 (97% lymphocytes). Primary lesion reduced markedly by the therapies. During adoptive immunotherapy, increase in natural killer cells and decrease in both suppressor/inducer T-cells and macrophages were observed. However, lung metastases appeared 3 months after adoptive immunotherapy. While the nonspecific immunotherapy (OK-432 injection) was being conducted thereafter, growth of the metastatic lesions of the lung was kept gentle but became obvious after the suspension of the treatment. (author)

  10. Advances in patent applications related to allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eduardo Santos da; Pinheiro, Carina Silva; Quintella, Cristina Maria; Ferreira, Fatima; C Pacheco, Luis Gustavo; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2016-06-01

    Allergies are among the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used as an alternative treatment to pharmacotherapy. These immunotherapies are performed with crude extracts, which have disadvantages when compared to the new approaches, among them are recombinant proteins and hypoallergens. This review aims to assess immunotherapy for allergies through patent application analysis spanning recent decades. Patents referring to allergen immunotherapies used in allergy treatment. Data were obtained from the Espacenet® website, using the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) system. Two-hundred-and-one patent applications were analyzed, taking into consideration their classification by the type of technology and applicant. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents the only potentially curative therapeutic intervention for the treatment of allergic diseases. The extract-based immunotherapy is being replaced by the use of recombinant allergens, highlighting the hypoallergenic forms, which have low IgE-binding while retaining T-cell reactivity. It is expected that the development of hypoallergens will expand the scope of allergen-specific immunotherapy, especially if associated with alternative systems for expression and delivery systems with future potential. Furthermore, these new developments will likely address the problem of long-term protocols in allergen-specific immunotherapy, thus allowing better patient adherence and compliance.

  11. Defect in lectin-induced interleukin 2 production by peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with invasive urinary bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubeník, J; Kieler, J; Tromholt, V

    1988-01-01

    The production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 21 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (BTCC) and 16 control blood donors was measured with a solid phase enzyme immunoassay based on the dual...... antibody immunometric sandwich principle. PBMC from patients with invasive BTCC (grade III-IV) showed a defect in the production of IL-2. The concentration of IL-2 in the supernatants of PBMC cultures from these patients was substantially lower (0.4 +/- 0.1 U/ml) than that observed in the supernatants...... of PBMC cultures from patients with non-invasive BTCC, grade II (1.5 +/- 0.7 U/ml), and from tumour-free controls (1.4 +/- 0.8 U/ml). These results suggest an immune dysfunction based on quantitatively impaired IL-2 production in patients with invasive BTCC and indicate that exogenous IL-2 could be used...

  12. Effect of antimalarial drugs on stimulation and interleukin 2 production of human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    Effect of pyrimethamine, an antimalarial antifolate, and of mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine, which belong to the quinoline group of antimalarials, on proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production of human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. Pyrimethamine at concentrations above therapeutic...... levels suppressed the lymphocytes' proliferation, but not their IL-2 production. All three quinolines suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes, but not equally, with mefloquine having the strongest effect. Quinine suppressed the growth at therapeutic concentrations. The IL-2 production was suppressed...... at concentrations twice as high as those required to suppress lymphocyte proliferation. Addition of exogenous IL-2 only partially reversed the suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation. Delayed addition of the quinolines decreased their suppressive effect, but not completely. The mechanisms of action on human...

  13. Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma by continuous intravenous infusion of recombinant interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, P F; Hermann, G G; von der Maase, H

    1992-01-01

    PURPOSE: A single-center phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) administered by continuous infusion to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with RCC were entered onto the study. rIL-2...... (Proleukin; Eurocetus Corp, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) was administered intravenously in a dose of 18 x 10(6) IU/m2 per 24 hours. A maximum of two induction cycles and four maintenance cycles were given. Each induction cycle consisted of two rIL-2 infusion periods of 120 hours and 108 hours duration......, respectively; these were separated by a 6-day rest period. Each maintenance cycle consisted of a 120 hours rIL-2 infusion period. RESULTS: Six of 30 assessable patients (20%) responded; two (7%) with a complete response (CR) and four (13%) with a partial response (PR). The response duration for patients...

  14. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Makoto; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Zheng-Sheng, Yao; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Masako N.; Sakahara, Harumi; Imada, Kazunori; Okuma, Minoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111 In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  15. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific immunotherapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumer, I.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the fact that evaluation of cytokine-based therapies for mRCC shows that a subset of patients react favourable to immunotherapy, significant side effects do occur. With the increased knowledge of tumor-immunology, the recognition of immunogenic tumor proteins and antibodies, new treatment

  17. Maximizing dendritic cell migration in cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijk, Pauline; Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Figdor, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The success of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy in inducing cellular immunity against tumors is highly dependent on accurate delivery and trafficking of the DC to T-cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid tissues. To provide an overview of DC migration in vivo and how migration to peripheral

  18. Maximizing dendritic cell migration in cancer immunotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijk, P.; Aarntzen, E.H.J.G.; Punt, C.J.A.; Vries, I.J.M. de; Figdor, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy in inducing cellular immunity against tumors is highly dependent on accurate delivery and trafficking of the DC to T-cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid tissues. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of DC migration in vivo and how

  19. Immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Stenzl, Arnulf; Stevanović, Stefan; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Carcinomas of the kidney generally have a poor prognosis and respond minimally to classical radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Immunotherapy constitutes an interesting alternative to these established forms of treatment, and indeed, cytokine-based therapies have been used for many years, leading to favorable clinical responses in a small subset of patients. During the past few years, immunotherapeutical trials targeting renal cell tumor-associated antigens have also been reported, with diverse passive or active approaches using antibodies or aimed at activating tumor-directed T lymphocytes. The following review presents the results and the progress made in the field, including classical cytokine treatments, non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation and antigen specific-based trials, with special focus on T-cell studies. In consideration of the few specific molecular targets described so far for this tumor entity, current strategies which can lead to the identification of new relevant antigens will be discussed. Hopefully these will very soon contribute to an improvement in renal cell carcinoma specific immunotherapy and its evaluation.

  20. Immunotherapy advances for mesothelioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Emyr; Guazzelli, Alice; Ashtiani, Firozeh; Demonacos, Constantinos; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Mutti, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that is strongly tied to asbestos exposure. Despite application of different modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, patient prognosis remains very poor and therapies are ineffective. Much research currently focuses on the application of novel approaches such as immunotherapy towards this disease. Areas covered: The types, stages and aetiology of mesothelioma are detailed, followed by a discussion of the current treatment options such as radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy. A description of innate and adaptive immunity and the principles and justification of immunotherapy is also included. Clinical trials for different immunotherapeutic modalities are described, and lastly the article closes with an expert commentary and five-year view, the former of which is summarised below. Expert commentary: Current efforts for novel mesothelioma therapies have been limited by attempting to apply treatments from other cancers, an approach which is not based on a solid understanding of mesothelioma biology. In our view, the influence of the hostile, hypoxic microenvironment and the gene expression and metabolic changes that resultantly occur should be characterised to improve therapies. Lastly, clinical trials should focus on overall survival rather than surrogate endpoints to avoid bias and inaccurate reflections of treatment effects.

  1. Research on Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Research Key Initiatives Immunotherapy NCI’s Role in Immunotherapy Research An oral squamous cancer cell (white) being ... immunotherapy to more patients with cancer. NCI-Supported Immunotherapy Research Immunotherapy research funded by or conducted at ...

  2. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  3. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is now recognized as a viable alternative to the classical injection route and it is currently used in everyday clinical practice in Europe. Sublingual administration is particularly attractive for children since it is completely pain-free. To date, no fatalities from SLIT have been reported, but two cases of anaphylaxis to inhalant allergens have been reported. The large majority of the adverse events reported in literature is described as mild. Most of them involve the mouth (burning or itching) or the gastrointestinal tract (stomachache, nausea) and usually self-resolve in a few days without any intervention. At present, SLIT represents the main option for allergists, however, tablet immunotherapy could become an interesting alternative to sublingual drops.

  4. Kinetic analysis of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and expression of IL-2 receptors by uraemic and normal lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, E; Hofmann, B; Ødum, Niels

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro immune response of lymphocytes from uraemic patients was studied by comparing the in vitro kinetics of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, the mitogen-induced proliferative response, and the expression of IL-2 receptors by T lymphocytes. The IL-2 production in 26 uraemic cell cultures...

  5. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  6. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. de Groot-Kruseman; C.C. Baan (Carla); E.M. Hagman; W.M. Mol (Wendy); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); P.E. Zondervan (Pieter); W. Weimar (Willem); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after

  7. Intragraft interleukin 2 mRNA expression during acute cellular rejection and left ventricular total wall thickness after heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Kruseman, H A; Baan, C C; Hagman, E M; Mol, W M; Niesters, H G; Maat, A P; Zondervan, P E; Weimar, W; Balk, A H

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether diastolic graft function is influenced by intragraft interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rejecting cardiac allografts. DESIGN: 16 recipients of cardiac allografts were monitored during the first three months after transplantation. The presence of IL-2

  8. Serum and cystic fluid levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor-alpha in patients with epithelial ovarian tumors are correlated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, HWA; ten Hoor, KA; van der Zee, AGJ

    1998-01-01

    At the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, patients have higher serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor-alpha (IL2R alpha) compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors or healthy blood donors (means of 750 vs. 469 and 390 U/ml, respectively, p <0.001), Serum levels were positively related to the

  9. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They ha...

  10. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  11. Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents. These cytotoxic agents have good response rates and achieve palliation; however, complete responses are rarely seen. The field of cancer immunology has made rapid advances in the past 20 years. Recently, a number of agents and vaccines, which modulate the immune system to allow it to detect and target cancer cells, are being developed. The benefit of these agents is twofold, it enhances the ability the body’s own immune system to fight cancer, thus has a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Secondly, a small but substantial number of patients with metastatic disease are cured by immunotherapy or achieve durable responses lasting for a number of years. In this article, we review the FDA-approved immunotherapy agents in the field of genitourinary malignancies. We also summarize new immunotherapy agents being evaluated in clinical studies either as single agents or as a combination.

  12. The use of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Tala; Tarhini, Ahmad A

    2017-04-24

    Patients with advanced melanoma have a compromised anti-tumor immune response leading to tumor immune tolerance and a tumor microenvironment conducive to disease progression. Immunotherapy that successfully overcomes this tumor-mediated immune suppression has made the greatest impact in the management of this disease over the past few years. This progress through immunotherapy builds upon earlier successes that interferon-α had in the treatment of melanoma in the adjuvant setting, as well as that of high-dose interleukin-2 in advanced melanoma. The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to dramatic clinical activity in advanced melanoma. In particular, anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies have taken us forward into the realm of longer survival and durable responses with the possibility of cure in a continuously increasing proportion of patients. Combination immunotherapeutic strategies and novel immunotherapeutic agents are being tested at an accelerated pace where the outlook for long-term survival benefits for the majority of patients appears brighter than ever.

  13. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  14. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  15. Human interleukin 2 receptor β-chain gene: Chromosomal localization and identification of 5' regulatory sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnarra, J.R.; Otani, Hiroki; Wang, M.G.; McBride, O.W.; Sharon, M.; Leonard, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) binds to and stimulates activated T cells through high-affinity IL-2 receptors (IL-2Rs). Such receptors represent a complex consisting of at least two proteins, the 55-kDa IL-2Rα chain and the 70-kDa IL-2Rβ chain. The low-affinity, IL-2Rα chain cannot by itself transduce a mitogenic signal, whereas IL-2 stimulates resting lymphocytes through the intermediate-affinity, IL-2Rβ receptor. The authors report here identification of the genomic locus for IL-2Rβ. The exons are contained on four EcoRI fragments of 1.1, 9.2, 7.2, and 13.7 kilobases. The 1.1-kilobase EcoRI fragment lies at the 5'-most end of the genomic locus and contains promoter sequences. The promoter contains no TATA box-like elements but does contain the d(GT) n class of middle repetitive elements, which may play an interesting regulatory role. The IL-2Rβ gene is localized to chromosome 22q11.2-q12, a region that is the locus for several lymphoid neoplasias

  16. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  17. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  18. Employment of Oligodeoxynucleotide plus Interleukin-2 Improves Cytogenetic Analysis in Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the efficiency of novel mitogenic agents and traditional mitosis inductors, 18 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL were studied. Three cultures using oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN plus interleukin-2 (IL-2, or TPA, or LPS were setup in each patient. Seventeen/18 cases with ODN+IL2 had moderate/good proliferation (94,4% as compared with 10/18 cases with TPA and LPS (55% (P=.015; 14/18 (77,7% cases with ODN+IL2 had sufficient good quality of banding as compared with 8/18 cases (44,4% with TPA and LPS. The karyotype could be defined from ODN+IL2-stimulated cultures in all 18 patients, 14 of whom (77,7% had a cytogenetic aberration, whereas clonal aberrations could be documented in 9 and in 3 cases by stimulation with LPS and TPA, respectively. Recurrent chromosome aberrations in our series were represented by aberrations of chromosome 14q in 5 patients, by trisomy 12 and 7q deletion in 4 cases each, and by abnormalities involving 11q and 13q in two cases each. These findings show that stimulation with ODN+IL2 offers more mitotic figures of better quality and results in an increased rate of clonal aberrations in SMZL, making this method ideal for prospective studies aiming at the definition of the prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations in this disorder.

  19. Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.A.; Kurman, C.C.; Fritz, M.E.; Biddison, W.E.; Boutin, B.; Yarchoan, R.; Nelson, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    With the use of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to measure soluble human interleukin 2 receptors (IL 2R), certain human T cell leukemia virus I (HTLV I)-positive T cell lines were found to spontaneously release large quantities of IL 2R into culture supernatants. This was not found with HTLV I-negative and IL 2 independent T cell lines, and only one of seven B cell-derived lines examined produced small amounts of IL 2R. In addition to this constitutive production of soluble IL 2R by certain cell lines, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be induced to release soluble IL 2R by plant lectins, the murine monoclonal antibody OKT3, tetanus toxoid, and allogeneic cells. Such activated cells also expressed cellular IL 2R measurable in detergent solubilized cell extracts. The generation of cellular and supernatant IL 2R was: dependent on cellular activation, rapid, radioresistant (3000 rad), and inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. NaDodSO 4 -polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of soluble IL 2R demonstrated molecules of apparent Mr = 35,000 to 40,000, and 45,000 to 50,000, respectively, somewhat smaller than the mature surface receptor on these cells. The release of soluble IL 2R appears to be a characteristic marker of T lymphocyte activation and might serve an immunoregulatory function during both normal and abnormal cell growth and differentiation

  20. Pru p 3-Epitope-based sublingual immunotherapy in a murine model for the treatment of peach allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria J; Mascaraque, Ainhoa; Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Torres, Maria J; Perkins, James R; Gomez, Francisca; Garrido-Arandia, Maria; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Andreu, David; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Rojo, Javier; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2017-10-01

    Food-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a promising treatment for lipid transfer protein (LTP)-syndrome. We propose a novel sublingual-SIT (SLIT) that combines a Pru p 3 T-cell peptide and an oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) with CpG motifs (ODN-CpG) as adjuvants to induce a specific Th1/Treg response. LTP-peach allergic mice were treated sublingually with a combination of a CpG sequence and mono- or tetravalent systems including a Pru p 3 peptide, D 1 (Prup3) or D 4 (Prup3). Mice were challenged intraperitoneally with Pru p 3 one or three weeks after SLIT and tolerance was assessed. Mice treated with D 1 (Prup3)+CpG were protected from anaphylaxis after Pru p 3 challenge. They showed no change in body temperature, lower levels of Pru p 3-specific IgE and IgG1 antibodies and higher levels of sIgG2a compared to the untreated group. They had fewer IgE and IgG1 secreting cells and more sIgG2a secreting cells. Moreover, a significantly lower number of Pru p 3-specific CD4 + T cells and a higher number of Treg cells were found, alongside a Th1 cytokine pattern. These changes were maintained for three weeks after stopping treatment. D 1 Prup3+CpG represents a promising SIT for food allergy. It is easily synthesized and induces protection from anaphylaxis to Pru p 3 that is maintained for at least three weeks. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Combinations of Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Review of Clinical Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy has long played a role in the management of melanoma. Recent advances have also demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. Preclinical data suggest a biologic interaction between radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Several clinical studies corroborate these findings. This review will summarize the outcomes of studies reporting on patients with melanoma treated with a combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies often use irradiated melanoma cells, and may be enhanced by radiation therapy. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 have been combined with radiation therapy in several small studies, with some evidence suggesting increased toxicity and/or efficacy. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been combined with radiation therapy in several notable case studies and series. Finally, pilot studies of adoptive cell transfer have suggested that radiation therapy may improve the efficacy of treatment. The review will demonstrate that the combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy has been reported in several notable case studies, series and clinical trials. These clinical results suggest interaction and the need for further study

  2. Combinations of Radiation Therapy and Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Review of Clinical Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Christopher A., E-mail: barkerc@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Postow, Michael A. [Department of Medicine, Melanoma and Sarcoma Oncology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Radiation therapy has long played a role in the management of melanoma. Recent advances have also demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. Preclinical data suggest a biologic interaction between radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Several clinical studies corroborate these findings. This review will summarize the outcomes of studies reporting on patients with melanoma treated with a combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies often use irradiated melanoma cells, and may be enhanced by radiation therapy. The cytokines interferon-α and interleukin-2 have been combined with radiation therapy in several small studies, with some evidence suggesting increased toxicity and/or efficacy. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been combined with radiation therapy in several notable case studies and series. Finally, pilot studies of adoptive cell transfer have suggested that radiation therapy may improve the efficacy of treatment. The review will demonstrate that the combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy has been reported in several notable case studies, series and clinical trials. These clinical results suggest interaction and the need for further study.

  3. Vaccine development for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant allergens and synthetic allergen peptides: Lessons from the past and novel mechanisms of action for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Campana, Raffaela; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Niederberger, Verena

    2016-02-01

    In the past, the development of more effective, safe, convenient, broadly applicable, and easy to manufacture vaccines for allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been limited by the poor quality of natural allergen extracts. Progress made in the field of molecular allergen characterization has now made it possible to produce defined vaccines for AIT and eventually for preventive allergy vaccination based on recombinant DNA technology and synthetic peptide chemistry. Here we review the characteristics of recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that have reached clinical evaluation and discuss how molecular vaccine approaches can make AIT more safe and effective and thus more convenient. Furthermore, we discuss how new technologies can facilitate the reproducible manufacturing of vaccines of pharmaceutical grade for inhalant, food, and venom allergens. Allergy vaccines in clinical trials based on recombinant allergens, recombinant allergen derivatives, and synthetic peptides allow us to target selectively different immune mechanisms, and certain of those show features that might make them applicable not only for therapeutic but also for prophylactic vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetic modelling of N-(4-[F-18]fluorobenzoyl)interleukin-2 binding to activated lymphocytes in an xenograft model of inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Signore, Alberto; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W. A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; de Vries, Erik F. J.

    2012-01-01

    N-(4-[F-18]Fluorobenzoyl)interleukin-2 ([F-18]FB-IL2) specifically binds to interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) and thus may be used to detect inflammation processes using positron emission tomography (PET). We now validated whether [F-18]FB-IL2 can be used to quantify activated human peripheral blood

  6. The Use of Registries to Improve Cancer Treatment: A National Database for Patients Treated with Interleukin-2 (IL-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard L. Kaufman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Registries evaluating un-randomized patients have provided valuable information with respect to a therapy’s utility, treatment practices, and evolution over time. While immunotherapy for cancer has been around for more than three decades, data collection in the form of a registry has not been undertaken. The authors believe that establishing a registry to study HD IL-2 immunotherapy, which has been the only systemic therapy producing long term unmaintained remissions for advanced kidney cancer and melanoma for over 20 years, will be an important resource in understanding the impact of immunotherapy with HD IL-2 in a rapidly changing therapeutic environment. Optimizing administration and improving selection of appropriate patients likely to benefit from HD IL-2 immunotherapy are two of many benefits to be derived from this endeavor.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Pleural Fluid Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Shahraki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pleural tuberculosis occurs in 4% of newly diagnosed cases of tuberculosis. T-cells have an important role on the immunity against mycobacterial infections and as a result, the level of soluble interleukin 2 receptors (SIL-2R as a marker of T-cell activation is elevated in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, the diagnostic accuracy of SIL-2R level was assessed in separating tuberculous from non- tuberculous effusions in Zahedan, Iran. From 112 patients fulfilled entrance criteria for exudative pleural effusion, 88 patients were included and underwent diagnostic procedures to identify the origin of pleural effusion. The SIL-2R was evaluated at various cut-off levels by nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, and values affording greatest diagnostic accuracy were selected. Results: SIL-2R level in TB group was 9147±3573 while this level in non-TB group was 2724±1326 and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001. The cut-off point in our study was 4200 U/ml and the area under curve was 0.930 with 95% CI: 0.881–0.979 (p=0.001. The sensitivity and specificity for this level is 86 and 89%. Conclusion: Several factors lead to the variation in the level and cut-off point of SIL-2R in different regions. Our cut-off point was lower than other studies. The level of SIL-2R in patients with tuberculosis is significantly higher than parapneumonic effusions. We suggest that measuring the SIL-2R level in pleural fluid of tuberculous patients is a useful diagnostic tool in diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion.

  8. Adoptive immunotherapy with interleukin-2 & induced killer cells in non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review & meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghai Mi

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The meta-analysis showed that IL-2 or induced killer cells combination therapy was efficacious in treating NSCLC and improved overall survival. Further analysis of trials having adequate information and data need to be done to confirm these findings.

  9. [Exosome: Trojan horse in immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Dan-Lei; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Bai, Xue-Fan

    2005-04-01

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles that are secreted by a multitude of eukaryocytes as a consequence of fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes can play critical roles in different physiological processes depending on their origins. Exosomes secreted from professional antigen-presenting cells are enriched in MHC class I and II complexes, costimulatory molecules, hsp 70 and hsp 90 chaperones, therefore exosomes, like Trojan horse, are of importance of immunoregulation in vivo and in vitro. The review will present current trends of research on the fundamental properties, production and purification of exosomes, and will focus on their implementation in cancer and virus immunotherapy as a novel cell-free peptide-based vaccine.

  10. CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer.

  11. CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuan, E-mail: yuanlin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sharma, Sherven [Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Veterans’ Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073 (United States); John, Maie St. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer.

  12. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates ...

  13. Effect of interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy on the malignant biological behavior of advanced bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy on the malignant biological behavior of advanced bladder cancer. Methods: Patients with advanced bladder cancer who were treated in Tongcheng People’s Hospital between April 2015 and July 2016 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into group A who received interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy and the group B who received pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy. The contents of tumor markers and cytokines and the expression of apoptosis molecules in the urine were detected before and after chemotherapy. Results: 8 weeks after chemotherapy, BLCA-1, BLCA-4, CYFRA21-1, TGF-β1, VEGF, EGF, HGF and IGF-2 contents in urine of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment, Fas, Bad, PTEN and Beclin-1 mRNA expression in urine were significantly higher than those before treatment and BLCA-1, BLCA-4, CYFRA21-1, TGF-β1, VEGF, EGF, HGF and IGF-2 contents in urine of group A were significantly lower than those of group B, Fas, Bad, PTEN and Beclin-1 mRNA expression in urine were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusion: Interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy can be more effective than pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy in inhibiting the malignant biological behavior of advanced bladder cancer.

  14. Synthesis of the ensembles from succinylated interleukin-2 derivatives and their biological activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Martynov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The biological activity (direct anticancer action in vitro of combinatorial IL-2 succinylated derivatives was examined. Acylation of IL-2 was performed using succinic anhydride with various levels of acylation, with the formation of a complex assembly of many derivatives (self-assembled quasi-living structure.Methods: In the study, we used recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2 (Ronkoleukin, Russia in oxidizing form and other reagents from Sigma-Aldrich and Fluka (USA. For acylation, recombinant IL-2 in the form of a matrix fluid with a protein concentration of 0.6 mg/ml was used. The IL-2 matrix solution was brought to a pH of 8.0 through the addition of a 0.01% solution of sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ensemble of succinyl-IL-2 was analyzed using the capillary gel electrophoresis method in an Agilent-2100 bioanalyzer. The molecular masses of the synthesized ensemble were established in comparison to standard samples of low-molecular proteins with known molecular masses that were part of the bioanalyzer’s collection. The additional negative charge of the modified IL-2 was determined by a FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography system from Pharmacia (Woerden, Netherlands. CTLL-2, a murine IL-2-dependent cell line, was obtained fromBiokontrol (Kiev, Ukraine. These respondingcells were used in proliferative assays comparing the activityof the IL-2 and succinylated IL-2 derivatives to the WHO InternationalStandard. For statistical data analysis, the one-way ANOVA was used.Results: After treatment with Suc-IL-2, BTL were studied in vitro on the CTLL-2 cell line, dose-dependently, in a BTL induction reaction. The highest level of biological activity in acylated IL-2 was observed in Suc-IL-2 with four modified lysine residues. In conclusion, succinylated IL-2 with four substituted lysines may be useful as a prospective anticancer agent.Conclusions: Ten-fold increase in the biological activity of IL-2 was observed after partial succinylation

  15. Enhancement of in vitro interleukin-2 production in normal subjects following a single spinal manipulative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Glen M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence supports somato-visceral effects of manual therapies. We have previously demonstrated that a single spinal manipulative treatment (SMT accompanied by audible release has an inhibitory effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic subjects. The purpose of this study is to report on SMT-related changes in the production of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2 and to investigate whether such changes might differ with respect to the treatment approach related to the presence or absence of an audible release (joint cavitation. Methods Of 76 asymptomatic subjects, 29 received SMT with cavitation (SMT-C, 23 were treated with SMT without cavitation (SMT-NC and 24 comprised the venipuncture control (VC group. The SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects received a single, similar force high velocity low amplitude manipulation, in the upper thoracic spine. However, in SMT-NC subjects, positioning and line of drive were not conducive to cavitation. Blood and serum samples were obtained before and then at 20 and 120 min post-intervention. The production of IL-2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures was induced by activation for 48 hr with Staphylococcal protein A (SPA and, in parallel preparations, with the combination of phorbol ester (TPA and calcium ionophore. The levels of IL-2 in culture supernatants and serum were assessed by specific immunoassays. Results Compared with VC and their respective baselines, SPA-induced secretion of IL-2 increased significantly in cultures established from both SMT-C and SMT-NC subjects at 20 min post-intervention. At 2 hr post-treatment, significant elevation of IL-2 synthesis was still apparent in preparations from SMT-treated groups though it became somewhat attenuated in SMT-NC subjects. Conversely, IL-2 synthesis induced by TPA and calcium ionophore was unaltered by either type of SMT and was comparable to that in VC group at all time points. No

  16. Development of methods for 99mTc labelling of interleukin-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk Urszula; Korsak Agnieszka; Markiewicz Alina; Mikolajczak Renata

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a 15.4 kDa protein containing 134 amino acids is a naturally occurring cytokine which has been labelled and used as radiopharmaceutical to image inflammation and infection. The goal of our work was to develop the method of 99 mTc-labelling of IL-2 using a commercially available Proleukin. The IL-2 was conjugated with HYNIC (1:5 molar ratio) and purified on Sephadex G-25 Fine. A conjugate was stored in 0.1M PB with 0.1% SDS and 0.02% NaN3. HYNIC-IL2 was labelled under reducing conditions (5-25 mg of SnC12) in the presence of Tricine and EDTA. The influence of pH was tested in the range 2 to 9.5. Radiochemical purity, RCP, was measured by HPLC, BioSEP SEC-4000 column (Phenomenex) and 0.1M PB as a solvent at 280 nm and with on-line radiometric detector and by TLC using ITLC-SG strips and 0.9% NaCl for free 99 mTcO 4 - (Rf=l), and 0.1M citrate buffer pH=5.5 for assessment of 99 mTc-colloids (Rf=0) while free 99 mTcO 4 - and 99 mTc-HYNIC-IL2 migrate with the solvent front. Stability of 99 mTc-HYNIC-IL-2 in human serum was estimated by incubation of 100 ml of human serum with 20 ml of 99 mTc-HYNIC-IL-2 at 37 degree C for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 12 and 24 hr and analyzed by HPLC and TLC. RCP of 99 mTc-HYNIC-IL2 with about 20 molar excess of Tricine varied in the range from 50% to 90%. Further optimization of the method is planned. The work has been done within the EU program COST B12. (authors)

  17. Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zailaie, Mohamad Z.

    2005-01-01

    Increased serum levels of certain immunologic markers including immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-melanocyte/ vitiligo antibodies (V-IgG) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are associated with augmented humoral and cellular immunity involved in melanocyte cytotoxicity during the active phase of non-segmental vitiligo. Recent reports have shown that, aspirin possesses a wide range of immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of long-term treatment of vitiligo patients with low-dose oral aspirin on serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration. The present study was carried out at the Vitiligo Unit, King Abdul-Aziz University Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March and October 2003. Eighteen female and 14 male patients with a recent onset of non-segmental vitiligo were divided into 2 equal groups. One group received a daily single dose of oral aspirin (300 mg) and the second group received only placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration were determined before and at the end of treatment period. The V-IgG activity was measured using cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following incubation of IgG antibodies with an adult cultured melanocytes. Serum sIL-2R concentration was measured using the highly sensitive quantitative sandwich ELISA utilizing a commercially available kit. As expected, the serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration of the active vitiligo patients (0.81 +/- 0.23 optical density (O.D.), 1428 +/- 510 pg/ml) were significantly increased compared with that of controls (0.27 +/- 0.1 O.D., 846 +/- 312 pg/ml; p<0.05, p<0.01). Aspirin-treated vitiligo patients showed significant decrease in serum V-IgG activity and sIL-2R concentration (0.32 +/- 0.08 O.D., 756 +/- 216 pg/ml) compared with that of placebo-treated patients (0.83 +/- 0.19 O.D., 1327 +/- 392 pg/ml; p<0.01). Low-dose oral aspirin treatment of

  18. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuge O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Fuge,1 Nikhil Vasdev,1 Paula Allchorne,2 James SA Green2 1Department of Urology, Lister Hospital, Stevenage, UK; 2Department of Urology, Bartshealth NHS Trust, Whipps Cross Rd, London, UK Abstract: It is nearly 40 years since Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG was first used as an immunotherapy to treat superficial bladder cancer. Despite its limitations, to date it has not been surpassed by any other treatment. As a better understanding of its mechanism of action and the clinical response to it have evolved, some of the questions around optimal dosing and treatment protocols have been answered. However, its potential for toxicity and failure to produce the desired clinical effect in a significant cohort of patients presents an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers alike. This review summarizes the evidence behind the established mechanism of action of BCG in bladder cancer, highlighting the extensive array of immune molecules that have been implicated in its action. The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain. The problems of toxicity and non-responders to BCG have led to development of new techniques aimed at addressing these pitfalls. The progress made in the laboratory has led to the identification of novel targets for the development of new immunotherapies. This includes the potential augmentation of BCG with various immune factors through to techniques avoiding the use of BCG altogether; for example, using interferon-activated mononuclear cells, BCG cell wall, or BCG cell wall skeleton. The potential role of gene, virus, or photodynamic therapy as an alternative to BCG is also reviewed. Recent interest in the immune check point system has led to the development of monoclonal antibodies against proteins involved in this pathway. Early findings suggest

  19. Next generation immunotherapy for tree pollen allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Heiland, Teri

    2017-10-03

    Tree pollen induced allergies are one of the major medical and public health burdens in the industrialized world. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy (AIT) through subcutaneous injection or sublingual delivery is the only approved therapy with curative potential to pollen induced allergies. AIT often is associated with severe side effects and requires long-term treatment. Safer, more effective and convenient allergen specific immunotherapies remain an unmet need. In this review article, we discuss the current progress in applying protein and peptide-based approaches and DNA vaccines to the clinical challenges posed by tree pollen allergies through the lens of preclinical animal models and clinical trials, with an emphasis on the birch and Japanese red cedar pollen induced allergies.

  20. Allergen Immunotherapy: History and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2016-02-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was introduced in clinical practice more than 100 years ago. The clinical effectiveness in allergic rhinitis (and asthma) and in hymenoptera allergy was apparent early on but it was not until the mid-1900s that randomized placebo-controlled trials proved its efficacy. In the 1980s, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was accepted in official guidelines. The availability of safer routes, such as SLIT, prompted increasing investigation of AIT for food allergy. The introduction of molecular-based diagnosis introduced the possibility of better targeted prescription of AIT. Other approaches are being explored, such as immunogenic peptides, recombinant allergens, and adjuvants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing field of immunotherapy was one of the topics extensively discussed during the recently concluded ESMO Asia Congress 2016, held from December 16– 19th December at the Suntec Convention and Exhibition Centre in Singapore. Unlike drug-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy exploits the body’s own immune system to fight cancer and is increasingly touted as the future of cancer treatment. The concept of using the immune system as a disease-fighting tool was introduced by Dr. William Bradley Coley, the ‘Father of Cancer Immunotherapy’, in the 19th century based on his work that sought to stimulate a patient’s own immune system against bacterial infection. However, a persistent question remains since the advent of immunotherapy over a century ago – can the immune system accurately recognize malignant tumor and eliminate it effectively? The answer to this question remains hotly debated owing to the differing opinions and attitudes on the application of immunotherapy. Dr. Coley noticed that in a number of cases, patients with cancer went into spontaneous remission after developing erysipelas. In 1891, Dr. Coley injected streptococcal organisms (which cause erysipelas into a patient with inoperable cancer and observed remarkable tumor regression. Although he had treated almost 900 patients with bacterial preparations that eventually became known as “Coley’s toxins”, his treatment method was not widely accepted by the medical community possibly owing to the low cure rates and the severe fever caused by the bacteria. Some physicians also feared that the immune system might not have adapted well enough to recognize and eliminate malignant cells exclusively. As a consequence, most oncologists relied on another treatment that was rapidly gaining acceptance at that time, i.e. radiation. It was only after about a century later that the medical community observed a revived interest in immunotherapy. In 1976, a trial was conducted to

  2. Recombinant interleukin-2 in patients aged younger than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 19808.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolitz, Jonathan E; George, Stephen L; Benson, Don M; Maharry, Kati; Marcucci, Guido; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L; Allen, Steven L; Deangelo, Daniel J; Shea, Thomas C; Stock, Wendy; Bakan, Courtney E; Hars, Vera; Hoke, Eva; Bloomfield, Clara D; Caligiuri, Michael A; Larson, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) induces cellular cytotoxicity against leukemia blasts. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) may harbor minimal residual disease that is susceptible to rIL-2-activated effector cells. In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 19808 study, patients with AML in first CR were randomly assigned after all planned chemotherapy to receive a 90-day course of subcutaneously administered rIL-2 or no further therapy. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 treatment arms. A total of 534 patients achieved a CR, 214 of whom were randomized. Six courses of low-dose daily rIL-2 were given for the expansion of cytotoxic effector cells, each followed by 3-day high-dose boluses given to trigger cytotoxicity against minimal residual disease. On the protocol-specified intention-to-treat analysis, the hazards ratio for DFS was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.09; P = .13); the 5-year DFS rate was 42% in the observation arm and 53% in the rIL-2 treatment arm. The hazards ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.23; P = .34); the 5-year OS rate was 58% for the observation arm and 63% for the rIL-2 treatment arm. Twenty-five of the 107 patients randomized to treatment with rIL-2 either refused or were unable to initiate therapy and 30 patients did not complete their assigned therapy. However, significant toxicities were not commonly observed. The trial design did not anticipate the difficulties patients would encounter with protocol compliance. The efficacy of immunotherapy with rIL-2 administered after intensive postremission treatment was not assessed as planned because of unexpected refusals by patients and/or their physicians to comply with protocol-directed therapy. Neither DFS nor OS was found to be significantly improved. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Sublingual or subcutaneous immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Stephen R; Penagos, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and, unlike antiallergic drugs, has been shown to modify the underlying cause of the disease, with proved long-term benefits. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been the gold standard, whereas sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has emerged as an effective and safe alternative. Previous Cochrane systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed that both SLIT and SCIT are effective in patients with seasonal AR, whereas evidence for their efficacy in patients with perennial disease has been less convincing. Recent large, adequately powered trials have demonstrated reductions in both symptoms and use of rescue medication in patients with seasonal and those with perennial AR. Here we appraise evidence for SCIT versus SLIT based on indirect evidence from Cochrane reviews and recent well-powered double-blind, randomized controlled trials versus placebo and the limited direct evidence available from randomized blind head-to-head comparisons. At present, based on an overall balance of efficacy and side effects, the patient is in equipoise. Pending definitive comparative trials, choice might be determined largely by the local availability of SCIT and SLIT products of proved value and personal (patient) preference. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergen Immunotherapy and Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Matsuoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT is associated with a marked decrease in symptoms on allergen exposure, a reduced requirement for 'rescue' anti-allergic drugs and improvement in patients' quality of life. These benefits persist for at least several years following discontinuation of immunotherapy - the hallmark of clinical and immunological tolerance. AIT has been shown to modulate both innate and adaptive immunological responses. Early suppression of innate effector cells of allergic inflammation (mast cells, basophils, regulation of pro-allergic T helper 2 type (Th 2 responses and IgE+ B cell responses have been shown to occur both in the tissue and in the peripheral blood during AIT. The allergen-tolerant state is associated with local and systemic induction of distinct populations of allergen-specific T regulatory cells including IL-10+ Tregs (Tr1 cells, TGF-P+ Tregs and FoxP3+ memory T regs. B cells are switched in favour of producing IgG (particularly IgG4 antibodies and associated blocking activity for IgE-dependent events, including basophil activation and IgE-facilitated allergen binding to B cells. An induction of IL-10+ B regulatory cells and alterations in dendritic cell subsets have also recently been described. These events are followed by the induction of T regulatory cells, suppression of allergen-specific T cell proliferation and immune deviation from Th2 in favour of Th1 responses. Alternative mechanisms of tolerance include apoptosis/deletion of antigen-specific memory Th2 cells and/or a failure of co-stimulation leading to T cell anergy.

  5. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  6. NCI's Role in Immunotherapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the development of innovative cancer immunotherapies and their translation to the treatment of patients with cancer. Efforts run the gamut from basic studies of cancer immunology to the conduct of clinical ...

  7. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective...

  9. Multiplex RT-PCR amplification of HIV genes to create a completely autologous DC-based immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Tcherepanova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective therapy for HIV-infected individuals remains an unmet medical need. Promising clinical trials with dendritic cell (DC-based immunotherapy consisting of autologous DC loaded with autologous virus have been reported, however, these approaches depend on large numbers of HIV virions to generate sufficient doses for even limited treatment regimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study describes a novel approach for RT-PCR amplification of HIV antigens. Previously, RT-PCR amplification of autologous viral sequences has been confounded by the high mutation rate of the virus which results in unreliable primer-template binding. To resolve this problem we developed a multiplex RT-PCR strategy that allows reliable strain-independent amplification of highly polymorphic target antigens from any patient and requires neither viral sequence data nor custom-designed PCR primers for each individual. We demonstrate the application of our RT-PCR process to amplify translationally-competent RNA encoding regions of Gag, Vpr, Rev and Nef. The products amplified using this method represent a complex mixture of autologous antigens encoded by viral quasispecies. We further demonstrate that DCs electroporated with in vitro-transcribed HIV RNAs are capable of stimulating poly-antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vitro. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes a strategy to overcome patient to patient viral diversity enabling strain-independent RT-PCR amplification of RNAs encoding sequence divergent quasispecies of Gag, Vpr, Rev and Nef from small volumes of infectious plasma. The approach allows creation of a completely autologous therapy that does not require advance knowledge of the HIV genomic sequences, does not have yield limitations and has no intact virus in the final product. The simultaneous use of autologous viral antigens and DCs may provoke broad patient-specific immune responses that could potentially induce

  10. Multiplex RT-PCR Amplification of HIV Genes to Create a Completely Autologous DC-Based Immunotherapy for the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherepanova, Irina; Harris, Jason; Starr, Aijing; Cleveland, Jaclyn; Ketteringham, Helen; Calderhead, David; Horvatinovich, Joe; Healey, Don; Nicolette, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective therapy for HIV-infected individuals remains an unmet medical need. Promising clinical trials with dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy consisting of autologous DC loaded with autologous virus have been reported, however, these approaches depend on large numbers of HIV virions to generate sufficient doses for even limited treatment regimens. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study describes a novel approach for RT-PCR amplification of HIV antigens. Previously, RT-PCR amplification of autologous viral sequences has been confounded by the high mutation rate of the virus which results in unreliable primer-template binding. To resolve this problem we developed a multiplex RT-PCR strategy that allows reliable strain-independent amplification of highly polymorphic target antigens from any patient and requires neither viral sequence data nor custom-designed PCR primers for each individual. We demonstrate the application of our RT-PCR process to amplify translationally-competent RNA encoding regions of Gag, Vpr, Rev and Nef. The products amplified using this method represent a complex mixture of autologous antigens encoded by viral quasispecies. We further demonstrate that DCs electroporated with in vitro-transcribed HIV RNAs are capable of stimulating poly-antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vitro. Conclusion/Significance This study describes a strategy to overcome patient to patient viral diversity enabling strain-independent RT-PCR amplification of RNAs encoding sequence divergent quasispecies of Gag, Vpr, Rev and Nef from small volumes of infectious plasma. The approach allows creation of a completely autologous therapy that does not require advance knowledge of the HIV genomic sequences, does not have yield limitations and has no intact virus in the final product. The simultaneous use of autologous viral antigens and DCs may provoke broad patient-specific immune responses that could potentially induce effective control of viral

  11. Recommendations for appropriate sublingual immunotherapy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas B; Canonica, G Walter; Bousquet, Jean; Cox, Linda; Lockey, Richard; Nelson, Harold S; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy is gaining widespread attention as a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. In addition, sublingual immunotherapy has been studied in other allergic disorders including asthma. However, a review of published studies indicates that there are deficiencies and considerable heterogeneity in both design and data interpretation of sublingual immunotherapy studies. These deficiencies have made it somewhat difficult to assess the appropriate place of sublingual immunotherapy in guidelines for the therapy of allergic diseases. Moreover, several unpublished oral and sublingual immunotherapy studies in the United States failed to meet primary endpoints. This article reviews data from sublingual immunotherapy trials and makes recommendations about appropriate designs of future sublingual immunotherapy studies. It is hoped that these recommendations will result in more adequately designed sublingual immunotherapy trials to facilitate the appropriate placement of this therapy to treat patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and other allergic diseases.

  12. First-in-Human Study of Interleukin-15 as Immunotherapy for Metastatic Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the hallmarks of cancer that is now more clearly recognized is tumors’ ability to avoid recognition and destruction by the immune system. A novel class of treatments, dubbed immunotherapy, attempts to overcome this aspect by stimulating the immune system to attack cancer cells. The cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2), which is approved for the treatment of renal cancer and melanoma, is the prototypic immunotherapy. Treatment with IL-2 enhances the proliferation of effector immune cells, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Unfortunately, IL-2 also exerts immunosuppressive activity through maintenance of regulatory T cells and activation-induced cell death. The related cytokine, interleukin-15 (IL-15), displays similar immune cell stimulatory activity, but without the inhibitory effects of IL-2. These findings, suggest that IL-15 may have greater potential as an immunotherapeutic agent and is consistent with the results seen in melanoma and prostate and colon cancer mouse models.

  13. "Hard" and "soft" lesions underlying the HLA class I alterations in cancer cells: implications for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Federico; Cabrera, Teresa; Aptsiauri, Natalia

    2010-07-15

    The ability of cancer cells to escape from the natural or immunotherapy-induced antitumor immune response is often associated with alterations in the tumor cell surface expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I antigens. Considerable knowledge has been gained on the prevalence of various patterns of MHC Class I defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in different types of cancer. In contrast, few data are available on the changes in MHC Class I expression happening during the course of cancer immunotherapy. We have recently proposed that the progression or regression of a tumor lesion in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy could be predetermined by the molecular mechanism responsible for the MHC Class I alteration and not by the type of immunotherapy used, i.e., interleukin-2 (IL-2), Bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (BCG), interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), peptides alone, dendritic cells loaded with peptides, protein-bound polysaccharide etc. If the molecular alteration responsible for the changes in MHC Class I expression is reversible by cytokines ("soft" lesion), the MHC Class I expression will be upregulated, the specific T cell-mediated response will increase and the lesion will regress. However, if the molecular defect is structural ("hard" lesion), the MHC Class I expression will remain low, the escape mechanism will prevail and the primary tumor or the metastatic lesion will progress. According to this idea, the nature of the preexisting MHC Class I lesion in the cancer cell has a crucial impact determining the final outcome of cancer immunotherapy. In this article, we discuss the importance of these two types of molecular mechanisms of MHC Class I-altered expression.

  14. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  15. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  16. Effect of Immunotherapy on Seizure Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Registry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ick Byun

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seizure characteristics and outcome after immunotherapy in adult patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE and new-onset seizure.Adult (age ≥18 years patients with AE and new-onset seizure who underwent immunotherapy and were followed-up for at least 6 months were included. Seizure frequency was evaluated at 2-4 weeks and 6 months after the onset of the initial immunotherapy and was categorized as "seizure remission", "> 50% seizure reduction", or "no change" based on the degree of its decrease.Forty-one AE patients who presented with new-onset seizure were analysed. At 2-4 weeks after the initial immunotherapy, 51.2% of the patients were seizure free, and 24.4% had significant seizure reduction. At 6 months, seizure remission was observed in 73.2% of the patients, although four patients died during hospitalization. Rituximab was used as a second-line immunotherapy in 12 patients who continued to have seizures despite the initial immunotherapy, and additional seizure remission was achieved in 66.6% of them. In particular, those who exhibited partial response to the initial immunotherapy had a better seizure outcome after rituximab, with low adverse events.AE frequently presented as seizure, but only 18.9% of the living patients suffered from seizure at 6 months after immunotherapy. Aggressive immunotherapy can improve seizure outcome in patients with AE.

  17. Effect of Immunotherapy on Seizure Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Registry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Keun-Hwa; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Moon, Jangsup; Lim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Doo Young; Shin, Yong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joon; Lee, Keon-Joo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Han-Sang; Jun, Jinsun; Kim, Dong-Yub; Kim, Man-Young; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Suh, Hong Il; Lee, Yoojin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Jin Ho; Choi, Woo Chan; Bae, Dae Woong; Shin, Jung-Won; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Kyung-Il; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the seizure characteristics and outcome after immunotherapy in adult patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) and new-onset seizure. Methods Adult (age ≥18 years) patients with AE and new-onset seizure who underwent immunotherapy and were followed-up for at least 6 months were included. Seizure frequency was evaluated at 2–4 weeks and 6 months after the onset of the initial immunotherapy and was categorized as “seizure remission”, “> 50% seizure reduction”, or “no change” based on the degree of its decrease. Results Forty-one AE patients who presented with new-onset seizure were analysed. At 2–4 weeks after the initial immunotherapy, 51.2% of the patients were seizure free, and 24.4% had significant seizure reduction. At 6 months, seizure remission was observed in 73.2% of the patients, although four patients died during hospitalization. Rituximab was used as a second-line immunotherapy in 12 patients who continued to have seizures despite the initial immunotherapy, and additional seizure remission was achieved in 66.6% of them. In particular, those who exhibited partial response to the initial immunotherapy had a better seizure outcome after rituximab, with low adverse events. Conclusion AE frequently presented as seizure, but only 18.9% of the living patients suffered from seizure at 6 months after immunotherapy. Aggressive immunotherapy can improve seizure outcome in patients with AE. PMID:26771547

  18. Sublingual immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization position paper 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared this document, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2013 Update”, according to the evidence-based criteria, revising and updating chapters of the originally published paper, “Sublingual Immunotherapy: World Allergy Organization Position Paper 2009”, available at http://www.waojournal.org. Namely, these comprise: “Mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy;” “Clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy” – reporting all the data of all controlled trials published after 2009; “Safety of sublingual immunotherapy” – with the recently published Grading System for adverse reactions; “Impact of sublingual immunotherapy on the natural history of respiratory allergy” – with the relevant evidences published since 2009; “Efficacy of SLIT in children” – with detailed analysis of all the studies; “Definition of SLIT patient selection” – reporting the criteria for eligibility to sublingual immunotherapy; “The future of immunotherapy in the community care setting”; “Methodology of clinical trials according to the current scientific and regulatory standards”; and “Guideline development: from evidence-based medicine to patients' views” – including the evolution of the methods to make clinical recommendations. Additionally, we have added new chapters to cover a few emerging crucial topics: “Practical aspects of schedules and dosages and counseling for adherence” – which is crucial in clinical practice for all treatments; “Perspectives and new approaches” – including recombinant allergens, adjuvants, modified allergens, and the concept of validity of the single products. Furthermore, “Raising public awareness about sublingual immunotherapy”, as a need for our patients, and strategies to increase awareness of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) among patients, the medical community, all healthcare stakeholders, and public opinion, are also reported in detail. PMID:24679069

  19. Neuroblastoma Patients' KIR and KIR-Ligand Genotypes Influence Clinical Outcome for Dinutuximab-based Immunotherapy: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Amy K; Wang, Wei; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Mendonça, Eneida A; Song, Yiqiang; Hess, Dustin; Reville, Patrick K; London, Wendy B; Naranjo, Arlene; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Diccianni, Mitchell B; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Matthay, Katherine K; Cohn, Susan L; Hogarty, Michael D; Maris, John M; Park, Julie R; Ozkaynak, M Fevzi; Gilman, Andrew L; Yu, Alice L; Sondel, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In 2010, a Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase III randomized trial for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (ANBL0032) demonstrated improved event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) following treatment with an immunotherapy regimen of dinutuximab, GM-CSF, IL2, and isotretinoin compared with treatment with isotretinoin alone. Dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody, acts in part via natural killer (NK) cells. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) on NK cells and their interactions with KIR-ligands can influence NK cell function. We investigated whether KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes were associated with EFS or OS in this trial. Experimental Design: We genotyped patients from COG study ANBL0032 and evaluated the effect of KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes on clinical outcomes. Cox regression models and log-rank tests were used to evaluate associations of EFS and OS with KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes. Results: In this trial, patients with the "all KIR-ligands present" genotype as well as patients with inhibitory KIR2DL2 with its ligand (HLA-C1) together with inhibitory KIR3DL1 with its ligand (HLA-Bw4) were associated with improved outcome if they received immunotherapy. In contrast, for patients with the complementary KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes, clinical outcome was not significantly different for patients who received immunotherapy versus those receiving isotretinoin alone. Conclusions: These data show that administration of immunotherapy is associated with improved outcome for neuroblastoma patients with certain KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes, although this was not seen for patients with other KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes. Further investigation of KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes may clarify their role in cancer immunotherapy and may enable KIR/KIR-ligand genotyping to be used prospectively for identifying patients likely to benefit from certain cancer immunotherapy regimens. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 189-96. ©2017 AACR See related commentary by Cheung and Hsu, p

  20. Proliferation induced by Plasmodium falciparum antigen and interleukin-2 production by lymphocytes isolated from malaria-immune individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S

    1986-01-01

    -immune individuals, the proliferative response and the interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of SPAg-activated mononuclear cells (MNCs) from individuals unexposed, sensitized, and immune to malaria were measured. It was found that MNC isolated from malaria-immune individuals proliferated in response to SPAg...... and that this activation resulted in measurable IL-2 production in 5 of 10 MNC cultures. MNC isolates from most unexposed individuals did not respond to SPAg. To establish which cells responded to SPAg, different subpopulations of MNCs were tested. Only T helper cells were found to respond, and they responded only when...

  1. Interleukin-2 and dendritic cells as adjuvants for surgical therapy of tumours associated with human papillomavirus type 16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Mikyšková, Romana; Vonka, V.; Mendoza, Luis; Šímová, Jana; Šmahel, M.; Indrová, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, 9-10 (2003), s. 891-896 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/00/0114; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA AV ČR IAA7052002; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině(CZ) - Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : interleukin-2 * HPV 16 * dendritic cells Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2003

  2. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  3. Immunotherapy of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunoediting is the process by which the immune system protects the host from tumor development and guides the somatic evolution of tumors by eliminating highly immunogenic tumor cells. A fundamental dogma of tumor immunology and of cancer immunosurveillance in particular is that cancer cells express antigens that differentiate them from their nontransformed counterparts. Molecular studies clearly show that these antigens were often products of mutated cellular genes, aberrantly expressed normal genes, or genes encoding viral proteins. There is a strict correlation between genetic instability and the immune landscape of a breast cancer. Mutational heterogeneity in breast cancer is associated with new cancer-associated genes and new cancer antigens. Frequencies of somatic mutations or mutational burden can be related to the immunogenicity of breast cancer. We believe that molecular subtypes of breast cancer that are triple negative, luminal B-like or HER2-positive have a high mutational burden and can be considered immunogenic. The increasing knowledge of the immune system's capacity to not only recognize and destroy cancer, but also to shape cancer immunogenicity will develop more informed attempts to control cancer via immunological approaches. To be effective in breast cancer, immunotherapies will have to increase the quality or quantity of immune effector cells, reveal additional protective tumor antigens, and/or eliminate cancer-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms. Multiple immunotherapy approaches are under investigation in patients with breast cancer. These include vaccine approaches to elicit strong specific immune responses to tumor antigens such as WT-1, HER2 and NY-ESO-1, approaches involving adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded, naturally arising or genetically engineered tumor-specific lymphocytes, therapeutic administration of monoclonal antibodies to target and eliminate tumor cells, and approaches that inhibit or destroy the molecular or

  4. Potential therapeutic strategies for non - muscle invasive bladder cancer based on association of intravesical immunotherapy with P-MAPA and systemic administration of cisplatin and doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queila Cristina Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study describes the histopathological and molecular effects of P-MAPA (Protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride intravesical immunotherapy combined with systemic doxorubicin or cisplatin for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC in an appropriate animal model. Our results showed an undifferentiated tumor, characterizing a tumor invading mucosa or submucosa of the bladder wall (pT1 and papillary carcinoma in situ (pTa in the Cancer group. The histopathological changes were similar between the combined treatment with intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic Cisplatin and P-MAPA immunotherapy alone, showing decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery in 80% of the animals. The animals treated systemically with cisplatin or doxorubicin singly, showed 100% of malignant lesions in the urinary bladder. Furthemore, the combined treatment with P-MAPA and Doxorubicin showed no decrease of urothelial neoplastic lesions progression and histopathological recovery. Furthermore, Akt, PI3K, NF-kB and VEGF protein levels were significantly lower in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments than other groups. In contrast, PTEN protein levels were significantly higher in intravesical P-MAPA plus systemic cisplatin and in intravesical P-MAPA alone treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that combination of intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy and systemic cisplatin in the NMIBC animal model was effective, well tolerated and showed no apparent signs of antagonism between the drugs. In addition, intravesical P-MAPA immunotherapy may be considered as a valuable option for treatment of BCG unresponsive patients that unmet the criteria for early cystectomy.

  5. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y.

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy

  6. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  7. Sublingual Immunotherapy: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Compalati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of administering sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergy is gaining more and more diffusion worldwide as a consequence of the robust demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety provided by recent high-powered and well-designed studies, confirming for individual seasonal allergens the results of previous metanalyses in adult and pediatric populations. Preliminary evidence derives from recent rigorous trials on perennial allergens, like house dust mites, and specifically designed studies addressed the benefits on asthma. Emerging research suggests that SLIT may have a future role in other allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, food, latex and venom allergy. Efforts to develop a safer and more effective SLIT for inhalant allergens have led to the development of allergoids, recombinant allergens and formulations with adjuvants and substances targeting antigens to dendritic cells that possess a crucial role in initiating immune responses. The high degree of variation in the evaluation of clinical effects and immunological changes requires further studies to identify the candidate patients to SLIT and biomarkers of short and long term efficacy. Appropriate management strategies are urgently needed to overcome the barriers to SLIT compliance.

  8. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine-based, less intensive conditioning regimens as adoptive immunotherapy in advanced Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderlini, P; Giralt, S; Andersson, B; Ueno, N T; Khouri, I; Acholonu, S; Cohen, A; Körbling, M J; Manning, J; Romaguera, J; Sarris, A; Rodriguez; Hagemeister, F; Mclaughlin, P; Cabanillas, F; Champlin, R E

    2000-09-01

    Six patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease in which multiple conventional treatments (median prior chemotherapy regimens: seven), radiation therapy, and a prior autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) had failed underwent allogeneic SCT following a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen. Median age was 29 years (22-30). Median time to progression after autologous SCT was 6 months (4-21). Disease status at transplant was refractory relapse (n = 3) and sensitive relapse (n = 3). Cell source was filgrastim-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-identical sibling (n = 4) or matched unrelated donor marrow (n = 2). Conditioning regimens were fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-antithymocyte globulin (n = 4), fludarabine-melphalan (n = 1) and fludarabine-cytarabine-idarubicin (n = 1). Myeloid recovery was prompt, with an absolute neutrophil count > or =500/microl on day 12 (11-15). Median platelet recovery to > or =20000/microl was on day 9 (0-60). Chimerism studies on day 30 indicated 100% donor-derived hematopoiesis in 4/5 evaluable patients (4/4 non-progressors). All responders (3/3) have ongoing 100% donor-derived chimerism. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was diagnosed in 4/6 evaluable patients. Chronic GVHD was present in 2/4 evaluable patients. There were no regimen-related deaths. Overall day 100 transplant-related mortality was 2/6 (33%). Three patients have expired and three are alive and progression-free with a median follow-up of 9 months (6-26) post transplant. We conclude that allogeneic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine-based preparative regimens is feasible in these high-risk, heavily pretreated HD patients.

  9. Particle platforms for cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serda RE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Elena Serda Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Elevated understanding and respect for the relevance of the immune system in cancer development and therapy has led to increased development of immunotherapeutic regimens that target existing cancer cells and provide long-term immune surveillance and protection from cancer recurrence. This review discusses using particles as immune adjuvants to create vaccines and to augment the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutics. Several particle prototypes are presented, including liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, and porous silicon microparticles, the latter existing as either single- or multiparticle platforms. The benefits of using particles include immune-cell targeting, codelivery of antigens and immunomodulatory agents, and sustained release of the therapeutic payload. Nanotherapeutic-based activation of the immune system is dependent on both intrinsic particle characteristics and on the immunomodulatory cargo, which may include danger signals known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and cytokines for effector-cell activation. Keywords: adjuvant, particle, immunotherapy, dendritic cell, cancer, vaccine

  10. Effects of low-dose recombinant interleukin 2 to promote T-regulatory cells in alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Emeline; Le Duff, Florence; Butori, Catherine; Ticchioni, Michel; Hofman, Paul; Bahadoran, Philippe; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Passeron, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    An impaired inhibitory function of circulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was reported to play a key role in alopecia areata (AA). We report the first use to our knowledge of low-dose interleukin 2 for treating severe AA by promoting the recruitment of Treg cells. We conducted a prospective open pilot study in 5 patients with severe AA resistant to previous systemic treatments. Subcutaneous interleukin 2 (1.5 million IU/d) was administered during 5 days, followed by three 5-day courses of 3 million IU/d at weeks 3, 6, and 9. The primary outcome was the evolution of the Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score, evaluated by 2 independent investigators on standardized photographs. Lesional skin biopsy specimens and peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotype were analyzed. The median SALT score went from 82 (range, 63-100) at baseline to 69 (range, 28-100) at 6 months. Immunochemical analysis revealed the appearance or a notable increase in Treg cell count in 4 of 5 patients at the end of the treatment compared with baseline. No serious adverse event was reported. The partial regrowth achieved in 4 of 5 patients and the recruitment of Treg cells in lesional skin support the interest of promoting Treg cells for treating AA. Further investigations are now required to confirm and to optimize the design in order to enhance the Treg cell response. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840046.

  11. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  13. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with

  14. Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Tsukamoto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC of the bladder is based on the BCG-induced immune response, which eradicates and prevents bladder cancer. The results of recent studies have suggested that not only major histocompatibility complex (MHC-nonrestricted immune cells such as natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, etc., but also MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells play an important role and are one of the main effectors in this therapy. Better understanding of the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy supports the idea that active immunotherapy through its augmented T cell response can have great potential for the treatment of advanced UC. In this review, progress in immunotherapy for UC is discussed based on data from basic, translational and clinical studies. We also review the escape mechanism of cancer cells from the immune system, and down-regulation of MHC class I molecules.

  15. Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Current Status and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkitamu@sapmed.ac.jp; Tsukamoto, Taiji [Department of Urology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South 1 West 16, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8543 (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is based on the BCG-induced immune response, which eradicates and prevents bladder cancer. The results of recent studies have suggested that not only major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-nonrestricted immune cells such as natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, etc., but also MHC-restricted CD8{sup +} T cells play an important role and are one of the main effectors in this therapy. Better understanding of the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy supports the idea that active immunotherapy through its augmented T cell response can have great potential for the treatment of advanced UC. In this review, progress in immunotherapy for UC is discussed based on data from basic, translational and clinical studies. We also review the escape mechanism of cancer cells from the immune system, and down-regulation of MHC class I molecules.

  16. Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma: Current Status and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-01-01

    Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is based on the BCG-induced immune response, which eradicates and prevents bladder cancer. The results of recent studies have suggested that not only major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-nonrestricted immune cells such as natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, etc., but also MHC-restricted CD8 + T cells play an important role and are one of the main effectors in this therapy. Better understanding of the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy supports the idea that active immunotherapy through its augmented T cell response can have great potential for the treatment of advanced UC. In this review, progress in immunotherapy for UC is discussed based on data from basic, translational and clinical studies. We also review the escape mechanism of cancer cells from the immune system, and down-regulation of MHC class I molecules

  17. Immunotherapy Approaches for Malignant Glioma From 2007 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a deadly disease for which there have been few therapeutic advances over the past century. Although previous treatments were largely unsuccessful, glioma may be an ideal target for immune-based therapy. Recently, translational research led to several clinical trials based on tumor immunotherapy to treat patients with malignant glioma. Here we review 17 recent glioma immunotherapy clinical trials, published over the past 3 years. Various approaches were used, including passive transfer of naked and radiolabeled antibodies, tumor antigen-specific peptide immunization, and the use of patient tumor cells with or without dendritic cells as vaccines. We compare and discuss the current state of the art of clinical immunotherapy treatment, as well as its limited successes, pitfalls, and future potential. PMID:20424975

  18. Selection of patients for sublingual versus subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée E S; Blaiss, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the sole treatment for IgE-mediated allergic diseases directed at the underlying mechanism. The two widely accepted administration routes are sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT). We reviewed how patients should best be selected for immunotherapy and how the optimal administration route can be defined. Before deciding SCIT or SLIT, appropriate selection of patients for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is mandatory. To be eligible for AIT, subjects must have a clear medical history of allergic disease, with exacerbation of symptoms on exposure to one or more allergens and a corresponding positive skin or in vitro test. Then the route of administration should be based on: published evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy (which varies per allergic disease and per allergen); mono- or multi-allergen immunotherapy, for SLIT multi-allergen immunotherapy was not effective; safety: adverse events with SLIT are more frequent, but less severe; and, costs and patient preferences, closely related to adherence issues. All these are discussed in the article.

  19. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Suzana; Calderon, Moises A; Wilson, Duncan; Durham, Stephen

    2010-12-08

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 2, 2003.Allergic rhinitis is a common condition which can significantly impair quality of life. Immunotherapy by injection can significantly reduce symptoms and medication use but its use is limited by the possibility of severe systemic adverse reactions. Immunotherapy by the sublingual route is therefore of considerable interest. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in adults and children. We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register; CENTRAL (2010, Issue 3); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 14 August 2009. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of sublingual immunotherapy in adults or children. Primary outcome measures were symptom and medication scores. We also collected adverse event data. Two independent authors selected studies and assessed risk of bias. One author extracted data which was rechecked by two other authors. We used the standardised mean difference (SMD) with a random-effects model to combine data. We included a total of 60 randomised controlled trials in the review. Forty-nine were suitable for pooling in meta-analyses (2333 SLIT, 2256 placebo participants). Overall, we found a significant reduction in symptoms (SMD -0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.64 to -0.34, P sublingual immunotherapy compared to placebo. None of the trials included in this review reported severe systemic reactions or anaphylaxis, and none of the systemic reactions reported required the use of adrenaline. This updated review reinforces the conclusion of the original 2003 Cochrane Review that sublingual immunotherapy is effective for allergic rhinitis and has been proven to be a safe route of administration.

  20. Immunotherapy of distant metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadendorf, D; Algarra, S M; Bastholt, L

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated with signif......Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated...

  1. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus on the recent advances in a proof of concept study in food allergy, FAST (Food allergy specific immunotherapy), which may increase interest within the biomolecular and pharmaceutical industry to embark on similar projects of immunology driven precision medicine within the allergy field.

  2. Cancer immunotherapy: Opportunities and challenges in the rapidly evolving clinical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens, Leisha A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Darcy, Phillip K; Demaria, Sandra; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Redmond, William L; Seliger, Barbara; Marincola, Francesco M

    2017-08-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now established as a powerful way to treat cancer. The recent clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade (antagonists of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1) highlights both the universal power of treating the immune system across tumour types and the unique features of cancer immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events, atypical clinical response patterns, durable responses, and clear overall survival benefit distinguish cancer immunotherapy from cytotoxic cancer therapy. Combination immunotherapies that transform non-responders to responders are under rapid development. Current challenges facing the field include incorporating immunotherapy into adjuvant and neoadjuvant cancer therapy, refining dose, schedule and duration of treatment and developing novel surrogate endpoints that accurately capture overall survival benefit early in treatment. As the field rapidly evolves, we must prioritise the development of biomarkers to guide the use of immunotherapies in the most appropriate patients. Immunotherapy is already transforming cancer from a death sentence to a chronic disease for some patients. By making smart, evidence-based decisions in developing next generation immunotherapies, cancer should become an imminently treatable, curable and even preventable disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular immunotherapy of cancer: an overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ziqi; Li, Shuang; Ichim, Thomas E; Yang, Junbao; Riordan, Neil; Yenugonda, Venkata; Babic, Ivan; Kesari, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    The clinical success of checkpoint inhibitors has led to a renaissance of interest in cancer immunotherapies. In particular, the possibility of ex vivo expanding autologous lymphocytes that specifically recognize tumor cells has attracted much research and clinical trial interest. In this review, we discuss the historical background of tumor immunotherapy using cell-based approaches, and provide some rationale for overcoming current barriers to success of autologous immunotherapy. An overview of adoptive transfer of lymphocytes, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cell therapies is provided. We conclude with discussing the possibility of gene-manipulating immune cells in order to augment therapeutic activity, including silencing of the immune-suppressive zinc finger orphan nuclear receptor, NR2F6, as an attractive means of overcoming tumor-associated immune suppression.

  4. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1980s as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy and in the latest decade achieved significant advances. Its efficacy in allergic rhinitis is supported by a number of meta-analyses. The development of SLIT preparations in tablets to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agencies for quality of allergen extracts made available optimal products for grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Preparations of other allergens based on the same production methods are currently in progress. A notable outcome of SLIT, that is shared with subcutaneous immunotherapy, is the evident cost-effectiveness, showing significant cost savings as early as 3 months from starting the treatment, that become as high as 80% compared with drug treatment in the ensuing years.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  6. Harnessing the Microbiome to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota plays a key role in regulating the innate and adaptive immune system. Herein, we review the immunological aspects of the microbiota in tumor immunity in mice and man, with a focus on toll-like receptor (TLR agonists, vaccines, checkpoint modulators, chemotherapy, and adoptive T cell transfer (ACT therapies. We propose innovative treatments that may safely harness the microbiota to enhance T cell-based therapies in cancer patients. Finally, we highlight recent developments in tumor immunotherapy, particularly novel ways to modulate the microbiome and memory T cell responses to human malignancies.

  7. Natural Killer T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells. Finally, we discuss future perspectives to better harness the potential of NKT cells for cancer therapy. PMID:29018445

  8. Role of regulatory T cells in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing relapse-preventive immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Frida Ewald; Nilsson, Malin; Rydström, Anna; Aurelius, Johan; Riise, Rebecca E; Movitz, Charlotta; Bernson, Elin; Kiffin, Roberta; Ståhlberg, Anders; Brune, Mats; Foà, Robin; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B; Martner, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (T regs ) have been proposed to dampen functions of anti-neoplastic immune cells and thus promote cancer progression. In a phase IV trial (Re:Mission Trial, NCT01347996, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ) 84 patients (age 18-79) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) received ten consecutive 3-week cycles of immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to prevent relapse of leukemia in the post-consolidation phase. This study aimed at defining the features, function and dynamics of Foxp3 + CD25 high CD4 + T regs during immunotherapy and to determine the potential impact of T regs on relapse risk and survival. We observed a pronounced increase in T reg counts in peripheral blood during initial cycles of HDC/IL-2. The accumulating T regs resembled thymic-derived natural T regs (nT regs ), showed augmented expression of CTLA-4 and suppressed the cell cycle proliferation of conventional T cells ex vivo. Relapse of AML was not prognosticated by T reg counts at onset of treatment or after the first cycle of immunotherapy. However, the magnitude of T reg induction was diminished in subsequent treatment cycles. Exploratory analyses implied that a reduced expansion of T regs in later treatment cycles and a short T reg telomere length were significantly associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Our results suggest that immunotherapy with HDC/IL-2 in AML entails induction of immunosuppressive T regs that may be targeted for improved anti-leukemic efficiency.

  9. Surgical adjuvant immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enker, W.E.; Jacobitz, J.L.; Craft, K.; Wissler, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred forty-four Wistar-Furth rats in 12 therapeutic groups have been studied in a long-term comparison of the effectiveness of nonspecific immunotherapy with MER (methanol extraction residue) vs active-specific immunotherapy with neuraminidase-modified tumor cells. Six months after surgical adjuvant immunotherapy a 100% improvement in survival was achieved with MER immunotherapy compared to untreated control animals. In addition, the use of MER enhanced the value of active-specific immunotherapy where both modalities were combined in sequence. The predicted value of MER-BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) for the immunotherapy of solid tumors was borne out by these results suggesting that present ongoing clinical trials of MER as adjuvant therapy for large bowel cancer should prove to be successful if properly controlled. The pattern of survival in these experiments suggests that surgical adjuvant immunotherapy is cytostatic rather than cytocidal, and implies the need for long-term, repeated immunizations.

  10. Phytohemagglutinin induced proliferation by aged lymphocytes: reduced expression of high affinity interluekin-2 receptors and interleukin-2 secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, C.J.; Burkett, J.S.; Guiffaut, S.; Kingsland, R.; Brauner, D.

    1988-01-01

    Human lymphocytes from elderly and young donors were cultured with phytohemagglutinin. Cultures from two groups of aged donors, recruited respectively from the authors ambulatory clinic and a nursing home, incorporated less tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) and secreted less interleukin-2 than did young donors. Furthermore, as determined for the first time by a radioligand binding receptor assay, the aged lymphoblasts possessed significantly fewer high affinity IL-2 receptors per cell. Despite a decrease in the number of high affinity receptor cells the dissociation constant (Kd) was comparable for the three groups. It was also shown that the amounts of soluble IL-2 receptors that were released into the supernatants by mitogen stimulated cells did not differ for the aged and young donors. These data suggest that defects in IL-2 production and high affinity IL-2 receptor generation may both be responsible for immune deficiency in the elderly

  11. Differential effects of interleukin-2 and interleukin-15 versus interleukin-21 on CD4+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Halasa, Krzysztof; Kasprzycka, Monika

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-15, and IL-21 on gene expression, activation of cell signaling pathways, and functional properties of cells derived from CD4+ cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Whereas both IL-2 and IL-15 modulated, in a CTCL cell line...... two novel therapeutic approaches to CTCL and, possibly, other CD4+ T-cell lymphomas: inhibition of the Jak1/Jak3 kinase complex and, given the known strong immunostimulatory properties of IL-21 on CD8+ T, natural killer, and B cells, application of this cytokine to boost an immune response against...... malignant CD4+ T cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-15...

  12. The stimulation of EL-4 cells to produce interleukin-2 and its potential use in immunocytotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasek, W.; Steer, S.; Clothier, R.; Balls, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of EL-4 thymoma cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) following exposure to phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Concanavalin A (Con A) has been studied in vitro using medium containing either 10% or 1% fetal calf serum (FCS). The potent stimulatory effect of PMA on IL-2 production by EL-4 cells has been confirmed by measuring 3H-thymidine incorporation by the IL-2-dependent T cell line, CTLL-2, in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from stimulated cultures. EL-4 cells produced several times more IL-2 when cultured in medium containing 10% FCS than when only 1% FCS was present. Added together, PMA and Con A acted synergistically in some EL-4 cell cultures. The ability of E:-4 cells to produce IL-2 was maintained after further incubation without stimulants. CM with IL-2 activity from stimulated EL-4 cells could prove useful in immunotoxicity testing

  13. Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and cleavage of interleukin-2 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Kharazmi, A; Pedersen, B K

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (AP) and elastase (ELA) on human lymphocyte function. AP at 50 micrograms/ml and ELA at 12 micrograms/ml caused a 50% inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-induced proliferation. There was no difference...... in the effect of proteases on CD4- and CD8-positive cells. To determine the effect of proteases on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced cell proliferation, the proteases and IL-2 were added to the IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cell line. AP and ELA inhibited the proliferation of these cells. When IL-2 was added in excess......, the inhibition was partly reversed. ELA at 10 micrograms/ml cleaved IL-2, as judged by size chromatography of a reaction mixture containing 125I-labeled IL-2 and the proteases. The ELA-digested IL-2 exhibited a reduced binding capacity to IL-2 receptors on the lymphocytes. Furthermore, treatment...

  14. Two randomised phase II trials of subcutaneous interleukin-2 and histamine dihydrochloride in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Middleton, M; Fode, K

    2005-01-01

    Histamine inhibits formation and release of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, and thereby protects natural killer and T cells against oxidative damage. Thus, the addition of histamine may potentially improve the efficacy of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Two randomised phase II trials of IL-2...... with or without histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) were run in parallel. A total of 41 patients were included in Manchester, UK and 63 in Aarhus, Denmark. The self-administered, outpatient regimen included IL-2 as a fixed dose, 18 MIU s.c. once daily, 5 days...... per week for 3 weeks followed by 2 weeks rest. Histamine dihydrochloride was added twice daily, 1.0 mg s.c., concomitantly with IL-2. A maximum of four cycles were given. The Danish study showed a statistically significant 1-year survival benefit (76 vs 47%, P = 0.03), a trend towards benefit in both...

  15. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus

  16. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus...

  17. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A. Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J.; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F.; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A.

    2015-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In

  18. Secretion of mature mouse interleukin-2 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: use of a general secretion vector containing promoter and leader sequences of the mating pheromone alpha-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, A; Bond, M W; Otsu, K; Arai, K; Arai, N

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a general expression vector which allows the synthesis and secretion of processed gene products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This vector contains yeast DNA, including the promoter of the mating pheromone (alpha-factor), its downstream leader sequence, and the TRP5 terminator. A cDNA [encoding mature mouse interleukin-2 (IL-2); Yokota et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82 (1984) 68-72] was fused immediately downstream to the alpha-factor leader sequence. The resulting recombinant plasmid directed the synthesis of mature mouse IL-2 in S. cerevisiae, with most of the T-cell growth-factor (TCGF) activity secreted into the culture fluid and extracellular space. TCGF activities in the cell extract, as well as in the culture fluid, increased in parallel with cell growth. Production of mature mouse IL-2 was inhibited by tunicamycin (TM), with precursor molecules accumulating in the cell extract. The precursor was processed accurately at the junction between the alpha-factor peptide leader sequence and the coding sequence downstream, yielding mature IL-2. The Mr of the secreted mouse IL-2 determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was 17 kDal, a value expected for the mature mouse IL-2 polypeptide based on the nucleotide (nt) sequence.

  19. Dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrids and immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cathelin, Dominique; Nicolas, Alexandra; Bouchot, André

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells currently being used as a cellular adjuvant in cancer immunotherapy strategies. Unfortunately, DC-based vaccines have not demonstrated spectacular clinical results. DC loading with tumor antigens and DC differentiation and activation...

  20. Tumor immunotherapy : clinics of cytokines and monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieken, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Tumor immunotherapy is defines as treatment that induces anti-tumor responses via the modulation of both cellular and homoral components of the host immune system. Its concept is based on hte assumption that tumor cells express unique protiens, so-calles tumor antigens, that can be identified as

  1. Targetless T cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor Straten, Per; Garrido, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Attention has recently focused on new cancer immunotherapy protocols aiming to activate T cell mediated anti-tumor responses. To this end, administration of antibodies that target inhibitory molecules regulating T-cell cytotoxicity has achieved impressive clinical responses, as has adoptive cell transfer (ACT) using expanded tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or genetically modified cytotoxic T cells. However, despite clear clinical responses, only a fraction of patients respond to treatment and there is an urgent call for characterization of predictive biomarkers. CD8 positive T cells can infiltrate tumor tissues and destroy HLA class I positive tumor cells expressing the specific antigen. In fact, current progress in the field of cancer immune therapy is based on the capacity of T cells to kill cancer cells that present tumor antigen in the context on an HLA class I molecule. However, it is also well established that cancer cells are often characterized by loss or down regulation of HLA class I molecules, documented in a variety of human tumors. Consequently, immune therapy building on CD8 T cells will be futile in patients harboring HLA class-I negative or deficient cancer cells. It is therefore mandatory to explore if these important molecules for T cell cytotoxicity are expressed by cancer target cells. We have indications that different types of immunotherapy can modify the tumor microenvironment and up-regulate reduced HLA class I expression in cancer cells but only if the associated molecular mechanisms is reversible (soft). However, in case of structural (hard) aberrations causing HLA class I loss, tumor cells will not be able to recover HLA class I expression and as a consequence will escape T-cell lysis and continue to growth. Characterization of the molecular mechanism underlying the lack or downregulation of HLA class I expression, seems to be a crucial step predicting clinical responses to T cell mediated immunotherapy, and possibly aid the

  2. New approach for in vivo detection of insulitis in type I diabetes: activated lymphocyte targeting with 123I-labelled interleukin 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, S.; Chianelli, M.; Ferretti, E.; Toscano, A.; Britton, K.E.; Andreani, D.; Gale, E.A.M.; Pozzilli, P.

    1994-01-01

    Insulitis is considered the histopathological hallmark of type I diabetes. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, diabetes has never been observed in the absence of insulitis. The in vivo detection of insulitis could be of relevance for early prediction of diabetes. As approximately 15% of islet-infiltrating lymphocytes express interleukin 2 receptors, the authors have labelled recombinant inter-leukin 2 with 123 I and used this radiopharmaceutical to detect insulitis by gamma camera imaging. The authors studied 71 prediabetic NOD and 27 normal Balb/c mice. Labelled α-lactalbumin was used as the control protein. In the first set of experiments the tissue distribution of radiolabelled interleukin 2 in isolated organs from animals sacrificed at different time points was studied. Higher radioactivity was detected in the pancreas of NOD mice injected with labelled interleukin 2, as compared to NOD mice receiving labelled α-lactalbumin. In another set of experiments, gamma camera images have been acquired after injection of 123 I-labelled interleukin 2. Radioactivity in the pancreatic region of prediabetic NOD and Balb/c mice showed similar kinetics to those observed by single organ counting, with higher accumulation in the pancreatic region of NOD mice. Finally, a positive correlation was found between the radioactivity in the pancreas and the extent of lymphocytic infiltration. This study demonstrates that 123 I-labelled interleukin 2 administered intravenously accumulates specifically in the inflamed pancreas of diabetes-prone NOD mice, suggesting its potential application in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Patient selection for subcutaneous versus sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée

    2015-12-01

    With the Food and Drug Administration's approval of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SL-AIT) tablets for grass and ragweed pollen, SL-AIT is progressively gathering importance not only in Europe, but also in the United States and other parts of the world. We reviewed issues related to the selection of patients for the sublingual or the subcutaneous route for allergic patients, based on what has been published since January 2014 on subcutaneous-versus-SL-AIT efficacy, safety and other issues. (Figure is included in full-text article.) As patient's adherence seems one of the major problems in real-life AIT, investigators have sought how to enhance AIT simplicity by changing the route to home-administrated SL-AIT, and by shortening the subcutaneous-allergen-specific immunotherapy (SC-AIT) build-up or maintenance phase. The latter was safe with several hypoallergenic extracts. As for SL-AIT, double blind placebo-controlled large trials in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma have shown the efficacy and safety of ragweed pollen and house dust mite SLIT tablets and highly concentrated liquid formulations, primarily in adults. A large trial with SLIT in 3-year-old children was effective. With the improvement of SL-AIT efficacy, the selection of SC-versus-SL-AIT will probably increasingly be based not on efficacy, but on practical aspects, without losing sight of which SL-AIT products have proven efficacy.

  4. Designer vaccine nanodiscs for personalized cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Rui; Ochyl, Lukasz J.; Bahjat, Keith S.; Schwendeman, Anna; Moon, James J.

    2017-04-01

    Despite the tremendous potential of peptide-based cancer vaccines, their efficacy has been limited in humans. Recent innovations in tumour exome sequencing have signalled the new era of personalized immunotherapy with patient-specific neoantigens, but a general methodology for stimulating strong CD8α+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses remains lacking. Here we demonstrate that high-density lipoprotein-mimicking nanodiscs coupled with antigen (Ag) peptides and adjuvants can markedly improve Ag/adjuvant co-delivery to lymphoid organs and sustain Ag presentation on dendritic cells. Strikingly, nanodiscs elicited up to 47-fold greater frequencies of neoantigen-specific CTLs than soluble vaccines and even 31-fold greater than perhaps the strongest adjuvant in clinical trials (that is, CpG in Montanide). Moreover, multi-epitope vaccination generated broad-spectrum T-cell responses that potently inhibited tumour growth. Nanodiscs eliminated established MC-38 and B16F10 tumours when combined with anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy. These findings represent a new powerful approach for cancer immunotherapy and suggest a general strategy for personalized nanomedicine.

  5. Immunotherapy Treatments of Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bainan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA is one of four clinical types of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, with the characteristics of autoantibodies maximally active at body temperature. It produces a variable anemia—sometimes mild and sometimes severe. With respect to the absence or presence of an underlying condition, WAIHA is either idiopathic (primary or secondary, which determines the treatment strategies in practice. Conventional treatments include immune suppression with corticosteroids and, in some cases, splenectomy. In recent years, the number of clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies and immunosuppressants in the treatment of WAIHA increased as the knowledge of autoimmunity mechanisms extended. This thread of developing new tools of treating WAIHA is well exemplified with the success in using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab. Following this success, other treatment methods based on the immune mechanisms of WAIHA have emerged. We reviewed these newly developed immunotherapy treatments here in order to provide the clinicians with more options in selecting the best therapy for patients with WAIHA, hoping to stimulate researchers to find more novel immunotherapy strategies.

  6. Identification of new tumor associated antigens and their usage for new therapeutic strategies based on the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy for colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proietti, E.; Maccalli, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Robbins, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    The main general objective of this project was to characterize a new colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and validate a new therapeutic strategy combining chemotherapy and tumor vaccination for the treatment of cancer patients. To this purpose a strategic interaction between Drs. Proietti/Maccali at the ISS and the group of Drs. Rosenberg/Robbins at the NIH was established. A stage of Dr. Maccalli at the NIH allowed to carry out the first steps for the identification and the initial characterization of the CRC TAA named COA-1. A laboratory meeting with Dr. Robbins has been planned on May 24-25 2006 at the ISS, during the International Meeting on Immunotherapy of Cancer: Challenges and Needs, for discussing results and perspectives of this research project

  7. Sublingual immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sandra Y; Erekosima, Nkiruka; Kim, Julia M; Ramanathan, Murugappan; Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; Ward, Darcy; Segal, Jodi B

    2013-03-27

    Allergic rhinitis affects up to 40% of the US population. To desensitize allergic individuals, subcutaneous injection immunotherapy or sublingual immunotherapy may be administered. In the United States, sublingual immunotherapy is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. However, some US physicians use aqueous allergens, off-label, for sublingual desensitization. To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of aqueous sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through December 22, 2012. English-language randomized controlled trials were included if they compared sublingual immunotherapy with placebo, pharmacotherapy, or other sublingual immunotherapy regimens and reported clinical outcomes. Studies of sublingual immunotherapy that are unavailable in the United States and for which a related immunotherapy is unavailable in the United States were excluded. Paired reviewers selected articles and extracted the data. The strength of the evidence for each comparison and outcome was graded based on the risk of bias (scored on allocation, concealment of intervention, incomplete data, sponsor company involvement, and other bias), consistency, magnitude of effect, and the directness of the evidence. Sixty-three studies with 5131 participants met the inclusion criteria. Participants' ages ranged from 4 to 74 years. Twenty studies (n = 1814 patients) enrolled only children. The risk of bias was medium in 43 studies (68%). Strong evidence supports that sublingual immunotherapy improves asthma symptoms, with 8 of 13 studies reporting greater than 40% improvement vs the comparator. Moderate evidence supports that sublingual immunotherapy use decreases rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms, with 9 of 36 studies demonstrating greater than 40% improvement vs the comparator. Medication use for asthma and allergies decreased by

  8. Recombinant alphaviruses as vectors for anti-tumour and anti-microbial immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, A; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; Huckriede, A; Wischut, J; Daemen, T

    Background: Vectors derived from alphaviruses are gaining interest for their high transfection potency and strong immunogenicity. Objectives: After a brief introduction on alphaviruses and their vectors, an overview is given on current preclinical immunotherapy studies using vector systems based on

  9. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    cancer immunotherapies has yet to be fulfilled. The insufficient efficacy of existing treatments can be attributed to a number of biological and technical issues. In this review, we detail the current limitations of immunotherapy target selection and design, and review computational methods to streamline...... therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  10. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  11. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AI...... appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. CONCLUSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  12. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  13. A phase I clinical study of immunotherapy for advanced colorectal cancers using carcinoembryonic antigen-pulsed dendritic cells mixed with tetanus toxoid and subsequent IL-2 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ko-Jiunn; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Chang, Jang-Yang; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Ch'ang, Hui-Ju; Kao, Woei-Yau; Wu, Yu-Chen; Yu, Wei-Lan; Chung, Tsai-Rong; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline

    2016-08-24

    To better evaluate and improve the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy, we conducted a clinical study of patients with advanced colorectal cancer using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-pulsed DCs mixed with tetanus toxoid and subsequent interleukin-2 treatment. The tetanus toxoid in the vaccine preparation serves as an adjuvant and provides a non-tumor specific immune response to enhance vaccine efficacy. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the toxicity of this treatment, (2) observe the clinical responses of vaccinated patients, and (3) investigate the immune responses of patients against CEA before and after treatment. Twelve patients were recruited and treated in this phase I clinical study. These patients all had metastatic colorectal cancer and failed standard chemotherapy. We first subcutaneously immunized patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with 1 × 10(6) CEA-pulsed DCs mixed with tetanus toxoid as an adjuvant. Patients received 3 successive injections with 1 × 10(6) CEA-pulsed DCs alone. Low-dose interleukin-2 was administered subcutaneously following the final DC vaccination to boost the growth of T cells. Patients were evaluated for adverse event and clinical status. Blood samples collected before, during, and after treatment were analyzed for T cell proliferation responses against CEA. No severe treatment-related side effects or toxicity was observed in patients who received the regular 4 DC vaccine injections. Two patients had stable disease and 10 patients showed disease progression. A statistically significant increase in proliferation against CEA by T cells collected after vaccination was observed in 2 of 9 patients. The results of this study indicate that it is feasible and safe to treat colorectal cancer patients using this protocol. An increase in the anti-CEA immune response and a clinical benefit was observed in a small fraction of patients. This treatment protocol should be further evaluated in

  14. Partial CD25 Antagonism Enables Dominance of Antigen-Inducible CD25high FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells As a Basis for a Regulatory T Cell-Based Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel S; Ghosh, Debjani; Nickle, Rebecca A; Moorman, Cody D; Mannie, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    coupled with high PC61 concentrations constrained IL-2 signaling to a low-intensity range that enabled dominant stable outgrowth of suppressive CD25 high FOXP3 + Tregs. The ability to indefinitely expand stable Treg lines will provide insight into FOXP3 + Treg physiology and will be foundational for Treg-based immunotherapy.

  15. Immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    This review aims to recap recent published data on immunological mechanisms underlying sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Although several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy, local intraoral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be safe and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists, especially in Europe as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Within the recent decades, much scientific effort focused on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Among these studies, several investigated detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network in which the protolerogenic character of local antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells play a central role. Moreover, immune responses to SLIT have also been studied in nasal and bronchial mucosa as well as on the systemic T cell immune alterations. Altogether, exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more basic research is necessary to further uncover key mechanisms of SLIT.

  16. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  17. Influence of corticosteroid pulse therapy on the serum levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; van Wijk, M. J.; Geertzen, R. G.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the influence of corticosteroid pulse (CP) therapy on soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty-five patients with active RA were studied before and after treatment with intravenous CP

  18. Nucleolin and YB-1 are required for JNK-mediated interleukin-2 mRNA stabilization during T-cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, C Y; Gherzi, R; Andersen, Jens S.

    2000-01-01

    Regulated mRNA turnover is a highly important process, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Using interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA as a model, we described a role for the JNK-signaling pathway in stabilization of IL-2 mRNA during T-cell activation, acting via a JNK response element (JRE) in the 5' un...

  19. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pett, S. L.; Wand, H.; Law, M. G.; Arduino, R.; Lopez, J. C.; Knysz, B.; Pereira, L. C.; Pollack, S.; Reiss, P.; Tambussi, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells >

  20. HLA-DR-expressing CD8bright cells are only temporarily present in the circulation during subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 therapy in renal-cell carcinoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R. A. J.; Straatsma, E.; Heijn, A. A.; Sleijfer, D. T.; de Vries, E. G. G; Mulder, N. H.; The, T. Hauw; de Leij, L.

    The effect of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) therapy on the ''activation status'' of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 17 renal cell carcinoma patients was investigated in a longitudinal study. The expression of the activation markers HLA-Dr and CD25 on cytotoxic T cells, helper

  1. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    We have examined signaling roles for CD54 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II as contact ligands during T help for B cell activation. We used a T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent helper system that was previously shown to be contact as well as interleukin 2 (IL-2...

  2. Coumestrol, Bisphenol-A, DDT, and TCDD Modulation of Interleukin-2 Expression in Activated CD+4 Jurkat T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McMurray

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous estrogens are known to modulate several components of immune response, including interleukin-2 (IL-2 production. IL-2 is a cytokine that plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. These responses may be modulated by xenoestrogens such as coumestrol, bisphenol A (BPA, DDT, and TCDD. In this research, we examined the effects and potential mechanisms of action of these estrogenic compounds on IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells. IL-2 production was analyzed by ELISA and Western Blot. At the transcriptional level, protein expression was examined by RT-PCR. Coumestrol, DDT and TCDD (but not BPA significantly suppressed IL-2 production in activated CD4+ Jurkat T cells, at the transcriptional and translational levels. The transcriptional suppression of IL-2 was associated with decreased protein levels of NF-κβ, an important IL-2 positive transcription factor, without affecting the expression of Iκ−Βα protein expression, an important inhibitor of NF-κβ nuclear translocation. Although the direct mechanisms of xenoestrogens modulation of the immune system remain to be elucidated, coumestrol-, DDT- and TCDD-induced suppression of IL-2 may have ramifications for our understanding of the impact of xenoestrogens on health and disease.

  3. Serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in association with oxidative stress index in patients with different types of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayki, Cenk; Gunay, Murat; Kulhan, Mehmet; Nayki, Umit; Cankaya, Murat; Kulhan, Nur Gozde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the oxidative-antioxidative status and levels of soluble interleukin-2 recep-tor (sIL-2R) in serum of patients with different types of HPV infections and to compare it with patients who are negative for HPV. A total of 80 women were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 25 women who were positive for HPV types 16 or 18; Group 2 consisted of 25 women who were positive for other types of HPV includ-ing type 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 or 68; Group 3 consisted of 30 patients who were negative for HPV as a control group. Serum sIL-2R and plasma oxidative stress index (OSI) were analyzed. Serum sIL-2R levels were significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 2 and 3. OSI was found significantly increased in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3. Also, we found a weak positive correlation between IL-2R and OSI. sIL-2R and oxidative stress may have a role in HPV infection, especially in case of high-risk types.

  4. Influence of tunicamycin, sialidase, and cholera toxin on gangliosides and T-lymphocyte responses to interleukin 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semmes, O.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Merritt, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have shown that gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL 2)-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. Tunicamycin (TM), sialidase, and cholera toxin-..beta.. subunit (..beta..-CT) are known modulators of cell surface glycoconjugates. To test the possible role of endogenous gangliosides in T cell responses to IL-2, the effect of these agents on ganglioside expression and cell proliferation was studied. Gangliosides were labelled for 24 hrs with /sup 3/H-glucosamine/galactose in the presence of IL-2 and purified sialidase, TM or ..beta..-CT. Gangliosides were isolated and the species separated by TLC. Alternatively, proliferation was assayed by /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake after 48 hrs culture. TM treatment at a concentration (10 ..mu..g/ml) that completely inhibited proliferation resulted in a 86% reduction of incorporation of saccharide precursors into gangliosides compared to a 50% reduction into proteins. Sialidase treatment (0.1 IU/ml) resulted in a 70% inhibition of proliferation and 30% reduction of radiolabel into gangliosides, of which 3 species were specifically reduced. ..beta..-CT, which binds to GM/sub 1/ and to a lesser extent GD/sub 1a/, caused a 50% reduction in proliferation response at 35 units/ml. The results support the hypothesis that gangliosides are involved in IL-2-dependent proliferation.

  5. Occupational levels of radiation exposure induce surface expression of interleukin-2 receptors in stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yindong; Greenstock, C.L.; Trivedi, A.; Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine responsible for a variety of immune and non-immune stimulatory and regulatory functions, including the activation and stimulation of cytotoxic cells able to recognize and kill human tumour cells and T-cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that low doses of radiation, in the range commonly received by atomic radiation workers or as a result of minor medical diagnostic procedures (0.25 to 10 mGy), stimulate the expression of IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) on the surface of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) taken from normal human donors. This stimulated surface expression after in vitro irradiation is an indirect effect, resulting from the secretion into the medium of a soluble factor from the irradiated cells. This factor can also stimulate IL-2R surface expression in unirradiated cells. Consequently, radiation stimulation of IL-2R expression in a large population of PBL shows a triggered-type response rather than being proportional to dose. These results demonstrate that normal human cells can respond to doses of radiation in the range of common occupational or medical exposures. The data also demonstrate a possible defence mechanism against environmental stress by which a radiation-exposed cell can use an indirect signalling mechanism to communicate with and influence the biological processes in an unexposed cell. (orig.). With 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 production between species, between tissues, and between young and old individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.J.; Akagawa, T.; Anderson, D.G.; Makinodan, T.

    1985-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production was assessed of (a) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young humans, dogs, and mice (C57BL/6); (b) PBMC and splenic cells of young mice; and (c) PBMC of young and old humans and the splenic cells of young and old mice. The results indicate that (a) large differences in radiosensitivity exist between the PBMC of humans, dogs, and mice (e.g., the radiation doses which resulted in 37% remaining IL-2 activity (D37) of human, dog, and mouse PBMC were 3771, greater than 10,000, and 1398 rads, respectively); (b) only a small difference exists between the PBMC and splenic cells of mice; and (c) no difference exists between the PBMC of young and old humans and between splenic cells of young and old mice. Topological abnormalities, as judged by scanning electron microscopic analysis, could not be detected in dog PBMC after their exposure to 1800 rads, but could be detected in mouse PBMC after their exposure to 400 rads

  7. Phase I study of prolonged low-dose subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angevin, E; Valteau-Couanet, D; Farace, F; Dietrich, P Y; Lecesne, A; Triebel, F; Escudier, B

    1995-10-01

    The present trial was designed to assess the feasibility of subcutaneous low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) given for 3 months in an outpatient setting. Twenty patients with advanced cancers (16 metastatic renal cell carcinoma) were included in this phase I study at the following three dose levels: 1, 3, and 6 x 10(6) IU/day (groups of 6, 6, and 8 patients, respectively). IL-2 was administered once daily 6 days a week for 12 weeks. Complete therapy was achieved in 13 of 20 patients, whereas 5 of 20 received at least 5 weeks of IL-2. Minor dose-dependent toxicities were observed including fatigue, transient grade 2-3 fever (11 of 18), and grade 1-2 digestive disorders (6 of 18) without significant biologic modifications but two cases of hypothyroidism. Doses were decreased from 6 to 3 x 10(6) IU/day in one patient (fever and allergic edema). All patients developed transient subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. These side effects never required hospitalization nor discontinuation of therapy. A dose-dependent and sustained increase in peripheral blood eosinophils and lymphocytes was observed, demonstrating that subcutaneous injections in this low-dose range could have similar biologic effects to those achieved with more intensive schedules. Because it is safe, practicable, and low in cost, we conclude that s.c. low-dose IL-2 could be useful for the design of immunomodulation trials with potential new application fields.

  8. Systemic Immunotherapy for Urothelial Cancer: Current Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urothelial cancer of the bladder, renal pelvis, ureter, and other urinary organs is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care for first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC. Until recently, there were very limited options for patients who are refractory to chemotherapy, or do not tolerate chemotherapy due to toxicities and overall outcomes have remained very poor. While the role of immunotherapy was first established in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in the 1970s, no systemic immunotherapy was approved for advanced disease until the recent approval of a programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab, in patients with advanced/metastatic UC who have progressed on platinum-containing regimens. This represents a significant milestone in this disease after a void of over 30 years. In addition to atezolizumab, a variety of checkpoint inhibitors have shown a significant activity in advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and are expected to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in the near future. The introduction of novel immunotherapy agents has led to rapid changes in the field of urothelial carcinoma. Numerous checkpoint inhibitors are being tested alone or in combination in the first and subsequent-line therapies of metastatic disease, as well as neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. They are also being studied in combination with radiation therapy and for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer refractory to BCG. Furthermore, immunotherapy is being utilized for those ineligible for firstline platinum-based chemotherapy. This review outlines the novel immunotherapy agents which have either been approved, or are currently being investigated in clinical trials in UC.

  9. Nano-technology based carriers for nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates delivery as sensitisers of γδ T cells for anticancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Naomi O; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T

    2017-05-15

    Nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) including zoledronate (ZOL) and alendronate (ALD) inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase, and have been shown to have a cytotoxic affect against cancer cells as a monotherapy and to also sensitise tumour cells to destruction by γδ T cells. γδ T cells are a subset of human T lymphocytes and have a diverse range of roles in the immune system including the recognition and destruction of cancer cells. This property of γδ T cells can be harnessed for use in cancer immunotherapy through in vivo expansion or the adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated γδ T cells. The use of N-BPs with γδ T cells has been shown to have a synergistic effect in in vitro, animal and clinical studies. N-BPs have limited in vivo activity due to rapid clearance from the circulation. By encapsulating N-BPs in liposomes (L) it is possible to increase the levels of N-BPs at non-osseous tumour sites. L-ZOL and L-ALD have been shown to have different toxicological profiles than free ZOL or ALD. Both L-ALD and L-ZOL led to increased spleen weight, leucocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia in mice after intravenous injection. L-ALD was shown to be better tolerated than L-ZOL in murine studies. Biodistribution studies have been performed in order to better understand the interaction of N-BPs and γδ T cells in vivo. Additionally, in vivo therapy studies have shown that mice treated with both L-ALD and γδ T cells had a significant reduction in tumour growth compared to mice treated with L-ALD or γδ T cells alone. The use of ligand-targeted liposomes may further increase the efficacy of this combinatory immunotherapy. Liposomes targeting the αvβ6 integrin receptor using the peptide A20FMDV2 had a greater ability than untargeted liposomes in sensitising cancer cells to destruction by γδ T cells in αvβ6 positive cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems biology applied to vaccine and immunotherapy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapies, including vaccines, represent a potent tool to prevent or contain disease with high morbidity or mortality such as infections and cancer. However, despite their widespread use, we still have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying the induction of protective immune responses. Immunity is made of a multifaceted set of integrated responses involving a dynamic interaction of thousands of molecules; among those is a growing appreciation for the role the innate immunity (i.e. pathogen recognition receptors - PRRs plays in determining the nature and duration (immune memory of adaptive T and B cell immunity. The complex network of interactions between immune manipulation of the host (immunotherapy on one side and innate and adaptive responses on the other might be fully understood only employing the global level of investigation provided by systems biology. In this framework, the advancement of high-throughput technologies, together with the extensive identification of new genes, proteins and other biomolecules in the "omics" era, facilitate large-scale biological measurements. Moreover, recent development of new computational tools enables the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the interactions between all of the components of immunity over time. Here, we review recent progress in using systems biology to study and evaluate immunotherapy and vaccine strategies for infectious and neoplastic diseases. Multi-parametric data provide novel and often unsuspected mechanistic insights while enabling the identification of common immune signatures relevant to human investigation such as the prediction of immune responsiveness that could lead to the improvement of the design of future immunotherapy trials. Thus, the paradigm switch from "empirical" to "knowledge-based" conduct of medicine and immunotherapy in particular, leading to patient-tailored treatment.

  11. Polymeric particulate systems for immunotherapy of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been established as a groundbreaking approach to treat cancer. It involves modulation of the host’s immune response to fight cancer. This is achieved by either enhancing tumor-specific T cell responses or inhibition of the tumor-induced immune suppression. Immunotherapy, however

  12. Sialylated Fetuin-A as a candidate predictive biomarker for successful grass pollen allergen immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Caillot, Noemie; Bouley, Julien; Jain, Karine; Mariano, Sandrine; Luce, Sonia; Horiot, Stéphane; Airouche, Sabi; Beuraud, Chloe; Beauvallet, Christian; Devillier, Philippe; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Kellenberger, Christine; Mascarell, Laurent; Chabre, Henri; Batard, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Eligibility to immunotherapy is based on the determination of IgE reactivity to a specific allergen by means of skin prick or in vitro testing. Biomarkers predicting the likelihood of clinical improvement during immunotherapy would significantly improve patient selection. Methods: Proteins were differentially assessed by using 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and label-free mass spectrometry in pretreatment sera obtained from clinical responders and nonresponders wit...

  13. Antibody-mediated delivery of interleukin-2 to the stroma of breast cancer strongly enhances the potency of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårlind, Jessica; Kaspar, Manuela; Trachsel, Eveline; Sommavilla, Roberto; Hindle, Stuart; Bacci, Camilla; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Neri, Dario

    2008-10-15

    There is an interest in the discovery of biopharmaceuticals, which are well tolerated and which potentiate the action of anthracyclines and taxanes in breast cancer therapy. We have produced a recombinant fusion protein, composed of the human antibody fragment scFv(F16) fused to human interleukin-2 (F16-IL2), and tested its therapeutic performance in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model of human breast cancer. The F16 antibody is specific to the alternatively spliced A1 domain of tenascin-C, which is virtually undetectable in normal tissues but is strongly expressed in the neovasculature and stroma of breast cancer. When used as monotherapy, F16-IL2 displayed a strikingly superior therapeutic benefit compared with unconjugated recombinant IL-2. The administration of doxorubicin either before (8 days, 24 h, or 2 h) or simultaneously with the injection of F16-IL2 did not decrease the accumulation of immunocytokine in the tumor as measured by quantitative biodistribution analysis. Therapy experiments, featuring five once per week coadministrations of 20 mug F16-IL2 and doxorubicin, showed a statistically significant reduction of tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival at a 4 mg/kg doxorubicin dose but not at a 1 mg/kg dose. By contrast, combination of F16-IL2 with paclitaxel (5 and 1 mg/kg) exhibited a significant therapeutic benefit compared with paclitaxel alone at both dose levels. F16-IL2, alone or in combination with doxorubicin, was well tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys at doses equivalent to the ones now used in clinical studies. F16-IL2 may represent a new useful biopharmaceutical for the treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  15. IL2RA genetic heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes susceptibility and soluble interleukin-2 receptor production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Maier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D are organ-specific autoimmune disorders with significant heritability, part of which is conferred by shared alleles. For decades, the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA complex was the only known susceptibility locus for both T1D and MS, but loci outside the HLA complex harboring risk alleles have been discovered and fully replicated. A genome-wide association scan for MS risk genes and candidate gene association studies have previously described the IL2RA gene region as a shared autoimmune locus. In order to investigate whether autoimmunity risk at IL2RA was due to distinct or shared alleles, we performed a genetic association study of three IL2RA variants in a DNA collection of up to 9,407 healthy controls, 2,420 MS, and 6,425 T1D subjects as well as 1,303 MS parent/child trios. Here, we report "allelic heterogeneity" at the IL2RA region between MS and T1D. We observe an allele associated with susceptibility to one disease and risk to the other, an allele that confers susceptibility to both diseases, and an allele that may only confer susceptibility to T1D. In addition, we tested the levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2RA in the serum from up to 69 healthy control subjects, 285 MS, and 1,317 T1D subjects. We demonstrate that multiple variants independently correlate with sIL-2RA levels.

  16. The 20th anniversary of interleukin-2 therapy: bimodal role explaining longstanding random induction of complete clinical responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coventry, Brendon J; Ashdown, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of interleukin-2 (IL2) for use in cancer therapy, initially for renal cell carcinoma and later for melanoma. IL2 therapy for cancer has stood the test of time, with continued widespread use in Europe, parts of Asia, and the US. Clinical complete responses are variably reported at 5%–20% for advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, with strong durable responses and sustained long-term 5–10-year survival being typical if complete responses are generated. The literature was reviewed for the actions and clinical effects of IL2 on subsets of T cells. The influence of IL2 on clinical efficacy was also sought. The review revealed that IL2 is capable of stimulating different populations of T cells in humans to induce either T effector or T regulatory responses. This apparent “functional paradox” has confounded a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the clinical effects that are observed during and following administration of IL2 therapy. An average complete response rate of around 7% in small and large clinical trials using IL2 for advanced renal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma has been shown from a recent review of the literature. This review considers the published literature concerning the actions and emerging clinical effects of IL2 therapy, spanning its 20-year period in clinical use. It further details some of the recently described “bimodal” effects of IL2 to explain the apparent functional paradox, and how IL2 might be harnessed to emerge rapidly as a much more effective and predictable clinical agent in the near future

  17. Biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine does not affect interleukin-2 production of lymphocytes from patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, A R; Gómez, E; Bourges, H; Ortíz, V; Kraus, A; Torres, N

    2002-11-01

    There is evidence that pyridoxine deficiency may alter the immune response. It is not known whether a deficiency of this vitamin is evident in subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We studied whether subjects with primary SS showed a biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine, and if it is associated with abnormal production of interleukin-2 from lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Two studies were conducted, (i) biochemical and nutritional assessments were performed in a cross-over study in subjects with primary SS, who were supplemented with 25 mg/day of pyridoxine or placebo for 3 months. After 1 month washout, they were supplemented for 3 months with placebo, (ii) patients with SS and matched controls received pyridoxine or placebo for 45 days, and a blood sample was obtained to study IL-2 production and expression in T-lymphocytes stimulated with PHA. Subjects with primary SS showed limited dietary intake of pyridoxine and biochemical deficiency of this vitamin assessed through the activation coefficient of the erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase. The biochemical deficiency did not affect production nor mRNA expression of IL-2 from T-lymphocytes stimulated in vitro with PHA compared with the control group. Supplementation of subjects with primary SS with 25 mg/day with pyridoxine for 45 days did not produce any significant change as compared to those patients supplemented with placebo. Subjects with primary SS showed biochemical deficiency of pyridoxine, possibly due to limited intake of this vitamin which was corrected by supplementation with pyridoxine. However, IL-2 production and mRNA expression from stimulated lymphocytes were unaffected by supplementation, probably because the deficiency was not severe enough to affect the immune system. This work was supported by the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT), Mexico, grant no. 212226-5-0902PM.

  18. A prospective randomized evaluation of the prophylactic use of low-dose dopamine in cancer patients receiving interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, J N; Hurst, R; Vasselli, J; Lee, D; Kim, C J; McKee, M; Venzon, D; White, D; Marincola, F M; Rosenberg, S A

    1997-07-01

    The administration of high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) causes tumor regression in 17-25% of patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma. Renal dysfunction is a common dose-limiting toxicity of IL-2 administration, limiting 26% of treatment cycles. We have conducted a prospective randomized trial to evaluate whether the prophylactic administration of low-dose dopamine (2 mg/kg/min) can minimize renal toxicity and thus affect the amount of IL-2 administered. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive systemic high-dose IL-2 with standard supportive measures (group A = 21 patients) or with the addition of prophylactic dopamine (group B = 21 patients) at 2 mg/kg/min. For patients in group B, dopamine was instituted 1 h before the initiation of IL-2 administration and was discontinued 6-12 h after the maximum number of doses of IL-2 were given. There was no difference in the amount of IL-2 administered for each course of therapy for groups A and B. Despite differences in urine flow (milliliters per kilogram per day), fluid balance (liters per day), and overall weight gain, prophylactic low-dose dopamine did not significantly alter maximum plasma urea or creatinine levels in group B when compared with the control group (group A). The overall toxicity profile considering all grade 3 and 4 toxicities for patients in groups A and B was comparable. Thus, there is no evidence to support the routine use of prophylactic low-dose dopamine in patients receiving high-dose IL-2.

  19. Imaging active lymphocytic infiltration in coeliac disease with iodine-123-interleukin-2 and the response to diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signore, A.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Rossi, M.; Greco, M.; Ronga, G.; Picarelli, A.; Maiuri, L.; Britton, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    Coeliac disease is diagnosed by the presence of specific antibodies and a jejunal biopsy showing mucosal atrophy and mononuclear cell infiltration. Mucosal cell-mediated immune response is considered the central event in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, and untreated coeliac patients show specific features of T-cell activation in the small intestine. Here we describe the use of iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in coeliac patients as a non-invasive tool for detection of lymphocytic infiltration in the small bowel and its use for therapy follow-up, and we demonstrate the specificity of binding of labelled-IL2 to activated lymphocytes by ex-vivo autoradiography of jejunal biopsies. 123 I-IL2 was administered i.v. [74 MBq (2 mCi)], and gamma camera images were acquired after 1 h. Ten patients were studied with 123 I-IL2 scintigraphy at diagnosis and seven were also investigated after 12-19 months of gluten-free diet. Results were expressed as target-to-background radioactivity ratios in six different bowel regions before and after the diet. At the time of diagnosis all patients showed a significantly higher bowel uptake of 123 I-IL2 than normal subjects (P 2 =0.66; P=0.008). Autoradiography of jejunal biopsies confirmed that labelled-IL2 only binds to activated T-lymphocytes infiltrating the gut mucosa. After 1 year of the diet, bowel uptake of 123 I-IL2 significantly decreased in five out of six regions (P 123 I-IL2 scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing in vivo the presence of activated mononuclear cells in the bowel of patients affected by coeliac disease. Unlike jejunal biopsy, this method provides information from the whole intestine and gives a non-invasive measure of the effectiveness of the gluten-free diet. (orig.)

  20. Autoimmunity and Immunotherapy in Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Seong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy is caused by damage of hypocretin producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The association of narcolepsy with HLA DQB1*0602 and high incidence following H1N1 pandemic in china, vaccination with pandemrix and an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine suggests that pathophysiology of narcolepsy is involved in the immune system. This review focused on immunological associations and immunotherapy in narcolepsy.

  1. ErbB-targeted CAR T-cell immunotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Maher, John

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) based immunotherapy has been under development for the last 25 years and is now a promising new treatment modality in the field of cancer immunotherapy. The approach involves genetically engineering T cells to target malignant cells through expression of a bespoke fusion receptor that couples an HLA-independent antigen recognition domain to one or more intracellular T-cell activating modules. Multiple clinical trials are now underway in several centers to investigate CAR T-cell immunotherapy of diverse hematologic and solid tumor types. The most successful results have been achieved in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies, in whom several complete and durable responses have been achieved. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of CAR T-cell immunotherapy of solid cancers, targeted against members of the ErbB family.

  2. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities.

  3. Immune mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, David C; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-11-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a well-established allergen-specific immunotherapy and a safe and effective strategy to reorient inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. SLIT takes advantage of the tolerogenic environment of the oral mucosa to promote tolerance to the allergen. Several clinical studies have investigated the complex interplay of innate and adaptive immune responses that SLIT exploits. The oral immune system is composed of tolerogenic dendritic cells that, following uptake of allergen during SLIT, support the differentiation of T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and the induction of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. Following SLIT, allergic disease-promoting T helper cell type 2 (Th2) responses shift to a Th1 inflammatory response, and IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β production by regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells suppress allergen-specific T cell responses. These immune changes occur both in the sublingual mucosa and in the periphery of a patient following SLIT. SLIT also promotes the synthesis of allergen-specific IgG and IgA antibodies that block allergen-IgE complex formation and binding to inflammatory cells, thus encouraging an anti-inflammatory environment. Several of these revealing findings have also paved the way for the identification of biomarkers of the clinical efficacy of SLIT. This review presents the emerging elucidation of the immune mechanisms mediated by SLIT.

  4. Sublingual immunotherapy in sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildsgaard, Jens; Brimnes, Jens; Jacobi, Henrik; Lund, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated immunologic changes induced by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), but the definitive mechanism of action needs further investigation. To study the immunologic response induced by SLIT in sensitized mice. Timothy grass (Phleum pratense)-sensitized mice received SLIT for 2, 4, or 6 weeks at 3 different concentrations, including a buffer control. Serum samples and washes of the lungs (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]) and the nasal passages (nasal lavage [NAL]) were analyzed for allergen-specific antibodies. T cells were isolated from the spleen and cervical lymph nodes for the analysis of proliferation and cytokine production. Sublingual immunotherapy in sensitized mice resulted in a 30-fold increase in antigen specific IgA levels in BAL and NAL fluid compared with buffer-treated mice, whereas antigen specific IgE was undetectable in BAL and NAL fluid in animals treated with SLIT. Furthermore, IgA levels were proportional to the dose and duration of SLIT. Levels of specific IgA in serum correlated with levels in BAL and NAL fluid. Serum IgA levels were proportional to the duration of allergen exposure to the oral mucosa. Conversely, no changes in serum levels of IgE and IgG were induced by SLIT. Proliferation of T cells was increased in mice treated with SLIT compared with nontreated mice. High levels of IgA in serum and in BAL and NAL fluid of mice treated with SLIT demonstrate that SLIT induces a mucosal, nonallergic response in sensitized mice.

  5. Nanoparticle–allergen complexes for allergen immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Felice G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabriella Di Felice,1 Paolo Colombo2 1National Center for Drug Research and Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, National Research Council, Palermo, Italy Abstract: Allergen-specific immunotherapy was introduced in clinical settings more than 100 years ago. It remains the only curative approach to treating allergic disorders that ameliorates symptoms, reduces medication costs, and blocks the onset of new sensitizations. Despite this clinical evidence and knowledge of some immunological mechanisms, there remain some open questions regarding the safety and efficacy of this treatment. This suggests the need for novel therapeutic approaches that attempt to reduce the dose and frequency of treatment administration, improving patient compliance, and reducing costs. In this context, the use of novel adjuvants has been proposed and, in recent years, biomedical applications using nanoparticles have been exploited in the attempt to find formulations with improved stability, bioavailability, favorable biodistribution profiles, and the capability of targeting specific cell populations. In this article, we review some of the most relevant regulatory aspects and challenges concerning nanoparticle-based formulations with immunomodulatory potential, their related immunosafety issues, and the nature of the nanoparticles most widely employed in the allergy field. Furthermore, we report in vitro and in vivo data published using allergen/nanoparticle systems, discuss their impact on the immune system in terms of immunomodulatory activity and the reduction of side effects, and show that this strategy is a novel and promising tool for the development of allergy vaccines. Keywords: allergy, nanocarriers, immunotoxicity, immune modulation, immunotherapy, allergens

  6. Improved Endpoints for Cancer Immunotherapy Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Janetzki, Sylvia; Hodi, F. Stephen; Ibrahim, Ramy; Anderson, Aparna; Humphrey, Rachel; Blumenstein, Brent; Wolchok, Jedd

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemotherapy, which acts directly on the tumor, cancer immunotherapies exert their effects on the immune system and demonstrate new kinetics that involve building a cellular immune response, followed by changes in tumor burden or patient survival. Thus, adequate design and evaluation of some immunotherapy clinical trials require a new development paradigm that includes reconsideration of established endpoints. Between 2004 and 2009, several initiatives facilitated by the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute and partner organizations systematically evaluated an immunotherapy-focused clinical development paradigm and created the principles for redefining trial endpoints. On this basis, a body of clinical and laboratory data was generated that supports three novel endpoint recommendations. First, cellular immune response assays generate highly variable results. Assay harmonization in multicenter trials may minimize variability and help to establish cellular immune response as a reproducible biomarker, thus allowing investigation of its relationship with clinical outcomes. Second, immunotherapy may induce novel patterns of antitumor response not captured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or World Health Organization criteria. New immune-related response criteria were defined to more comprehensively capture all response patterns. Third, delayed separation of Kaplan–Meier curves in randomized immunotherapy trials can affect results. Altered statistical models describing hazard ratios as a function of time and recognizing differences before and after separation of curves may allow improved planning of phase III trials. These recommendations may improve our tools for cancer immunotherapy trials and may offer a more realistic and useful model for clinical investigation. PMID:20826737

  7. Combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy against experimental malignant brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Despite standard treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ)-based chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM patients is dismal, and there is a need for novel treatments. One possible therapeutic treatment modality presented here is immunotherapy, either alone or combined with intratumoral TMZ. In this doctoral thesis, I report enhanced cure of rats and mice with mal...

  8. Improved expression of human interleukin-2 in high-cell-density fermentor cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 by a phosphotransacetylase mutant.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, K A; Ben-Bassat, A; Dawson, M; de la Puente, V T; Neway, J O

    1990-01-01

    A fluoroacetate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 (MM-294) accumulated less acetate in the medium during growth to high cell density in fermentor cultures and was shown to be defective in its phosphotransacetylase activity. The mutant had an improved ability to continue growing during induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis, and in fermentor cultures it gave a higher level of specific IL-2 accumulation than its parent during expression under control of the temperature-sensitive pL...

  9. Expanded Host Cell Tropism and Cytopathic Properties of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Strain PPR Subsequent to Passage through Interleukin-2-Independent T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Danica L.; Elder, John H.

    2000-01-01

    A cytopathic variant of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) strain PPR emerged after passage of wild-type virus on an interleukin-2-independent cell line. The virus, termed FIV-PPRglial, displayed a phenotype markedly different from the parental virus, including the ability to productively infect previously refractory cell lines, induction of large syncytia, and accelerated kinetic properties. A chimeric molecular clone, FIV-PPRchim42, containing the FIV-PPRglial envelope within the backbone ...

  10. Radio-immunotherapy and chemo-immunotherapy as a novel treatment paradigm in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Licun

    2017-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm with poor outcome. Novel radical radiation techniques using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have become an important component of therapy in mesothelioma. Immunotherapy also provides new therapeutic options. However, how best to integrate immunotherapy with standard therapy such as radiation, chemotherapy and surgery remains unknown. A change of paradigm from adjuvant normofractionation to induction accelerated hypofractionated hemithoracic radiation could provide a platform to combine immunotherapy due to the potential benefit of short course high dose radiation on the immune system. Immunotherapy can also be combined with chemotherapy. Although chemotherapy is generally considered immunosuppressive, some chemotherapeutic agents do induce cell death that can be immunogenic and stimulate a specific immune response against the tumor. Immunotherapy could also be used in between cycles of chemotherapy to limit tumor cell repopulation and optimize the results of both treatments. The integration of immunotherapy into a multimodality approach is opening new avenue of treatment for mesothelioma. PMID:28713677

  11. Regulatory T Cell Responses in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes after a Single Dose of Interleukin-2: A Non-Randomised, Open Label, Adaptive Dose-Finding Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Todd

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D. Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2, which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs.To define the aldesleukin dose response for Tregs and to find doses that increase Tregs physiologically for treatment of T1D, a statistical and systematic approach was taken by analysing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of subcutaneous aldesleukin in the Adaptive Study of IL-2 Dose on Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes (DILT1D, a single centre, non-randomised, open label, adaptive dose-finding trial with 40 adult participants with recently diagnosed T1D. The primary endpoint was the maximum percentage increase in Tregs (defined as CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low from the baseline frequency in each participant measured over the 7 d following treatment. There was an initial learning phase with five pairs of participants, each pair receiving one of five pre-assigned single doses from 0.04 × 106 to 1.5 × 106 IU/m2, in order to model the dose-response curve. Results from each participant were then incorporated into interim statistical modelling to target the two doses most likely to induce 10% and 20% increases in Treg frequencies. Primary analysis of the evaluable population (n = 39 found that the optimal doses of aldesleukin to induce 10% and 20% increases in Tregs were 0.101 × 106 IU/m2 (standard error [SE] = 0.078, 95% CI = -0.052, 0.254 and 0.497

  12. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis

  13. {sup 99m}Tc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy for the in vivo imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; D' Alessandria, Calogero; Scopinaro, Francesco [University La Sapienza, Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G. [University Tor Vergata, Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Rome (Italy); Arca, Marcello [University La Sapienza, Department of Clinical and Applied Medical Therapy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Marcoccia, Antonella; Violi, Francesco [University La Sapienza, Medical Clinical Institute 1, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Toma, Giorgio De [University La Sapienza, Department of Surgery Pietro Valdoni, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Signore, Alberto [University La Sapienza, Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Ospedale S. Andrea, Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy)

    2006-02-01

    Several histopathological studies have demonstrated that vulnerable plaques are enriched in inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were: (1a) to test the ability of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ({sup 99m}Tc-IL2) to bind to IL2R-positive (IL2R+) cells in carotid plaques and (1b) to correlate the plaque uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2, measured in vivo, with the number of IL2R+ cells within the plaque, measured ex vivo by histology (transversal study, TS), and (2) to evaluate changes in {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake in plaques, before and after treatment with a statin or a hypocholesterolaemic diet (longitudinal study, LS). Ultrasound scan was performed for plaque characterisation and localisation. Fourteen patients (16 plaques) eligible for endoarterectomy were recruited for the TS and underwent {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 scintigraphy before surgery. Nine patients (13 plaques) were recruited for the LS; these patients received atorvastatin or a standard hypocholesterolaemic diet and {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 scintigraphy was performed before and after 3 months of treatment. The degree of {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake was expressed as the plaque/background (T/B) ratio. In patients from TS, T/B ratios correlated with the percentage of IL2R+ cells at histology (r=0.707; p=0.002) and the number of IL2R+ cells at flow cytometry (r=0.711; p=0.006). No correlations were observed between ultrasound scores and either scintigraphic or histological findings. In patients from the LS, the mean {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 uptake decreased in statin-treated patients (1.75{+-}0.50 vs 2.16{+-}0.44; p=0.012), while it was unchanged in the patients on the hypocholesterolaemic diet (2.33{+-}0.45 vs 2.34{+-}0.5). {sup 99m}Tc-IL2 accumulates in vulnerable carotid plaques; this accumulation is correlated with the amount of IL2R+ cells and is influenced by lipid-lowering treatment with a statin. (orig.)

  14. Imaging active lymphocytic infiltration in coeliac disease with iodine-123-interleukin-2 and the response to diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signore, A.; Chianelli, M.; Annovazzi, A.; Rossi, M.; Greco, M.; Ronga, G.; Picarelli, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit (Nu.M.E.D. Group) and Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy); Maiuri, L. [Inst. of Paediatrics, Children' s Hospital Posilipon, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Britton, K.E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    Coeliac disease is diagnosed by the presence of specific antibodies and a jejunal biopsy showing mucosal atrophy and mononuclear cell infiltration. Mucosal cell-mediated immune response is considered the central event in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, and untreated coeliac patients show specific features of T-cell activation in the small intestine. Here we describe the use of iodine-123-interleukin-2 scintigraphy in coeliac patients as a non-invasive tool for detection of lymphocytic infiltration in the small bowel and its use for therapy follow-up, and we demonstrate the specificity of binding of labelled-IL2 to activated lymphocytes by ex-vivo autoradiography of jejunal biopsies. {sup 123}I-IL2 was administered i.v. [74 MBq (2 mCi)], and gamma camera images were acquired after 1 h. Ten patients were studied with {sup 123}I-IL2 scintigraphy at diagnosis and seven were also investigated after 12-19 months of gluten-free diet. Results were expressed as target-to-background radioactivity ratios in six different bowel regions before and after the diet. At the time of diagnosis all patients showed a significantly higher bowel uptake of {sup 123}I-IL2 than normal subjects (P<0.003 in all regions). A significant correlation was found between jejunal radioactivity and the number of IL2R+ve lymphocytes per millimetre of jejunal mucosa as detected by immunostaining of jejunal biopsy (r{sup 2}=0.66; P=0.008). Autoradiography of jejunal biopsies confirmed that labelled-IL2 only binds to activated T-lymphocytes infiltrating the gut mucosa. After 1 year of the diet, bowel uptake of {sup 123}I-IL2 significantly decreased in five out of six regions (P<0.03), although two patients still had a positive IL2 scintigraphy in one region. We conclude that {sup 123}I-IL2 scintigraphy is a sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing in vivo the presence of activated mononuclear cells in the bowel of patients affected by coeliac disease. Unlike jejunal biopsy, this method provides

  15. Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy against Allergic Rhinitis: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent type I allergy in industrialized countries. Pollen scattering from trees or grasses often induces seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is known as pollinosis or hay fever. The causative pollen differs across different areas and times of the year. Impaired performance due to pollinosis and/or medication used for treating pollinosis is considered to be an important reason for the loss of concentration and productivity in the workplace. Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an only available curative treatment against allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous injection of allergens with or without adjuvant has been commonly used as an immunotherapy; however, recently, sublingual administration has come to be considered a safer and convenient alternative administration route of allergens. In this review, we focus on the safety and protocol of subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy against seasonal allergic rhinitis. We also describe an approach to selecting allergens for the vaccine so as to avoid secondary sensitization and adverse events. The biomarkers and therapeutic mechanisms for immunotherapy are not fully understood. We discuss the therapeutic biomarkers that are correlated with the improvement of clinical symptoms brought about by immunotherapy as well as the involvement of Tr1 and regulatory T cells in the therapeutic mechanisms. Finally, we focus on the current immunotherapeutic approach to treating Japanese cedar pollinosis, the most prevalent pollinosis in Japan, including sublingual immunotherapy with standardized extract, a transgenic rice-based edible vaccine, and an immunoregulatory liposome encapsulating recombinant fusion protein.

  16. Mutanome Engineered RNA Immunotherapy: Towards Patient-Centered Tumor Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Vormehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, allowing the efficient targeting of mutated neoantigens for personalized cancer vaccination. Due to their absence during negative selection of T cells and their lack of expression in healthy tissue, tumor mutations are considered as optimal targets for cancer immunotherapy. Preclinical and early clinical data suggest that synthetic mRNA can serve as potent drug format allowing the cost efficient production of highly efficient vaccines in a timely manner. In this review, we describe a process, which integrates next generation sequencing based cancer mutanome mapping, in silico target selection and prioritization approaches, and mRNA vaccine manufacturing and delivery into a process we refer to as MERIT (mutanome engineered RNA immunotherapy.

  17. Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ...

  18. γδ T-cell immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Jun; Wada, Hiromi; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, yet there are still no satisfactory protocols available for treating this disease, emphasizing the urgency for more effective therapies. Recent clinical trials have provided encouraging evidence of the benefits of certain forms of immunotherapy. Here, we summarize recent developments in the area of γδ T-cell therapy for lung cancer in our center. γδ T cells constitute 2%-10% of T lymphocytes in human blood and play a role in immune surveillance against microbial pathogens and, possibly, cancer. These T cells recognize phosphoantigens via polymorphic γδ T-cell antigen receptors (TCR), as well as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related molecules, A and B (MICA and MICB), via nonpolymorphic NKG2D receptors in an MHC-unrestricted manner. This implies that γδ T cells could retain antitumor effects despite reduced expression of MHC and tumor antigens on cancer cells. Thus, clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of γδ T-cell-based immunotherapies for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and solid tumors. This review focuses on the current status of γδ T-cell-based immunotherapy for lung cancer.

  19. Innovation in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, H Barton; Lamm, Donald L; Kamat, Ashish M; Keefe, Stephen; Taylor, John A; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder cancer is understudied despite its high prevalence and its remarkable response to immunotherapy. Indeed, funding for studies to explore mechanisms of tumor immunity and novel new therapeutics is disproportionately lower for bladder cancer in comparison with malignancies of the breast, prostate, or lung. However, the recent successes of checkpoint blockade therapy suggest that new therapeutic strategies are on the horizon for bladder cancer. Here, we give a perspective into the evolution of bladder cancer therapy, focusing on strategies to treat high-risk nonmuscle invasive disease, followed by a discussion of recent advances in the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and their potential applicability to lower stage disease. Finally, we explore immunotherapeutic strategies, which have been demonstrated to be successful in the treatment of other malignancies, for their potential to treat and cure patients with nonmuscle and muscle invasive bladder cancer.

  20. [Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons. Although details of the disease pathomechanisms remain unclear, Aβ likely acts as a key protein for AD initiation and progression, followed by abnormal tau phosphorylation and neuronal death (amyloid-cascade hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, Aβ immunization therapies are created to eliminate Aβ from the brain, and to prevent the neurons from damage by these pathogenic proteins. There are two methods for Aβ immunotherapies: active and passive immunization. Previous studies have shown Aβ removal and improved cognitive function in animal models of AD. Clinical trials on various drugs, including AN1792, bapineuzumab, and solanezumab, have been carried out; however, all trials have failed to demonstrate apparent clinical benefits. On the contrary, side effects emerged, such as meningoencephalitis, vasogenic edema, which are currently called amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-E and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H). In neuropathological studies of immunized cases, Aβ was removed from the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau was reduced in the neuronal processes. Moreover, deterioration of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and an increase of microhemorrhages and microinfarcts were described. Aβ is cleared from the brain mainly via the lymphatic drainage pathway. ARIA could stem from severe CAA due to dysfunction of the drainage pathway after immunotherapy. Aβ immunization has a potential of cure for AD patients, although the above-described problems must be overcome before applying this therapy in clinical treatment.

  1. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT.

  2. Combining Immunotherapy with Standard Glioblastoma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This clinical trial is testing standard therapy (surgery, radiation and temozolomide) plus immunotherapy with pembrolizumab with or without a cancer treatment vaccine for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, a common and deadly type of brain tumor.

  3. Who Will Benefit from Cancer Immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a “genetic signature” in the tumors of patients with advanced melanoma who responded to a form of immunotherapy called checkpoint blockade. The results could be the basis for a test that identifies likely responders.

  4. Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Underutilize Immune Response Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Claire M; Raby, Sophie E M; Beh, Ian; Flint, Thomas R; Williams, Edward H; Fearon, Douglas T; Jodrell, Duncan I; Janowitz, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Immune-related radiological and biomarker monitoring in cancer immunotherapy trials permits interrogation of efficacy and reasons for therapeutic failure. We report the results from a cross-sectional analysis of response monitoring in 685 T-cell checkpoint-targeted cancer immunotherapy trials in solid malignancies, as registered on the U.S. National Institutes of Health trial registry by October 2016. Immune-related radiological response criteria were registered for only 25% of clinical trials. Only 38% of trials registered an exploratory immunological biomarker, and registration of immunological biomarkers has decreased over the last 15 years. We suggest that increasing the utilization of immune-related response monitoring across cancer immunotherapy trials will improve analysis of outcomes and facilitate translational efforts to extend the benefit of immunotherapy to a greater proportion of patients with cancer. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  5. Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Underutilize Immune Response Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, Claire M.; Raby, Sophie E.M.; Beh, Ian; Flint, Thomas R.; Williams, Edward H.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Jodrell, Duncan I.; Janowitz, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This brief communication presents a quantitative assessment of the inclusion of immune‐related response criteria and immunological biomarker response monitoring in the registration details of T‐cell checkpoint‐targeted cancer immunotherapy trials in solid malignancies.

  6. Local Nasal Specific Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passalacqua Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The possibility of producing local hyposensitization by administering allergens via mucosal routes was envisaged at the beginning of 1900, and local nasal immunotherapy has been extensively studied since the 1970s. Presently, there are 21 randomized controlled trials being conducted with the most common allergens, consistently showing the clinical efficacy of local nasal immunotherapy for rhinitis. Other advantages are that it has an optimal safety profile and can be self-administered at home by the patient. Moreover, there are several data from animal models and from humans that confirm the immunomodulatory effect of intranasally administered antigens. On the other hand, local nasal immunotherapy seems to be effective only on rhinitis symptoms and requires a particular technique of administration. For these reasons, its clinical use is progressively declining in favour of the sublingual route although nasal immunotherapy is validated in official documents and remains a viable alternative to injection.

  7. Tinnitus after administration of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy was first described in 1986. Since then, its use has been increased as an alternative to subcutaneously administered immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The most common side effects are of oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal in nature, for example, itching, swelling, irritation, ulceration of the oropharynx and nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting. More severe side effects are dominated by systemic and respiratory tract manifestations. In this clinical case, the author reports a right-sided transient tinnitus lasting for 48 h after administration of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite in allergic rhinitis. This case provide important insights for clinical practice, as tinnitus has not been previously reported as a side effect of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergens.

  8. Tinnitus after administration of sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Juel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Sublingual immunotherapy was first described in 1986. Since then, its use has been increased as an alternative to subcutaneously administered immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. The most common side effects are of oropharyngeal and gastrointestinal in nature, for example, itching, swelling, irritation, ulceration of the oropharynx and nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting. More severe side effects are dominated by systemic and respiratory tract manifestations. Results: In this clinical case, the author reports a right-sided transient tinnitus lasting for 48 h after administration of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite in allergic rhinitis. Conclusions: This case provide important insights for clinical practice, as tinnitus has not been previously reported as a side effect of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergens.

  9. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids...... given once or twice a year are a safe and patient-friendly alternative to the time-consuming immunotherapy. Our data indicate otherwise....

  10. Recombinant Escherichia coli produces tailor-made biopolyester granules for applications in fluorescence activated cell sorting: functional display of the mouse interleukin-2 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockelbank Jane A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS is a powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of biomolecules used widely in both basic research and clinical diagnostic applications. Beads displaying a specific antigen are used to bind antibodies which are then fluorescently labelled using secondary antibodies. As the individual suspension bead passes through the sensing region of the FACS machine, fluorescent signals are acquired and analysed. Currently, antigens are tediously purified and chemically cross-linked to preformed beads. Purification and coupling of proteins often renders them inactive and they will not be displayed in its native configuration. As an alternative, we genetically engineered Escherichia coli to produce biopolyester (polyhdroxyalkanoate=PHA granules displaying diagnostically relevant antigens in their native conformation and suitable for FACS analysis. Results Hybrid genes were constructed, which encode either the mouse interleukin-2 (IL2 or the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG fused via an enterokinase site providing linker region to the C terminus of the PHA granule associated protein PhaP, respectively. The hybrid genes were expressed in PHA-accumulating recombinant E. coli. MOG and IL2 fusion proteins were abundantly attached to PHA granules and were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and N terminal sequencing. A more abundant second fusion protein of either MOG or IL2 resulted from an additional N terminal fusion, which did surprisingly not interfere with attachment to PHA granule. PHA granules displaying either IL2 or MOG were used for FACS using monoclonal anti-IL2 or anti-MOG antibodies conjugated to a fluorescent dye. FACS analysis showed significant and specific binding of respective antibodies. Enterokinase treatment of IL2 displaying PHA granules enabled removal of IL2 as monitored by FACS analysis. Mice were immunized with either MOG or OVA (ovalbumin and the

  11. Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Linda; Netea, Mihai G.; Kullberg, Bart Jan

    2018-01-01

    Candida spp. are colonizing fungi of human skin and mucosae of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, present in 30–50% of healthy individuals in a population at any given moment. The host defense mechanisms prevent this commensal fungus from invading and causing disease. Loss of skin or mucosal barrier function, microbiome imbalances, or defects of immune defense mechanisms can lead to an increased susceptibility to severe mucocutaneous or invasive candidiasis. A comprehensive understanding of the immune defense against Candida is essential for developing adjunctive immunotherapy. The important role of underlying genetic susceptibility to Candida infections has become apparent over the years. In most patients, the cause of increased susceptibility to fungal infections is complex, based on a combination of immune regulation gene polymorphisms together with other non-genetic predisposing factors. Identification of patients with an underlying genetic predisposition could help determine which patients could benefit from prophylactic antifungal treatment or adjunctive immunotherapy. This review will provide an overview of patient susceptibility to mucocutaneous and invasive candidiasis and the potential for adjunctive immunotherapy. PMID:29371502

  12. Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Davidson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are colonizing fungi of human skin and mucosae of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, present in 30–50% of healthy individuals in a population at any given moment. The host defense mechanisms prevent this commensal fungus from invading and causing disease. Loss of skin or mucosal barrier function, microbiome imbalances, or defects of immune defense mechanisms can lead to an increased susceptibility to severe mucocutaneous or invasive candidiasis. A comprehensive understanding of the immune defense against Candida is essential for developing adjunctive immunotherapy. The important role of underlying genetic susceptibility to Candida infections has become apparent over the years. In most patients, the cause of increased susceptibility to fungal infections is complex, based on a combination of immune regulation gene polymorphisms together with other non-genetic predisposing factors. Identification of patients with an underlying genetic predisposition could help determine which patients could benefit from prophylactic antifungal treatment or adjunctive immunotherapy. This review will provide an overview of patient susceptibility to mucocutaneous and invasive candidiasis and the potential for adjunctive immunotherapy.

  13. Chinese Guideline on allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixiao; Chen, Jianjun; Cheng, Lei; Guo, Yinshi; Hong, Suling; Kong, Weijia; Lai, He; Li, Houyong; Li, Huabin; Li, Jing; Li, Tianying; Lin, Xiaoping; Liu, Shixi; Liu, Zheng; Lou, Hongfei; Meng, Juan; Qiu, Qianhui; Shen, Kunling; Tang, Wei; Tao, Zezhang; Wang, Chengshuo; Wang, Xiangdong; Wei, Qingyu; Xiang, Li; Xie, Hua; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Gehua; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Yiwu; Zhi, Yuxiang; Chen, Dehua; Hong, Haiyu; Li, Quansheng; Liu, Lin; Meng, Yifan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Yihui; Zhou, Yue

    2017-01-01

    The present document is based on a consensus reached by a panel of experts from Chinese Society of Allergy (CSA) and Chinese Allergic Rhinitis Collaborative Research Group (C2AR2G). Allergen immunotherapy (AIT), has increasingly been used as a treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR) globally, as it has been shown to provide a long-term effect in improving nasal and ocular symptoms, reducing medication need, and improving quality of life. AIT is currently the only curative intervention that can potentially modify the immune system in individuals suffering from AR and prevent the development of new sensitization and the progression of disease from AR to asthma. Although the use of AIT is becoming more acceptable in China, to date no AR immunotherapy guideline from China is available for use by the international community. This document has thus been produced and covers the main aspects of AIT undertaken in China; including selection of patients for AIT, the allergen extracts available on the Chinese market, schedules and doses of allergen employed in different routes of AIT, assessment of effect and safety, patients’ administration and follow-up, and management of adverse reactions. The Chinese guideline for AR immunotherapy will thus serve as a reference point by doctors, healthcare professionals and organizations involved in the AIT of AR in China. Moreover, this guideline will serve as a source of information for the international community on AIT treatment strategies employed in China. PMID:29268533

  14. Immunotherapy options for painful bladder syndrome: what's the potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykoniatis, Ioannis; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Yutkin, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is an enigmatic disease characterized by lack of evidence-based knowledge and an ongoing scientific debate regarding its definition, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment algorithm. An autoimmune theory for PBS/IC etiology has suggested immunotherapy as a potential treatment choice. Areas covered: In this review, the authors report existing and future immunotherapeutic options, potentially valuable to the management of PBS/IC while evidence for the immunological aspect of PBS/IC pathogenesis are also presented. Relevant data reported in human clinical studies but also in experimental studies using animal PBS/IC models have been reviewed. Expert opinion: Promising data has emerged lately regarding use of immunotherapy drugs for PBS/IC treatment. Specifically, human monoclonal antibodies inhibiting nerve growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-a have shown high efficacy in pain control for PBS/IC. Also, many other agents modulating immunopathways linked to PBS symptom etiology and leading to positive treatment effects have been reported lately mainly in experimental animal studies. Immunotherapy could potentially improve disease-related and patient-reported outcome; nevertheless, lack of consensus regarding PBS/IC diagnostic criteria, leading to high heterogeneity of patients enrolled in PBS/IC treatment studies, and low number of well-designed randomized clinical trials are limitations which must be addressed in the future.

  15. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  16. The application of natural killer (NK cell immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayne H Rouce

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are essential components of the innate immune system and play a critical role in host immunity against cancer. Recent progress in our understanding of NK cell immunobiology has paved the way for novel NK cell-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. In this review, we will focus on recent advances in the field of NK cell immunotherapy, including augmentation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, manipulation of receptor-mediated activation, and adoptive immunotherapy with ex vivo expanded, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR engineered or engager-modified NK cells. In contrast to T lymphocytes, donor NK cells do not attack non-hematopoietic tissues, suggesting that an NK-mediated anti-tumor effect can be achieved in the absence of graft-versus-host disease. Despite reports of clinical efficacy, a number of factors limit the application of NK cell immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer such as the failure of infused NK cells to expand and persist in vivo. Therefore efforts to enhance the therapeutic benefit of NK cell-based immunotherapy by developing strategies to manipulate the NK cell product, host factors and tumor targets are the subject of intense research. In the preclinical setting, genetic engineering of NK cells to express CARs to redirect their antitumor specificity has shown significant promise. Given the short lifespan and potent cytolytic function of mature NK cells, they are attractive candidate effector cells to express CARs for adoptive immunotherapies. Another innovative approach to redirect NK cytotoxicity towards tumor cells is to create either bispecific or trispecific antibodies, thus augmenting cytotoxicity against tumor-associated antigens. These are exciting times for the study of NK cells; with recent advances in the field of NK cell biology and translational research, it is likely that NK cell immunotherapy will move to the forefront of cancer immunotherapy over the next

  17. Present and future perspectives on immunotherapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Going to the core or beating around the bush?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Kawashima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic lesions of renal cell carcinoma (RCC occasionally regress spontaneously after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Although this is an exceptionally rare occurrence, RCC has thus been postulated to be immunogenic. Immunotherapies, including cytokine therapy, peptide-based vaccines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have therefore been used to treat patients with advanced, metastatic RCC. We review the history, trends, and recent progress in immunotherapy for advanced RCC and discuss future perspectives, with consideration of our experimental work on galectin 9 and PINCH as promising specific immunotherapy targets. 

  18. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    therapeutic multifunctional anti-tumor memory CD4 T cells. Cancer Gene Therapy. 2012; 19(4):282-291. 15. Reichmann G, Villegas EN, Craig L, Peach R...Bryant JL, Zhang Y, Nannmark U, Watkins SC, Goldfarb RH, Herberman RB, Basse PH. Tumor-localization by adoptively transferred, interleukin-2-acti... Watkins SC, Vujanovic NL, Butterfield LH. Virally infected and matured human dendritic cells activate natural killer cells via cooperative activity of

  19. Combination delivery of TGF-β inhibitor and IL-2 by nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels enhances tumour immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason; Wrzesinski, Stephen H.; Stern, Eric; Look, Michael; Criscione, Jason; Ragheb, Ragy; Jay, Steven M.; Demento, Stacey L.; Agawu, Atu; Licona Limon, Paula; Ferrandino, Anthony F.; Gonzalez, David; Habermann, Ann; Flavell, Richard A.; Fahmy, Tarek M.

    2012-10-01

    The tumour microenvironment thwarts conventional immunotherapy through multiple immunologic mechanisms, such as the secretion of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which stunts local tumour immune responses. Therefore, high doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a conventional cytokine for metastatic melanoma, induces only limited responses. To overcome the immunoinhibitory nature of the tumour microenvironment, we developed nanoscale liposomal polymeric gels (nanolipogels; nLGs) of drug-complexed cyclodextrins and cytokine-encapsulating biodegradable polymers that can deliver small hydrophobic molecular inhibitors and water-soluble protein cytokines in a sustained fashion to the tumour microenvironment. nLGs releasing TGF-β inhibitor and IL-2 significantly delayed tumour growth, increased survival of tumour-bearing mice, and increased the activity of natural killer cells and of intratumoral-activated CD8+ T-cell infiltration. We demonstrate that the efficacy of nLGs in tumour immunotherapy results from a crucial mechanism involving activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  20. Selection of patients for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) versus subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaian, Farnaz; Casale, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Allergy immunotherapy has been used to help alleviate symptoms of allergic diseases for over 100 years. In the setting of the recently approved sublingual immunotherapy, allergists are now faced with which therapeutic regimen to use in clinical practice, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Both SLIT and SCIT have been shown to be beneficial for the therapy of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Each therapeutic measure has its associated benefits. SLIT has a better safety profile with less systemic reactions and to date, no reported fatal reactions. SCIT, the primary method of allergen immunotherapy in the United States, has a slightly better efficacy profile and readily allows for treatment of polyallergic patients. This review focuses on how to incorporate SLIT into daily clinical practice and on how to choose SLIT versus SCIT.

  1. Radio-immunotherapy of solid tumors; La radio-immunotherapie des tumeurs solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatal, J.F.; Faivre Chauvet, A.; Bardies, M.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Barbet, J. [Federation Inter-hospitaliere de Medecine Nucleaire, INSERM U 463, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2001-11-01

    A convincing efficacy of radio-immunotherapy of solid tumors has not been documented yet in clinical studies. Consequently, a methodological optimization is needed within the scope in increasing absorbed doses delivered to tumor targets by amplifying cumulative tumor activity and in the same time in reducing absorbed doses delivered normal organs. Multi-step pre-targeting techniques allow to approach these goals. The most developed technique is based on the high affinity for biotin. In a first step an anti-tumor antibody coupled to avidin or biodin is injected. In a second step, 24 hours later, the circulating residual immuno-conjugate is bound to a molecular complex and eliminated through the reticulo endothelial system of the liver ('chase'phase). A third step, a few hours later, consists in injecting biotin coupled to DOTA chelating agent and labeled with yttrium 90. This small molecule rapidly diffuses to tumor targets and binds to pre-localized immuno-conjugate. Another technique, designed and developed in France, is based on antigen-antibody affinity. In a first step an anti-tumor / anti-hapten bi-specific antibody is injected and, in a second step, a few days later, the small hapten molecule is radiolabeled with I-131 and injected. It diffuses rapidly to the tumor targets and binds to the anti-hapten arm of the pre-localized bi-specific antibody. An alternative way to increase radio-immunotherapy efficacy consists in combining this low-dose rate irradiation to radiosensitizing molecules within the scope of an additive or supra additive effect which has previously documented. (author)

  2. Dendritic cells used in anti-HIV immunotherapy showed different modulation in anti-HIV genes expression: New concept for the improvement of patients' selection criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pontillo

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the actual selection of HIV+ individual for immunotherapy, based on clinical features, did not ensure the same DC product, and that less “activated/exhausted” DC could positively affect the outcome of immunotherapy.

  3. Biodistribution of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody in rat recipients of a heart allograft, and its use as a rejection marker in gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thedrez, P.; Paineau, J.; Jacques, Y.; Chatal, J.F.; Pelegrin, A.; Bouchaud, C.; Soulillou, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies have been shown to prevent allograft rejection. This paper reports on the biodistribution of a mouse MoAb directed at the 55 Kd alpha chain of rat interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) during allograft rejection. Only a low percentage (approximately 1%) of intact 125I-labeled MoAb was detected in the rejected graft, and irrelevant control IgG1 was found at a similar level. This suggests that most of the injected intact MoAb bound to graft tissue via its monomorphic Fc segment. In contrast, OX39 F(ab')2 fragments showed a preferential localization in the rejected allograft and did not bind to the LEW-to-LEW syngeneic heart graft. Irrelevant F(ab')2 did not concentrate in the allogeneic graft. Accordingly, F(ab')2 fragments from OX39 or irrelevant MoAb were used for gamma-scintigraphy on allograft recipients together with biodistribution studies. Results show that scintigraphy was able to detect allograft accumulation of 131I OX39 F(ab')2, whereas no imaging was obtained when OX39 F(ab')2 was used in the syngeneic combination or when irrelevant 131-IgG1 F(ab')2 was given to allograft recipients. This method, applied to the clinical situation, could be of interest for detection of early graft rejection episodes by immunoscintigraphy using reagents specific for activation determinants on lymphocyte membranes, such as anti-interleukin-2 receptor MoAb

  4. An anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug attenuates T- helper 1 lymphocytes-mediated inflammation in an acute model of endotoxin-induced uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60-70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration.

  5. Rare adverse events due to house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy in pediatric practice: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galip, Nilufer; Bahceciler, Nerin

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual route, a noninjective way of allergen administration appears to be associated with a lower incidence of severe systemic reactions compared with the subcutaneous route. Local adverse reactions are reported which resolve spontaneously within a few days without need for discontinuation of treatment. Hereby, we report two pediatric cases, one with persistent asthma and the other one with persistent allergic rhinitis. Both were treated by house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy, one of whom developed severe wheezing (grade 2 systemic reaction based on World Allergy Organization subcutaneous systemic reaction grading system) and the other intractable vomiting (grade 3 local reaction based on World Allergy Organization sublingual immunotherapy local adverse events grading system) at the end of the build-up phase which repeated on re-administration of the same dose. Both of those two cases completed their 3-year immunotherapy successfully by patient-based adjustment of the highest tolerated dose of the maintenance.

  6. Development of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneck, Jonathan P; Oelke, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    While adoptive immunotherapy holds promise as a treatment for cancer, development of adoptive immunotherapy has been impeded by the lack of a reproducible and economically viable method for generating...

  7. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1  AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0518 TITLE: LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer...COVERED 1 Sep 2011 - 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...prostate, immunotherapy may be the only way to treat it [6, 7]. A majority of clinical trials for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer have yielded

  8. Aptamers: A Feasible Technology in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Soldevilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-chained RNA or DNA oligonucleotides (ODNs with three-dimensional folding structures which allow them to bind to their targets with high specificity. Aptamers normally show affinities comparable to or higher than that of antibodies. They are chemically synthesized and therefore less expensive to manufacture and produce. A variety of aptamers described to date have been shown to be reliable in modulating immune responses against cancer by either blocking or activating immune receptors. Some of them have been conjugated to other molecules to target the immune system and reduce off-target side effects. Despite the success of first-line treatments against cancer, the elevated number of relapsing cases and the tremendous side effects shown by the commonly used agents hinder conventional treatments against cancer. The advantages provided by aptamers could enhance the therapeutic index of a given strategy and therefore enhance the antitumor effect. Here we recapitulate the provided benefits of aptamers with immunomodulatory activity described to date in cancer therapy and the benefits that aptamer-based immunotherapy could provide either alone or combined with first-line treatments in cancer therapy.

  9. Multicentre, open, noncomparative Phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of fotemustine, cisplatin, alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 in advanced melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; Fiorentini, Giammaria; Guida, Michele; Michiara, Maria; Freschi, Andrea; Aitini, Enrico; Ballardini, Michela; Bichisao, Ettore; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2009-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of fotemustine, cisplatin, alpha-interferon and interleukin-2 biochemotherapy were evaluated in advanced melanoma patients. The schedule consisted of fotemustine (100 mg/m) and cisplatin (75 mg/m) intravenous on day 1, followed by subcutaneous interleukin-2 at a dose of 4.5 MIU on days 3-5 and 8-12 and alpha-interferon at a dose of 3 MU three times/week, every 3 weeks for six cycles. Sixty patients were evaluated for tumour response, 12 of whom had brain metastases (BM). One patient (1.7%) with BM achieved a complete response and partial responses were observed in 10 patients (16.7%), including one BM patient. Overall response rate was 18.4 and 16.6% in BM patients (median response duration 8.2 months). Disease control, defined as overall response and stable disease, was 58.4% in all patients and 75% in patients with BM. Median time to progression was 3.2 months (4.2 months in BM patients). Median overall survival was 8.9 months (7.6 months in BM patients). Toxic events were mild to moderate. This combination was well tolerated and showed acceptable clinical activity, especially in BM patients.

  10. Anti-CD40-mediated cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Sufia Butt; Sørensen, Jesper Freddie; Olsen, Barbara Nicola

    2014-01-01

    activation and thus enhancement of immune responses. Treatment with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies has been exploited in several cancer immunotherapy studies in mice and led to the development of anti-CD40 antibodies for clinical use. Here, Dacetuzumab and Lucatumumab are in the most advanced stage...... with other cancer immunotherapies, in particular interleukin (IL)-2. An in-depth analysis of this immunotherapy is provided elsewhere. In the present review, we provide an update of the most recent clinical trials with anti-CD40 antibodies. We present and discuss recent and ongoing clinical trials...... in this field, including clinical studies which combine anti-CD40 treatment with other cancer-treatments, such as Rituximab and Tremelimumab....

  11. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masanori; Koga, Noriko; Moriya, Fukuko; Itoh, Kyogo

    2016-01-01

    Although treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have increased over the last decade, there remains a need for strategies that can provide durable disease control and long-term benefit. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of CRPC. To date, there are multiple strategies to target the immune system, and several approaches including therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in clinical trials. With regard to this, we report the results of the most recent clinical trials investigating immunotherapy in CRPC and discuss the future development of immunotherapy for CRPC, as well as the potential importance of biomarkers in the future progress of this field.

  12. Development of Novel Immunotherapies for Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensaf M. Al-Hujaily

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a disorder of terminally differentiated plasma cells characterized by clonal expansion in the bone marrow (BM. It is the second-most common hematologic malignancy. Despite significant advances in therapeutic strategies, MM remains a predominantly incurable disease emphasizing the need for the development of new treatment regimens. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment modality to circumvent challenges in the management of MM. Many novel immunotherapy strategies, such as adoptive cell therapy and monoclonal antibodies, are currently under investigation in clinical trials, with some already demonstrating a positive impact on patient survival. In this review, we will summarize the current standards of care and discuss major new approaches in immunotherapy for MM.

  13. Sublingual Immunotherapy for the Polyallergic Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Amber N; Calderón, Moisés A; Casale, Thomas B

    Allergen immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergic diseases. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in liquid and tablet form has been used by clinicians in Europe for years, but has only recently gained popularity and approval in the United States. In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved 3 SLIT tablets for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, with or without allergic conjunctivitis. Immunotherapy treatment strategies for the polysensitized patient vary between the United States and Europe. This variation hinges upon whether the polysensitized patient is truly polyallergic. Polysensitization is the positive response to 2 or more allergens on skin prick testing or in vitro specific-IgE testing. Polyallergy is the symptomatic clinical response to 2 or more allergens. In this review, we discuss the use of SLIT in the United States with a focus on treating the polyallergic patient with SLIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Epicutaneous Immunotherapy Compared with Sublingual Immunotherapy in Mice Sensitized to Pollen (Phleum pratense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoulet, Lucie; Dioszeghy, Vincent; Ligouis, Mélanie; Dhelft, Véronique; Puteaux, Emilie; Dupont, Christophe; Benhamou, Pierre-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) to sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in a model of mice sensitized to Phleum pratense pollen. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized by sub-cutaneous route to pollen protein extract mixed treated for 8 weeks, using sham, EPIT, or SLIT. Measurements involved the serological response and cytokine profile from reactivated splenocytes, plethysmography after aerosol challenge to pollen, cell, and cytokine contents in the bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs). Results. After immunotherapy, sIgE was significantly decreased in the treated groups compared to sham (P mice sensitized to pollen, EPIT was at least as efficient as SLIT.

  15. Tinnitus after administration of sublingual immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    , for example, itching, swelling, irritation, ulceration of the oropharynx and nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting. More severe side effects are dominated by systemic and respiratory tract manifestations. RESULTS: In this clinical case, the author reports a right-sided transient tinnitus lasting...... for 48 h after administration of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite in allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case provide important insights for clinical practice, as tinnitus has not been previously reported as a side effect of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergens....

  16. Immunotherapy in allergy and cellular tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro assay where the activation of basophils upon exposure to various IgE-challenging molecules is measured by flow cytometry. It is a cellular test able to investigate basophil behavior during allergy and allergy immunotherapy. A panoply of critical issues and suggestive advances have rendered this assay a promising yet puzzling tool to endeavor a full comprehension of innate immunity of allergy desensitization and manage allergen or monoclonal anti-IgE therapy. In this review a brief state of art of BAT in immunotherapy is described focusing onto the analytical issue pertaining BAT performance in allergy specific therapy. PMID:24717453

  17. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  18. Cancer immunotherapy: nanodelivery approaches for immune cell targeting and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conniot, João; Silva, Joana; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Liana; Gaspar, Rogério; Brocchini, Steve; Florindo, Helena; Barata, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Cancer is one of the most common diseases afflicting people globally. New therapeutic approaches are needed due to the complexity of cancer as a disease. Many current treatments are very toxic and have modest efficacy at best. Increased understanding of tumor biology and immunology has allowed the development of specific immunotherapies with minimal toxicity. It is important to highlight the performance of monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants, vaccines and cell-based treatments. Although these approaches have shown varying degrees of clinical efficacy, they illustrate the potential to develop new strategies. Targeted immunotherapy is being explored to overcome the heterogeneity of malignant cells and the immune suppression induced by both the tumor and its microenvironment. Nanodelivery strategies seek to minimize systemic exposure to target therapy to malignant tissue and cells. Intracellular penetration has been examined through the use of functionalized particulates. These nano-particulate associated medicines are being developed for use in imaging, diagnostics and cancer targeting. Although nano-particulates are inherently complex medicines, the ability to confer, at least in principle, different types of functionality allows for the plausible consideration these nanodelivery strategies can be exploited for use as combination medicines. The development of targeted nanodelivery systems in which therapeutic and imaging agents are merged into a single platform is an attractive strategy. Currently, several nanoplatform-based formulations, such as polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes and dendrimers are in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Herein, nanodelivery strategies presently investigated for cancer immunotherapy, cancer targeting mechanisms and nanocarrier functionalization methods will be described. We also intend to discuss the emerging nano-based approaches suitable to be used as imaging techniques and as cancer treatment options.

  19. The effect of a new communication template on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A patient's knowledge of his/her allergic condition and treatment is a key factor in adherence and effectiveness. METHODS: To assess patients' understanding of allergy and acceptance of allergen immunotherapy on the basis of (i) information given by their physician at the time...... of prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end...... of the prescribed course) or "non-starters" (having decided not to initiate a course of allergen immunotherapy recommended by their physician). All participants completed an on-line questionnaire immediately before and immediately after viewing the new communication template. The study's main objectives were...

  20. Plasma Onco-Immunotherapy: Novel Approach to Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Presentation is reviewing the newest results obtained by researchers of A.J. Drexel Plasma Institute on direct application of non-thermal plasma for direct treatment of different types of cancer by means of specific stimulation of immune system in the frameworks of the so-called onco-immunotherapy. Especial attention is paid to analysis of depth of penetration of different plasma-medical effects, from ROS, RNS, and ions to special biological signaling and immune system related processes. General aspects of the plasma-stimulation of immune system are discussed, pointing out specific medical applications. Most of experiments have been carried out using nanosecond pulsed DBD at low power and relatively low level of treatment doses, guaranteeing non-damage no-toxicity treatment regime. The nanosecond pulsed DBD physics is discussed mostly regarding its space uniformity and control of plasma parameters relevant to plasma medical treatment, and especially relevant to depth of penetration of different plasma medical effects. Detailed mechanism of the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy has been suggested based upon preliminary in-vitro experiments with DBD treatment of different cancer cells. Sub-elements of this mechanism related to activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, specific stressing of cancer cells and the immunogenic cell death (ICD) are to be discussed based on results of corresponding in-vitro experiments. In-vivo experiments focused on the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy were carried out in collaboration with medical doctors from Jefferson University hospital of Philadelphia. Todays achievements and nearest future prospective of clinical test focused on plasma-controlled cancer treatment are discussed in conclusion.

  1. Adherence issues related to sublingual immunotherapy as perceived by allergists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scurati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Scurati1, Franco Frati1, Gianni Passalacqua2, Paola Puccinelli1, Cecile Hilaire1, Cristoforo Incorvaia3, Italian Study Group on SLIT Compliance 1Scientific and Medical Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, ItalyObjectives: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is a viable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma, and is widely used in clinical practice in many European countries. The clinical efficacy of SLIT has been established in a number of clinical trials and meta-analyses. However, because SLIT is self-administered by patients without medical supervision, the degree of patient adherence with treatment is still a concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception by allergists of issues related to SLIT adherence.Methods: We performed a questionnaire-based survey of 296 Italian allergists, based on the adherence issues known from previous studies. The perception of importance of each item was assessed by a VAS scale ranging from 0 to 10.Results: Patient perception of clinical efficacy was considered the most important factor (ranked 1 by 54% of allergists, followed by the possibility of reimbursement (ranked 1 by 34%, and by the absence of side effects (ranked 1 by 21%. Patient education, regular follow-up, and ease of use of SLIT were ranked first by less than 20% of allergists.Conclusion: These findings indicate that clinical efficacy, cost, and side effects are perceived as the major issues influencing patient adherence to SLIT, and that further improvement of adherence is likely to be achieved by improving the patient information provided by prescribers.Keywords: adherence, sublingual immunotherapy, efficacy, cost, side effects

  2. Efficacy of Sublingual Immunotherapy versus Subcutaneous Injection Immunotherapy in Allergic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Saporta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is generally accepted that Subcutaneous Injection Immunotherapy (SCIT and Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT are both efficacious, there is not yet a significant amount of information regarding their comparative efficacy. In this paper, we performed a retrospective chart review and compared treatment results in two groups of patients (both with nasal allergies with or without asthma that were treated either with SCIT or SLIT. Both treatment modalities were found to be of similar efficacy.

  3. Epicutaneous Immunotherapy Compared with Sublingual Immunotherapy in Mice Sensitized to Pollen (Phleum pratense)

    OpenAIRE

    Mondoulet, Lucie; Dioszeghy, Vincent; Ligouis, Mélanie; Dhelft, Véronique; Puteaux, Emilie; Dupont, Christophe; Benhamou, Pierre-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) to sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in a model of mice sensitized to Phleum pratense pollen. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized by sub-cutaneous route to pollen protein extract mixed treated for 8 weeks, using sham, EPIT, or SLIT. Measurements involved the serological response and cytokine profile from reactivated splenocytes, plethysmography after aerosol challenge to pollen, cell, and cytokin...

  4. Subcutaneous Immunotherapy and Sublingual Immunotherapy: Comparative Efficacy, Current and Potential Indications, and Warnings--United States Versus Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold S; Makatsori, Melina; Calderon, Moises A

    2016-02-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are effective for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma and with some support for use in selected patients with atopic dermatitis. The sequence of immunologic responses is the same, irrespective of the route of administration, and similar disease modification has been demonstrated. However, there are differences between the two approaches. The most important is the greatly reduced likelihood of sublingual immunotherapy producing systemic reactions. There are major drawbacks for sublingual immunotherapy in regard to dosing. Finally, there is the question of relative clinical efficacy, with the currently available data favoring subcutaneous immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The CXCL10/CXCR3 Axis and Cardiac Inflammation: Implications for Immunotherapy to Treat Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases of the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Altara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence reveals involvement of T lymphocytes and adaptive immunity in the chronic inflammation associated with infectious and noninfectious diseases of the heart, including coronary artery disease, Kawasaki disease, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathies, Chagas, hypertensive left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and nonischemic heart failure. Chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in cardiovascular diseases, along with increased cardiac infiltration of proinflammatory Th1 and cytotoxic T cells. CXCL10 is a chemoattractant for these T cells and polarizing factor for the proinflammatory phenotype. Thus, targeting the CXCL10 receptor CXCR3 is a promising therapeutic approach to treating cardiac inflammation. Due to biased signaling CXCR3 also couples to anti-inflammatory signaling and immunosuppressive regulatory T cell formation when activated by CXCL11. Numbers and functionality of regulatory T cells are reduced in patients with cardiac inflammation, supporting the utility of biased agonists or biologicals to simultaneously block the pro-inflammatory and activate the anti-inflammatory actions of CXCR3. Other immunotherapy strategies to boost regulatory T cell actions include intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy, adoptive transfer, immunoadsorption, and low-dose interleukin-2/interleukin-2 antibody complexes. Pharmacological approaches include sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 agonists and vitamin D supplementation. A combined strategy of switching CXCR3 signaling from pro- to anti-inflammatory and improving Treg functionality is predicted to synergistically lessen adverse cardiac remodeling.

  6. Proceedings of the 2016 China Cancer Immunotherapy Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents A1 Proceedings of 2016 China Cancer Immunotherapy Workshop, Beijing, China Bin Xue, Jiaqi Xu, Wenru Song, Zhimin Yang, Ke Liu, Zihai Li A2 Set the stage: fundamental immunology in forty minutes Zihai Li A3 What have we learnt from the anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of advanced human cancer? Lieping Chen A4 Immune checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer Edward B. Garon A5 Mechanisms of response and resistance to checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma Siwen Hu-Lieskovan A6 Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in lymphoid malignancies Wei Ding A7 Translational research to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies Chong-Xian Pan A8 Immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal malignancies Weijing Sun A9 What’s next beyond PD-1/PDL1? Yong-Jun Liu A10 Cancer vaccines: new insights into the oldest immunotherapy strategy Lei Zheng A11 Bispecific antibodies for cancer immunotherapy Delong Liu A12 Updates on CAR-T immunotherapy Michel Sadelain A13 Adoptive T cell therapy: personalizing cancer treatment Cassian Yee A14 Immune targets and neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy Rongfu Wang A15 Phase I/IIa trial of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells against CD133 in patients with advanced and metastatic solid tumors Meixia Chen, Yao Wang, Zhiqiang Wu, Hanren Dai, Can Luo, Yang Liu, Chuan Tong, Yelei Guo, Qingming Yang, Weidong Han A16 Cancer immunotherapy biomarkers: progress and issues Lisa H. Butterfield A17 Shaping of immunotherapy response by cancer genomes Timothy A. Chan A18 Unique development consideration for cancer immunotherapy Wenru Song A19 Immunotherapy combination Ruirong Yuan A20 Immunotherapy combination with radiotherapy Bo Lu A21 Cancer immunotherapy: past, present and future Ke Liu A22 Breakthrough therapy designation drug development and approval Max Ning A23 Current European regulation of innovative oncology medicines: opportunities for immunotherapy Harald Enzmann, Heinz Zwierzina

  7. Clinical effect and immunological response in patients with advanced malignant glioma treated with WT1-pulsed dendritic cell-based immunotherapy: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sakai, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: WT1-pulsed DC-based vaccination for two patients with advanced malignant glioma demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity. The present cases provide clinical evidence and an immunological response that DC vaccination induces tumor regression and improves neurological findings. Prospective clinical trials are required to evaluate the efficacy of acquired immunity in response to DC vaccination in improving the prognosis of advanced malignant glioma.

  8. Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapies to Fight HIV: How Far from a Success Story? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Victor Campos Coelho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community still faces the challenge of developing strategies to cure HIV-1. One of these pursued strategies is the development of immunotherapeutic vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs, pulsed with the virus, that aim to boost HIV-1 specific immune response. We aimed to review DCs-based therapeutic vaccines reports and critically assess evidence to gain insights for the improvement of these strategies. We performed a systematic review, followed by meta-analysis and meta-regression, of clinical trial reports. Twelve studies were selected for meta-analysis. The experimental vaccines had low efficiency, with an overall success rate around 38% (95% confidence interval = 26.7%–51.3%. Protocols differed according to antigen choice, DC culture method, and doses, although multivariate analysis did not show an influence of any of them on overall success rate. The DC-based vaccines elicited at least some immunogenicity, that was sometimes associated with plasmatic viral load transient control. The protocols included both naïve and antiretroviral therapy (ART-experienced individuals, and used different criteria for assessing vaccine efficacy. Although the vaccines did not work as expected, they are proof of concept that immune responses can be boosted against HIV-1. Protocol standardization and use of auxiliary approaches, such as latent HIV-1 reservoir activation and patient genomics are paramount for fine-tuning future HIV-1 cure strategies.

  9. Novel Immunotherapy for Malignant Breast Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BIOTECHNOLOGY VOL 18 MAY 2000 http://biotech.nature.com NEWS AND VIEWS Problem solving for tumor immunotherapy Cecile Gouttefangeas and Hans-Georg Ramniensee...Cdcile Gouttefangeas is a researcher and solely expressed intracellularly are still visible cine using DNA that, rather than encoding an Hans-Georg

  10. Novel immunotherapy approaches to food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, Simone M; Kostadinova, Atanaska I; Garssen, Johan; Otten, Henny G; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite reaching high percentages of desensitization using allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) in patients with food allergy, recent studies suggest only a low number of patients to reach persistent clinical tolerance. This review describes current developments in strategies to

  11. New visions in specific immunotherapy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Lau, Susanne; Valovirta, Erkka

    2008-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy is indicated for confirmed immunoglobulin E-mediated airway diseases using standardized allergen products with documented clinical efficacy and safety. For decades the subcutaneous route of administration (SCIT) has been the gold standard. Recently, the sublingual immunothe......Specific immunotherapy is indicated for confirmed immunoglobulin E-mediated airway diseases using standardized allergen products with documented clinical efficacy and safety. For decades the subcutaneous route of administration (SCIT) has been the gold standard. Recently, the sublingual...... immunotherapy (SLIT) has also been investigated in children. SCIT, especially with grass and birch pollens but also house dust mites, is an effective treatment in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma when a significant part of their symptoms are caused by these allergens. A long-term effect up to 12 yr...... both with SCIT and SLIT. This review was initiated by iPAC (international Pediatric Allergy and Asthma Consortium) and aims to review current knowledge related to specific immunotherapy in childhood, and to identify needs for future research in this field....

  12. Targetless T cells in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, Eivind Per; Garrido, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Attention has recently focused on new cancer immunotherapy protocols aiming to activate T cell mediated anti-tumor responses. To this end, administration of antibodies that target inhibitory molecules regulating T-cell cytotoxicity has achieved impressive clinical responses, as has adoptive cell ...

  13. Immunoengineering: how nanotechnology can enhance cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michael S

    2015-04-09

    Although cancer immunotherapy can lead to durable outcomes, the percentage of patients who respond to this disruptive approach remains modest to date. Encouragingly, nanotechnology can enhance the efficacy of immunostimulatory small molecules and biologics by altering their co-localization, biodistribution, and release kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomarkers and correlative endpoints for immunotherapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Osada, Takuya; Hobeika, Amy; Patel, Sandip; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapies for lung cancer are reaching phase III clinical trial, but the ultimate success likely will depend on developing biomarkers to guide development and choosing patient populations most likely to benefit. Because the immune response to cancer involves multiple cell types and cytokines, some spatially and temporally separated, it is likely that multiple biomarkers will be required to fully characterize efficacy of the vaccine and predict eventual benefit. Peripheral blood markers of response, such as the ELISPOT assay and cytokine flow cytometry analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells following immunotherapy, remain the standard approach, but it is increasingly important to obtain tissue to study the immune response at the site of the tumor. Earlier clinical endpoints such as response rate and progression-free survival do not correlate with overall survival demonstrated for some immunotherapies, suggesting the need to develop other intermediary clinical endpoints. Insofar as all these biomarkers and surrogate endpoints are relevant in multiple malignancies, it may be possible to extrapolate findings to immunotherapy of lung cancer.

  15. Targeting nanoparticles to dendritic cells for immunotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, L.J.; Tacken, P.J.; Rueda, F.; Domingo, J.C.; Albericio, F.; Figdor, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the initiation of adaptive immune responses and are currently exploited in immunotherapy for treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Development of targeted nanodelivery systems carrying vaccine components, including antigens and adjuvants, to DCs in

  16. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Okubo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of pollinosis caused by cedar pollen has increased by 10% these ten years of 26.5% in the investigation of 2008 in Japan. The pharmacotherapy is a main treatment tool for pollinosis, and the surgical treatment is not acknowledged to the treatment of pollinosis internationally. Moreover, allergen immunotherapy enters a special treatment method, and is an important therapeutic procedure. The allergen immunotherapy is unique for having possibility of curing allergen specific allergic diseases. However the side effect of allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT, such as anaphylaxis is kept at a distance in a medical situation in Japan. Then, a sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT that was safer than it, developed in Europe for pollinosis induced by grass or ragweed, but not in Japan. As a result, the effect of SLIT was proven in the cedar pollinosis in Japan as high level evidence. A whole body immunity induction is thought in the appearance of the effect, and, in addition, it is necessary to be going to be cleared the accurate mechanism of the effect in the future. Moreover, the development of a special SLIT and the import of an overseas product are needed in Japan.

  18. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-09-01

    Food allergies continue to be an increasingly common disorder, however, no treatment strategies are currently approved for the routine management of individuals with food allergies. Encouraging results from early open-label studies have sparked great interest in oral and sublingual immunotherapy, and thus several randomized controlled trials have recently been conducted to establish the safety and efficacy of these treatment strategies. The aim of this review is to examine the recent studies for peanut, milk and egg allergies. Open-label and randomized control trials are discussed. Studies focusing on peanut, milk and egg allergies are included. Current evidence indicates that desensitization is possible for the majority of subjects who undergo oral immunotherapy. Clinical improvement has been associated with favorable immunologic changes, including smaller skin prick test wheal sizes and increased allergen-specific IgG4 levels. Adverse reactions are common, however, and thus safety concerns remain. Sublingual immunotherapy thus far has not proven to be as effective as oral immune-therapy. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy are promising treatments for food allergy. Optimization and standardization of protocols, along with additional assessments of safety are still needed.

  19. In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in understanding anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheek, B M; Suryawanshi, Amol R; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern and emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed understanding towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db and H2-Dd) and some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules and to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db and H2-Dd and fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL and MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities and least binding energies for H2-Db and H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity and least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection and this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation and evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell

  20. Passive immunotherapy in AIDS: a double-blind randomized study based on transfusions of plasma rich in anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 antibodies vs. transfusions of seronegative plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, D; Chevret, S; Morand-Joubert, L; Heshmati, F; Audat, F; Bary, M; Dusautoir, T; Bismuth, A; Viard, J P; Barré-Sinoussi, F

    1995-02-14

    A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of passive immunotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This trial included 86 symptomatic patients randomized to receive plasma rich in anti-HIV-1 antibody or standard seronegative plasma. Each patient in both groups received a 300-ml infusion every 14 days over a 1-year period, and every 28 days thereafter, in addition to zidovudine and other conventional prophylactic treatments. Plasma donors were selected among symptomless seropositive individuals with a CD4 lymphocyte count > or = 400 x 10(6) cells per liter, a negative p24 antigen assay, and a high concentration of anti-p24 antibody. The plasmas were heat-inactivated before infusion. During the study period (day 28-day 365) scheduled by the protocol, clinical benefit from passive immunotherapy was observed in delaying the appearance of the first AIDS-defining event (P group compared to the treatment group. Seven deaths occurred in the treatment group vs. 11 in the control group (P = 0.27). A total of 47 patients died or exhibited new AIDS-defining events, 18 in the treatment group and 29 in the control group (P = 0.009). No clinical benefit was observed after the 1-year period with infusions performed every 4 weeks. These results indicate a favorable effect of passive immunotherapy on the evolution of advanced AIDS.

  1. Toward integrative cancer immunotherapy: targeting the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens, Leisha A; Silverstein, Samuel C; Khleif, Samir; Marincola, Francesco M; Galon, Jérôme

    2012-04-10

    The development of cancer has historically been attributed to genomic alterations of normal host cells. Accordingly, the aim of most traditional cancer therapies has been to destroy the transformed cells themselves. There is now widespread appreciation that the progressive growth and metastatic spread of cancer cells requires the cooperation of normal host cells (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, other mesenchymal cells, and immune cells), both local to, and at sites distant from, the site at which malignant transformation occurs. It is the balance of these cellular interactions that both determines the natural history of the cancer, and influences its response to therapy. This active tumor-host dynamic has stimulated interest in the tumor microenvironment as a key target for both cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recent data has demonstrated both that the presence of CD8⁺ T cells within a tumor is associated with a good prognosis, and that the eradication of all malignantly transformed cells within a tumor requires that the intra-tumoral concentration of cytolytically active CD8⁺ effector T cells remain above a critical concentration until every tumor cell has been killed. These findings have stimulated two initiatives in the field of cancer immunotherapy that focus on the tumor microenvironment. The first is the development of the immune score as part of the routine diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of human cancers, and the second is the development of combinatorial immune-based therapies that reduce tumor-associated immune suppression to unleash pre-existing or therapeutically-induced tumor immunity. In support of these efforts, the Society for the Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) is sponsoring a workshop entitled "Focus on the Target: The Tumor Microenvironment" to be held October 24-25, 2012 in Bethesda, Maryland. This meeting should support development of the immune score, and result in a position paper highlighting opportunities for the development of

  2. Advances in nanotechnology-based carrier systems for targeted delivery of bioactive drug molecules with special emphasis on immunotherapy in drug resistant tuberculosis - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-06-01

    From the early sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to the present day of life, tuberculosis (TB) still is a global health threat with some new emergence of resistance. This type of emergence poses a vital challenge to control TB cases across the world. Mortality and morbidity rates are high due to this new face of TB. The newer nanotechnology-based drug-delivery approaches involving micro-metric and nano-metric carriers are much needed at this stage. These delivery systems would provide more advantages over conventional systems of treatment by producing enhanced therapeutic efficacy, uniform distribution of drug molecule to the target site, sustained and controlled release of drug molecules and lesser side effects. The main aim to develop these novel drug-delivery systems is to improve the patient compliance and reduce therapy time. This article reviews and elaborates the new concepts and drug-delivery approaches for the treatment of TB involving solid-lipid particulate drug-delivery systems (solid-lipid micro- and nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers), vesicular drug-delivery systems (liposomes, niosomes and liposphere), emulsion-based drug-delivery systems (micro and nanoemulsion) and some other novel drug-delivery systems for the effective treatment of tuberculosis and role of immunomodulators as an adjuvant therapy for management of MDR-TB and XDR-TB.

  3. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in scleroderma skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Deleuran, Mette; Heickendorff, Lene

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) were present in scleroderma skin, and to compare their levels to concentrations measured in plasma and clinical parameters, we examined suction blister fluid and plasma...... from 13 patients with systemic sclerosis and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and biopsies were from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin. The levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both plasma and suction blister fluid from...... systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy volunteers. ICAM-1 was localized to vessels and perivascular mononuclear infiltrates by immunohistochemical methods. IL-2R was expressed by CD3-positive cells. The elevated levels of sICAM-1 and sIL-2R in suction blister fluid point towards activation...

  4. Nucleolin and YB-1 are required for JNK-mediated interleukin-2 mRNA stabilization during T-cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, C Y; Gherzi, R; Andersen, Jens S.

    2000-01-01

    Regulated mRNA turnover is a highly important process, but its mechanism is poorly understood. Using interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA as a model, we described a role for the JNK-signaling pathway in stabilization of IL-2 mRNA during T-cell activation, acting via a JNK response element (JRE) in the 5......' untranslated region (UTR). We have now identified two major RNA-binding proteins, nucleolin and YB-1, that specifically bind to the JRE. Binding of both proteins is required for IL-2 mRNA stabilization induced by T-cell activation signals and for JNK-induced stabilization in a cell-free system that duplicates...... essential features of regulated mRNA decay. Nucleolin and YB-1 are required for formation of an IL-2 mRNP complex that responds to specific mRNA stabilizing signals....

  5. Combination immunotherapy with radiation and CpG-based tumor vaccination for the eradication of radio- and immuno-resistant lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoto, Kenji; Wakita, Daiko; Takeshima, Tsuguhide

    2009-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) is known as a ligand of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which selectively activates type-1 immunity. We have already reported that the vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with liposome-CpG coencapsulated with model-tumor antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) (CpG+OVA-liposome) caused complete cure of the mice bearing OVA-expressing EG-7 lymphoma cells. However, the same therapy was not effective to eradicate Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-OVA-carcinoma. To overcome the refractoriness of LLC-OVA, we tried the combination therapy of radiation with CpG-based tumor vaccination. When LLC-OVA-carcinoma intradermally (i.d.) injected into C57BL/6 became palpable (7-8 mm), the mice were irradiated twice with a dose of 14 Gy at intervals of 24 h. After the second radiation, CpG+OVA-liposome was i.d. administered near the draining lymph node (DLN) of the tumor mass. The tumor growth of mice treated with radiation plus CpG+OVA-liposome was greatly inhibited and approximately 60% of mice treated were completely cured. Moreover, the combined therapy with radiation and CpG+OVA-liposome allowed the augmented induction of OVA-tetramer + LLC-OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) in DLN of tumor-bearing mice. These results indicate that the combined therapy of radiation with CpG-based tumor vaccine is a useful strategy to eradicate intractable carcinoma. (author)

  6. High expression of fusion proteins consisting of a single-chain variable fragment antibody against a tumor-associated antigen and interleukin-2 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napathorn, Suchada Chanprateep; Kuroki, Motomu; Kuroki, Masahide

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a strategy for high-level production of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies fused with interleukin-2 (IL-2) in Escherichia coli. We constructed two fusion sequences consisting of a scFv gene derived from a mouse monoclonal antibody against a tumor-associated antigen (MK-1) and human Interleukin-2(IL-2) gene, ligated the fusions into pET15b and transformed into three different E. coli strains. The effects of temperature, isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentration and duration of IPTG induction were investigated. Employing E. coli strain Rosetta-gami B, which has an oxidizing cytoplasm that facilitates cytoplasmic disulfide bond formation, improved the level of soluble protein expression. Under optimal conditions, the highest levels of fusion protein expression and high percentages of the proteins were found in their soluble form. Specifically, 89.29% (0.28 g/l) of one fusion protein was soluble after a 10-h induction and 84.61% (0.26 g/l) of the other fusion protein was soluble after a separate 10-h induction. When analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the partially-purified fusion proteins retained a specific binding activity to the cell lysate of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing MK-1. Taken together, the methods described herein permit the production of substantial amounts of the fusion proteins for conducting functional studies on the biological role of these fusion proteins. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Precision cancer immunotherapy: optimizing dendritic cell-based strategies to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses against individual patient tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Nagaoka, Koji; Takahara, Masashi; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Guo, Hongtao; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobeika, Amy; Hartman, Zachary; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-05-01

    Most dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have loaded the DC with defined antigens, but loading with autologos tumor-derived antigens would generate DCs that activate personalized tumor-specific T-cell responses. We hypothesized that DC matured with an optimized combination of reagents and loaded with tumor-derived antigens using a clinically feasible electroporation strategy would induce potent antitumor immunity. We first studied the effects on DC maturation and antigen presentation of the addition of picibanil (OK432) to a combination of zoledronic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. Using DC matured with the optimized combination, we tested 2 clinically feasible sources of autologous antigen for electroloading, total tumor mRNA or total tumor lysate, to determine which stimulated more potent antigen-specific T cells in vitro and activated more potent antitumor immunity in vivo. The combination of tumor necrosis factor-α/prostaglandin E2/zoledronic acid/OK432 generated DC with high expression of maturation markers and antigen-specific T-cell stimulatory function in vitro. Mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA [mRNA electroporated dendritic cell (EPDC)] induced greater expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro than DC electroloaded with tumor lysate (lysate EPDC). In a therapeutic model of MC38-carcinoembryonic antigen colon cancer-bearing mice, vaccination with mRNA EPDC induced the most efficient anti-carcinoembryonic antigen cellular immune response, which significantly suppressed tumor growth. In conclusion, mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA are a potent cancer vaccine, especially useful when specific tumor antigens for vaccination have not been identified, allowing autologous tumor, and if unavailable, allogeneic cell lines to be used as an unbiased source of antigen. Our data support clinical testing of this strategy.

  8. Immunotherapy Using Dendritic Cells against Multiple Myeloma: How to Improve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Nhan Nguyen-Pham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a good target disease in which one can apply cellular immunotherapy, which is based on the graft-versus-myeloma effect. This role of immune effector cells provides the framework for the development of immune-based therapeutic options that use antigen-presenting cells (APCs with increased potency, such as dendritic cells (DCs, in MM. Current isolated idiotype (Id, myeloma cell lysates, myeloma dying cells, DC-myeloma hybrids, or DC transfected with tumor-derived RNA has been used for immunotherapy with DCs. Immunological inhibitory cytokines, such as TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6 and VEGF, which are produced from myeloma cells, can modulate antitumor host immune response, including the abrogation of DC function, by constitutive activation of STAT3. Therefore, even the immune responses have been observed in clinical trials, the clinical response was rarely improved following DC vaccinations in MM patients. We are going to discuss how to improve the efficacy of DC vaccination in MM.

  9. Single-allergen sublingual immunotherapy versus multi-allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy for children with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xi; Shi, Han

    2017-06-01

    It has always been controversial whether a single allergen performs better than multiple allergens in polysensitized patients during the allergen-specific immunotherapy. This study aimed to examine the clinical efficacy of single-allergen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) versus multi-allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and to discover the change of the biomarker IL-4 after 1-year immunotherapy in polysensitized children aged 6-13 years with allergic rhinitis (AR) induced by house dust mites (HDMs). The AR polysensitized children (n=78) were randomly divided into two groups: SLIT group and SCIT group. Patients in the SLIT group sublingually received a single HDM extract and those in the SCIT group were subcutaneously given multiple-allergen extracts (HDM in combination with other clinically relevant allergen extracts). Before and 1 year after the allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT), the total nasal symptom scores (TNSS), total medication scores (TMS) and IL-4 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were compared respectively between the two groups. The results showed that the TNSS were greatly improved, and the TMS and IL-4 levels were significantly decreased after 1-year ASIT in both groups (SLIT group: P0.05; for TMS: P>0.05; for IL-4 levels: P>0.05). It was concluded that the clinical efficacy of single-allergen SLIT is comparable with that of multi-allergen SCIT in 6-13-year-old children with HDM-induced AR.

  10. Advances of Immunotherapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing LIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is complex heterogeneous due to unclear biological characteristics in terms of cell origin, pathogenesis and driver genes etc. Diagnosis and treatment of SCLC has been slowly improved and few breakthroughs have been discovered up to now. Therefore new strategies are urgently needed to improve the efficacy of SCLC treatment. Tumor immunotherapy has potential to restore and trigger the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumor cells, notably it has only minimal adverse impact on normal tissue. Cancer vaccine, adoptive immunotherapy, cytokines and checkpoint inhibitors have now been launched for clinical treatment of SCLC. Ipilimumab is the most promising medicine of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is expected to bring new vision to the treatment of SCLC. And further researches are needed on such problems affecting efficacy of immunotherapy as the heterogeneity of SCLC, the uncertainty of target for immunotherapy, the immune tolerance, etc.

  11. Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes: A Powerful and Versatile Vector for the Future of Tumor Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Michael Wood

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, inactivated or attenuated bacteria have been employed in the clinic as immunotherapies to treat cancer, starting with the Coley’s vaccines in the 19th century and leading to the currently approved bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine for bladder cancer. While effective, the inflammation induced by these therapies is transient and not designed to induce long-lasting tumor-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL responses that have proven so adept at eradicating tumors. Therefore, in order to maintain the benefits of bacteria-induced acute inflammation but gain long-lasting anti-tumor immunity, many groups have constructed recombinant bacteria expressing tumor-associated antigens (TAAs for the purpose of activating tumor-specific CTLs. One bacterium has proven particularly adept at inducing powerful anti-tumor immunity, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm. Lm is a gram-positive bacterium that selectively infects antigen-presenting cells wherein it is able to efficiently deliver tumor antigens to both the MHC Class I and II antigen presentation pathways for activation of tumor-targeting CTL-mediated immunity. Lm is a versatile bacterial vector as evidenced by its ability to induce therapeutic immunity against a wide-array of TAAs and specifically infect and kill tumor cells directly. It is for these reasons, among others, that Lm-based immunotherapies have delivered impressive therapeutic efficacy in preclinical models of cancer for two decades and are now showing promise clinically. In this review, we will provide an overview of the history leading up to the development of current Lm-based immunotherapies, the advantages and mechanisms of Lm as a therapeutic vaccine vector, the preclinical experience with Lm-based immunotherapies targeting a number of malignancies, and the recent findings from clinical trials along with concluding remarks on the future of Lm-based tumor immunotherapies.

  12. Adoptive T Cell Immunotherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Perica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells has been the central goal of anti-cancer immunotherapy. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in optimizing this technology in order to make it a clinically feasible treatment. One of the main treatment modalities within cancer immunotherapy has been adoptive T cell therapy (ACT. Using this approach, tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells are infused into cancer patients with the goal of recognizing, targeting, and destroying tumor cells. In the current review, we revisit some of the major successes of ACT, the major hurdles that have been overcome to optimize ACT, the remaining challenges, and future approaches to make ACT widely available.

  13. Immunotherapy in the management of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Janusz Piotr

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the role of Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the complex and not fully explained pathogenesis of sepsis. The so-called "respiratory burst" of neutrophils and the antioxidant mechanisms of the host are also discussed. The work focuses on possible approaches to the management of sepsis connected with immunotherapy. Neutralization of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) therapy with monoclonal antibodies or pentoxifylline (PTXF), as well as soluble recombinant cytokine agonists and antagonists used in clinical trials are taken into consideration. In addition, cytokine manipulation therapy, anti-adhesion techniques, glucocorticoides and antioxidant barrier interference are also described. So far there has been no immunotherapy of sepsis in children of proven clinical efficacy, which prompts an aggressive examination of the immune system aimed at affecting its function.

  14. Should we encourage allergen immunotherapy during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Jay

    2014-03-01

    Primary prevention of allergy is a laudable goal, but one that has unfortunately proven difficult to achieve. Many different strategies have been reported to date, but unequivocal supporting data for any single strategy does not exist. Any successful strategy must lead to immunomodulation and must be encountered very early on life, likely in utero. Reports of early bacterial and farm animal exposures lend supportive data to the concept of immune regulation via early fetal exposure, howeve attempts at clinical applications of this, such as probiotics has not been completely successful. One practical, clinical method for achieving a similar immune modulation to these exposures would be providing atopic women with allergy immunotherapy while pregnant (or perhaps even preconception). Allergy immunotherapy is associated with favorable immune modulation and some data suggest that these changes if produced in mother can influence the atopic status of offspring.

  15. Malignant mesothelioma clinical trial combines immunotherapy drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwal, Monica S; Tanvetyanon, Tawee

    2018-04-01

    Immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibitor is effective for a number of solid tumors including malignant mesothelioma. Studies utilizing single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor for mesothelioma have reported tumor response rates in approximately 10-20% of patients treated. Given the success of combining these agents with CTLA-4 inhibitor in melanoma, there is a strong rationale to study it in mesothelioma. Recently results from clinical trials investigating this approach have been released. Though limited by small sample size, the studies conclusively demonstrated feasibility and suggested a modestly higher tumor response rate than one would expect from treatment with single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor. Nevertheless, toxicity was also increased. Immunotherapy-related deaths due to encephalitis, renal failure and hepatitis were observed. Further studies are warranted.

  16. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Franco; Ridolo, Erminia; Fuiano, Nicola; Barberi, Salvatore; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Landi, Massimo; Ricciardi, Luisa; Scala, Guglielmo; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2014-07-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) which was associated with the possible occurrence of systemic reactions including anaphylaxis and, though very rarely, fatalities. Some anaphylactic reactions to SLIT are reported, mainly in adults but also in children. It is therefore important to investigate the risk factors related to such reactions. Data from the literature on the safety of SLIT in children were reviewed. The data reviewed concerned the application of this treatment to patients with respiratory allergy and also possible new indications such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis and latex allergy. Reports of anaphylactic reactions were analyzed to identify the potential risk factors. SLIT is a well tolerated treatment, the common side effect being local reactions in the mouth. Systemic reactions, concerning the skin and the airway, are rare and anaphylactic reactions are extremely rare.

  17. Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0423 TITLE: Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Smita...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0423 Novel Immune-Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have developed a novel strategy that combines tumor immunotherapy targeting PAP and targeted

  18. Combination of omalizumab and bee venom immunotherapy: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, İnsu; Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik; Türk, Murat

    2018-01-01

    Bee venom immunotherapy (b-VIT) can be combined with omalizumab therapy in order to suppress systemic reactions developing due to b-VIT itself. Omalizumab acts as a premedication and gains time for the immunotherapy to develop its immunomodulatory effects. However, the combination of omalizumab and b-VIT is not always effective enough. Herein we present a patient in whom successful immunotherapy cannot be achieved with combination of omalizumab to b-VIT.

  19. MBCP - Approach - Immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus. Ongoing clinical trials focusing on enhancing the patient’s immune system are listed below.

  20. Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alissa A.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Fadul, Camilo E.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, thrives in a microenvironment of relative immunosuppression within the relatively immune-privileged central nervous system. Despite treatments with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, prognosis remains poor. The recent success of immunotherapy in the treatment of other cancers has renewed interest in vaccine therapy for the treatment of gliomas. In this article, we outline various immunotherapeutic strategies, review recent clinical trials data, and discuss the future of vaccine therapy for glioblastoma. PMID:22290259

  1. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell–mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T...

  2. Local immunotherapy in experimental murine lung inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Caroline Uebel, Sonja Koch, Anja Maier, Nina Sopel, Anna Graser, Stephanie Mousset & Susetta Finotto ### Abstract Innovative local immunotherapy for severe lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer requires a successful delivery to access the desired cellular target in the lung. An important route is the direct instillation into the airways in contrast to delivery through the digestive tract. This protocol details a method to deliver a...

  3. ATMPs for Cancer Immunotherapy: A Regulatory Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses European regulatory requirements for development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) for cancer immunotherapy approaches, describing the framework for clinical trials and for marketing authorization.Regulatory critical issues and challenges for developing ATMP are also discussed, with focus on potency determination, long-term follow-up, comparability, and insertional mutagenesis issues. Some of the most critical features of GMP application to ATMP are also described.

  4. [Immunotherapy: Activation of a system not a pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernichon, Emilie; Rancoule, Chloé; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Mery, Benoîte; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-05-01

    Immunotherapy is on the roll. After revolutionary effects in melanoma, immunotherapy is invading other locations. If current treatments, chemotherapies or targeted therapies block one pathway, immunotherapy should be understood as the activation of a whole system. Indeed, oncogenesis process is defined as an escape of the immune system and the stimulation of this system can block the carcinogenic process. The aim of the present review is to describe the place of immunotherapy in the treatment of solid cancers. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive factors for immunotherapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó, Cristina; González-Cao, Maria; Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as an exciting strategy for cancer treatment. Therapeutic blockade of immune checkpoint regulators favors the ability of T cell responses to increase anti-tumor immunity. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are two T cell-inhibitory receptors with independent mechanisms of action. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting either CTLA-4, PD-1 or its ligand PD-L1 are currently yielding promising results in terms of efficacy in several clinical studies with melanoma patients and are being developed and tested as immunotherapy agents for multiple cancer types. To date, no reliable predictors of activity and efficacy of immunotherapy have yet been identified or validated. Even so, determining which patients derive clinical benefit from immune checkpoint agents remains an important clinical question and efforts to identify predictive markers of response are ongoing. This article reviews the current potential predictive factors for CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints inhibitors in melanoma.

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy in children: facts and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati Franco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT is the practice of administering gradually increasing doses of the specific causative allergen to reduce the clinical reactivity of allergic subjects, and is the only treatment targeting the causes of hypersensitivity and not only the symptoms, as done by drugs. The traditional, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT was burdened by the problem of systemic reactions which may be sometimes severe and - though very rarely - even fatal. This was the background to develop non injections routes for SIT and particularly sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT, that emerged as a real treatment option for respiratory allergy. A number of studies was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of SLIT, the first meta-analysis - including 22 placebo-controlled trials - concluded for positive results in both issues, but the number of studies on children was too low to draw definite conclusions. Since then, many other studies became available and make possible to analyze SLIT in children in its well defined aspects as well as in sides still requiring more solid data.

  7. Local immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2011-12-01

    To summarize novel insights into the immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Within the recent decades, several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), of which intra-oral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be well tolerated and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative option to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Although detailed immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated, much scientific effort has been made to shed some light on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Only a few studies focused on the detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network. Within this network, the pro-tolerogenic properties of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells - which are able to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms and to induce T-cell immune responses - play a central role. Further on, basic research focused not only on the immune response in nasal and bronchial mucosa but also on the systemic T-cell immune response. Thus, much exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more investigations are necessary to uncover further exciting details on the key mechanisms of SLIT.

  8. SITC/iSBTc Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers Resource Document: Online resources and useful tools - a compass in the land of biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disis Mary L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent positive clinical results in cancer immunotherapy point to the potential of immune-based strategies to provide effective treatment of a variety of cancers. In some patients, the responses to cancer immunotherapy are durable, dramatically extending survival. Extensive research efforts are being made to identify and validate biomarkers that can help identify subsets of cancer patients that will benefit most from these novel immunotherapies. In addition to the clear advantage of such predictive biomarkers, immune biomarkers are playing an important role in the development, clinical evaluation and monitoring of cancer immunotherapies. This Cancer Immunotherapy Resource Document, prepared by the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc, provides key references and online resources relevant to the discovery, evaluation and clinical application of immune biomarkers. These key resources were identified by experts in the field who are actively pursuing research in biomarker identification and validation. This organized collection of the most useful references, online resources and tools serves as a compass to guide discovery of biomarkers essential to advancing novel cancer immunotherapies.

  9. Multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy: A groundbreaking approach for reprogramming malfunctioned tumor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Samaresh; Alsaab, Hashem O; Bhise, Ketki; Alzhrani, Rami; Nabil, Ghazal; Iyer, Arun K

    2018-03-28

    Several cancer immunotherapy approaches have been recently introduced into the clinics and they have shown remarkable therapeutic potentials. The groundbreaking cancer immunotherapeutic agents function as a stimulant or modulator of the body immune system to fight against or kill cancers. Although targeted immunotherapies such as immune check point inhibitors (CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1), DNA vaccination and CAR-T therapy are revolutionizing cancer treatment, the delivery efficacy can be further improved while their off-target toxicity can be mitigated through nanotechnology approaches. Recent research has demonstrated that nanotechnology has multifaceted role for (i) reeducating tumor associated macrophages (TAM) to function as tumor suppressor agent, (ii) serving as an efficient alternative for Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell generation and transduction, and (iii) selective knockdown of Kras oncogene addiction by nano-Crisper-Cas9 delivery system. The function of host immune stimulatory signals and tumor immunotherapies can further be improved by repurposing of nanomedicine platform. This review summarizes the role of multifunctional polymeric, lipid, metallic and cell based nanoparticles for improving current immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Catch me if you can: Leukemia Escape after CD19-Directed T Cell Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is the revolution in cancer treatment of this last decade. Among multiple approaches able to harness the power of the immune system against cancer, T cell based immunotherapies represent one of the most successful examples. In particular, biotechnological engineering of protein structures, like the T cell receptor or the immunoglobulins, allowed the generation of synthetic peptides like chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies that are able to redirect non-tumor specific T cells to recognize and kill leukemic cells. The anti-CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody blinatumomab and anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CART19 have produced deep responses in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell acute leukemias. However, although the majority of these patients responds to anti-CD19 immunotherapy, a subset of them still relapses. Interestingly, a novel family of leukemia escape mechanisms has been described, all characterized by the apparent loss of CD19 on the surface of leukemic blasts. This extraordinary finding demonstrates the potent selective pressure of CART19/blinatumomab that drives extreme and specific escape strategies by leukemic blasts. Patients with CD19-negative relapsed leukemia have very poor prognosis and novel approaches to treat and ideally prevent antigen-loss are direly needed. In this review we discuss the incidence, mechanisms and therapeutic approaches for CD19-negative leukemia relapses occuring after CD19-directed T cell immunotherapies and present our future perspective.

  11. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Moises A; Demoly, Pascal; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Bousquet, Jean; Sheikh, Aziz; Frew, Anthony; Scadding, Glenis; Bachert, Claus; Malling, Hans J; Valenta, Rudolph; Bilo, Beatrice; Nieto, Antonio; Akdis, Cezmi; Just, Jocelyne; Vidal, Carmen; Varga, Eva M; Alvarez-Cuesta, Emilio; Bohle, Barbara; Bufe, Albrecht; Canonica, Walter G; Cardona, Victoria; Dahl, Ronald; Didier, Alain; Durham, Stephen R; Eng, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Jacobsen, Lars; Jutel, Marek; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Lötvall, Jan; Moreno, Carmen; Mosges, Ralph; Muraro, Antonella; Niggemann, Bodo; Pajno, Giovanni; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Rak, Sabina; Senna, Gianenrico; Senti, Gabriela; Valovirta, Erkka; van Hage, Marianne; Virchow, Johannes C; Wahn, Ulrich; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-10-30

    Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy.Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies.Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals' quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases.Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in which Europe is recognized as a

  12. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Moises A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy. Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in

  13. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months......BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  14. Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and low-dose Interleukin-2 in metastatic melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Junker, Niels; Donia, Marco; Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Met, Özcan; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Andersen, Rikke Sick; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Andersen, Mads Hald; thor Straten, Per; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-08-21

    Adoptive cell therapy may be based on isolation of tumor-specific T cells, e.g. autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), in vitro activation and expansion and the reinfusion of these cells into patients upon chemotherapy induced lymphodepletion. Together with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 this treatment has been given to patients with advanced malignant melanoma and impressive response rates but also significant IL-2 associated toxicity have been observed. Here we present data from a feasibility study at a Danish Translational Research Center using TIL adoptive transfer in combination with low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 injections. This is a pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00937625) including patients with metastatic melanoma, PS ≤1, age involvement of the central nervous system. Six patients were treated with lymphodepleting chemotherapy, TIL infusion, and 14 days of subcutaneous low-dose IL-2 injections, 2 MIU/day. Low-dose IL-2 considerably decreased the treatment related toxicity with no grade 3-4 IL-2 related adverse events. Objective clinical responses were seen in 2 of 6 treated patients with ongoing complete responses (30+ and 10+ months), 2 patients had stable disease (4 and 5 months) and 2 patients progressed shortly after treatment. Tumor-reactivity of the infused cells and peripheral lymphocytes before and after therapy were analyzed. Absolute number of tumor specific T cells in the infusion product tended to correlate with clinical response and also, an induction of peripheral tumor reactive T cells was observed for 1 patient in complete remission. Complete and durable responses were induced after treatment with adoptive cell therapy in combination with low-dose IL-2 which significantly decreased toxicity of this therapy.

  15. Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and low-dose Interleukin-2 in metastatic melanoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellebaek Eva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoptive cell therapy may be based on isolation of tumor-specific T cells, e.g. autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL, in vitro activation and expansion and the reinfusion of these cells into patients upon chemotherapy induced lymphodepletion. Together with high-dose interleukin (IL-2 this treatment has been given to patients with advanced malignant melanoma and impressive response rates but also significant IL-2 associated toxicity have been observed. Here we present data from a feasibility study at a Danish Translational Research Center using TIL adoptive transfer in combination with low-dose subcutaneous IL-2 injections. Methods This is a pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00937625 including patients with metastatic melanoma, PS ≤1, age Results Low-dose IL-2 considerably decreased the treatment related toxicity with no grade 3–4 IL-2 related adverse events. Objective clinical responses were seen in 2 of 6 treated patients with ongoing complete responses (30+ and 10+ months, 2 patients had stable disease (4 and 5 months and 2 patients progressed shortly after treatment. Tumor-reactivity of the infused cells and peripheral lymphocytes before and after therapy were analyzed. Absolute number of tumor specific T cells in the infusion product tended to correlate with clinical response and also, an induction of peripheral tumor reactive T cells was observed for 1 patient in complete remission. Conclusion Complete and durable responses were induced after treatment with adoptive cell therapy in combination with low-dose IL-2 which significantly decreased toxicity of this therapy.

  16. Interferon alfa-2a and interleukin-2 with or without cisplatin in metastatic melanoma: a randomized trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilholz, U.; Goey, S. H.; Punt, C. J.; Proebstle, T. M.; Salzmann, R.; Scheibenbogen, C.; Schadendorf, D.; Liénard, D.; Enk, A.; Dummer, R.; Hantich, B.; Geueke, A. M.; Eggermont, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    The combination of interferon alfa-2a (IFN alpha) and high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is active in metastatic melanoma. The addition of cisplatin (CDDP) has resulted in response rates greater than 50%. This study was performed to determine whether the addition of CDDP to a cytokine treatment regimen

  17. Modulation of antiviral immune responses by exogenous cytokines: effects of tumour necrosis factor-α interleukin-1 α, interleukin-2 and interferon-γ on the immunogenicity of an inactivated rabies vaccine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E.C.J. Schijns; I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); A.A. Vermeulen; M.C. Horzinek; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn vivo administration of exogenous cytokines may influence elicited immune responses, and hence may change the efficacy of a vaccine. We investigated the effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma

  18. Staphylococcal enterotoxins modulate interleukin 2 receptor expression and ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Janus protein-tyrosine kinase 3 (Jak3) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat proteins)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A; Röpke, C

    1995-01-01

    . In addition, SE can induce an interleukin-2 (IL-2) nonresponsive state and apoptosis. Here, we show that SE induce dynamic changes in the expression of and signal transduction through the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta and gamma chains (IL-2R beta and IL-2R gamma) in human antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell lines. Thus...

  19. Interleukin-2 induces beta2-integrin-dependent signal transduction involving the focal adhesion kinase-related protein B (fakB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Kanner, S B; Nielsen, M

    1998-01-01

    beta2 integrin molecules are involved in a multitude of cellular events, including adhesion, migration, and cellular activation. Here, we studied the influence of beta2 integrins on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mediated signal transduction in human CD4(+) T cell lines obtained from healthy donors...... and a leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient. We show that IL-2 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kDa protein and homotypic adhesion in beta2 integrin (CD18)-positive but not in beta2-integrin-negative T cells. EDTA, an inhibitor of integrin adhesion, blocks IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation...... experiments indicate that the IL-2-induced 125-kDa phosphotyrosine protein is the focal adhesion kinase-related protein B (fakB). Thus, IL-2 induces strong tyrosine phosphorylation of fakB in beta2-integrin-positive but not in beta2-integrin-negative T cells, and CD18 mAb selectively blocks IL-2-induced fak...

  20. CD54/intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex II signaling induces B cells to express interleukin 2 receptors and complements help provided through CD40 ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    We have examined signaling roles for CD54 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II as contact ligands during T help for B cell activation. We used a T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent helper system that was previously shown to be contact as well as interleukin 2 (IL-2......) dependent to demonstrate the relative roles of CD54, MHC II, and CD40 signaling in the events leading to the induction of B cell proliferation and responsiveness to IL-2. Paraformaldehyde-fixed activated Th1-induced expression of IL-2R alpha, IL-2R beta, and B7, and upregulated MHC II and CD54 on B cells....... Anti-CD54 and MHC II mAbs as well as a CD8 alpha-CD40 ligand (L) soluble construct inhibited both the T-dependent induction of Ig secretion, and B cell phenotypic changes. We then compared the effects of activated Th1 cells with that of cross-linking these molecules. Cross-linking of CD54 and MHC II...

  1. A New Synthetic Compound, 2-OH, Enhances Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ Gene Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woan-Fang Tzeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new synthetic compound, 6-hydroxy-2-tosylisoquinolin-1(2H-one (2-OH, was selected for immunopharmacological activity tests. The effects of 2-OH on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation were determined by tritiated thymidine uptake. Compared to phytohemagglutinin (PHA; 5 μg/mL stimulation, 2-OH significantly enhanced PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% enhancement activity (EC50 for 2-OH was 4.4±0.1 μM. In addition, effects of 2-OH on interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in PBMC were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results demonstrated that 2-OH stimulated IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC. Data from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR indicated that IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in PBMC could be induced by 2-OH. Therefore, 2-OH enhanced IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC by modulation their gene expression. We suggest that 2-OH may be an immunomodulatory agent.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: association with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul Friedrich; Seklehner, Stephan; Brustmann, Hermann; Lusuardi, Lukas; Riedl, Claus R

    2015-04-01

    This study prospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and a possible association of these conditions with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IV. The study included 139 consecutive patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate and transvesical enucleation of the prostate (n = 82) or radical prostatectomy (n = 57). To characterize inflammatory changes the criteria proposed by Irani et al. [J Urol 1997;157:1301-3] were used. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was studied by a standard immunohistochemical method. Results were correlated with tumour, node, metastasis stage, Gleason scores, total prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score and body mass index. IL-2R and IL-6 expression was significantly higher in neoplastic prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue of prostate cancer patients (p Prostate cancer patients with prostatitis showed significantly higher IL-2R expression than those without inflammation (p prostatitis than in those without (p prostate cancer tissue than in normal tissue. Patients with asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis NIH category IV showed significantly greater activity.

  3. In vitro and in vivo effect of interleukin-2 on the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handgretinger, R.; Bruchelt, G.; Kimmig, A.; Lang, P.; Daurer, B.; Dopfer, R.; Treuner, J.; Niethammer, D. (Children' s Univ. Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-02-01

    The in vitro and in vivo influence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase activity and natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Incubation of PBMCs in vitro with IL-2 resulted in a considerable secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and in a significant elevation of 2-5A synthetase activity, as well as NK activity. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibodies inhibited the elevation of 2-5A synthetase activity, but not the IL-2-induced augmentation of NK activity. Additionally, 2-5A synthetase and NK activity of PBMCs was measured in a child with neuroblastoma that was treated with recombinant IL-2 by continuous intravenous application. During the treatment, NK activity against the NK-sensitive cell line K 562 and against autologous tumor cells was not augmented. However, a significant increase of 2-5A synthetase activity in PBMCs was observed during IL-2 treatment, whereas there was no detectable serum level of IFN-gamma. We conclude that measuring 2-5A synthetase activity in patients treated with IL-2 may be helpful in monitoring the immunomodulatory effects of IL-2 on immune effector cells.

  4. Patients’ compliance with different administration routes for allergen immunotherapy in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert-Schmidt AM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Egert-Schmidt, Jan-Marcel Kolbe, Sabine Mussler, Susanne Thum-Oltmer Allergopharma GmbH & Co. KG, Reinbek, Germany Background: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT is the practice of administering gradually increasing quantities of an allergen extract to an allergic subject to ameliorate the symptoms associated with the subsequent exposure to the causative allergen. It is the only treatment that may alter the natural course of allergic diseases. According to AIT guidelines and summary of product characteristics (SmPCs, the treatment should be carried out for at least 3 years. It is controversially discussed whether subcutaneous or sublingual administration routes cause higher patients’ compliance.Methods: German sales data for different preparations of the allergen manufacturer Allergopharma GmbH & Co. KG were retrospectively evaluated for 5 consecutive years, based on prescriptions per patient: pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT and high-dose hypoallergenic (allergoid or unmodified depot pollen and mite preparations for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT. To identify patients’ compliance, “completed treatment years” were determined. A completed treatment year was defined by the required number of prescribed allergen preparations according to the recommended dosage scheme given in the respective SmPCs.Results: Prescription data of 85,241 patients receiving pollen or mite SCIT and 706 patients receiving pollen SLIT were included in this analysis. Patients’ compliance for at least 3 treatment years with high-dose hypoallergenic pollen SCIT was higher when administered perennially (60% compared to preseasonally (27%. Prescriptions for at least 3 years were received from 42% of patients with pollen SCIT and from 45% of patients with mite SCIT. Compliance with SLIT was lowest with only 16% of patients receiving prescriptions for at least 3 treatment years. Children and adolescents were more compliant than adults, independent of whether

  5. Sialylated Fetuin-A as a candidate predictive biomarker for successful grass pollen allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillot, Noémie; Bouley, Julien; Jain, Karine; Mariano, Sandrine; Luce, Sonia; Horiot, Stéphane; Airouche, Sabi; Beuraud, Chloé; Beauvallet, Christian; Devillier, Philippe; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Kellenberger, Christine; Mascarell, Laurent; Chabre, Henri; Batard, Thierry; Nony, Emmanuel; Lombardi, Vincent; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Moingeon, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Eligibility to immunotherapy is based on the determination of IgE reactivity to a specific allergen by means of skin prick or in vitro testing. Biomarkers predicting the likelihood of clinical improvement during immunotherapy would significantly improve patient selection. Proteins were differentially assessed by using 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and label-free mass spectrometry in pretreatment sera obtained from clinical responders and nonresponders within a cohort of 82 patients with grass pollen allergy receiving sublingual immunotherapy or placebo. Functional studies of Fetuin-A (FetA) were conducted by using gene silencing in a mouse asthma model, human dendritic cell in vitro stimulation assays, and surface plasmon resonance. Analysis by using quantitative proteomics of pretreatment sera from patients with grass pollen allergy reveals that high levels of O-glycosylated sialylated FetA isoforms are found in patients exhibiting a strong decrease in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms after sublingual immunotherapy. Although FetA is involved in numerous inflammatory conditions, its potential role in allergy is unknown. In vivo silencing of the FETUA gene in BALB/c mice results in a dramatic upregulation of airway hyperresponsiveness, lung resistance, and T H 2 responses after allergic sensitization to ovalbumin. Both sialylated and nonsialytated FetA bind to LPS, but only the former synergizes with LPS and grass pollen or mite allergens to enhance the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated proallergic properties of human dendritic cells. As a reflection of the patient's inflammatory status, pretreatment levels of sialylated FetA in the blood are indicative of the likelihood of clinical responses during grass pollen immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Personalized adoptive immunotherapy for patients with EBVassociated tumors and complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieling, Maren; Tischer, Sabine; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    -toxic immunotherapy to effectively prevent or treat these complications. To improve immunotherapy and immunomonitoring this study aimed at identifying and evaluating naturally processed and presented HLA-A*03:01-restricted EBV-CTL epitopes as immunodominant targets. More than 15000 peptides were sequenced from EBV...

  7. Macrophages in Mesothelioma : Improving immunotherapy in pulmonary oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Lievense (Sanne)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe concept that the immune system is capable of recognizing and destroying cancer cells has lead to the development of cancer immunotherapy. Although immunotherapy is a major breakthrough in the treatment of cancer, there is still much room for improvement. One of the hurdles to

  8. Efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Ho; Hong, Sung-Moon; Lee, Heung-Man

    2012-12-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy is currently accepted as a suitable alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy because of its easy and painless administration and improved safety. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that sublingual immunotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for pollen or mite allergic rhinitis. However, there have been very few studies overall on children with allergic rhinitis who are sensitized to house-dust mites in Asia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in children with allergic rhinitis to house-dust mites. A total of 112 patients under the age of 15 who had allergic rhinitis to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were included. All patients were treated with sublingual immunotherapy (Staloral(®)). Symptom scores and quality of life were evaluated by questionnaires until one year after sublingual immunotherapy. The medication score was assessed monthly using a diary medication card and serologic tests were evaluated before and 6 and 12 months after treatment. Adverse effects and compliance were also investigated. All nasal and non-nasal symptoms and quality of life were significantly improved after treatment. The total medication score was decreased significantly after sublingual immunotherapy. There was no significant change in serologic tests. Some minor adverse effects were reported, however there were no systemic reactions. The drop-out rate was 21%. Sublingual immunotherapy is a valuable therapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in Asian children sensitized to house-dust mites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The current status of immunotherapy in peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhlein, Michael Alfred; Heiss, Markus Maria; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2016-10-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a cancer disease with an urgent need for effective treatment. Conventional chemotherapy failed to show acceptable results. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic chemoperfusion (HIPEC) are only beneficial in few patients with resectable peritoneal metastasis. Immunotherapy could be attractive against PC, as all requirements for immunotherapy are available in the peritoneal cavity. This review analyzes the present literature for immunotherapy of PC. Advances from immune stimulators, radionucleotide-conjugated- and bispecific antibodies to future developments like adoptive engineered T-cells with chimeric receptors are discussed. The clinical development of catumaxomab, which was the first intraperitoneal immunotherapy to be approved for clinical treatment, is discussed. The requirements for future developments are illustrated. Expert commentary: Immunotherapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis is manageable, showing striking cancer cell killing. Improved profiles of adverse events by therapy-induced cytokine release, enhanced specific killing and optimal treatment schedules within multimodal treatment will be key factors.

  10. Conditioning neoadjuvant therapies for improved immunotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Zachary; Manjili, Saeed H; Habibi, Mehran; Guruli, Georgi; Toor, Amir A; Payne, Kyle K; Manjili, Masoud H

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by combining conventional therapies with anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapies, have renewed interests in immunotherapy of cancer. The emerging concept of conventional cancer therapies combined with immunotherapy differs from the classical concept in that it is not simply taking advantage of their additive anti-tumor effects, but it is to use certain therapeutic regimens to condition the tumor microenvironment for optimal response to immunotherapy. To this end, low dose immunogenic chemotherapies, epigenetic modulators and inhibitors of cell cycle progression are potential candidates for rendering tumors highly responsive to immunotherapy. Next generation immunotherapeutics are therefore predicted to be highly effective against cancer, when they are used following appropriate immune modulatory compounds or targeted delivery of tumor cell cycle inhibitors using nanotechnology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Component-resolved diagnostics to direct in venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Ollert, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Stings of Hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated systemic and even fatal allergic reactions. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is the only disease-modifying and curative treatment of venom allergy. However, choosing the correct venom for VIT represents a necessary prerequisite for efficient...... protection against further anaphylactic sting reactions after VIT. In the past, therapeutic decisions based on the measurement of specific IgE (sIgE) levels to whole venom extracts were not always straightforward, especially when the patient was not able to identify the culprit insect. In the last years......, the increasing knowledge about the molecular structure and relevance of important venom allergens and their availability as recombinant allergens, devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, resulted in the development of an advanced component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) approach in venom allergy. Already...

  12. Lactococcus lactis As a Versatile Vehicle for Tolerogenic Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Dana P.; Gysemans, Conny; Mathieu, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Genetically modified Lactococcus lactis bacteria have been engineered as a tool to deliver bioactive proteins to mucosal tissues as a means to exert both local and systemic effects. They have an excellent safety profile, the result of years of human consumption in the food industry, as well as a lack of toxicity and immunogenicity. Also, containment strategies have been developed to promote further application as clinical protein-based therapeutics. Here, we review technological advancements made to enhanced the potential of L. lactis as live biofactories and discuss some examples of tolerogenic immunotherapies mediated by mucosal drug delivery via L. lactis. Additionally, we highlight their use to induce mucosal tolerance by targeted autoantigen delivery to the intestine as an approach to reverse autoimmune type 1 diabetes. PMID:29387056

  13. Immunotherapy Administration: Oncology Nursing Society Recommendations
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Kathleen; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Wall, Lisa; Baldwin-Medsker, Abigail; Nguyen, Kim; Marsh, Lisa; Baniewicz, Diane

    2017-04-01

    As the use of immunotherapeutic agents increases in single-agent and multimodality treatment regimens, oncology nurses face the challenge of administering and caring for patients receiving new and unique agents. Oncology Nursing Society clinical staff and clinical nurses collaborated to produce a set of recommendations to educate nurses involved with the monitoring of patients receiving immunotherapy on administration procedures and safe handling of these agents to ensure patient and staff safety and to reduce risk of error. The recommendations are meant to provide clinical nurses with a framework on which to build policies and procedures for administering new treatment modalities.
.

  14. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  15. Immunotherapy with GD2 specific monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.K.V.; Medof, E.M.; Munn, D.

    1988-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapy focuses anti-tumor activity of antibodies and effector cells, which are actively developed by the host or adoptively transferred, onto tumor cells and into tumor sites. Such tumor selective therapy can be more specific and efficient. The value of such an approach is evident in the classical interaction of antibodies. This paper reports that the ganglioside G D2 is an ideal antigen for specific tumor targeting because of its relative lack of heterogeneity among human neuroblastoma, its high density on tumor cells, its lack of antigen modulation upon binding to antibody, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues

  16. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Roberts, Graham

    2017-01-01

    ) has developed a clinical practice guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for AIT for prevention of i) development of allergic comorbidities in those with established allergic diseases, ii) development of first allergic condition and iii) allergic sensitization. This guideline has been...

  17. Perceived compliance and barriers to care in sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manvinder S; Oh, Melissa S; Leader, Brittany; Rotella, Melissa; Stillman, Leisa; DelGaudio, John M; Wise, Sarah K

    2017-05-01

    For allergy immunotherapy to be effective, patient compliance is critical. However, aqueous sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) may be considered demanding for patients, requiring strict daily dosing and refilling of medication at regular intervals. In this study we sought to determine how patients perceive their own compliance with SLIT and identify barriers that may hinder compliance. Using a retrospective review, 46 patients currently undergoing aqueous SLIT were identified to have less-than-excellent compliance based on frequency of clinic visits for SLIT refills. Twenty-eight of these patients completed a phone survey regarding symptom improvement, compliance, and barriers to care. In addition, 56 patients who withdrew from therapy before completion were polled about barriers to adherence. Of the 28 patients participating in the initial phone survey, 24 (86%) reported subjective improvement in symptoms on SLIT, despite less-than-excellent compliance. Nineteen (68%) of these patients perceived their own compliance to be excellent. Eighteen patients (65%) reported the inconvenience of scheduling and attending clinic appointments to be the main reason for noncompliance. The most common reasons for withdrawal from therapy were cost (27%), lack of effectiveness (25%), and difficulty with compliance (14%). The majority of aqueous SLIT patients perceived their compliance to be excellent, although, based on a previous study, these patients did not reach excellent compliance benchmarks. Inconvenience of clinic visits and cost of therapy were found to be the most common barriers to care. Despite what providers perceived as less-than-excellent compliance, 82% of patients reported symptom improvement with SLIT. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  18. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khinchi, M S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Carat, F

    2004-01-01

    Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed.......Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed....

  19. Arecoline inhibits interleukin-2 secretion in Jurkat cells by decreasing the expression of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G S; Hu, S; Lin, Y H; Chen, S T; Tang, T K; Wang, P S; Wang, S W

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of arecoline on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, the expression of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs), prostaglandin E2(PGE2) protein, and IL-2 mRNA in human lymphocyte cells (Jurkat cell line). The IL-2 and PGE2 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expressions of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and α7-nAChRs were determined by Western blotting. The level of IL-2 mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Arecoline, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly decreased IL-2 and PGE2 secretion by Jurkat cells incubated with 0 or 5 μg/ml 5 μg/ml PHA. PGE2 also significantly inhibited IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, reduced expression of PHA-induced ERK phosphorylation was observed in Jurkat cells treated with arecoline. PHA-enhanced IL-2 mRNA expression was also inhibited by arecoline. These results imply that arecoline inhibits the release of PGE2 and PHA-induced IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells and that these effects seem to occur, at least in part, either through the attenuation of ERK in conjunction with a decrease of PHA-induced IL-2 mRNA expression. These results imply that arecoline inhibits the protein expression of α7-nAChRs , the release of PGE2 and PHA-induced IL-2 secretion by Jurkat cells.

  20. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervia, Davide, E-mail: d.cervia@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Perrotta, Cristiana [Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, “Luigi Sacco” University Hospital, University of Milan, Milano (Italy); Picchietti, Simona [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Alimenti, Claudio [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Vallesi, Adriana [Department of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  1. Transgenic Eimeria mitis expressing chicken interleukin 2 stimulated higher cellular immune response in chickens compared with the wild-type parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoran eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria spp., occurs in almost all poultry farms and causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Although this disease could be controlled by vaccination, the reduced feed conservation ratio limits the widespread application of anticoccidial vaccines in broilers because some intermediate and/or low immunogenic Eimeria spp. only elicit partial protection. It is of importance to enhance the immunogenicity of these Eimeria spp. by adjuvants for more effective prevention of coccidiosis. Cytokines have remarkable effects on the immunogenicity of antigens. Interleukin 2 (IL-2, for example, significantly stimulates the activation of CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. In this study, we constructed a transgenic Eimeria mitis line (EmiChIL-2 expressing chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2 to investigate the adjuvant effect of ChIL-2 to enhance the immunogenicity of E. mitis against its infection. Stable transfected EmiChIL-2 population was obtained by pyrimethamine selection and verified by PCR, genome walking, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cellular immune response, E. mitis-specific IFN-γ secretion lymphocytes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by EmiChIL-2 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT. The results showed that EmiChIL-2 stimulated a higher cellular immune response compared with that of the wild-type parasite infection in chickens. Moreover, after the immunization with EmiChIL-2, elevated cellular immune response as well as reduced oocyst output were observed These results indicated that ChIL-2 expressed by Eimeria spp. functions as adjuvant and IL-2 expressing Eimeria parasites are valuable vaccine strains against coccidiosis.

  2. Sensitivity tests of combination treatment with interleukin-2 and radiation against renal cell carcinoma using in vivo like growing culture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Tetsuro; Machida, Toyohei; Asano, Kouji; Hatano, Takashi; Sawada, Takuko.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the effect of the combined therapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and radiation on renal cell carcinoma using an in vivo like growing culture system. We tested renal cell carcinoma obtained at surgery. After tumors were sliced into 2-mm square specimens, they were placed on a collagen gel-matrix filled with medium, and cultured for 7 days. 5 and 10 Gy were irradiated 3 days after the beginning of cell cultures. We also tested 100 JRU/ml of IL-2 added to each culture medium. The killing activity of each treatment was measured by the rate of 3 H-thymidine uptake. In the 5 Gy groups (n=9), we observed a significant effect in one treated with radiation alone (11.1%) and in 4 treated with the combined therapy (44.4%). Of these 4 having a significant effect with the combined therapy, one also had it with either radiation alone or combined therapy. The combined therapy was significantly effective compared with radiation alone. One had a significant effect with the combined therapy, and the remaining 2 had a significant effect by either combined therapy or radiation alone. In the 10 Gy group (n=12), a significant effect was seen in one with IL-2 treatment alone (8.3%), one with radiation alone (8.3%), and 4 with the combined therapy (33.3%). Of these 4 cases having a significant effects with the combined therapy, one had it by either radiation alone or the combined therapy, and the combined therapy was more effective than radiation alone. Two cases had a significant effect by the combined therapy, and the remaining one had it by either the combined therapy or radiation alone. We conclude that the combined therapy with IL-2 and radiation is effective for renal carcinoma, especially in the group irradiated with 5 Gy. (J.P.N.)

  3. The flame retardants tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether suppress the induction of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in murine splenocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, Sabine; Boecker, Ronald; Tiegs, Gisa

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated flame retardants (PBF) are frequently used additives in electronical equipment. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which bioaccumulate with several health effects for humans and the environment. This study investigated immunotoxic effects of the PBF tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP A), tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether (TBBP A-AE), tetrabromobisphenol A-bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl-ether) (TBBP A-PE), decabromodiphenylether (DBDE), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) in vitro. The structurally related polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) and dioxins mediate their immunotoxicity via the Ah-receptor gene complex. A highly relevant function of the Ah receptor, the induction of CYP 1A1 in hepatocytes of C57BL/6 mice by the established inducers 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and PCB77 was compared to the effect of PBF by measurement of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. The PBF did not show any induction of CYP 1A1, while EROD activity of hepatocytes exposed to MC and PCB77 was induced 10.8- and 8.7-fold, respectively. To investigate immunotoxic effects of the flame retardants, splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice were incubated with subtoxic doses of the flame retardants and PCB77 and activated by concanavalin A (Con A). The flame retardants TBBP A and TBBP A-AE significantly inhibited the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in contrast to TBBP A-PE, DBDE, TBP, and PCB77 as shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis by laser scanning cytometry. None of the substances had any effect on the Con A-induced production of cytokines. Hence, TBBP A and TBBP A-AE may act as immunotoxic compounds by specifically inhibiting the expression of CD25

  4. Evidence of a common regulation of IgE and IgG-subclass antibodies in humans during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1992-01-01

    Based on a 3-year prospective study of 20 pollen-allergic patients, where a detailed analysis of the IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 immune response was performed, we propose that a common regulatory mechanism exists between the IgE and IgG1 synthesis and between IgE and IgG4 synthesis during immunotherapy....... It was found that the IgE immune response to a number of antigens was quantitatively diminished during the period of immunotherapy when IgG1 was present early (week 12), and for other antigens there was a rise in IgE without an early IgG1 antibody response. Additionally, it was found that for some antigens...... for the IgE/IgG1 relationship and at the 0.05% level for the IgE/IgG4 relationship. These findings could have implications for future immunotherapy regimens....

  5. [Brain tumor immunotherapy: Illusion or hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Denis; Dutoit, Valérie; Walker, Paul R; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves

    2017-05-01

    Immunotherapy has proven efficient for many tumors and is now part of standard of care in many indications. What is the picture for brain tumors? The recent development of anti-CTLA-4 and PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors, which have the ability to restore T lymphocytes activity, has gathered enthusiasm and is now paving the way towards more complex models of immune system manipulation. These models include, among others, vaccination and adoptive T cell transfer technologies. Complementary to those strategies, molecules capable of reshaping the immune tumor microenvironment are currently being investigated in early phase trials. Indeed, the tumor bed is hostile to anti-tumor immune responses due to many escape mechanisms, and this is particularly true in the context of brain tumors, a master in eliciting immunosuppressive cells and molecules. The goal of this review is to describe the hopes and challenges of brain tumors immunotherapy and to propose an inventory of the current clinical research with specific focus on the therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Algenpantucel-L immunotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveler, Andrew L; Rossi, Gabriela R; Vahanian, Nicholas N; Link, Charles; Chiorean, E Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 4th leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the EU. A minority of patients presents with surgically resectable and potentially curable disease, but among these, 80% are destined to relapse and overall survival rates with adjuvant chemotherapy average 24 months. Immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option and a potential paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer, and may be particularly effective when used early in the disease course to prevent metastatic spread. Algenpantucel-L (HyperAcute Pancreas, NewLink Genetics, Ames, IA, USA) is a whole-cell immunotherapy consisting of irradiated allogeneic pancreatic cancer cells genetically engineered to express the murine enzyme α-GT, which results in hyperacute rejection of the tumor cells with complement- and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Phase II clinical trial data has been encouraging, particularly for patients who demonstrated humoral immunologic responses. Here, we report preliminary results and biomarkers correlations with clinical activity of algenpantucel-L in pancreatic cancer.

  7. A melanin-mediated cancer immunotherapy patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanqi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xudong; Hu, Quanyin; Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Qi; Wen, Di; Milligan, Joshua; Bellotti, Adriano; Huang, Leaf; Dotti, Gianpietro; Gu, Zhen

    2017-11-10

    Melanin is capable of transforming 99.9% of the absorbed sunlight energy into heat, reducing the risk of skin cancer. We here develop a melanin-mediated cancer immunotherapy strategy through a transdermal microneedle patch. B16F10 whole tumor lysate containing melanin is loaded into polymeric microneedles that allow sustained release of the lysate upon insertion into the skin. In combination with the near-infrared light irradiation, melanin in the patch mediates the generation of heat, which further promotes tumor-antigen uptake by dendritic cells, and leads to enhanced antitumor vaccination. We found that the spatiotemporal photoresponsive immunotherapy increases infiltration of polarized T cells and local cytokine release. These immunological effects increase the survival of mice after tumor challenge and elicited antitumor effects toward established primary tumor and distant tumor. Collectively, melanin generates local heat, boosts T cell activities by transdermal vaccines, and promotes antitumor immune responses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Menon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a delicate balance in the tumor microenvironment between immune stimulatory and immune inhibitory pathways. Either by blocking the inhibitory pathways or stimulating the activating pathways that regulate cytotoxic lymphocytes, anti-tumor immunity can be enhanced leading to durable anti-tumor responses. Drugs which block the immune regulatory checkpoints namely the PD-1/PDL1 and CTLA 4 pathway have shown tremendous promise in a wide spectrum of solid and hematological malignancies, significantly improving overall survival in newly diagnosed and heavily pretreated patients alike. Hence there is renewed enthusiasm in the field of immune oncology with current research focused on augmenting responses to checkpoint inhibitors by combination therapy as well as studies looking at other immune modulators and adoptive T cell therapy. In this article, we highlight the key clinical advances and concepts in immunotherapy with particular emphasis on checkpoint inhibition as well as the future direction in this field.

  9. Sublingual Immunotherapy in Children: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Kuo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although pharmacological therapy and allergen avoidance are effective means of managing allergic disease, allergen-specific immunotherapy is able to treat not only the symptoms, but also the underlying causes of the disease. Sublingual immuno-therapy (SLIT has been shown to be effective in patients with allergic diseases. It has demonstrated long-term clinical benefits and shown the potential to modify the course of allergic disease in children with rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. The precise mechanisms of SLIT remain unclear, but antigen-presenting cells in the oral mucosa may induce regulatory T-cells that suppress the allergic immune response by increasing production of interleukin-10. SLIT has also been shown to increase allergen-specific IgG antibodies that antagonize and block the allergic response. SLIT was well tolerated in all reported, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. SLIT is an ideal means of treating the pediatric population because of its excellent safety and good compliance. However, the optimal dose and duration of SLIT require further investigation.

  10. Cancer Immunotherapy Utilized Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound as Antigen Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yusuke; Otake, Shota; Suzuki, Ryo; Otake, Shota; Nishiie, Norihito; Hirata, Keiichi; Taira, Yuichiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Maruyama, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    In dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer immunotherapy, it is important to present the epitope peptide derived from tumor associated antigens (TAAs) on MHC class I in order to induce tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, MHC class I molecules generally present the epitope peptides derived from endogenous antigens for DCs but not exogenous ones such as TAAs. Recently, we developed the novel liposomal bubbles (Bubble liposomes) encapsulating perfluoropropane nanobubbles. In this study, we attempted to establish the novel antigen delivery system to induce MHC class I presentation using the combination of ultrasound and Bubble liposomes. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as model antigen, the combination of Bubble liposomes and ultrasound exposure for the DC could induce MHC class I presentation. In addition, the viability of DCs was more than 80%. These results suggest that Bubble liposomes might be a novel ultrasound enhanced antigen delivery tool in DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  12. Oral and Sublingual Immunotherapy: Potential Causes for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Delara; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Nishino, Makoto; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a common health problem worldwide, with increasing prevalence during recent decades. The only approved treatments for food allergy are food avoidance and administration of emergency medications in case of accidental exposure, which negatively affects patients' quality of life, so new treatments are highly desirable. Different food immunotherapy modalities have recently been used, with variable success rates in the induction of desensitization and tolerance, and different numbers and types of adverse reactions. Adverse reactions, especially intolerable gastrointestinal symptoms, are the most important causes of immunotherapy withdrawal. Eosinophilic esophagitis has been reported as a complication of milk, egg, and peanut oral immunotherapies and sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergies, but not for food allergies. Eosinophilic gastritis and eosinophilic colitis also rarely happened following egg and milk oral immunotherapies. The patients undergoing oral and sublingual immunotherapies should be closely followed up for a long time, and those with gastrointestinal symptoms should be evaluated by endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract. These complications are usually reversible after early diagnosis and stopping the immunotherapy protocol. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ranking in importance of allergen extract characteristics for sublingual immunotherapy by Italian specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Cadario, Gianni; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossi, Oliviero; Romano, Antonino; Scala, Enrico; Romano, Catello; Ingrassia, Antonino; Zambito, Marcello; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Frati, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is well supported by evidence from trials and meta-analyses. However, its actual performance in daily practice may be diminished by several pitfalls, including inappropriate patient selection, and, especially, the use of allergen extracts of insufficient quality. We performed a survey, the Allergen Immunotherapy Decision Analysis, to evaluate which criteria specialists use to choose products for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in adult patients suffering from allergic respiratory disease. We surveyed a total of 169 Italian allergists randomly chosen from a database belonging to a market research company (Lexis Ricerche, Milan, Italy). The survey was performed between October and November 2012 under the aegis of the European Center for Allergy Research Foundation and consisted of a questionnaire-based electronic survey prepared by a scientific board of 12 AIT experts. The questionnaire comprised two parts, the first of which contained 14 items to be ranked by each participant according to the importance assigned to each when choosing SLIT products. The physicians' rankings assigned major importance to the level of evidence-based validation of efficacy and safety, standardization of the product, efficacy based on personal experience, and defined content(s) of the major allergen(s) in micrograms. The results of this survey show that Italian allergists rank the quality-related characteristics of allergen extracts as highly important when choosing products for AIT. The allergists' preference for high-quality products should be addressed by regulatory agencies and by producers.

  14. Guiding principles of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Keisuke; Goto, Minoru; Takeno, Sachio; Ohta, Nobuo; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Kamijo, Atsushi; Suzuki, Motohiko; Terada, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Daiju; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Honda, Kohei; Matsune, Shoji; Yamada, Takechiyo; Sakashita, Masafumi; Yuta, Atsushi; Fuchiwaki, Takashi; Miyanohara, Ikuyo; Nakayama, Takeo; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Fujieda, Shigeharu

    2016-02-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) appears to offer practical advantages for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Based on a review of the scientific literature, we present recommendations as guiding principles to administer SLIT safely. Clinical questions concerning SLIT were prepared. Literature published between January 2003 and December 2012 was searched from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina. Qualified studies were analyzed and the results were evaluated, consolidated, and codified. We answered 17 clinical questions and, based on this, presented evidence-based recommendations. Sublingual immunotherapy improved symptoms (e.g., quality of life [QOL]) and reduced medication scores in seasonal AR and perennial AR. Most SLIT-induced adverse effects were local oral reactions, although systemic adverse effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms, urticaria, and asthma are occasionally reported. There have been no reports of lethal anaphylactic reactions by SLIT. When SLIT is continued for 3-4 years, its effect persists long after discontinuation. A correct diagnosis of AR and sufficient informed consent from patients are required before initiating SLIT. Sublingual immunotherapy should be continued for 3 years or longer. The initial administration of SLIT during the uptitration of an allergen vaccine and the general condition of patients are critical for the safe performance of SLIT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet...

  16. Sublingual (SLIT) versus oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Emily C; Wood, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    Food allergy is a common condition for which the only currently approved treatments are avoidance of the allergenic food and the administration of emergency medications upon accidental exposure. Over the past 10 years, significant advances have been made in the field of food immunotherapy, with efforts focusing on allergen exposure via the oral mucosa. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the two modalities that have been most extensively studied, and this article will review recent advances in our knowledge of the efficacy and safety of these treatments.

  17. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells.

  18. Interleukin 2 is not sufficient as helper component for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes but synergizes with a late helper effect that is provided by irradiated T-region-incompatible stimulator cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddehase, M.; Suessmith, W.; Moyers, C.; Falk, W.; Droege, W.

    1982-01-01

    Interleukin 2-containing supernatants from concanavalin A-activated spleen cells (CSCS) were found to provide strong helper activity for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against allogeneic stimulator cells in microculture systems, but provided usually insufficient help for CTL responses against l-region compatible allogeneic or TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells. The interleukin 2-containing supernatant from HGG-activated AODH 7.1 hybridoma cells also mediated only relatively weak CTL responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic cells in microcultures. Both types of supernatants, however, supported substantial responses against TNP-haptenated syngeneic stimulator cells if irradiated allogeneically activated syngeneic T cells or irradiated allogeneic spleen cells were added to the cultures. The allogeneic cells and the activated syngeneic T cells provided little helper activity if they were added in the absence of the interleukin 2-containing supernatants, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect between these 2 helper components. An l-region difference was sufficient for the helper effect of the allogeneic cells and control experiments showed that the presence of foreign l-region determinants could not be substituted for the TNP-haptenated stimulator cells

  19. A switching control law approach for cancer immunotherapy of an evolutionary tumor growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doban, Alina I; Lazar, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new approach for tumor immunotherapy which is based on a switching control strategy defined on domains of attraction of equilibria of interest. For this, we consider a recently derived model which captures the effects of the tumor cells on the immune system and viceversa, through predator-prey competition terms. Additionally, it incorporates the immune system's mechanism for producing hunting immune cells, which makes the model suitable for immunotherapy strategies analysis and design. For computing domains of attraction for the tumor nonlinear dynamics, and thus, for deriving immunotherapeutic strategies we employ rational Lyapunov functions. Finally, we apply the switching control strategy to destabilize an invasive tumor equilibrium and steer the system trajectories to tumor dormancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor aneuploidy correlates with markers of immune evasion and with reduced response to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Teresa; Uno, Hajime; Wooten, Eric C; Elledge, Stephen J

    2017-01-20

    Immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint blockade are highly effective in a subset of patients. An ongoing challenge is the identification of biomarkers that predict which patients will benefit from these therapies. Aneuploidy, also known as somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), is widespread in cancer and is posited to drive tumorigenesis. Analyzing 12 human cancer types, we find that, for most, highly aneuploid tumors show reduced expression of markers of cytotoxic infiltrating immune cells, especially CD8 + T cells, and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Different types of SCNAs predict the proliferation and immune signatures, implying distinct underlying mechanisms. Using published data from two clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade therapy for metastatic melanoma, we found that tumor aneuploidy inversely correlates with patient survival. Together with other tumor characteristics such as tumor mutational load, aneuploidy may thus help identify patients most likely to respond to immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Natural Killer cell recognition of melanoma: new clues for a more effective immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eTarazona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells participate in the early immune response against melanoma and also contribute to the development of an adequate adaptive immune response by their crosstalk with dendritic cells and cytokine secretion. Melanoma resistance to conventional therapies together with its high immunogenicity justifies the development of novel therapies aimed to stimulate effective immune responses against melanoma. However, melanoma cells frequently escape to CD8 T cell recognition by the down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this scenario, Natural killer cells emerge as potential candidates for melanoma immunotherapy due to their capacity to recognize and destroy melanoma cells expressing low levels of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In addition, the possibility to combine immune checkpoint blockade with other NK cell potentiating strategies (e.g. cytokine induction of activating receptors has opened new perspectives in the potential use of adoptive NK cell-based immunotherapy in melanoma.

  2. A multistep therapy with subcutaneous low dose recombinant interleukin-2, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin prolongs the response of metastatic colorectal cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, A; Carpi, A; Ferrari, P; Sagripanti, A; Anselmi, L

    1998-01-01

    Data from 12 metastatic colorectal cancer patients who were submitted to a pilot study with a multistep subcutaneous (sc) low dose recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) administration were compared with those from 13 historical controls who were comparable for the major prognostic indices. All 12 patients in the pilot study were subjected initially to six to eight courses of 5-FU-LV by endovenous (ev) bolus consistent with the Machover schedule alternating with 6 weeks of rIL-2 cycles. At the progression of metastatic disease, the patients were given 500 mg/m2 per day of 5-FU by continuous infusion (ci) for 5 days every 4 weeks and in case of further progression, 2,600 mg/m2 of 5-FU by 24-h ci once a week for 6 weeks. The control patients were treated with 5-FU-LV by the Machover schedule until progression and then observed. As yet, two patients in the pilot study and three control patients are currently alive. In the pilot study, the patients' response rate (CR + PR) and overall response rate (CR + PR + SD) were much higher than in the controls (50 vs 23% and 92 vs 54%, respectively). Time duration of response and survival from primary surgery were more prolonged in the pilot study than in the historical control, although not significantly (10.5 vs 6 and 41.5 vs 29 months, respectively). Time from starting therapy to progression and survival from relapse were significantly in favour of the pilot study (11.5 vs 4 and 31 vs 13.5 months; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 unpaired t-test, respectively). Low dose s.c. rIL-2 cycles were well tolerated and no interruption occurred. In the pilot study sporadic grade 3 toxicity (diarrhoea or leucopenia) was responsible for the reduction of 5-FU doses to 80% of the previous infusion, but no treatment was postponed. In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest the opportunity to initiate large prospective randomized trials using a multistep therapy with rIL-2, 5-FU ci at conventional and at high

  3. N-Farnesyloxy-norcantharimide inhibits progression of human leukemic Jurkat T cells through regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the anticancer effects of N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), a newly synthesized norcantharidin (NCTD) analogue, on human leukemic Jurkat T cells and the signaling pathway underlying its effects. We found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of NOC15 on Jurkat T cells is 1.4 μmol/l, which is 11.14-fold (=15.6÷1.4) smaller than the 15.6 μmol/l of NCTD on Jurkat T cells, whereas the IC50 of NOC15 on human normal lymphoblast (HNL) is 207.9 μmol/l, which is 8.17-fold (=1698.0÷207.8) smaller than the 1698.0 μmol/l of NCTD on HNL cells. These results indicated that NOC15 exerts a higher anticancer effect on Jurkat T cells and has higher toxicity toward HNL cells than NCTD. Thus, NOC15 is 1.36-fold (=11.14÷8.17) beneficial as an anticancer agent toward Jurkat T cells compared with NCTD. Moreover, NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and reduce the cell viability of Jurkat T cells, stimulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, and inhibit calcineurin expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. However, NOC15 exerted no effects on the Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signaling pathway, the production of IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We conclude that the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized NOC15 is 1.36-fold beneficial than NCTD as an anticancer agent and that NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase through the stimulation of p38 and ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway and the inhibition of calcineurin expression and IL-2 production. The NOC15 may have the potential of being developed into an anticancer agent in the future.

  4. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  5. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25 Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nakase

    Full Text Available A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25, IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc, γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSFRα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old.

  6. Combined treatment with ipilimumab and intratumoral interleukin-2 in pretreated patients with stage IV melanoma-safety and efficacy in a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Wistuba-Hamprecht, Kilian; Zelba, Henning; Maier, Ludwig; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Klumpp, Bernhard D; Soffel, Daniel; Eigentler, Thomas K; Garbe, Claus

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of advanced melanoma patients with ipilimumab results in improved survival. However, only about 20% of treated patients experience long-term benefit. Combining treatment of ipilimumab with other drugs may improve immune activation and potentially enhance clinical efficacy. The aims of the phase II clinical trial reported here were to investigate tolerability and efficacy of a combined immunotherapeutic strategy comprising standard systemic ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg four times at 3-week intervals and intratumorally injected IL-2 at 9 MIU daily twice weekly for four weeks in pretreated melanoma patients with distant metastasis. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate according to immune-related response criteria at week 12; tolerability according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria was secondary endpoint. No objective responses were observed in the 15 enrolled patients. Three patients had stable disease 12 weeks after starting treatment, yielding a disease control rate of 20%. Tolerability of this combination treatment was acceptable. Observed adverse events were those expected from the respective monotherapies. Autoimmune colitis was observed in two patients. Grade III/IV adverse events were observed in 40% of patients, and no treatment-related deaths occurred. Thus, this combined immunotherapy is associated with adverse events similar to those associated with the respective monotherapies. However, this study does not provide any evidence of improved efficacy of the combination over ipilimumab alone.

  7. Back to the drawing board--the need for more realistic model systems for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P

    1977-07-01

    In experimental animals the growth of tumors which display strong immunogenicity can be slowed by immunological maneuvers that increase the magnitude of the host response to the specific tumor antigens. Such immunogeneic tumors do not, in general, cause distant metastases and may, therefore, not be relevant to the treatment of disseminated disease in man. This may explain why the current experience with immunotherapy based on such animal models has, with very few exceptions, been disappointing. Animal tumors which are not immunogenic by standard transplantation tests frequently disseminate and it seems likely that clinically useful immunotherapy has to be based on procedures which are effective against such tumors. The lack of immunogenicity detectable by transplantation may be due to the absence of tumor-specific transplantation antigens (TSTAs), in which case if there is to be any immunotherapy it will have to be direct at boosting some innate type of host resistance. Alternatively, the lack of immunogenicity may be attributable to the intervention of "escape mechanisms" which pervert the immunologically specific host response to TSTAs. In this case, the immunological maneuvre should be directed at overcoming the escape problem and not at boosting the magnitude of the specific host reaction to the TSTAs.

  8. Targeting NK cells for anti-cancer immunotherapy: clinical and pre-clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eCarotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of checkpoint blockade has highlighted the potential of immunotherapy approaches for cancer treatment. While the majority of approved immunotherapy drugs target T cell subsets, it is appreciated that other components of the immune system have important roles in tumor immune-surveillance as well and thus represent promising additional targets for immunotherapy. Natural killer cells are the body’s first line of defense against infected or transformed cells as they kill target cells in an antigen-independent manner. Although several studies have clearly demonstrated the active role of NK cells in cancer-immune surveillance, only few clinically approved therapies currently exist that harness their potential. Our increased understanding of NK cell biology over the past few years has renewed the interest in NK cell based anti-cancer therapies, which has lead to a steady increase of NK cell based clinical and pre-clinical trials. Here, the role of NK cells in cancer immunesurveillance is summarized and several novel approaches to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity against cancer are discussed.

  9. Allergen immunotherapy for the prevention of allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Dhami, Sangeeta; Netuveli, Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. Methods:Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using...... random-effects meta-analyses. Results: 32 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Overall, meta-analysis found no conclusive evidence that AIT reduced the risk of developing a first allergic disease over the short-term (RR=0.30; 95%CI 0.04 to 2.09) and no randomized controlled evidence was found...... in relation to its longer-term effects for this outcome. There was however a reduction in the short-term risk of those with allergic rhinitis developing asthma (RR=0.40; 95%CI 0.29 to 0.54), with this finding being robust to a pre-specified sensitivity analysis. We found inconclusive evidence...

  10. Modulation of GITR for cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, David A; Murphy, Judith T; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory receptors of the immune system has become a promising new approach for immunotherapy of cancer. With the recent FDA approval of CTLA-4 blockade serving as an important proof of principal, many new targets are now being translated into the clinic. Preclinical research has demonstrated that targeting glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor related gene (GITR), a member of TNF receptor superfamily, by agonist antibodies or natural ligand, can serve as an effective anti-tumor therapy. In this review, we will cover this research and the rationale that has led to initiation of two phase 1 clinical trials targeting GITR as a new immunotherapeutic approach for cancer. PMID:22245556

  11. Roles for Innate Immunity in Combination Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Kelly D; Irvine, Darrell J

    2017-10-01

    Immunity to infectious agents involves a coordinated response of innate and adaptive immune cells working in concert, with many feed-forward and regulatory interactions between both arms of the immune system. In contrast, many therapeutic strategies to augment immunity against tumors have focused predominantly on stimulation of adaptive immunity. However, a growing appreciation of the potential contributions of innate immune effectors to antitumor immunity, especially in the context of combination immunotherapy, is leading to novel strategies to elicit a more integrated immune response against cancer. Here we review antitumor activities of innate immune cells, mechanisms of their synergy with adaptive immune responses against tumors, and discuss recent studies highlighting the potential of combination therapies recruiting both innate and adaptive immune effectors to eradicate established tumors. Cancer Res; 77(19); 5215-21. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. The Role of Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. The treatment of this disease has changed considerably over the last two decades with the introduction to the clinical practice of novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Basic research efforts towards better understanding of normal and missing immune surveillence in myeloma have led to development of new strategies and therapies that require the engagement of the immune system. Many of these treatments are under clinical development and have already started providing encouraging results. We, for the second time in the last two decades, are about to witness another shift of the paradigm in the management of this ailment. This review will summarize the major approaches in myeloma immunotherapies.

  13. Immunotherapy against cancer-related viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Haruko; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 12% of all cancers worldwide are associated with viral infections. To date, eight viruses have been shown to contribute to the development of human cancers, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C viruses, and Human papilloma virus, among others. These DNA and RNA viruses produce oncogenic effects through distinct mechanisms. First, viruses may induce sustained disorders of host cell growth and survival through the genes they express, or may induce DNA damage response in host cells, which in turn increases host genome instability. Second, they may induce chronic inflammation and secondary tissue damage favoring the development of oncogenic processes in host cells. Viruses like HIV can create a more permissive environment for cancer development through immune inhibition, but we will focus on the previous two mechanisms in this review. Unlike traditional cancer therapies that cannot distinguish infected cells from non-infected cells, immunotherapies are uniquely equipped to target virus-associated malignancies. The targeting and functioning mechanisms associated with the immune response can be exploited to prevent viral infections by vaccination, and can also be used to treat infection before cancer establishment. Successes in using the immune system to eradicate established malignancy by selective recognition of virus-associated tumor cells are currently being reported. For example, numerous clinical trials of adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated virus-specific T cells have shown benefit even for established tumors in patients with EBV-associated malignancies. Additional studies in other virus-associated tumors have also been initiated and in this review we describe the current status of immunotherapy for virus-associated malignancies and discuss future prospects. PMID:28008927

  14. Immunotherapy in advanced melanoma: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Kang, Guhyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various immunotherapeutic agents and chemotherapy for unresected or metastatic melanomas. We performed a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian statistical model to compare objective response rate (ORR) of various immunotherapies from 12 randomized controlled studies. The estimated ORRs of immunotherapy and chemotherapy were 0.224 and 0.108, respectively. The ORRs of immunotherapy in untreated and pretreated patients were 0.279 and 0.176, respectively. In network meta-analysis, the odds ratios for ORR of nivolumab (1 mg/kg)/ipilmumab (3 mg/kg), pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg and nivolumab 3 mg/kg were 8.54, 5.39 and 4.35, respectively, compared with chemotherapy alone. Our data showed that various immunotherapies had higher ORRs rather than chemotherapy alone.

  15. Immunotherapy for food allergies: a myth or a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Andrea D; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a worldwide issue, with an estimated prevalence of 2-10%. An effective treatment is not available for people affected and the only management is the avoidance of the allergen. Oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy have been tested by several authors, in particular for milk, egg and peanuts allergy, with significant results in term of desensitization induction. The achievement of tolerance is by the contrary doubtful, with different results obtained. In this review, we reviewed protocols of oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy published in literature, mainly against milk, egg and peanut. At present, immunotherapy does not represent the gold standard in the treatment of food allergy, even if it can desensitize patients.

  16. Subcutaneous and Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Tsabouri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents up-to-date understanding of immunotherapy in the treatment of children with allergic asthma. The principal types of allergen immunotherapy (AIT are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT. Both of them are indicated for patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, who have evidence of clinically relevant allergen-specific IgE, and significant symptoms despite reasonable avoidance measures and/or maximal medical therapy. Studies have shown a significant decrease in asthma symptom scores and in the use of rescue medication, and a preventive effect on asthma onset. Although the safety profile of SLIT appears to be better than SCIT, the results of some studies and meta-analyses suggest that the efficacy of SCIT is better and that SCIT has an earlier onset than SLIT in children with allergic asthma. Severe, not controlled asthma, and medical error were the most frequent causes of SCIT-induced adverse events.

  17. Adjuvant immunotherapy after surgery and radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavasiliou, C.; Pappas, J.; Pavlatou, M.; Keramopoulos, A.; Giannakoulis, N.; Koumantakis, E.; Nicolaidis, C.

    1982-04-01

    One hundred patients with operable breast cancer received 'prophylactic' postoperative irradiation after mastectomy. In addition, during irradiation and for four months afterwards, part of the patients received immunotherapy (BCG scarification and oral administration of levamisole), while the rest served as controls. Although survival time in the two groups was about the same, disease-free survival time was significantly longer in the immunotherapy group. Tumor reactivation was preceded by deterioration of the Leucocyte Migration Inhibition Index.

  18. Sublingual immunotherapy for pediatric allergic rhinitis: The clinical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Licari, Amelia; Caimmi, Silvia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is estimated to affect 10%-20% of pediatric population and it is caused by the IgE-sensitization to environmental allergens, most importantly grass pollens and house dust mites. Allergic rhinitis can influence patient’s daily activity severely and may precede the development of asthma, especially if it is not diagnosed and treated correctly. In addition to subcutaneous immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) represents the only treatment being potentially able to cure...

  19. Allergen immunotherapy: routes, safety,efficacy, and mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochfelder JL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jillian Leigh Hochfelder, Punita PondaDivision of Allergy and Immunology, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and allergic asthma have been steadily increasing in prevalence in recent years. These allergic diseases have a major impact on quality of life and are a major economic burden in the US. Although allergen avoidance and pharmacotherapy are currently the mainstays of therapy, they are not always successful in treating patients’ symptoms effectively. If a patient fails allergen avoidance and medical therapy, immunotherapy may be indicated. Furthermore, immunotherapy is the only therapy that may change the course of the disease and induce long-term remission. Though subcutaneous administration has been the standard route for immunotherapy for many decades, there are several other routes of administration that have been and are currently being studied. The goal of utilizing alternative routes of immunotherapy is to improve safety without decreasing the efficacy of treatment. This paper will review the novel routes of immunotherapy, including sublingual, oral, local nasal, epicutaneous, and intralymphatic.Keywords: immunotherapy, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, sublingual, intralymphatic

  20. Expression and characterization of natural-like recombinant Der p 2 for sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Bussières, Laetitia; Airouche, Sabi; Lautrette, Aurélie; Bouley, Julien; Berjont, Nathalie; Horiot, Stéphane; Huet, Axelle; Jain, Karine; Lemoine, Pierrick; Chabre, Henri; Batard, Thierry; Mascarell, Laurent; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Tourdot, Sophie; Nony, Emmanuel; Moingeon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant allergens with a native conformation represent an alternative to natural extracts for immunotherapy and diagnostic purposes. We produced the Der p 2 mite allergen in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli. After purification by cation exchange chromatography, recombinant molecules were compared to their natural counterpart based upon structural (disulfide bonds, secondary structure, thermal stability) and immunological properties (antibody reactivity, basophil and T cell activation, tolerance induction in a murine sublingual immunotherapy model). The Der p 2.0101 isoform was confirmed to be prevalent in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extracts. It was then produced as a secreted molecule in P. pastoris or refolded from E. coli inclusion bodies. The yeast-expressed rDer p 2 molecule exhibits a natural-like disulfide bridge distribution and secondary structure, whereas the E. coli-derived rDer p 2 presents some heterogeneity in cysteine bonds and a lower stability following thermal stress. The two recombinant as well as natural Der p 2 molecules exhibit comparable IgE recognition and activate basophil and CD4+ T cells. Sublingual immunotherapy of nDer p 2- sensitized mice using either one of the rDer p 2 molecules efficiently decreases airway hyperresponsiveness as well as Th2 responses. Natural and recombinant Der p 2 molecules produced in P. pastoris and E. coli exhibit comparable immunological properties despite distinct structural features. Natural-like cysteine pairing is a critical parameter to identify stable, well-folded and homogenous proteins appropriate for immunotherapy and diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Successful transdermal allergen delivery and allergen-specific immunotherapy using biodegradable microneedle patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Shin, Jung U; Kim, Seo Hyeong; Noh, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jungsoo; Chu, Howard; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jung Dong; Kim, Hong Kee; Jeong, Do Hyeon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is an effective treatment modality for allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). However, frequent visits over a 3-year period as well as looming adverse events tend to discourage patient compliance. Therefore, a more convenient, effective, and safe method of SIT is needed. For several decades, use of microneedles has been promoted as an efficient and precise transdermal drug delivery method. In this study, we developed Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) extract (DfE)-loaded microneedle patches, and evaluated their safety and efficacy as a novel SIT method. After 4 weeks of patch application, efficient allergen delivery and successful induction of immune response to DfE were demonstrated in mice, with no apparent adverse events. AD-induced NC/Nga mice received microneedle immunotherapy (MNIT) (10 μg), subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) (10 μg), SCIT (100 μg), or placebo. Both MNIT (10 μg) and SCIT (100 μg) treatments improved clinical and histologic manifestations of AD skin lesions, altered immunoglobulin production, dampened Th2 cellular response, and boosted Treg infiltrates, without significant side effects; whereas SCIT (10 μg) or placebo subsets failed to show any effects. Based on the favorable safety and efficacy profiles demonstrated in mice by MNIT in the current study, we believe that MNIT may serve as a new SIT modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells as a promising innovative tool for immunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Meraviglia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The potent anti-tumor activities of γδ T cells, their ability to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, and their strong cytolytic activity have prompted the development of protocols in which γδ agonists or ex vivo-expanded γδ cells are administered to tumor patients. γδ T cells can be selectively activated by either synthetic phosphoantigens or by drugs that enhance their accumulation into stressed cells as aminobisphosphonates, thus offering new avenues for the development of γδ T cell-based immunotherapies. The recent development of small drugs selectively activating Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, which upregulate the endogenous phosphoantigens, has enabled the investigators to design the experimental approaches of cancer immunotherapies; several ongoing phase I and II clinical trials are focused on the role of the direct bioactivity of drugs and of adoptive cell therapies involving phosphoantigen- or aminobisphosphonate-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes in humans. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the activation/expansion of γδ T cells in vitro and in vivo that may represent a promising target for the design of novel and highly innovative immunotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies.

  3. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.; intracellular markers (FOXP3; epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic; and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  4. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-03-15

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors.

  5. Potential of nanoparticles for allergen-specific immunotherapy - use of silica nanoparticles as vaccination platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Machado, Yoan; Feinle, Andrea; Thalhamer, Josef; Hüsing, Nicola; Weiss, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative approach for the treatment of allergies. There is an urgent need for improved therapies, which increase both, efficacy and patient compliance. Novel routes of immunization and the use of more advanced vaccine platforms have gained heightened interest in this field. Areas covered: The current status of allergen-specific immunotherapy is summarized and novel routes of immunization and their challenges in the clinics are critically discussed. The use of nanoparticles as novel delivery system for allergy vaccines is comprehensively reviewed. Specifically, the advantages of silica nanoparticles as vaccine carriers and adjuvants are summarized. Expert opinion: Future allergen-specific immunotherapy will combine engineered hypoallergenic vaccines with novel routes of administration, such as the skin. Due to their biodegradability, and the easiness to introduce surface modifications, silica nanoparticles are promising candidates for tailor-made vaccines. By covalently linking allergens and polysaccharides to silica nanoparticles, a versatile vaccination platform can be designed to specifically target antigen-presenting cells, render the formulation hypoallergenic, and introduce immunomodulatory functions. Combining potent skin vaccination methods, such as fractional laser ablation, with nanoparticle-based vaccines addresses all the requirements for safe and efficient therapy of allergic diseases.

  6. Impact of immunotherapy among patients with melanoma brain metastases managed with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William A; Binder, David C; Jones, Bernard L; Oweida, Ayman J; Liu, Arthur K; Rusthoven, Chad G; Karam, Sana D

    2017-12-15

    Patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have been excluded from trials evaluating immunotherapy in melanoma. As such, immunotherapy's role in MBM is poorly understood, particularly in combination with radiotherapy. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with MBM receiving brain radiotherapy. They were classified according to immunotherapy receipt. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to identify factors associated with survival. Among 1287 patients, 185 received immunotherapy. Factors associated with improved survival included younger age, academic facility, lower extracranial disease burden, stereotactic radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Adding immunotherapy to radiotherapy for MBM is associated with improved survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tumor-Associated Antigens for Specific Immunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schmitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common noncutaneous cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Effective treatment modalities for advanced metastatic PCa are limited. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on T cells and antibodies represent interesting approaches to prevent progression from localized to advanced PCa and to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced disease. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs efficiently recognize and destroy tumor cells. CD4+ T cells augment the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells and promote the expansion of tumor-reactive CTLs. Antibodies mediate their antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, improving the uptake of coated tumor cells by phagocytes, and the functional interference of biological pathways essential for tumor growth. Consequently, several tumor-associated antigens (TAAs have been identified that represent promising targets for T cell- or antibody-based immunotherapy. These TAAs comprise proteins preferentially expressed in normal and malignant prostate tissues and molecules which are not predominantly restricted to the prostate, but are overexpressed in various tumor entities including PCa. Clinical trials provide evidence that specific immunotherapeutic strategies using such TAAs represent safe and feasible concepts for the induction of immunological and clinical responses in PCa patients. However, further improvement of the current approaches is required which may be achieved by combining T cell- and/or antibody-based strategies with radio-, hormone-, chemo- or antiangiogenic therapy.

  8. Tumor-Associated Antigens for Specific Immunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Andrea [Biologics Safety and Disposition, Preclinical Safety, Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Werk Klybeck, Klybeckstraße 141, Basel CH-4057 (Switzerland); Wehner, Rebekka [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Füssel, Susanne [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Bachmann, Michael [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Wirth, Manfred P. [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Schmitz, Marc, E-mail: marc.schmitz@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany)

    2012-02-22

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Effective treatment modalities for advanced metastatic PCa are limited. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on T cells and antibodies represent interesting approaches to prevent progression from localized to advanced PCa and to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced disease. CD8{sup +} cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) efficiently recognize and destroy tumor cells. CD4{sup +} T cells augment the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells and promote the expansion of tumor-reactive CTLs. Antibodies mediate their antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, improving the uptake of coated tumor cells by phagocytes, and the functional interference of biological pathways essential for tumor growth. Consequently, several tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified that represent promising targets for T cell- or antibody-based immunotherapy. These TAAs comprise proteins preferentially expressed in normal and malignant prostate tissues and molecules which are not predominantly restricted to the prostate, but are overexpressed in various tumor entities including PCa. Clinical trials provide evidence that specific immunotherapeutic strategies using such TAAs represent safe and feasible concepts for the induction of immunological and clinical responses in PCa patients. However, further improvement of the current approaches is required which may be achieved by combining T cell- and/or antibody-based strategies with radio-, hormone-, chemo- or antiangiogenic therapy.

  9. Novel recombinant alphaviral and adenoviral vectors for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-06-01

    Although cellular immunotherapy based on autolgous dendritic cells (DCs) targeting antigens expressed by metastatic cancer has demonstrated clinical efficacy, the logistical challenges in generating an individualized cell product create an imperative to develop alternatives to DC-based cancer vaccines. Particularly attractive alternatives include in situ delivery of antigen and activation signals to resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which can be achieved by novel fusion molecules targeting the mannose receptor and by recombinant viral vectors expressing the antigen of interest and capable of infecting DCs. A particular challenge in the use of viral vectors is the well-appreciated clinical obstacles to their efficacy, specifically vector-specific neutralizing immune responses. Because heterologous prime and boost strategies have been demonstrated to be particularly potent, we developed two novel recombinant vectors based on alphaviral replicon particles and a next-generation adenovirus encoding an antigen commonly overexpressed in many human cancers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The rationale for developing these vectors, their unique characteristics, the preclinical studies and early clinical experience with each, and opportunities to enhance their effectiveness will be reviewed. The potential of each of these potent recombinant vectors to efficiently generate clinically active anti-tumor immune response alone, or in combination, will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex-driven differences in immunological responses: challenges and opportunities for the immunotherapies of the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Wade, Raymond; Verma, Rashmi; Pena, Camilo; Hosiriluck, Nattamol; Figueroa, Jose A; Cobos, Everardo; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    Male-based studies, both at the biochemical and at the pre-clinical/clinical trial levels, still predominate in the scientific community. Many studies are based on the wrong assumption that both sexes are fundamentally identical in their response to treatments. As a result, findings obtained mainly in males are applied to females, resulting in negative consequences female patients. In cancer immunotherapy, there is still a scarce focus on this topic. Here we review the main differences in immune modulation and immune system biology between males and females with a particular focus on how these differences affect cancer immunotherapy and cancer vaccines. We reviewed articles published on PubMed from 1999 to 2014, using the keywords: sex hormones, immune response, estrogen, immunotherapy, testosterone, cancer vaccines, sex-based medicine. We also present new data wherein the expression of the cancer testis antigen, Ropporin-1, was determined in patients with multiple myeloma, showing that the expression of Ropporin-1 was influenced by sex. Male and female immune systems display radical differences mainly due to the immune regulatory effects of sex hormones. These differences might have a dramatic impact on the immunological treatment of cancer. Moreover, the expression of tumor antigens that can be targeted by anti-cancer vaccines is associated with sex. Future clinical trials focusing on cancer immunotherapy will need to take into account the differences in the immune response and in the frequency of target antigen expression between male and females, in order to optimize these anti-cancer immunotherapies of the third millennium.

  11. Efficiency of ADOPTIVE immunotherapy for melanoma: a case REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Abakushina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research is focused on finding better treatment options for cancer. Along with radical treatment, cancer immunotherapy has proved to be useful for a growing number of cancer patients. We report a case of stage IIIB melanoma in a 53-year woman who received adoptive immunotherapy with cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells. For activation, mononuclear cells were collected from the patient’s peripheral blood and cultivated in X-vivo20 medium containing IL-2 (250 U/ml and IL-15 (50 ng/ml for 10-14 days. From January 2015 to May 2016, a total of 39 CIK cell infusions were administered intradermally to 2-4 points in the paravertebral area, every 1–2 weeks. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in 3 months after starting CIK cell immunotherapy showed a decrease in the number of NK-cells from 18 % to 12 % and CD314 + NK-cells from 16% to 6%. The levels of CD38+, CD38+Т, HLA-DR+ and HLA-DR+Т lymphocytes increased from 53 %, 24 %, 21 %, 9 % and 19 % to 66 %, 51 %, 28 %, 20 % and 29 %, respectively. There was evidence of reactive changes in lymph nodes and stable disease. Metastases on the left shoulder tended to decrease, and they completely disappeared 9 months after tarting adoptive immunotherapy. Partial regression of metastasis on the right shoulder was observed 11 month after staring adoptive immunotherapy. Adoptive immunotherapy demonstrated the increased disease-free survival for the patient with melanoma. In conclusion, CIK immunotherapy  may be an effective treatment method for metastatic melanoma.

  12. Safety and tolerability of a short ragweed sublingual immunotherapy tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Hendrik; Amar, Niran; Bernstein, David I; Lanier, Bobby Q; Creticos, Peter; Berman, Gary; Kaur, Amarjot; Hébert, Jacques; Maloney, Jennifer

    2014-07-01

    MK-3641 is a short ragweed sublingual tablet under investigation for immunotherapy of ragweed pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. To characterize the safety and tolerability of a ragweed sublingual tablet (Merck/ALK-Abelló) in ragweed-allergic adults with or without conjunctivitis. Data from 4 randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials of MK-3641 (2 28-day and 2 52-week trials) were evaluated. Pooled analyses examined short-term safety over 28 days from all 4 trials and long-term safety from the 52-week trials. Across all studies, 757, 198, 454, and 1,058 subjects were randomized to placebo or 1.5, 6, or 12 Amb a 1-U of MK-3641, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were more frequent in the 6- and 12-Amb a 1-U MK-3641 groups than in the placebo group and were primarily local application-site reactions occurring in the first few days of treatment. There was no treatment-associated loss of asthma control or worsening of asthma associated with treatment. No swellings led to airway obstruction or respiratory compromise. No treatment-related anaphylactic shock, life-threatening, or serious treatment-related adverse events were reported for any MK-3641 dose. Of the 1,707 MK-3641-treated subjects, 1 systemic (anaphylactic) reaction was reported (0.06%). The 52-week long-term assessment was generally similar to the safety profile based on the 28-day assessment. MK-3641 doses up to and including 12 Amb a 1-U were well tolerated, with no unexpected safety findings. Sublingual immunotherapy risks such as worsening asthma or airway swellings that could cause airway obstruction were not observed. Systemic reactions and use of epinephrine were uncommon. In these studies, after the first dose was administered in a health care setting, self-administration was well tolerated. clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01469182, NCT00783198, NCT00770315, and NCT00978029. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  13. FAST: Towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K.; Neubauer, Angela; Asturias, Juan; Blom, Lars; Boye, Joyce; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Clausen, Michael; Ferrara, Rosa; Garosi, Paula; Huber, Hans; Jensen, Bettina M.; Koppelman, Stef; Kowalski, Marek L.; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Maillere, Bernard; Mari, Adriano; Martinez, Alberto; Mills, Clare En; Nicoletti, Claudio; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Portoles, Antonio; Rigby, Neil; Scala, Enrico; Schnoor, Heidi J.; Sigursdottir, Sigurveig; Stavroulakis, Georg; Stolz, Frank; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; van den Hout, Rob; Versteeg, Serge A.; Witten, Marianne; van Ree, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with

  14. Oncolytic viruses: a step into cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol JG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan G Pol, Julien Rességuier, Brian D LichtyMcMaster Immunology Research Centre, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Oncolytic virotherapy is currently under investigation in phase I–III clinical trials for approval as a new cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses (OVs selectively infect, replicate in, and kill tumor cells. For a long time, the therapeutic efficacy was thought to depend on the direct viral oncolysis (virocentric view. The host immune system was considered as a brake that impaired virus delivery and spread. Attention was paid primarily to approaches enhancing virus tumor selectivity and cytotoxicity and/or that limited antiviral responses. Thinking has changed over the past few years with the discovery that OV therapy was also inducing indirect oncolysis mechanisms. Among them, induction of an antitumor immunity following OV injection appeared to be a key factor for an efficient therapeutic activity (immunocentric view. Indeed, tumor-specific immune cells persist post-therapy and can search and destroy any tumor cells that escape the OVs, and thus immune memory may prevent relapse of the disease. Various strategies, which are summarized in this manuscript, have been developed to enhance the efficacy of OV therapy with a focus on its immunotherapeutic aspects. These include genetic engineering and combination with existing cancer treatments. Several are currently being evaluated in human patients and already display promising efficacy.Keywords: oncolytic virus, cancer immunotherapy, tumor antigen, cancer vaccine, combination strategies

  15. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  16. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  17. Update on oral immunotherapy for egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, François; Tardio, Natacha; Paradis, Louis; Des Roches, Anne; Bégin, Philippe

    2017-10-03

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an emerging treatment of IgE-mediated egg allergy. In the past decade, a multitude of studies have assessed the potential for egg OIT to induce clinical desensitization. The following review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapy as determined by randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and uncontrolled trials. Recent studies using reduced allergenic egg products and anti-IgE assisted therapy to improve egg OIT safety will also be discussed. Recent advances in the mechanisms underlying food OIT suggest that certain immune parameters may be helpful in monitoring response to therapy, including egg OIT. Although, egg OIT is consistently shown to be effective with regards to clinical desensitization, fewer studies have looked at persistent tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness. Limited results of long-term follow-up trials suggest that this therapy may have disease-modifying effects. In general, the comparison of studies is complicated by major differences in study designs, OIT protocols and endpoints.

  18. Effects of laser immunotherapy on tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Wood, Ethan W.; Hasanjee, Aamr; Chen, Wei R.; Vaughan, Melville B.

    2014-02-01

    The microenvironments of tumors are involved in a complex and reciprocal dialog with surrounding cancer cells. Any novel treatment must consider the impact of the therapy on the microenvironment. Recently, clinical trials with laser immunotherapy (LIT) have proven to effectively treat patients with late-stage, metastatic breast cancer and melanoma. LIT is the synergistic combination of phototherapy (laser irradiation) and immunological stimulation. One prominent cell type found in the tumor stroma is the fibroblast. Fibroblast cells can secrete different growth factors and extracellular matrix modifying molecules. Furthermore, fibroblast cells found in the tumor stroma often express alpha smooth muscle actin. These particular fibroblasts are coined cancer-associated fibroblast cells (CAFs). CAFs are known to facilitate the malignant progression of tumors. A collagen lattice assay with human fibroblast cells is used to elucidate the effects LIT has on the microenvironment of tumors. Changes in the contraction of the lattice, the differentiation of the fibroblast cells, as well as the proliferation of the fibroblast cells will be determined.

  19. Aluminium in allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy--a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-07-16

    We are living in an "aluminium age" with increasing bioavailability of the metal for approximately 125 years, contributing significantly to the aluminium body burden of humans. Over the course of life, aluminium accumulates and is stored predominantly in the lungs, bones, liver, kidneys and brain. The toxicity of aluminium in humans is briefly summarised, highlighting links and possible causal relationships between a high aluminium body burden and a number of neurological disorders and disease states. Aluminium salts have been used as depot-adjuvants successfully in essential prophylactic vaccinations for almost 100 years, with a convincing positive benefit-risk assessment which remains unchanged. However, allergen-specific immunotherapy commonly consists of administering a long-course programme of subcutaneous injections using preparations of relevant allergens. Regulatory authorities currently set aluminium limits for vaccines per dose, rather than per treatment course. Unlike prophylactic vaccinations, numerous injections with higher proportions of aluminium-adjuvant per injection are applied in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and will significantly contribute to a higher cumulative life dose of aluminium. While the human body may cope robustly with a daily aluminium overload from the environment, regulatory cumulative threshold values in immunotherapy need further addressing. Based on the current literature, predisposing an individual to an unusually high level of aluminium, such as through subcutaneous immunotherapy, has the potential to form focal accumulations in the body with the propensity to exert forms of toxicity. Particularly in relation to longer-term health effects, the safety of aluminium adjuvants in immunotherapy remains unchallenged by health authorities - evoking the need for more consideration, guidance, and transparency on what is known and not known about its safety in long-course therapy and what measures can be taken to prevent or

  20. Specific immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis to grass and tree pollens in daily medical practice-symptom load with sublingual immunotherapy compared to subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Jochen; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Mösges, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Despite strong evidence for subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, comparative data are scarce. Objectives. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of four observational studies to compare the effectiveness of both application routes. Methods. After individual analysis, a subsequent analysis of the total data pool was performed. Descriptive and explorative data analysis methods were used. Results. Altogether 847 patients (382 male, 453 female) aged 3-78 years (mean age 28.3 years) were treated with specific immunotherapy: 665 (78.5%) patients sublingual and 182 (21.5%) subcutaneous. The majority of patients (61.6%) in both treatment groups started specific immunotherapy due to severe rhinitis symptoms which occurred frequently or very frequently. Most patients in both treatment groups had moderate to severe conjunctivitis symptom load which occurred frequently or very frequently. Median rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptom loads decreased during both treatments to the same extent. Similar improvements in the symptom loads were observed in patients stratified for age, disease duration, and presence or absence of mild to moderate asthma. Conclusion. The effectiveness of sublingual and subcutaneous immunotherapy with pollen extracts appeared virtually equal in daily medical routine. Due to the advantageous safety profile, the sublingual application may be favorable.