WorldWideScience

Sample records for interior salt basin

  1. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  2. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    expulsion commenced during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary with peak expulsion occurring during the Early to Late Cretaceous. The geohistory of the North Louisiana Salt Basin is comparable to the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin with the major difference being the elevated heat flow the strata in the North Louisiana Salt Basin experienced in the Cretaceous due primarily to reactivation of upward movement, igneous activity, and erosion associated with the Monroe and Sabine Uplifts. Potential undiscovered reservoirs in the North Louisiana Salt Basin are Triassic Eagle Mills sandstone and deeply buried Upper Jurassic sandstone and limestone. Potential underdeveloped reservoirs include Lower Cretaceous sandstone and limestone and Upper Cretaceous sandstone.

  3. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  4. Dissolution of the Upper Seven Rivers and Salado salt in the interior Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Revision: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeConto, R.T.; Murphy, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Seven Rivers and Salado Formations contain the uppermost salts within the interior Palo Duro Basin, Stratigraphic and structural evidence based on geophysical well logs indicate that both dissolution and facies change have influenced the thickness of these uppermost salts. The magnitude of vertical salt loss due to dissolution is interminable at this time because original salt thickness is unknown. Gradual thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation is recognized from south to north across the Palo Duro Basin. Anhydrites within the formation pinch out toward the basin margins, indicating that section loss is in part depositionally controlled. Additionally, informal subdivision of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation suggests that salt dissolution has occurred in the uppermost salt. A northeast-trending zone of thin Upper Seven Rivers Formation in portions of Deaf Smith, Randall, Castro, and Parmer Counties is possibly related to Tertiary dissolution. In New Mexico, local thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation may be associated with faulting. Triassic erosion on uplifted fault blocks has affected the Upper Permian section. The Salado salt margin is located within the interior Palo Duro Basin. Geophysical well logs and core evidence indicate that the salt margin has migrated basinward as a result of dissolution. Permian dissolution probably contributed to some salt loss. 106 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  6. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  7. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  8. Aptian ‘Shale Gas’ Prospectivity in the Downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Gulf Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Valentine, Brett J.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.; Dulong, Frank T.; Bove, Alana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates regional ‘shale gas’ prospectivity of the Aptian section (primarily Pine Island Shale) in the downdip Mississippi Salt Basin (MSB). Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered gas resource of 8.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in the chronostratigraphic-equivalent Pearsall Formation in the Maverick Basin of south Texas, where industry has established a moderately successful horizontal gas and liquids play. Wells penetrating the downdip MSB Aptian section at depths of 12,000-15,000 ft were used to correlate formation tops in a 15-well cross-section extending about 200 miles (mi) east-southeastward from Adams Co. to Jackson Co. Legacy cuttings from these wells were analyzed for thermal maturity and source rock quality. Bitumen reflectance (n=53) increases with increasing present-day burial depth in the east-central study area from 1.0% to 1.7%. As the Aptian section shallows in Adams Co. to the west, bitumen Ro values are higher (1.7-2.0%), either from relatively greater heat flux or greater mid-Cenomanian uplift and erosion in this area. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges 0.01-1.21 and averages 0.5 wt.% (n=51); pyrolysis output (S2; n=51) averages 0.40 mg HC/g rock, indicating little present-day hydrocarbon-generative potential. Bitumen reflectance is preferred as a thermal maturity parameter as Tmax values are unreliable. Normalized X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral analyses (n=26) indicate high average clay abundance (53 wt.%) relative to quartz (29%) and carbonate (18%). Mineral content shows a spatial relationship to an Appalachian orogen clastic sediment source, with proximal high clay and quartz and distal high carbonate content. Clastic influx from the Appalachian orogen is confirmed by detrital zircon U-Pb ages with dominant Grenville and Paleozoic components [105 ages from a Rodessa sandstone and 112 ages from a Paluxy (Albian) sandstone]. Preliminary information from fluid inclusion microthermometry

  9. Assessment of tectonic hazards to waste storage in interior-basin salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.

    1979-01-01

    Salt domes in the northern Gulf of Mexico may make ideal sites for storage of radioactive waste because the area is tectonically quiet. The stability of such salt domes and the tectonic activity are discussed

  10. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  11. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  12. Geologic study of the interior Salt Domes of Northeast Texas Salt-Dome basin to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the movement and hydrologic stability of the domes, to identify the domes which appear suitable for further study and consideration, and to outline the additional information needed to evaluate these domes. The growth of the interior salt domes appears to have slowed with geologic time and to have halted altogether. The Bullard, Whitehouse, and Keechi domes probably are not subject to significant dissolution at the present time. However, caprock found at Bullard and Whitehouse indicates that salt dissolution occurred at some period during the past 50 million years since Wilcox was deposited. It is recommended that shallow water wells be drilled and tested

  13. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  14. Citronelle Dome: A giant opportunity for multizone carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Walsh, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant, salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of southern Alabama that is located near several large-scale, stationary, carbon-emitting sources in the greater Mobile area. The dome forms an elliptical, four-way structural closure containing opportunities for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle oil field, located on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 169 million bbl of 42-46?? API gravity oil from sandstone bodies in the Lower Cretaceous Rodessa Formation. The top seal for the oil accumulation is a thick succession of shale and anhydrite, and the reservoir is underfilled such that oil-water contacts are typically elevated 30-60 m (100-200 ft) above the structural spill point. Approximately 31-34% of the original oil in place has been recovered by primary and secondary methods, and CO2-EOR has the potential to increase reserves by up to 20%. Structural contour maps of the dome demonstrate that the area of structural closure increases upward in section. Sandstone units providing prospective carbon sinks include the Massive and Pilot sands of the lower Tuscaloosa Group, as well as several sandstone units in the upper Tuscaloosa Group and the Eutaw Formation. Many of these sandstone units are characterized by high porosity and permeability with low heterogeneity. The Tuscaloosa-Eutaw interval is capped by up to 610 m (2000 ft) of chalk and marine shale that are proven reservoir seals in nearby oil fields. Therefore, the Citronelle Dome can be considered a major geologic sink where CO2 can be safely stored while realizing the economic benefits associated with CO2-EOR. Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  15. Chapter 5. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources-Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston formations, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system, in the East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Condon, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak Formation of east Texas and southern Arkansas (and the correlative Hosston Formation of Louisiana and Mississippi) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin from east Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic detritus was derived from two main fluvial-deltaic depocenters, one in northeastern Texas and the other extending from southeastern Mississippi northwestward into northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in east Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are about 2,000 ft thick.

  16. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1 0 F to 25 0 F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes

  17. Exploratory shaft conceptual design report: Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This conceptual design report summarizes the conceptualized design for an exploratory shaft facility at a representative site in the Gulf Interior Region of the United States (Louisiana and Mississippi). Conceptualized designs for other possible locations (Paradox Basin in Utah and Permian Basin in Texas) are summarized in separate reports. The purpose of the exploratory shaft facility is to provide access to the reference repository horizon to permit in-situ testing of the salt. The in-situ testing is necessary to verify repository salt design parameters, evaluate isotropy and homoqeneity of the salt, and provide a demonstration of the constructability and confirmation of the design to gain access to the repository. The fundamental purpose of this conceptual design report is to assure the feasibility of the exploratory shaft project and to develop a reliable cost estimate and realistic schedule. Because a site has not been selected and site-specific subsurface data are not available, it has been necessary to make certain assumptions in order to develop a conceptural design for an exploratory shaft facility in salt. As more definitive information becomes available to support the design process, adjustments in the projected schedule and estimated costs will be required

  18. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  19. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  20. Science and ecosystem management in the interior Columbia basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Thomas M. Quigley; Jodi L. Clifford; Rebecca A. Gravenmier

    2001-01-01

    Significant changes over the past 150 years in aquatic, terrestrial, landscape, and socioeconomic systems have altered biophysical systems in the interior Columbia basin. Changes and conflict in public policy concerns, such as resource use vs. restoration vs. conservation are especially evident in more than 34% of total forest and rangeland in the United States that...

  1. Resiliency of small rural communities in the interior Columbia Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, 198 small communities were assessed for their ability to deal with change and the characteristics that contribute to this ability. Scientists conducted on-the-ground studies and had communities assess themselves.The data revealed complex differences, patterns, and underlying relationships....

  2. The challenge to explore the Brazilian interior basins; O desafio da exploracao das bacias interiores brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)

  3. Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

  4. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  5. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.

    1984-04-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  6. Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating unsaturated zone (Kalahari dunefield) .... prior to the deposition of the Kalahari Basin formed chan- nels, which in the south-eastern region of the .... Whitehill formation, and elsewhere this directly overlies the. Upper Rietmond member. The Upper Rietmond ...

  7. Quantitative-qualitative characteristics of salt deposit in Tuzla basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, Amir; Barakovic, Amir; Smailhodzic, Hrustem

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the southern slopes of the mountain Majevica, in Tuzla basin, within salt-bearing formation known as the "strip series," deposits of rock salt are present. Tuzla rock salt deposit is made of sodium salt halite (NaCl) and thenardite (Na2SO4) that were deposited in five series of salt each separated by dolomite, clay-marl sediments. The deposit has an irregular oval shape, with a short axis length of 600-900 m and longer, about 2500 m. It covers an area of approximately 2 km2. The main objective of this paper is to present for both deposits their morphological characteristics, mineralogical characteristics, litofacial characteristics of sediments and lithostratigraphic column, hydrogeological characteristics, tectonics and salt reserves through quality, classification, categorization and calculation.

  8. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  9. Revised estimates for direct-effect recreational jobs in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the methodology used to derive the original estimates for direct employment associated with recreation on Federal lands in the interior Columbia River basin (the basin), and details the changes in methodology and data used to derive new estimates. The new analysis resulted in an estimate of 77,655 direct-effect jobs associated with recreational...

  10. Geohydrology of the Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Halasz, Stephen J.; Peters, Henry B.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering the feasibility of using salt domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin as repositories for radioactive wastes that may require complete confinement for as much as 250,000 years. Four of fourteen known shallow piercement salt domes within the basin--Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes—have been selected as candidate domes for further study and possible selection as storage sites.

  11. Geologic appraisal of Paradox basin salt deposits for water emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Robert J.; Lohman, Stanley William

    1973-01-01

    Thick salt deposits of Middle Pennsylvanian age are present in an area of 12,000 square miles in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah and southwest Colorado. The deposits are in the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The greatest thickness of this evaporite sequence is in a troughlike depression adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift on the northeast side of the basin.The salt deposits consist of a cyclical sequence of thick halite units separated by thin units of black shale, dolomite, and anhydrite. Many halite units are several hundred feet thick and locally contain economically valuable potash deposits.Over much of the Paradox basin the salt deposits occur at depths of more than 5,000 feet. Only in a series of salt anticlines located along the northeastern side of the basin do the salt deposits rise to relatively shallow depths. The salt anticlines can be divided geographically and structurally into five major systems. Each system consists of a long undulating welt of thickened salt over which younger rocks are arched in anticlinal form. Locally there are areas along the axes of the anticlines where the Paradox Member was never covered by younger sediments. This allowed large-scale migration of Paradox strata toward and up through these holes in the sediment cover forming diapiric anticlines.The central or salt-bearing cores of the anticlines range in thickness from about 2,500 to 14,000 feet. Structure in the central core of the salt anticlines is the result of both regional-compression and flowage of the Paradox Member into the anticlines from adjacent synclines. Structure in the central cores of the salt anticlines ranges from relatively undeformed beds to complexly folded and faulted masses, in which stratigraphic continuity is undemonstrable.The presence of thick cap rock .over many of the salt anticlines is evidence of removal of large volumes of halite by groundwater. Available geologic and hydrologic information suggests that this is a relatively slow

  12. Integrated scientific assessment for ecosystem management in the interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley; Richard W Haynes; Russell T. Graham

    1996-01-01

    The Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management for the Interior Columbia Basin links landscape, aquatic, terrestrial, social, and economic characterizations to describe biophysical and social systems. Integration was achieved through a framework built around six goals for ecosystem management and three different views of the future. These goals are:...

  13. Style and timing of salt tectonics in the Dniepr-Donets Basin (Ukraine): implications for triggering and driving mechanisms of salt movement in sedimentary basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stovba, S.M.; Stephenson, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Ukrainian Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB) is a Late Palaeozoic intracratonic rift basin, with sedimentary thicknesses up to 19 km, displaying the effects of salt tectonics during its entire history of formation, from Late Devonian rifting to the Tertiary. Hundreds of concordant and discordant salt

  14. Small rural communities in the inland Northwest: an assessment of small communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Harris; William McLaughlin; Greg Brown; Dennis R. Becker

    2000-01-01

    An assessment of small rural communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basin was conducted for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The characteristics and conditions of the rural communities in this region, which are complex and constantly changing, were examined. The research also assessed the resilience of the region’s...

  15. Restoration of degraded lands in the interior Columbia River basin: passive vs. active approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McIver; Lynn. Starr

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for success of passive and active restoration is presented for interior conifer forest, sagebrush steppe, and riparian ecosystems, with a focus on the Columbia River basin. Passive restoration, defined as removal of the stresses that cause degradation, may be most appropriate for higher elevation forests, low-order riparian ecosystems, and for sagebrush steppe...

  16. Highlighted scientific findings of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Quigley; Heidi. Bigler Cole

    1997-01-01

    Decisions regarding 72 million acres of Forest Service- and Bureau of Land Management- administered lands will be based on scientific findings brought forth in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Some highlights of the scientific findings are presented here. Project scientists drew three general conclusions: (1) Conditions and trends differ widely...

  17. Field guide for the identification of snags and logs in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Evelyn L. Bull; Torolf R. Torgersen

    1997-01-01

    This field guide contains descriptions and color photographs of snags and logs of 10 coniferous and 3 deciduous tree species found in the interior Columbia River basin. Methods arc described to distinguish among the different species when various amounts of branches, cones, and bark arc missing. Wildlife use of the different species of snags and logs are listed. Snags...

  18. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  19. Gravity Field of the Orientale Basin from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Goossens, Sander; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Orientale basin is the youngest and best-preserved major impact structure on the Moon. We used the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft to investigate the gravitational field of Orientale at 3- to 5-kilometer (km) horizontal resolution. A volume of at least (3.4 +/- 0.2) × 10(exp 6) cu km of crustal material was removed and redistributed during basin formation. There is no preserved evidence of the transient crater that would reveal the basin's maximum volume, but its diameter may now be inferred to be between 320 and 460 km. The gravity field resolves distinctive structures of Orientale's three rings and suggests the presence of faults associated with the outer two that penetrate to the mantle. The crustal structure of Orientale provides constraints on the formation of multiring basins.

  20. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome

  1. Geological evaluation of Gulf Coast salt domes: overall assessment of the Gulf Interior Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The three major phases in site characterization and selection are regional studies, area studies, and location studies. This report characterizes regional geologic aspects of the Gulf Coast salt dome basins. It includes general information from published sources on the regional geology; the tectonic, domal, and hydrologic stability; and a brief description the salt domes to be investigated. After a screening exercise, eight domes were chosen for further characterization: Keechi, Oakwood, and Palestine Domes in Texas; Vacherie and Rayburn's domes in North Louisiana; and Cypress Creek and Richton domes in Mississippi. A general description of each, maps of the location, property ownership, and surface geology, and a geologic cross section were presented for each dome.

  2. Fluid inclusion brine compositions from Palo Duro Basin salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fluid inclusion analyses were done on salt samples from Lower San Andres Cycle 4 and 5. The stable isotope composition of the fluid inclusion brines was measured on duplicate samples taken from the same fluid inclusion brine for correlation of geochemical content with the stable isotopic content. The analyzed Palo Duro Basin salt fluid inclusions are predominantly one phase, i.e., the presence of a fluid only. However, many of the larger fluid inclusions do have a small vapor bubble. This liquid/vapor ratio is so high in these vapor-containing fluid inclusions that their behavior in a thermal gradient would be almost identical to that of all liquid inclusions. Closely associated with the fluid inclusions are cryptomelane where some fibers penetrate into halite host crystal. The fluid inclusions have a wide variability in content for those components that were analyzed, even within the same salt type. The fluid inclusion brines are also acidic, ranging from 3 to 6 as measured with pH test papers

  3. INTERIORITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    Dealing with the general theme of domestic architectural quality, the PhD thesis ‘INTERIORITY’ takes its point of departure in the continuous and increasing need to improve our capability as architects to theoretically articulate the intangible concept of quality, and to reveal it through an active...... been motivated by the particular hypothesis that an introduction of the notion of interiority, as an ability of the spatial envelope itself to address the sensuous scale of furniture, unfolds a particular dual critical potential signifying our experience of domestic architectural quality: On the one......, tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...

  4. Investigations on boron isotopic geochemistry of salt lakes in Qaidam basin, Qinghai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.K.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Liu, W.G.; Wang, Y.H.; Jin, L.

    of brine and are related to boron origin, the corrosion of salt and to certain chemical constituents. The distribution of boron isotopes in Quidam Basin showed a regional feature: salt lake brines in the west and northwest basin have the highest d11B values...

  5. Major salt beds of the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    Major salt beds are defined as salt intervals at least 75 feet thick that contain no interbeds greater than 10 feet thick and include no more than 15 percent non-salt interbeds. Maps based on the interpretation of geophysical logs from hundreds of oil and gas exploration wells reveal seven major salt beds in the Palo Duro Basin and one major salt bed in the Dalhart Basin. The most extensive major salt beds are in the central and northern Palo Duro Basin, in the Upper San Andres Formation and the Lower San Andres Formation Units 4 and 5. Of these, the major salt bed within the Lower San Andres Formation Unit 4 is the most widespread and generally the thickest. 7 references, 15 figures, 2 tables

  6. An assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Kathy Tonnessen; John Turk; John Vimont; Robert Amundson; Ann Acheson; Janice Peterson

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,...

  7. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  8. Salinity management in river basins : modelling and management of the salt-affected Jarreh Reservoir (Iran)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiati, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sources and origin of salts in the basin of the two salt- affected Shapur and Dalaki rivers (Southern Iran) and the processes involved in salinization have been studied. The extent of water deterioration have been identified by examining spatial changes in the rivers water

  9. Dynamic Subsidence across the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Basin in Response to Farallon Slab Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Nummedal, D.; Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Cretaceous Western Interior Basin has long been considered a foreland basin, driven by the Sevier thrust and associated basin sediment loads. However, flexural studies demonstrate that this effect exists only within a narrow band in front of the thrust belt. Most of the basin appears to be due to mantle flow-induced dynamic subsidence associated with Farallon plate subduction. Here we show how the components of evolving long-wavelength dynamic subsidence and flexural subsidence created the accommodation space and controlled the stratigraphy across the western United Sates, based on the correlated stratigraphic sections across central Utah-Colorado and southern Wyoming.These backstripped subsidence data reveal a component of continuously evolving long-wavelength dynamic subsidence, in addition to subsidence driven by the Sevier thrust belt and associated sediment loads. The loci of maximum rates of this dynamic subsidence moved eastward from ~98 to 74 Ma in phase with the west-to-east passage of the Farallon slab, as reconstructed from tomography based on quantitative inverse models. These subsidence data allow testing of existing subduction models and confirm the dynamic-topography driven nature of the Western Interior Basin. The results seem to support that the depocenters track the trough of dynamic subsidence with ca.18 Myr cycles through time and space and the stratigraphic patterns of large-scale progradation, eastward migration of depocenter, and regional clinoform-like downlap are related with the dynamic subsidence. Interpretation of these data also provides more insights into the repeated, ca.2 to 6 Myr cycles of thrust-induced subsidence in front of the thrust belt, which control the local eastward progradation of the sand bodies from the thrust belt. The dynamic, flexural subsidence and eustatic sea level changes interacted and controlled the timing and distribution of unconformities. Our work shows how the stratigraphy precisely

  10. Salt deformation mechanism and gas accumulation in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene, Constantin; Floroiu, Alina

    2017-04-01

    The Transylvanian Basin is the main producer of hydrocarbon gases in Romania. The first gas field (Sarmasel) has been discovered in 1909, untill now more than 129 gas structures being identified and exploited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the causes that created zones with different intensity of the diapirism in relation with the methane generation and accumulation. The Badenian salt movement had different intensities in the Transylvanian Basin. In the central part there are salt pillows, salt layers and piercement of salt. In this zone the salt is not outcropping and its flow produced only the doming of the overlying deposits. In the eastern and western parts of the basin salt flow determined an intensively deformation of the overlying rocks and the formation of the salt diapirs and salt wall growth. In these areas the salt even outcrops within a few sectors. The following mechanisms could be implied in the Badenian salt flow: salt buoyancy, differential sediment loading, flexural buckling of the overburden and drag by overburden. To evaluate which mechanism dominates in the Badenian salt flow in the Transylvanian Basin a simple model has been used considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. In this model the viscous fluid is the layer of Badenian salt and the elastic plate is represented by the overburden composed of Upper Miocene and Pliocene deposits. The vertical pressure gradient was calculated considering a constant density of overburden (2500 kg/m3) in correlation with the different sedimentary rates of the Upper Badenian (450 m/Ma), Sarmatian (150 m/Ma) and Pliocene (80 m/Ma). The initial salt thickness was variable, less than 300 m south of Mureş River and more than 500 m in the other zones of the basin. The amplitude and the wavelength of folding as well as the others parameters, like the thickness of the overburden and of the salt encountered in the apex of the structures as well as in the adjacent synclines have been measured on

  11. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil

    2017-04-01

    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  12. Isotopic and magnetic provenance characterization of distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The sediments of the Galicia Interior Basin in NW Iberia Margin are of particular palaeoclimatic interest as they are located at the boundary where the climatic oscillations of the glacial interval were interrupted by extreme events such as Heinrich events. These events are well characterized in Northern North Atlantic areas, but little is known about their occurrence beyond the Ruddiman belt. This study presents a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal ice-rafted detritus (IRD) that occurred during the last glacial period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin. The last six Heinrich Layers were identified by their magneto-mineralogical and geochemical properties. Their Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicated that the Laurentide Ice Sheet was the major source for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. However, the European ice sheets also influenced the initial development stages of HL1, HL2, HL4. HL3, HL6 and partially HL1, HL2 and HL4 were influenced by more juvenile provinces, such as Iceland/Faroes sheets and/or by the Fram Strait/East Greenland nearby areas. Separate provenance analyses of the coarse and fine fractions in the studied Heinrich Layers also indicated that IRDs and glacial flour sources might not always be the same. Our results shed unequivocal evidence that Canadian-sourced distal IRD are preceded by European-sourced IRD, at least from the H4. In our view, LIS and EIS instabilities registered in the Iberian Margin respond to the same climate forcing at different velocities.

  13. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior groundwater basins, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile (1,691-square-kilometer) South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The South Coast Interior Basins study unit contains eight priority groundwater basins grouped into three study areas, Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama, in the Southern Coast Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA South Coast Interior Basins study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated (raw) groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality between basins. The assessment was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 50 wells in 2008 and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the SCI study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as trace elements and minor ions. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the SCI study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration

  14. Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin are related to the bedrock geometry and hydrology that developed following uplift, tilting, and erosion in the late Cenozoic, and the greatest volume of salt has been removed since that time. During the Permian, some salt was dissolved from the top of the Castile Formation before deposition of the Salado Formation and from the top of the Salado before deposition of the Rustler Formation. In addition, some salt dissolution occurred after the Permian and before the Cretaceous. Post-uplift surface dissolution has progressed across the Delaware Basin from south to north and west to east and generally down the regional dip. Deep-seated dissolution has occurred around the margin of the basin where the Capitan Limestone aquifer is in contact with the Permian evaporites and within the basin where selective dissolution in the lower Salado has undercut the overlying salt beds of the middle and upper Salado. Dissolution has not advanced down regional dip uniformly but has left outliers of salt and has progressed selectively into structurally predisposed areas. This selective advance has significance for the stability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

  15. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  16. Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; L.K. Croft; J.F. Lehmkuhl; R.H. Naney; C.G. Niwa; W.R. Owen; R.E. Sandquist

    1998-01-01

    This report present information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology (macroecology) of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Rareplants include many endemics associated with local conditions. Potential plant and invertebrate bioindicators are identified. Species...

  17. The effect of hydrocarbons on the microstructural evolution in rock salt: a case study on hydrocarbon bearing Ara salt from the South Oman Salt Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Urai, Janos L.; Wübbeler, Franziska M. M.; Sadler, Marc

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that dilatant deformation promotes the incorporation of hydrocarbons into typically low permeable rock salt (Schoenherr et al., 2007). However, there is not much knowledge on subsequent mechanisms related to recrystallization processes, which cause morphological and chemical changes of the carbonic inclusions. This work aims to contribute to an increased understanding of fluid inclusion dynamics related to grain boundary migration recrystallization and hence to facilitate the interpretation of complex microstructures in recrystallized, multiphase salt rocks. In this case study we investigate hydrocarbon-impregnated salt from the Cambrian Ara Group in the South Oman Salt Basin. The samples were cored from cm-m thick anhydrite-salt sequences overlying hydrocarbon bearing carbonate stringers in 3300 m depth. The anhydrite layers consist mainly of fine-grained anhydrite, which contains calcite, dolomite, and olivine inclusions. Solid bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon phases are observed in between the anhydrite grains and along cracks. Anhydrite layers host salt veins, which contain fragments of anhydrite. These fragments do not differ in composition or structure from the host material and the related vein microstructures indicate crack-seal mechanisms. Halite in the salt layers is almost entirely recrystallized with solid inclusions consisting of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite and olivine with hydrocarbon-coatings present inside grains and along grain boundaries. Solid inclusions cause pinning indicated by a decreased recrystallized grain size and by the presence of grains with preserved substructures representing earlier deformation phases. We observe two types of carbonic inclusions: I) solid bitumen coatings along grain boundaries and microcracks, interpreted to be incorporated into the salt in an overpressure state that allowed dilatancy of the salt, and II) less degraded, liquid hydrocarbons along grain boundaries in the vicinity of the anhydrite

  18. Analog modeling and kinematic restoration of inverted hangingwall synclinal basins developed above syn-kinematic salt: Application to the Lusitanian and Parentis basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; McClay, Ken; Ferrer, Oriol; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-04-01

    The formation of hagingwall syncline basins is basically constrained by the geometry of the basement-involved fault, but also by salt distribution . The formation of such basins is common around the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Lusitanian, Parentis, Basque-Cantabian, Cameros and Organyà basins) where Upper Triassic (Keuper) salt governed their polyphasic Mesozoic extension and their subsequent Alpine inversion. In this scenario, a precise interpretation of the sub-salt faults geometry and a reconstruction of the initial salt thickness are key to understand the kinematic evolution of such basins. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and these Mesozoic basins as natural analogues, the aim of this work is to: 1) investigate the main parameters that controlled the formation and evolution of hagingwall syncline basins analyzing the role of syn-kinematic salt during extension and subsequent inversion; and 2) quantify the deformation and salt mobilization based on restoration of analog model cross sections. The experimental results demonstrate that premature welds are developed by salt deflation with consequent upward propagation of the basal fault in salt-bearing rift systems with a large amount of extension,. In contrast, thicker salt inhibits the upward fault propagation, which results into a further salt migration and development of a hagingwall syncline basins flanked by salt walls. The inherited extensional architecture as well as salt continuity dramatically controlled subsequent inversion. Shortening initially produced the folding and the uplift of the synclinal basins. Minor reverse faults form as a consequence of overtightening of welded diapir stems. However, no trace of reverse faulting is found around diapirs stems, as ductile unit is still available for extrusion, squeezing and accommodation of shortening. Restoration of the sandbox models has demonstrated that this is a powerful tool to unravel the complex structures in the models and this may

  19. Sand, salt and water in the Stampriet Basin, Namibia: Calculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating groundwater recharge rates in the Stampriet Basin is important for assessing the sustainability of the groundwater resource both within south-east Namibia, and across the borders of this transboundary resource into Botswana and South Africa. The 65 000 km2 basin contains a multi-layered aquifer system, of up ...

  20. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  1. Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The 18 O/ 16 O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines

  2. Quaternary geology of Vacherie salt dome, north Louisiana salt dome basin. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, C.R.; Holmes, J.C.; Alford, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    This volume comprises 14 appendices: lineations on Vacherie and Rayburn's domes (1977); possible geomorphic influence of Vacherie salt dome on the Quaternary fluvial geomorphology of Bashaway Creek (1980); remote sensing and analysis of radar imagery (1978); uphole seismic survey at Vacherie salt dome (1977); electrical resistivity survey at Vacherie salt dome (1978); pedologic investigations (1977); ionium-thorium dating of ironstones from terrace deposits, Vacherie salt dome, North Louisiana (1978); grain-shape and grain-surface studies (1981); the terrace concept - Gulf Coastal Plain (1981); interpretation of Quaternary sediments along lines of seismic shot hole (1976); topographic lows above domes (1977); structural significance of topographic lows above North Louisiana salt domes (1981); diagnostic microfossils - Vacherie dome (1978); and development of stratigraphy above Vacherie dome from Cretaceous to Sparta times (1982)

  3. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  4. Correlation of basinal carbonate cycles to nearshore parasequences in the Late Cretaceous Greenhorn seaway, Western Interior U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William P.; Gustason, Edmund R.; Sageman, Bradley B.

    1994-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous limestone-shale couplets developed within the late transgressive stage of the Greenhorn cyclothem may be correlated from carbonate-dominated (basinal) sequences in central Kansas and Colorado westward to clastic cycles in southern Utah. Six such basinal couplets have been traced to corresponding upward-coarsening progradational cycles developed on the western margin of the Western Interior basin. In the central basin in Colorado and Kansas, these sedimentary cycles are represented by limestone-shale and marlstone-shale couplets ∼0.5-1.0 m in thickness. More calcareous parts of these couplets may be correlated westward into condensed, fossiliferous concretion and shell beds in proximal offshore lithofacies of Arizona and Utah. These concretion and shell beds are physically traceable farther landward (westward) into bioturbated, fossil-rich, transgressive lag deposits that bound 10- to 20-m-thick coarsening-upward progradational strand-plain deposits (parasequences) in southwestern Utah. Thus, the progra-dational phase of parasequence deposition correlates with accumulation of clay-rich sediment in the central basin, and the transgressive phase is characterized by reduced terrigenous input and deposition of carbonate-rich sediment.We consider Milankovitch-style orbital forcing of climate and tectonically induced fluctuations in rates of foredeep basin subsidence as possible forcing mechanisms for these basinwide events. Based on the widespread distribution of the limestone-shale couplets, as well as on estimated sedimentation rates and geochronology, it has been widely speculated that these carbonate cycles reflect Milankovitch cycles with periodicities on the order of 20 k.y. to 100 k.y. If so, then stratigraphic data suggest that orbital forcing of climate affected eustasy and/or sediment input and biogenic production in the Western Interior basin. Alternatively, thrusting events in the Sevier orogenic belt may have produced episodic changes in

  5. The Tiberias Basin salt deposits and their effects on lake salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Guttman, Josef; Siebert, Christian; Magri, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    Lake Tiberias is situated in one of the pull-apart basins comprising the Dead Sea transform. The Tiberias basin extends along the northern boundary of the Lower Jordan Rift Valley (LJRV) which is known for its massive salt deposits, mostly at its southern end, at the Dead Sea basin. Nevertheless, prior to the drilling of Zemah-1 wildcat, drilled close to the southern shores of Lake Tiberias, the Tiberias Basin was considered rather shallow and free of salt deposits (Starinsky, 1974). In 1983, Zemah-1 wildcat penetrated 2.8 km thick sequence of sedimentary and magmatic rocks of which 980m are salt deposits (Marcus et al., 1984). Recent studies, including the presented geophysical investigations, lay out the mechanisms of salt deposition in the Tiberias basin and estimate its abundance. Supported by seismic data, our interpreted cross-sections display relatively thick salt deposits distributed over the entire basin. Since early days of hydrological research in the area, saline springs are known to exist at Lake Tiberias' surroundings. Water temperatures in some of the springs indicate their origin to be at depths of 2-3 km (Simon and Mero, 1992). In the last decade, several studies suggested that the salinity of springs may be attributed, at least partially, to the Zemah-1 salt deposits. Chemical justification was attributed to post-halite minerals which were thought to be present among those deposits. This hypothesis was never verified. Moreover, Möller et al. (2011) presented a calculation contradicting this theory. In addition to the geophysical investigations, numerical models of thermally driven flow, examine the possible fluid dynamics developing near salt deposits below the lake and their interactions with springs along the lakeshore (Magri et al., 2015). It is shown that leached halite is too heavy to reach the surface. However, salt diffusing from shallow salt crest may locally reach the western side of the lakeshore. References Magri, F., N. Inbar

  6. Composition of fluid inclusions in Permian salt beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Dorrzapf, A.F.; Aruscavage, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods have been developed and used to extract and chemically analyze the two major types of fluid inclusions in bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Data on the ratio K: Ca: Mg were obtained on a few of the clouds of tiny inclusions in "chevron" salt, representing the brines from which the salt originally crystallized. Much more complete quantitative data (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO4 and Br) were obtained on ??? 120 individual "large" (mostly ???500 ??m on an edge, i.e., ??? ??? 1.6 ?? 10-4 g) inclusions in recrystallized salt. These latter fluids have a wide range of compositions, even in a given piece of core, indicating that fluids of grossly different composition were present in these salt beds during the several (?) stages of recrystallization. The analytical results indicating very large inter-and intra-sample chemical variation verify the conclusion reached earlier, from petrography and microthermometry, that the inclusion fluids in salt and their solutes are generally polygenetic. The diversity in composition stems from the combination of a variety of sources for the fluids (Permian sea, meteoric, and groundwater, as well as later migrating ground-, formation, or meteoric waters of unknown age), and a variety of subsequent geochemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and rock-water interaction. The compositional data are frequently ambiguous but do provide constraints and may eventually yield a coherent history of the events that produced these beds. Such an understanding of the past history of the evaporite sequence of the Palo Duro Basin should help in predicting the future role of the fluids in the salt if a nuclear waste repository is sited there. ?? 1987.

  7. Controls on large landslide distribution in the southeastern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E. B.; Anderson, S. W.; Ely, L.; House, P. K.; O'Connor, J. E.; Grant, G.; Beebee, R. A.; Fenton, C.; Brossy, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Valley-wall landslides episodically deliver large caliber material to channels and sometimes dam rivers entirely, creating potential for high-magnitude outburst floods. These episodic events have persistent impacts on local channel morphology and may affect broader-scale bedrock incision patterns, especially in semi-arid, relatively low-gradient environments where meteorologically generated floods only infrequently mobilize large, landslide- delivered boulders. A first step in evaluating the influence of large landslides on channel incision processes is to map and understand their spatial distribution. We mapped approximately 300 landslides or landslide complexes ranging in area from 0.1 to 40 km2 in the uplifted volcanic plateaus of the southeastern interior Columbia River basin, primarily in central and eastern Oregon. Anecdotal reports and/or analyses of individual landslides in the region suggest that exposures of key contacts between dense, coherent rock and weak underlying materials exert a dominant control on landslide occurrence. We performed a suite of spatial analyses to test this hypothesis. Our analyses reveal that 82% of landslides mapped contain at least one combination of coherent and weak rocktypes. In 85% of these, the coherent unit(s) cap the weak unit(s). Overall, the fractional area of terrain involved in a landslide within a 1 km buffer of all coherent-weak unit contacts is relatively small: about 1%. Local relief is an important secondary control on landslide occurrence. Of all terrain supporting >200 m local relief, about 2% by area is involved in landslides. This figure is 200 m of local relief but >1 km from key contacts and approximately 4% for areas supporting >200 m of local relief within 1 km of key contacts. Several key contacts between coherent and weak rock exist throughout the study region; we have identified those most conducive to landsliding per unit length of contact. On average, valley walls involved in landslides have slopes

  8. Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

  9. Investigation of the suspected presence of solid hydrocarbon in bedded salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This report contains laboratory test results for two bedded salt samples from the Grabbe No. 1 (PD-2) Well of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. This study was commissioned to determine whether or not solid hydrocarbons exist in bedded salt samples in the Palo Duro Basin. Laboratory investigations include electron microprobe examinations on polished thin sections and optical examinations and chemical tests on insoluble residues of the salt samples. No direct evidence was found that identifiable solid hydrocarbons are present in either sample of the bedded salt core. The total carbon content of the two salt samples was measured yielding 0.016 and 0.022 weight percent carbon. Detailed microscopic analyses showed that the carbon in the samples was associated with calcite, clays, and the epoxy resin used in sample preparation

  10. Fibers and cylinders of cryptomelane-hollandite in Permian bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, H.E.; Libelo, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fibers and thin-walled, hollow cylinders of cryptomelane-hollandite have been found in both the chevron and the clear salt from various drill cores in Permian bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The authors have found fibers or cylinders from only the lower San Andres Formation units 4 and 5, the upper San Andres Formation, and the Salado-Transill salt. The fibers are inorganic, light to dark reddish brown, pleochroic, highly birefringent, filamentary single crystals, < 1 to ∼ 5 μm in diameter, with length-to-diameter ratios of at least 20:1. The fibers can be straight and/or curved, can bifurcate, can form loops, waves or spirals, and can be isolated or in parallel groups. Detailed petrographic analyses show no evidence for recrystallization or deformation of the enclosing salt after fiber formation. Although the authors observations do not provide a definitive explanation for fiber origin, they suggest that the fibers grew in situ by a solid-state diffusional process at low temperatures. The cylinders are pleochroic, highly birefringent, light to dark reddish brown, hollow, thin-walled, open-ended right cylinders, having a 1- to 2-μm wall thickness and variable lengths and diameters. There also appear to be single crystals of cryptomelane-hollandite, but these are found almost entirely in fluid inclusions in the chevron and clear salt. Their presence in the primary halite suggests that they were formed contemporaneously with the chevron structure and were accidentally trapped in the fluid inclusions. The observation of cylinders partially or completely enclosed by salt stratigraphically above large fluid inclusions suggests that natural downward fluid-inclusion migration has occurred, in response to the geothermal gradient

  11. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-12-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  12. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2007-06-30

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Mesozoic (Bossier) petroleum system characterization and modeling and refined resource assessment. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  13. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modelling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications have been acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  14. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-07-31

    The principal research effort for Year 1 of Phase 2 (Concept Demonstration) of the project is Smackover petroleum system characterization and modeling. The necessary software applications are in the process of being acquired to accomplish this work. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule.

  15. A novel sedimentological method based on CT-scanning: Use for tomographic characterization of the Galicia Interior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Anxo; Francés, Guillermo; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Aguiar, Pablo; Barreiro-Vázquez, José Daniel; Iglesias, Alfredo; Barreiro-Lois, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive techniques of core analysis, especially of marine cores, are being broadly employed for sedimentary, paleoceanographic and paleoclimate research. In particular, Computed Tomography scanning (CT-scanning) allows acquisition of 3D and 2D images, according to desired planes, and thus the identification of sedimentary structures, large grains and their distributions as well as direct measurements of material densities. The most significant contribution of this technique is the possibility of getting results before opening the core. In this work CT-scan data obtained for five cores from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB, NW Peninsula Iberia) are presented and discussed, focussing on (1) methodology of the CT-scan use, (2) tomographic description of sedimentary facies identified in the GIB, (3) treatment of the numeric data obtained with CT-scanning using specific software (anidoC), and (4) comparison of tomographic data with data obtained by conventional methodologies of core analysis. The most singular feature of GIB cores is the presence of Ice Rafted Debris (IRD) deposited during late Pleistocene Heinrich Events (HE), which can be easily recognized using the CT-scan by the presence of high radio-density grains immersed in a low radio-density matrix. Comparison of CT-scan data with analytical sedimentary data and HE proxies performed on the cores validates the CT-scanning method as a powerful tool to improve correlations, identify well-constrained events, and make more accurate basin reconstructions without opening all the cores in an oceanographic study.

  16. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterward undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. 44 refs., 3 figs

  17. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterwards undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows some trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. (author)

  18. Coarse-scale restoration planning and design in Interior Columbia River Basin ecosystems: An example for restoring declining whitebark pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; James P. Menakis; Wendel J. Hann

    1996-01-01

    During the last 2 years, many people from numerous government agencies and private institutions compiled a scientific assessment of the natural and human resources of the Interior Columbia River Basin (Jensen and Bourgeron 1993). This assessment is meant to guide the development of a coarse-scale Environmental Impact Statement for all 82 million hectares comprising the...

  19. Nitrogen and salt loads in the irrigation return flows of the Ebro River Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Daniel; Balcells, Maria; Clavería, Ignacio; Dechmi, Farida; Quílez, Dolores; Aragüés, Ramón

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of the quality of surface waters demanded by the European Water Framework Directive requires, among others, an assessment of the irrigation-induced pollution. The contribution of the irrigation return flows (IRF) to the pollution of the receiving water bodies is given by its pollutant load, since this load determines the quality status or pollutant concentration in these water bodies. The aim of this work was to quantify the annual nitrogen and salt loads in the IRF of four irrigated catchments within the Ebro River Basin: Violada (2006-10), Alcanadre (2008-10), Valcuerna (2010), and Clamor Amarga (2010). The daily flow (Q), salt (EC) and nitrate concentration (NO3) were measured in the drainage outlets of each basin. The net irrigation-induced salt and nitrogen loads were obtained from these measurements after discounting the salt and nitrogen inputs from outside the catchments and the non-irrigated areas. The N-fertilizer applications were obtained from farmer surveys and animal farming statistical sources. Irrigation water salinity was very low in all catchments (EC soils, and low in Alcanadre (1.0 dS/m) due to dilution in the inefficient traditional flood-irrigation system. Annual salt loads were highest in Valcuerna (11.9 Mg/ha) and lowest in Alcanadre (3.6 Mg/ha) and Clamor (3.3 Mg/ha). Salt load was also high in flood-irrigated Violada (10.3 Mg/ha), but dropped to 2.6 Mg/ha after its modernization to sprinkler irrigation (in 2008-09). N-fertilizer applications ranged from 221 kg/ha in the corn-dominated Valcuerna in 2010 to 63 kg/ha in 2008 in Violada, when farmers barely applied fertilizers due to the irrigation modernization works in progress that year. The highest N applications derived from pig slurry applications by farmers that used their lands as disposal sites for their farm residues. The highest NO3 concentrations (mean of 113 mg/L) and annual N loads (mean of 38 kg/ha) were found in Valcuerna, the most intense corn sprinkler

  20. Aksaray and Ecemis faults - Diapiric salt relationships: relevance to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coskun, Bulent [Ankara Univ., Dept. of Geology, Tandogan (Turkey)

    2004-09-15

    Due to activity of the Aksaray and Ecemis Faults, volcanic intrusion and westward movement of the Anatolian plate, diapiric salt structures were occurred in the Tuz Golu (Salt Lake) basin in central Anatolia, Turkey. With the collisions of the Arabian and Anatolian plates during the late Cretaceous and Miocene times, prominent ophiolitic obduction occurred in the Pontides and Taurides along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and East Anatolian Fault (EAF). The NAF and EAF intersect each other in the Karliova region, in eastern Turkey. At this point, due to the northward movement of the Arabian plate in SE Turkey, the Anatolian plate shifted toward the west and south along the fault zones. The same geological tectonic model is proposed at the intersection point of the Aksaray Fault (AF) and Ecemis Fault (EF) in central Anatolia. The westward movement of the Anatolian plate between these two faults resulted in the formation of the diapiric salt structures, volcanic intrusions and overpressure zones in the study area. Paleogeological reconstructions of the Tuz Golu basin indicate that the salient positive structures in the basin were formed during late Eocene-Oligocene times. These structures, like the Yeniceoba-Bezirci and Karapinar-Kochisar trends, are oriented in a NW-SE or N-S directions between the Kirsehir and Sivrihisar-Bozdag massifs. The subsidence rate and Paleogeographic evolutions in the basin show that the southeastern sector of the Tuz Golu basin remained shallower relative to the central and northwestern regions. Based on the paleostructural, subsidence and geothermal reconstructions, it has been concluded that the oil generation and migration zones and geothermal trends are oriented in a NW-SE direction in the Tuz Golu basin. (Author)

  1. Limnology and plankton diversity of salt lakes from Transylvanian Basin (Romania: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Alexe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we review the current knowledge on genesis, limnology and biodiversity of salt lakes distributed around the inner contour of Eastern Carpathian arc (Transylvanian Basin, Central Romania. Transylvanian salt lakes formed on ancient halite (NaCl deposits following natural processes or quarrying activities.  Most of these lakes are located in eastern (Sovata area, southern (Ocna Sibiului, and western (Turda-Cojocna parts of the Transylvanian Basin, have small surfaces (0.1-4 ha, variable depths (2-100 m, are hypersaline (>10%, w/v, total salts, mainly NaCl and permanently stratified. As consequence of steady salinity/density gradient, heat entrapment below surface layer (i.e., heliothermy develops in several Transylvanian lakes. The physical and chemical water stratification is mirrored in the partition of plankton diversity. Lakes with less saline (2-10% salinity water layers appear to harbor halotolerant representatives of phyto- (e.g., marine native Picochlorum spp. and Synechococcus spp., zoo- (e.g., Moina salina, and bacterioplankton (e.g., Actinobacteria, Verrucomicobia, whereas halophilic plankton communities (e.g., green algae Dunaliella sp., brine shrimp Artemia sp., and members of Halobacteria class dominate in the oxic surface of hypersaline (>10% salinity lakes. Molecular approaches (e.g., PCR-DGGE, 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, and DNA metabarcoding showed that the O2-depleted bottom brines of deep meromictic Transylvanian lakes are inhabited by known extremely halophilic anaerobes (e.g. sulfate-reducing Delta-Proteobacteria, fermenting Clostridia, methanogenic and polymer-degrading archaea in addition to representatives of uncultured/unclassified prokaryotic lineages. Overall, the plankton communities thriving in saline Transylvanian lakes seem to drive full biogeochemical cycling of main elements. However, the trophic interactions (i.e., food web structure and energy flow as well as impact of human

  2. Distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in the Salt Lake Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaş Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and abundance of Artemia salina in 10 different stations of the Salt Lake basin were investigated. In addition, its relationship to pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity and water levels were analyzed. Field studies were carried out from July to August of 2010. Artemia salina was observed in five of these stations. Artemia salina was not seen in some stations that have high electrical conductivity. It is determined that, in the station named Tersakan Lake where electrical conductivity was 154 mS/cm, Artemia salina is more abundant when compared to the other stations. But as underground water pumps that are built for the irrigation of agricultural lands decrease water levels, Artemia salina’s life is under threat.

  3. Deformation, Stress, and Pore Fluid Pressure in an Evolving Supra-salt Basin: A Finite-element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G.; Flemings, P. B.; Hudec, M. R.; Nikolinakou, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many driving mechanisms have been proposed to explain rise of a salt structure and formation of a minibasin. However, these studies mainly focus on qualitative discussion and analog modeling on these mechanisms. Quantitative studies such as numerical modeling are much needed. In this study, we apply a commercial finite-element software package, ELFEN, to develop two-dimensional plane-strain large-deformation coupled poromechanical finite-element models. We simulate initiation and rise of a salt wall from a flat salt body driven by differential topographic loading during sedimentation processes. We run drained and transient analyses, and investigate deformation, stress and pore fluid overpressure in the evolving supra-salt basin. Our model results show that 1) horizontal stress increases even higher than vertical stress at the flank of the salt wall and in the minibasin due to horizontal pushing out of the rising salt wall; 2) orientations of principal stresses in the minibasin rotate relative to far-field stress field; 3) overpressure varies much through different vertical profiles across the minibasin: relative to far-field overpressure, the overpressure near the salt wall and within the minibasin is largely perturbed by the rising salt wall. Through comparing our finite-element model overpressure with that predicted by traditional pore pressure prediction methods such as normal compaction trend approach and mean stress model, we find that the perturbations of pore pressure near the salt wall and within the minibasin, can not be resolved by these traditional prediction methods. Hence we propose to develop and apply a general Modified Cam Clay soil model to predict pore pressure. These results in this study help geoscientists understand near-salt deformation, stress, and pore fluid overpressure, provide insights into near-salt overpressure prediction, and provide implications for near-salt wellbore drilling programs.

  4. Petroleum geology and total petroleum systems of the Widyan Basin and Interior Platform of Saudi Arabia and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Two total petroleum systems are associated with the Widyan Basin - Interior Platform Province in northern Saudi Arabia and western Iraq. In the Paleozoic Qusaiba/Akkas/Abba/ Mudawwara Total Petroleum System, which consists of one assessment unit - the Horst/Graben-Related Oil and Gas Assessment Unit - high-gravity, low-sulfur crude oil, as well as natural gas, occurs in horst/graben-related traps that formed prior to, during, and after Hercynian deformation (Carboniferous). The source of oil and gas is from organic-rich marine shale at the base of the Silurian sedimentary sequence (Qusaiba, Akkas, Mudawwara, and Abba Formations) that was deposited under dysoxic to anoxic conditions in an intra-shelf basin located north of the Central Arabian Arch. Onset of oil generation in Iraq began about 250 million years ago (Ma) and in eastern Saudi Arabia about 160 Ma, reaching peak generation, expulsion, migration, and entrapment during the Jurassic Period. In Saudi Arabia, petroleum migrated into fluvial and eolian quartzose sandstones of the Carboniferous-Early Permian Unayzah Formation that overlies the Hercynian unconformity, filling in rifts and half-grabens to thicknesses ranging to more than 400 meters. Combined stratigraphic-structural traps exist where the Unayzah Formation is the reservoir, as is the case in central Saudi Arabia. Oil and gas are sealed in those reservoirs by overlying tight carbonate- evaporite strata, and by subunconformity pinchouts of Pre-Unayzah clastic reservoir units against impermeable facies. In Iraq, reservoirs are sandstones of the Ordovician Upper Khabour and Silurian Akkas Formations. Over most of the Southwestern Desert of Iraq, Lower Silurian shale is a seal for hydrocarbons in the underlying Ordovician Khabour Formation.

  5. Ranking contributing areas of salt and selenium in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, using multiple linear regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigating the effects of salt and selenium on water quality in the Grand Valley and lower Gunnison River Basin in western Colorado is a major concern for land managers. Previous modeling indicated means to improve the models by including more detailed geospatial data and a more rigorous method for developing the models. After evaluating all possible combinations of geospatial variables, four multiple linear regression models resulted that could estimate irrigation-season salt yield, nonirrigation-season salt yield, irrigation-season selenium yield, and nonirrigation-season selenium yield. The adjusted r-squared and the residual standard error (in units of log-transformed yield) of the models were, respectively, 0.87 and 2.03 for the irrigation-season salt model, 0.90 and 1.25 for the nonirrigation-season salt model, 0.85 and 2.94 for the irrigation-season selenium model, and 0.93 and 1.75 for the nonirrigation-season selenium model. The four models were used to estimate yields and loads from contributing areas corresponding to 12-digit hydrologic unit codes in the lower Gunnison River Basin study area. Each of the 175 contributing areas was ranked according to its estimated mean seasonal yield of salt and selenium.

  6. Corridors of crestal and radial faults linking salt diapirs in the Espírito Santo Basin, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Nathalia H.; Alves, Tiago M.

    2018-03-01

    This work uses high-quality 3D seismic data to assess the geometry of fault families around salt diapirs in SE Brazil (Espírito Santo Basin). It aims at evaluating the timings of fault growth, and suggests the generation of corridors for fluid migration linking discrete salt diapirs. Three salt diapirs, one salt ridge, and five fault families were identified based on their geometry and relative locations. Displacement-length (D-x) plots, Throw-depth (T-z) data and structural maps indicate that faults consist of multiple segments that were reactivated by dip-linkage following a preferential NE-SW direction. This style of reactivation and linkage is distinct from other sectors of the Espírito Santo Basin where the preferential mode of reactivation is by upwards vertical propagation. Reactivation of faults above a Mid-Eocene unconformity is also scarce in the study area. Conversely, two halokinetic episodes dated as Cretaceous and Paleogene are interpreted below a Mid-Eocene unconformity. This work is important as it recognises the juxtaposition of permeable strata across faults as marking the generation of fault corridors linking adjacent salt structures. In such a setting, fault modelling shows that fluid will migrate towards the shallower salt structures along the fault corridors first identified in this work.

  7. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  8. Hanging-wall deformation and gas-migration associated to a major salt detaching fault in the Norwegian Danish Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, O. R.; Andresen, K. J.; Mauritzen, E. K.; Connolly, D.; Korstgård, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    The central and southern regions of the North Sea Basin are characterized by mobile Zechstein Salt and represent an excellent area to study listric normal fault development related to halokinesis. The North Sea Basin-in spite of being a mature explored hydrocarbon producing basin-contains a generally not fully understood hydrocarbon plumbing system. Faults and associated fluid migration routes represent critical elements of the plumbing system. Here we present a combined 3D seismic mapping of a listric fault and detailed seismic attribute analysis of shallow gas anomalies near the fault implying a close and complex relationship between a major detaching fault, hangingwall deformation and fluid migration and entrapment. The fault and associated antithetic and secondary synthetic faults is controlled by the growth of the underlying salt structure. Three separate segments of the fault are recognized showing distinct and varying characteristics of structural maturity and fluid migration. The studied fault and shallow gas anomalies thus represent an example of a complex faulted shallow fluid migration system developing in relation to an underlying salt structure which could be relevant for understanding similar salt, fault and fluid migration systems around the world.

  9. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  10. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be

  11. A new troodontid theropod, Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E Zanno

    Full Text Available Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species--Troodon formosus--presently known from substantial skeletal remains.Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod--Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.--from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes.Talos sampsoni adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops, the hadrosaurine Gryposaurus monumentensis, the tyrannosaurid Teratophoneus, and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of Talos with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians by bolstering functional interpretations of prey grappling and

  12. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  13. Southernmost indications of large freshwater discharges during the Heinrich Stadials (Galicia Interior Basin, Northwest Iberian Continental Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Heslop, David; Bernabeu, Ana M.; Mohamed, Kais J.; Rubio, Belen; Martins, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    The reconstruction of circum-Atlantic ice-sheet instabilities is of great importance to understanding the mechanisms that force abrupt climate changes. We have used enviromagnetic and geochemical data to explore these issues, providing a continuous and well-dated record of the evolution of glacial/interglacial sedimentation in the Galician Interior Basin (GIB) during the last glacial period covering the last six Heinrich Stadials. Our results show sediments of European provenance that have been related to meltwater pre-events during the initial stages of HS1, HS2, and HS4 corroborating the Channel River depositional history. Therefore, this study provides insight into one of the potential forcing mechanisms for Heinrich Events and, by inference, for Heinrich Stadials. The GIB records are an important element in the discussion of EIS-LIS-AMOC dynamics. Their significant distance from these ice-sheets is such that they have only recorded the most catastrophic ice shelves collapse events and/or meltwater discharges, acting as a low-amplitude filter to the interrelated dynamics and instabilities of the North Atlantic ice sheets. Our results demonstrate that European-sourced sediments arrived earlier at this site than Laurentide-sourced icebergs. This implies greater EIS freshwater discharges resulting from the deglacial activation of EIS palaeorivers for HS1 and from glacial instabilities during the course of the EIS' progression to its LGM position for HS2 and HS4. This supports the idea of synchronous collapse of the EIS and LIS. The data also suggest that these discharges acted as a positive feedback mechanism that further weakened the AMOC, accelerating LIS and EIS collapse.

  14. Selected aquatic biological investigations in the Great Salt Lake basins, 1875-1998, National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Elise M.P.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes previous investigations of aquatic biological communities, habitat, and contaminants in streams and selected large lakes within the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The Great Salt Lake Basins study unit is one of 59 such units designed to characterize water quality through the examination of chemical, physical, and biological factors in surface and ground waters across the country. The data will be used to aid in the planning, collection, and analysis of biological information for the NAWQA study unit and to aid other researchers concerned with water quality of the study unit. A total of 234 investigations conducted during 1875-1998 are summarized in this report. The studies are grouped into three major subjects: (1) aquatic communities and habitat, (2) contamination of streambed sediments and biological tissues, and (3) lakes. The location and a general description of each study is listed. The majority of the studies focus on fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Studies of algal communities, aquatic habitat, riparian wetlands, and contamination of streambed sediment or biological tissues are less common. Areas close to the major population centers of Salt Lake City, Provo, and Logan, Utah, are generally well studied, but more rural areas and much of the Bear River Basin are lacking in detailed information, except for fish populations..

  15. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn's Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements

  16. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn`s Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements.

  17. Observation of interior and boundary-layer mixing processes due to near-inertial waves in a stratified basin without tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Eefke; Umlauf, Lars

    2010-05-01

    Near-inertial waves form an important contribution to oceanic energy and shear spectra, and thus play a major role in mixing the ocean's interior. Here, we compare internal-wave mixing processes in the interior of a stratified basin to those occurring on the sloping boundaries. We use the virtually tideless Baltic Sea as a natural laboratory, allowing us to isolate the effect of near-inertial waves that is otherwise (often) overshadowed by internal tides. The measurements presented here consist of moored ADCPs and CTD loggers in the center of the basin and on the slopes, combined with densely spaced shear-microstructure and ADCP cross-slope transects. During summer stratification, a three-layer density structure, with a thermocline and a deeper halocline, was observed with clear signals of downward near-inertial energy propagation after a short wind event. These motions are interpreted as near-inertial wave modes interacting with the sloping topography. Dissipation rates observed in the center of the basin scale with shear and stratification parameters in the way suggested by MacKinnon and Gregg (2003) for the shelf. On the slopes, microstructure transects reveal a periodic near-bed dissipation rate signal and a growing and decaying bottom boundary layer (BBL) thickness; both signals are triggered by near-bottom currents oscillating with a near-inertial frequency. Near-bottom dissipation rates are greatly enhanced compared to the interior, and, due to the straining of lateral density gradients by the cross-slope velocity, mixing is rather efficient, and contributes significantly to the basin-scale mixing.

  18. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of a drill core from the southeastern Qaidam Basin: Salt lake evolution and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qarhan Salt Lake area is the Quaternary depocenter of the Qaidam Basin, and carries thick lacustrine sediments, as well as rich potassium and magnesium salt deposits. The abundant resources and thick sediments in this lake provide an ideal place for the study of biogas formation and preservation, salt lake evolution, and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we attempt to construct a paleomagnetic and 230Th age model and to obtain information on tectonic activity and salt lake evolution through detailed studies on a 1300-m-long drill core (15DZK01 from the northwestern margin of the Qarhan Salt Lake area (Dongling Lake. Based on gypsum 230Th dating, the age of the uppermost clastic deposit was calculated to be around 0.052 Ma. The polarity sequence consist of 13 pairs of normal and reversed zones, which can be correlated with subchrons C2r.1r-C1n of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS 2012 (from ∼2.070 Ma to ∼0.052 Ma. Sedimentary characteristics indicate that Dongling Lake witnessed freshwater environment between ∼2.070 Ma and 1.546 Ma. During this period, the sedimentary record reflects primarily lakeshore, shallow-water and swamp environments, representing favourable conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks. Between 1.546 Ma and ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake was in sulphate deposition stage, which contrasts with the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, where this stage did not occur in the meantime. During this stage, Dongling Lake was in a shallow saltwater lake environment, but several periods of reduced salinity occurred during this stage. During the late Pleistocene at ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake experienced uplift due to tectonic activity, and saltwater migrated through the Sanhu Fault to the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, resulting in the absence of halite deposition stage. The residual saline water was concentrated into magnesium-rich brine due to the lack of freshwater, and few

  19. Magnetic properties contribution to the identification and provenance of marine sediments: distal IRD in the Galicia Interior Basin (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Morlote, Maider; Rey, Daniel; Francisco Santos, Jose; Ribeiro, Sara; Bernabeu, Ana; Mohamed, Kais; Heslop, David; Rubio, Belén; Martins, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using a combined environmagnetic and geochemical approach to the provenance and characterization of distal IRDs occurring during the Last Glacial Period in core CI12PC3 from the Galicia Interior Basin (GIB). Six Heinrich layers (HL1-6) have been identified in the area in base to the detection of distinct populations of exotic magnetic mineral assemblages alien to the local/regional sedimentation environment. Their extension has been determined by Ca/Sr and Si/Sr ratios and their provenance by 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios and FORCs. The sedimentary expression of HL is characterized by the presence of distal Ice Rafted Detritus (IRD). Distal IRD magnetic signatures in the GIB consist of (i) an increase of one order of magnitude in the peak amplitude of magnetic susceptibility from background values, (ii) a general coarsening of the magnetic grain size in a mineral assemblage dominated by titano-magnetites, (iii) FORC distributions pushing towards the coarse MD or PSD component, and (iv) thermomagnetic curves depicting the occurrence of several magnetite phases. These four features are very different from the fine-grained biogenic magnetic assemblages characterized by the combination of lower MS and higher coercivity values that dominate the predominant mixtures of the non-interacting SSD and PSD components in the non-IRD influenced background sedimentation. Our results show that the last 70.000 yr of sedimentation in the GIB were controlled by the relative contribution of local detrital material derived from the Iberian Variscan Chain and IRD alien material from the iceberg melting during the Heinrich Events. They also show two main IRD provenance fields: Europe and Canada. And that the later is more important for for HL1, HL2, HL4 and HL5. FORCs analysis complemented the isotopic information and provided a very unique information, indicating that glacial flour may not always have the same provenance as IRD and that

  20. The transgressive-regressive cycle of the Romualdo Formation (Araripe Basin): Sedimentary archive of the Early Cretaceous marine ingression in the interior of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Michele Andriolli; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Perinotto, José Alexandre J.; Assine, Mario Luis

    2017-08-01

    Geologic events related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean deeply influenced the sedimentary record of the Araripe Basin. As consequence, upper stratigraphic units of the basin record a marine ingression in northeastern Brazil during the late Aptian. The timing and stratigraphic architecture of these units are crucial to understand the paleogeography of Gondwana and how the proto-Atlantic Ocean reached interior NE Brazil during the early Cretaceous. This marine ingression is recorded in the Araripe Basin as the Romualdo Formation, characterized by a transgressive-regressive cycle bounded by two regional unconformities. In the eastern part of the basin, the Romualdo depositional sequence comprises coastal alluvial and tide-dominated deposits followed by marine transgressive facies characterized by two fossil-rich intervals: a lower interval of black shales with fossil-rich carbonate concretions (Konservat-Lagerstätten) and an upper level with mollusk-dominated shell beds and shelly limestones. Following the marine ingression, an incomplete regressive succession of marginal-marine facies records the return of continental environments to the basin. The stratigraphic framework based on the correlation of several sections defines a transgressive-regressive cycle with depositional dip towards southeast, decreasing in thickness towards northwest, and with source areas located at the northern side of the basin. The facies-cycle wedge-geometry, together with paleocurrent data, indicates a coastal onlap towards NNW. Therefore, contrary to several paleogeographic scenarios previously proposed, the marine ingression would have reached the western parts of the Araripe Basin from the SSE.

  1. The occurrence, sources and spatial characteristics of soil salt and assessment of soil salinization risk in Yanqi basin, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyong, Zhang; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Yimit, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1) In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2) The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3) Principle component (PC) analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs) and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO4(2-), EC, and pH) and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts) are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3(-) and HCO3(2-)) are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4) From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3(-), had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5) Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world.

  2. The occurrence, sources and spatial characteristics of soil salt and assessment of soil salinization risk in Yanqi basin, northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhaoyong

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the soil salinization risk of the oases in arid land of northwest China, we chose a typical oasis-the Yanqi basin as the research area. Then, we collected soil samples from the area and made comprehensive assessment for soil salinization risk in this area. The result showed that: (1 In all soil samples, high variation was found for the amount of Ca2+ and K+, while the other soil salt properties had moderate levels of variation. (2 The land use types and the soil parent material had a significant influence on the amount of salt ions within the soil. (3 Principle component (PC analysis determined that all the salt ion values, potential of hydrogen (pHs and ECs fell into four PCs. Among them, PC1 (C1-, Na+, SO4(2-, EC, and pH and PC2 (Ca2+, K+, Mg2+and total amount of salts are considered to be mainly influenced by artificial sources, while PC3 and PC4 (CO3(- and HCO3(2- are mainly influenced by natural sources. (4 From a geo-statistical point of view, it was ascertained that the pH and soil salt ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3(-, had a strong spatial dependency. Meanwhile, Na+ and Cl- had only a weak spatial dependency in the soil. (5 Soil salinization indicators suggested that the entire area had a low risk of soil salinization, where the risk was mainly due to anthropogenic activities and climate variation. This study can be considered an early warning of soil salinization and alkalization in the Yanqi basin. It can also provide a reference for environmental protection policies and rational utilization of land resources in the arid region of Xinjiang, northwest China, as well as for other oases of arid regions in the world.

  3. The role of deformation bands controlling reservoir quality in a salt-walled mini-basin, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philip; Jones, Stuart; Imber, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    At shallow burial depths, sediments are typically poorly consolidated and subject to low confining pressure and differential stress. Fractures that form in poorly consolidated and therefore non-lithified sediments would be unable to remain open. However, the large amount of pore space present would allow for processes such as grain sliding and grain rolling, resulting in the formation of deformation bands. The structure and style of the resulting deformation bands would depend on the size, shape and sorting of the grains, as well as early cementation, porosity and the orientation and magnitude of the local stresses. Previous studies on deformation bands in general have shown that they produce an anisotropy that can affect fluid flow. Early deformation band formation near the surface may also influence later diagenesis at greater burial depths, and thus have a further impact on fluid flow in sandstone. Dilatant (deformation) bands are commonly reported for poorly consolidated sandstones at surface or near-surface conditions (fractures, faults and deformation bands create a complex system of permeable fluid pathways and cemented baffles at deeper burial. The results presented highlight the importance of constraining the occurrence of dilation and dilatant shear bands along the margins of salt-walled mini-basins to better understand the kinematics of the salt movement and additional loading on adjacent sediments. Furthermore, this research identifies the importance of early formed deformation bands in controlling meteoric water influx and governing later reservoir quality for spatially and temporally complex sedimentary fills of salt-walled mini-basins.

  4. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI, and temperature vegetation index (TVX were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2 values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2∘C in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011. Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2∘C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  5. Pore Pressure and Field stress variation from Salt Water Injection; A case Study from Beaver Lodge Field in Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R. A.; Khatibi, S.

    2017-12-01

    One of the major concerns in producing from oil and gas reservoirs in North American Basins is the disposal of high salinity salt water. It is a misconception that Hydro frack triggers Earthquakes, but due to the high salinity and density of water being pumped to the formation that has pore space of the rock already filled, which is not the case in Hydro-frack or Enhanced Oil Recovery in which fracturing fluid is pumped into empty pore space of rocks in depleted reservoirs. A review on the Bakken history showed that the concerns related to induce seismicity has increased over time due to variations in Pore pressure and In-situ stress that have shown steep changes in the region over the time. In this study, we focused on Pore pressure and field Stress variations in lower Cretaceous Inyan Kara and Mississippian Devonian Bakken, Inyan Kara is the major source for class-II salt-water disposal in the basin. Salt-water disposal is the major cause for induced seismicity. A full field study was done on Beaver Lodge Field, which has many salt-water disposal wells Adjacent to Oil and Gas Wells. We analyzed formation properties, stresses, pore-pressure, and fracture gradient profile in the field and. The constructed Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) revealed changes in pore pressure and stresses over time due to saltwater injection. Well drilled in the past were compared to recently drilled wells, which showed much stress variations. Safe mud weight Window of wells near proximity of injection wells was examined which showed many cases of wellbore instabilities. Results of this study will have tremendous impact in studying environmental issues and the future drilling and Fracking operations.

  6. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  7. Observed Hydrologic Impacts of Landfalling Atmospheric Rivers in the Salt and Verde River Basins of Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Eleonora M. C.; Dominguez, Francina; Hu, Huancui; von Glinski, Gerd; Robles, Marcos; Skindlov, Jonathan; Walter, James

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow atmospheric water vapor corridors, can contribute substantially to winter precipitation in the semiarid Southwest U.S., where natural ecosystems and humans compete for over-allocated water resources. We investigate the hydrologic impacts of 122 ARs that occurred in the Salt and Verde river basins in northeastern Arizona during the cold seasons from 1979 to 2009. We focus on the relationship between precipitation, snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture, and extreme flooding. During the cold season (October through March) ARs contribute an average of 25%/29% of total seasonal precipitation for the Salt/Verde river basins, respectively. However, they contribute disproportionately to total heavy precipitation and account for 64%/72% of extreme total daily precipitation (exceeding the 98th percentile). Excess precipitation during AR occurrences contributes to snow accumulation; on the other hand, warmer than normal temperatures during AR landfallings are linked to rain-on-snow processes, an increase in the basins' area contributing to runoff generation, and higher melting lines. Although not all AR events are linked to extreme flooding in the basins, they do account for larger runoff coefficients. On average, ARs generate 43% of the annual maximum flows for the period studied, with 25% of the events exceeding the 10 year return period. Our analysis shows that the devastating 1993 flooding event in the region was caused by AR events. These results illustrate the importance of AR activity on the hydrology of inland semiarid regions: ARs are critical for water resources, but they can also lead to extreme flooding that affects infrastructure and human activities.

  8. Genetic and phenotypic catalog of native resident trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin, fiscal year 1998 report: Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Patrick C.; McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick; Spruell, Paul; Berkley, Regan

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique

  9. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin; Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C. (Fishery Science Consultant, Seattle, WA); McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick (Washington Trout, Duvall, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique.

  10. Plate interior polyphase fault systems and sedimentary basin evolution: A case study of the East Gobi Basin and East Gobi Fault Zone, southeastern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heumann, Matthew J.; Johnson, Cari L.; Webb, Laura E.

    2018-01-01

    Structural interpretation of 2-D seismic reflection data and subsurface-outcrop correlations reveal six distinct phases of deformation recorded in the Paleozoic basement rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill of the East Gobi Basin (EGB), southeastern Mongolia. These phases include arc accretion and arc-continent collision in late Paleozoic time, Late Triassic sinistral shear-zone development, Early Jurassic fold and thrust belt style shortening, Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous extension and rift basin development, middle Cretaceous shortening with basin inversion and regional unconformity development, and Late Cretaceous-Oligocene thermal subsidence with renewed Paleogene left-lateral strike slip faulting across the fault zone. The five post-amalgamation deformation phases are localized along the East Gobi Fault Zone, suggesting that preexisting structures and boundary conditions exert fundamental controls on the long term evolution of intracontinental basins such as the EGB. Subsurface geophysical data and outcrop correlations demonstrate that the main subbasins of the EGB contain major differences in basement metamorphic and structural fabrics, basin fill patterns, and distinct Mesozoic-Cenozoic fault generations. Potential causes related to far-field boundary conditions and other driving factors are suggested for each of the major deformation phases.

  11. Amount and nature of occluded water in bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quantity and types of fluids within bedded salt cores from the Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro, Texas, were evaluated at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Bedded halite from the San Andres Formation and other salt-bearing units were selected to represent the variety of salt types present, and were then analyzed. The mean water content of ''pure'' samples (more than 90% halite) is 0.4 weight percent, with none observed greater than 1.0 weight percent. Samples that contain more than 10 weight percent clay or mudstone display a trend of increasing water content with increasing clastic material. Chaotic mudstone-halite samples have as much as 5 weight percent water; halite-cemented mudstone interlayers, common throughout the bedded salts, may have water content values as high as 10 to 15 weight percent based on extrapolation of existing data that range from 0 to about 6%. No significant difference exists between the mean water content values of ''pure salt'' from the upper San Andres, lower San Andres Cycle 5, and lower San Andres Cycle 4 salt units. The fraction of total water present as mobile intergranular water is highly variable and not readily predicted from observed properties of the salt sample. The amount of water that would be affected by a high-level nuclear waste repository can be estimated if the volume of halite, the volume of clastic interlayers, and the amount and type of impurity in halite are known. Appendix contains seven vugraphs

  12. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  13. A MAP MASH-UP APPLICATION: INVESTIGATION THE TEMPORAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SALT LAKE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kirtiloglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change effects that have been occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and particularly in Salt Lake region where many major wetlands located in and situated in KCB and to share the analysis results online in a Web Geographical Information System (GIS environment. 71 Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images and meteorological data obtained from 10 meteorological stations have been used at the scope of this work. 56 of Landsat images have been used for extraction of Salt Lake surface area through multi-temporal Landsat imagery collected from 2000 to 2014 in Salt lake basin. 15 of Landsat images have been used to make thematic maps of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI in KCB, and 10 meteorological stations data has been used to generate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, which was used in drought studies. For the purpose of visualizing and sharing the results, a Web GIS-like environment has been established by using Google Maps and its useful data storage and manipulating product Fusion Tables which are all Google’s free of charge Web service elements. The infrastructure of web application includes HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Google Maps API V3 and Google Fusion Tables API technologies. These technologies make it possible to make effective “Map Mash-Ups” involving an embedded Google Map in a Web page, storing the spatial or tabular data in Fusion Tables and add this data as a map layer on embedded map. The analysing process and map mash-up application have been discussed in detail as the main sections of this paper.

  14. a Map Mash-Up Application: Investigation the Temporal Effects of Climate Change on Salt Lake Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtiloglu, O. S.; Orhan, O.; Ekercin, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate climate change effects that have been occurred at the beginning of the twenty-first century at the Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in the semi-arid central Anatolian region of Turkey and particularly in Salt Lake region where many major wetlands located in and situated in KCB and to share the analysis results online in a Web Geographical Information System (GIS) environment. 71 Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images and meteorological data obtained from 10 meteorological stations have been used at the scope of this work. 56 of Landsat images have been used for extraction of Salt Lake surface area through multi-temporal Landsat imagery collected from 2000 to 2014 in Salt lake basin. 15 of Landsat images have been used to make thematic maps of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in KCB, and 10 meteorological stations data has been used to generate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which was used in drought studies. For the purpose of visualizing and sharing the results, a Web GIS-like environment has been established by using Google Maps and its useful data storage and manipulating product Fusion Tables which are all Google's free of charge Web service elements. The infrastructure of web application includes HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, Google Maps API V3 and Google Fusion Tables API technologies. These technologies make it possible to make effective "Map Mash-Ups" involving an embedded Google Map in a Web page, storing the spatial or tabular data in Fusion Tables and add this data as a map layer on embedded map. The analysing process and map mash-up application have been discussed in detail as the main sections of this paper.

  15. Disposal alternatives and recommendations for waste salt management for repository excavation in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation of five alternatives for the disposal of waste salt that would be generated by the construction of a repository for radioactive waste in underground salt deposits at either of two sites in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The alternatives include commercial disposal, offsite deep-well injection, disposal in abandoned mines, ocean disposal, and land surface disposal on or off the site. For each alternative a reference case was rated - positive, neutral, or negative - in terms of environmental and dependability factors developed specifically for Texas sites. The factors constituting the environmental checklist relate to water quality impact, water- and land-use conflicts, ecological compatibility, conformity with air quality standards, and aesthetic impact. Factors on the dependability check-list relate to public acceptance, the adequacy of site characterization, permit and licensing requirements, technological requirements, and operational availability. A comparison of the ratings yielded the following viable alternatives, in order of preference: (1) land surface disposal, specifically disposal on tailings piles associated with abandoned potash mines; (2) disposal in abandoned mines, specifically potash mines; and (3) commercial disposal. Approaches to the further study of these three salt management techniques are recommended

  16. Geologic characterization report for the Paradox Basin Study Region, Utah Study Areas. Volume 6. Salt Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Surface landforms in the Salt Valley Area are generally a function of the Salt Valley anticline and are characterized by parallel and subparallel cuestaform ridges and hogbacks and flat valley floors. The most prominent structure in the Area is the Salt Valley anticline. Erosion resulting from the Tertiary uplift of the Colorado Plateau led to salt dissolution and subsequent collapse along the crest of the anticline. Continued erosion removed the collapse material, forming an axial valley along the crest of the anticline. Paleozoic rocks beneath the salt bearing Paradox Formation consist of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, siltstone and shale. The salt beds of the Paradox Formation occur in distinct cycles separated by an interbed sequence of anhydrite, carbonate, and clastic rocks. The Paradox Formation is overlain by Pennsylvanian limestone; Permian sandstone; and Mesozoic sandstone, mudstone, conglomerate and shale. No earthquakes have been reported in the Area during the period of the historic record and contemporary seismicity appears to be diffusely distributed, of low level and small magnitude. The upper unit includes the Permian strata and upper Honaker Trail Formation. The current data base is insufficient to estimate ground-water flow rates and directions in this unit. The middle unit includes the evaporites in the Paradox Formation and no laterally extensive flow systems are apparent. The lower unit consists of the rocks below the Paradox Formation where permeabilities vary widely, and the apparent flow direction is toward the west. 108 refs., 39 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of salt-controlled minibasins in a fold and thrust belt, the Oligo-Miocene central Sivas Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2017-09-01

    The Central Sivas Basin (Turkey) provides an outcrop example of a minibasin province developed above a salt canopy within a foreland-fold and thrust belt. Several minibasins are examined to assess the influence of regional Oligo-Miocene shortening during the development of a minibasin province. The results are based on extensive field work, including regional and detailed outcrop mapping of at least 15 minibasin margins and analysis of the structural elements at all scales. This reveals a progressive increase in shortening and a decrease in salt tectonics during evolution of the province. The initiation of minibasins is driven mostly by the salt-induced accommodation forming a polygonal network of salt structures with mainly local halokinetic sequences (i.e. hooks and wedges). The initiation of shortening is marked by an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate within the flexural foreland basin causing burial of the preexisting salt structures. Subsequently, orogenic compression encourages the rejuvenation of linear salt structures oriented at right angle to the regional shortening direction. The influence of orogenic shortening during the last steps of the minibasin province evolution is clearly shown by: (i) the squeezing of salt structures to form welds which are developed both at right angle and oblique to the regional shortening direction, (ii) the emergence of thrust faults, (iii) the tilting and rotation of minibasins about vertical axis associated with the formation of strike-slip fault zones, and (iv) the extrusion of salt sheets. The pre-shortening geometry of the salt structures pattern, polygonal network of walls and diapirs versus linear and sub-parallel walls, influence the resultant structural style of the minibasin province subjected to shortening. Preexisting linear depocenter limited by sub-parallel walls accommodate preferentially the shortening compare to the preexisting sub-circular depocenter limited by polygonal network of salt walls and

  18. Salt or ice diapirism origin for the honeycomb terrain in Hellas basin, Mars?: Implications for the early martian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-03-01

    The "honeycomb" terrain is a Noachian-aged cluster of ∼7 km wide linear cell-like depressions located on the northwestern floor of Hellas basin, Mars. A variety of origins have been proposed for the honeycomb terrain, including deformation rings of subglacial sediment, frozen convection cells from a Hellas impact melt sheet, a swarm of igneous batholiths, salt diapirism, and ice diapirism. Recent work has shown that the salt or ice diapirism scenarios appear to be most consistent with the morphology and morphometry of the honeycomb terrain. The salt and ice diapirism scenarios have different implications for the ancient martian climate and hydrological cycle, and so distinguishing between the two scenarios is critical. In this study, we specifically test whether the honeycomb terrain is consistent with a salt or ice diapir origin. We use thermal modeling to assess the stability limits on the thickness of an ice or salt diapir-forming layer at depth within the Hellas basin. We also apply analytical models for diapir formation to evaluate the predicted diapir wavelengths in order to compare with observations. Ice diapirism is generally predicted to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths for ∼100 m to ∼1 km thick ice deposits. Gypsum and kieserite diapirism is generally predicted to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths for ≥ 600-1000 m thick salt deposits, but only with a basaltic overburden. Halite diapirism generally requires approx. ≥ 1 km thick halite deposits in order to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths. Hellas basin is a distinctive environment for diapirism on Mars due to its thin crust (which reduces surface heat flux), low elevation (which allows Hellas to act as a water/ice/sediment sink and increases the surface temperature), and location within the southern highlands (which may provide proximity to inflowing saline water or glacial ice). The plausibility of an ice diapir mechanism generally requires temperatures ≤ 250

  19. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  20. Genetic and phenotype catalog of native resident trout of the interior Columbia River Basin: FY-99 report: populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest/ fiscal year 1999 report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State

  1. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  2. Hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme activity decreased during salt acclimation of sea lamprey juveniles from Minho river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Candeias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758 is an anadromous species which migrates twice during its life cycle between freshwater and seawater. During downstream migration, the juveniles are subject to salinity changes ranging between 0 and 35. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of salinity in hepatic biomarkers of stress and biotransformation of juveniles from Minho river basin, Portugal, during trophic migration. Sampled juveniles (macrophthalmia were transported alive to the laboratory and maintained in 200 L tanks with LSS life support system. The specimens were separated in three groups of five pools (#8: i macrophthalmia, salinity 0 for 7 days; ii macrophthalmia, salinity 0 for 30 days and, iii macrophthalmia subjected to a salt gradient up to salinity 35, for 30 days. At final of the experiments the weight and the length of specimens were determined. Microsomes and cytosol obtained by centrifugation of liver homogenates were used for fluorimetric quantification of glutathione (GSH, glutathione disulphide (GSSG and malondialdehyde (MDA and, spectrophotometric determination of catalase (CTT1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT activities. Stats include ANOVA I and Duncan test. The results showed that salt exposure of the animals caused a decrease in the body weight and condition factor (K without changes the hepatic somatic index (p <0.05. It was also observed a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio and UDPGT activity, markers of oxidative stress and loss of biotransformation capacity of liver macrophthalmia (p <0.05. This disturbances may jeopardize the success of sea lamprey trophic migration, if occur a permanent or accidental exposure of juveniles to organic pollutants on the path to the sea. In addition, the salt exposure did not change the liver cytosolic MDA content (p <0.05. The significant increase in CTT1 activity may have contributed to prevent hepatic oxidative damages in the sea lamprey juveniles.

  3. Porosity changes induced by salt weathering of sandstones, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří; Mikuláš, Radek; Schweigstillová, Jana; Böhmová, Vlasta

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2011), s. 29-45 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : porosity * sandstone * rock crust * salt weathering * case hardening * honeycombs Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_content&id=8

  4. Hydraulic connection affects uranium distribution in the Gas Hure salt lake, Qaidam Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jibin; Jiang, Hongchen; Xu, Jianxin; Hussain, Syed Asim; Yuan, Xiaolong; Qin, Xiwei

    2018-02-01

    The widespread hydraulic connection is necessary for the formation of a salt lake. However, only limited studies have ever been carried out to investigate the influence of the hydraulic connection on the distribution of elements around certain salt lake. In this study, a total of 66 water samples (including river water, stream water, spring water, brine, intercrystalline brine, well water, and drilling brine) were collected around the Gas Hure salt lake (GSKLH) to investigate the relationship between hydraulic connection and uranium (U) distribution via hydrochemistry and isotope ( 234 U/ 238 U, δ 11 B) techniques. The results suggested that the GSKLH was recharged by water from the Kulamulekesay and Atetikan rivers, groundwater (borehole brine and some intercrystalline brine), and deep fluid (some intercrystalline brine), with each contributing 44.03%, 14.95%, and 41.02% of total recharge, respectively. The U-bearing rock was dominated mainly by silicates, carbonates, and evaporites in the high mountain area (region 1), overflow area (region 2), and plain area (region 3) of the GSKLH, respectively. In the GSKLH, the U distribution was strongly correlated with hydraulic connection and the U concentration was influenced by both groundwater flow system and flow velocity (represented by the γCl - /γCa 2+ ratio). Thus, U was enriched under the conditions of regional groundwater flow system and slow velocity in the GSKLH.

  5. Evolution characteristic of gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm in the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghong Yi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over years of oil and gas exploration in the Qaidam Basin, reservoirs have been discovered in many layers. In the Shizigou area, western Qaidam Basin, the upper member of Oligocene Lower Ganchaigou Fm is an important target for oil and gas exploration, and gypsum-salt rocks are the high-quality caprocks for the preservation of oil and gas reservoirs in this area. For predicting oil and gas exploration direction and target in the western Qaidam Basin and providing guidance for its oil and gas exploration deployment, its depositional characteristics and environment of gypsum-salt rocks in this area were investigated based on the core observation, thin section identification, and analysis of grain size, sensitivity parameter ratios (Sr/Cu, Fe/Mn, (Fe + Al/(Ca + Mg, V/(V + Ni and Pr/Ph, pyrite content and inclusions. The following characteristics are identified. First, gypsum-salt rocks are mainly distributed in the depocenter of the lake basin and their thickness decreases towards the margin of the basin. They are laterally transformed into carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. They are areally distributed in the shape of irregular ellipse. Second, gypsum-salt rocks are vertically developed mainly in the middle and upper parts of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm and they are interbedded with carbonate rocks or terrigenous clastic rocks. Their single layer thickness changes greatly, and there are many layers with good continuity. Third, Sand Group III to Group I in the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm (inter-salt are of reductive water environment of semi-deep to deep lake facies due to their sedimentation in an arid and hot climate. It is concluded that gypsum-salt rocks of the upper member of Lower Ganchaigou Fm are distributed widely with great accumulative thickness in this area; and that they are originated from deep lake water by virtue of evaporation, concentration and crystallization in an arid and hot climate instead

  6. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.

    1997-01-01

    The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary...... on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...

  7. Environmental characterization of bedded salt formations and overlying areas of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This report constitutes one input to the first stage of site qualification studies. It presents a general environmental characterization of the region that is underlain by the Permian bedded salt formation. The formation covers portions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Permian bedded salt formation is one of a number of deep, stable geologic formations being studied for potential locations for nuclear waste repositories. These studies will not necessarily lead to selection of a site. They are intended only to provide information necessary to evaluate the suitability of locations for repositories. The report is intended as a general characterization of the existing environmental setting of the Permian Region with emphasis on land, water, and air characteristics; resources; plant and animal life; and man's organizations and activities. The report provides background information about the role that this regional study will play in the overall plan for environmental impact assessments and statements deemed necessary as input to the decision-making process. Background information on the present concept of nuclear waste repository design and function is also included. The information presented in this report has been summarized from open literature readily accessible to the public. No field work was conducted nor new data used in developing the descriptions contained herein

  8. Screening specifications for bedded salt, Salina Basin, New York and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunton, G.D.; Laughon, R.B.; McClain, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of bedded salt deposits in New York and Ohio is planned to identify study areas for potential sites for radioactive waste disposal. Prior to the survey previous geological work related to these deposits will be reviewed. Preliminary screening specifications for the identification of study areas were derived for each of the geological evaluation criteria by application of the significant factors that will have an impact on the reconnaissance survey. These factors were selected by a review of the list of factors associated with each criterion. The procedure for the derivation of each screening specification is discussed. The screening specifications are the official Office of Waste Isolation values to be used for the first-cut acceptance for bedded salt study areas in Ohio and New York. The specifications will be reevaluated and refined for more-detailed investigations at each study area that passes the screening test. The derivation of the screening specifications is illustrated by (1) a statement of the geological evaluation criterion, (2) a discussion of the pertinent factors affecting the criterion, and (3) the evaluation of the value of the specification

  9. The Disastrous Effects of Salt Dust Deposition on Cotton Leaf Photosynthesis and the Cell Physiological Properties in the Ebinur Basin in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwaili, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Feng qing, Jiang; Dong wei, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Salt dust in rump lake areas in arid regions has long been considered an extreme stressor for both native plants and crops. In recent years, research on the harmful effects of salt dust on native plants has been published by many scholars, but the effect on crops has been little studied. In this work, in order to determine the impact of salt dust storms on cotton, we simulated salt dust exposure of cotton leaves in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China, and measured the particle sizes and salt ions in the dust, and the photosynthesis, the structure and the cell physiological properties of the cotton leaves. (1) Analysis found that the salt ions and particle sizes in the salt dust used in the experiments were consistent with the natural salt dust and modeled the salt dust deposition on cotton leaves in this region. (2) The main salt cations on the surface and inside the cotton leaves were Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO42-, while the amounts of CO3- and HCO3- were low. From the analysis, we can order the quantity of the salt cations and anions ions present on the surface and inside the cotton leaves as Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ and Cl->SO42->HCO3->CO3-, respectively. Furthermore, the five salt dust treatment groups in terms of the total salt ions on both the surface and inside the cotton leaves were A(500g.m-2)>B(400g.m-2)>C(300g.m-2)>D(200g.m-2)>E(100g.m-2)>F(0g.m-2). (3)The salt dust that landed on the surface of the cotton leaves can significantly influence the photosynthetic traits of Pn, PE, Ci, Ti, Gs, Tr, WUE, Ls, φ, Amax, k and Rady of the cotton leaves. (4)Salt dust can significantly damage the physiological functions of the cotton leaves, resulting in a decrease in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and increasing cytoplasmic membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content by increasing the soluble sugar and proline to adjust for the loss of the cell cytosol. This increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes to eliminate harmful materials, such as the intracellular

  10. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.

    1997-01-01

    +) accumulating in the deep, anoxic water body. Inflow of oxygenated water causes oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn4+ and precipitation of MnO2, which accumulates in Mn-rich layers at the sediment surface. When the bottom water becomes anoxic again, MnO2 degradation release Mn2+ into the pore water, and alkalinity......The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary...... on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...

  11. Geochemistry of metal-rich brines from central Mississippi Salt Dome basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Maest, A.S.; Carothers, W.W.; Law, L.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Fries, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field brines are the most favored ore-forming solutions for the sediment-hosted Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Detailed inorganic and organic chemical and isotope analyses of water and gas samples from six oil fields in central Mississippi, one of the very few areas with high metal brines, were conducted to study the inorganic and organic complexes responsible for the high concentrations of these metals. The samples were obtained from production zones consisting of sandstone and limestone that range in depth from 1900 to 4000 m (70-120??C) and in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. Results show that the waters are dominantly bittern brines related to the Louann Salt. The brines have extremely high salinities that range from 160,000 to 320,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and are NaCaCl-type waters with very high concentrations of Ca (up to 48,000 mg/l) and other alkaline-earth metals, but with low concentrations of aliphatic acid anions. The concentrations of metals in many water samples are very high, reaching values of 70 mg/l for Pb, 245 mg/l for Zn, 465 mg/l for Fe and 210 mg/l for Mn. The samples with high metal contents have extremely low concentrations (<0.02 mg/l) of H2S. Samples obtained from the Smackover Formation (limestone) have low metal contents that are more typical of oil-field waters, but have very high concentrations (up to 85 mg/l) of H2S. Computations with the geochemical code SOLMINEQ.87 give the following results: (1) both Pb and Zn are present predominantly as aqueous chloride complexes (mainly as PbCl42- and ZnCl42-, respectively); (2) the concentrations of metals complexed with short-chained aliphatic acid anions and reduced S species are minor; (3) organic acid anions are important in controlling the concentrations of metals because they affect the pH and buffer capacity of the waters at subsurface conditions; and (4) galena and sphalerite solubilities control the concentrations of Pb and Zn in these waters. ?? 1988.

  12. Interior Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  13. Petrographic report on samples from units 4 and 5 salt, lower San Andres formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, L.M.; Hopping, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on samples of salt-bearing rock from a potential repository site in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The samples are from Permian Units 4 and 5 salt, Lower San Andres Formation, J. Friemel No. 1 well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. The mineralogic and petrographic data were obtained from polished thin sections cut parallel to the axis of the core for each sample. The polished thin sections were examined in order to determine the abundances of soluble (halite) and insoluble components (anhydrite, clay, carbonate, quartz, gypsum, etc.). The information reported here includes mineral associations (detrital, authigenic, cement, alteration, etc.), texture, grain size, and sedimentary fabrics. The report also includes representative photomicrographs with superimposed bar scales. Photomicrographs of polished thin sections have the up-core direction designated. X-ray diffraction was also used for identification of soluble and insoluble minerals. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  15. Spatial analysis of groundwater electrical conductivity using ordinary kriging and artificial intelligence methods (Case study: Maharlu-Bakhtegan and Tashk salt lakes basin, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Fatemeh; Aljoumani, Basem; Tröger, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The main resources of fresh water are the groundwater. In Iran, the quality and quantity of groundwater is affected significantly by rapid population growth and unsustainable water management in the agricultural and industrial sectors. in Maharlu-Bakhtegan and Tashk salt lakes basin, the overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation purpose caused the salt water intrusion from the lakes to the area's aquifers, moreover, the basin is located in south of Iran with semiarid climate, faces a significant decline in rainfall. All these reasons cause the degradation of ground water quality. For this study, geographical coordinates of 406 observation wells will be defined as inputs and groundwater electrical conductivities (EC) will be set as output. Ordinary kriging (OK) and artificial neural networks (ANN) will be investigated for modeling groundwater salinity. Eighty percent of data will be randomly selected to train and develop mentioned models and twenty percent of data will be used for testing and validating. Finally, the outputs of models will be compared with the corresponding measured values in observation wells.

  16. High pollution events in the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. Insights on mechanisms and spatial distribution of the formation of secondary aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Baasandorj, M.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.

    2017-12-01

    High pollution events are common in many locations in the U.S.A. and around the world. They can last several days or up to weeks and they negatively affect human health, deteriorate visibility, and increase premature mortality. The main causes for high pollution events are related to meteorology and sources. They often happen in the winter, when high emissions, stagnation and reduced mixing, due to a shallow boundary layer, cause high concentrations of pollutants to accumulate. In the last decades, the air quality in the U.S. has seen an overall improvement, due to the reductions in particulate and gaseous pollutants. However, some areas remain critical. The Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys are currently areas where high pollution events are a serious environmental problem involving more than 2.4 million people. We will present the results of the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) that took place in winter 2017. During UWFPS, we carried out airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition and precursor vapor concentrations over the Great Salt Lake Basin and its adjacent valleys. We will give insights into how and under which conditions conversion of precursor vapors into aerosol particles takes place in the area. We will also present a comparison of our measurements with models that will provide an insight of the mechanisms that lead to the formation of secondary aerosol particles. With the results of our work, we aim to inform strategies for pollution control in the future.

  17. Hydrology and water quality of an urban stream reach in the Great Basin - Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, water years 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrology and water quality of an urbanized reach of Little Cottonwood Creek near Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined as part of the Great Salt Lake Basins study, part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. Physical and chemical properties of the stream were referenced to established aquatic-life criteria as available. Two fixed sampling sites were established on Little Cottonwood Creek with the purpose of determining the influence of urbanization on the water quality of the stream. The fixed-site assessment is a component of the National Water-Quality Assessment surface-water study design used to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of selected water-quality constituents.The occurrence and distribution of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved and suspended organic carbon, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and suspended sediment were monitored during this study. From October 1998 to September 2000, stream samples were collected at regular intervals at the two fixed sites. Additional samples were collected at these sites during periods of high flow, which included runoff from snowmelt in the headwaters and seasonal thunderstorms in the lower basin.

  18. Comparison of two different sea-salt aerosol schemes as implemented in air quality models applied to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Guerrero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of attempts have been made to incorporate sea-salt aerosol (SSA source functions in chemistry transport models with varying results according to the complexity of the scheme considered. This contribution compares the inclusion of two different SSA algorithms in two chemistry transport models: CMAQ and CHIMERE. The main goal is to examine the differences in average SSA mass and composition and to study the seasonality of the prediction of SSA when applied to the Mediterranean area with high resolution for a reference year. Dry and wet deposition schemes are also analyzed to better understand the differences observed between both models in the target area. The applied emission algorithm in CHIMERE uses a semi-empirical formulation which obtains the surface emission rate of SSA as a function of the particle size and the surface wind speed raised to the power 3.41. The emission parameterization included within CMAQ is somehow more sophisticated, since fluxes of SSA are corrected with relative humidity. In order to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses, the participating algorithms as implemented in the chemistry transport models were evaluated against AOD measurements from Aeronet and available surface measurements in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean area, showing biases around −0.002 and −1.2 μg m−3, respectively. The results indicate that both models represent accurately the patterns and dynamics of SSA and its non-uniform behavior in the Mediterranean basin, showing a strong seasonality. The levels of SSA strongly vary across the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean, reproducing CHIMERE higher annual levels in the Aegean Sea (12 μg m−3 and CMAQ in the Gulf of Lion (9 μg m−3. The large difference found for the ratio PM2.5/total SSA in CMAQ and CHIMERE is also investigated. The dry and wet removal rates are very similar for both models despite the different schemes

  19. Characterization of habitat and biological communities at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested.High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites.Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species.Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  20. Pre-Messinian (Sub-Salt Source-Rock Potential on Back-Stop Basins of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Central Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravelis A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek part of the Mediterranean Ridge suggests, in terms of its hydrocarbon potential, further frontier exploration. The geological similarities between its prolific portions, within the Cyprus and Egyptian Exclusive Economic Zones, indicate possible recoverable natural gas reserves in its Greek portion. Nevertheless it lacks of systematic frontier exploration although direct petroleum indicators occur. Active mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge, still emitting concurrently gas and gas hydrates, have not been yet assessed even though are strongly related to hydrocarbon occurrence worldwide (Caspian Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Western African Basin, Trinidad-Tobago, the Nile Cone. For this reason, the source rock potential of the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits on a backstop basin of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Crete, Greece, was studied. The obtained pyrolysis data indicate that the containing organic matter is present in sufficient abundance and with good enough quality to be regarded as potential source rocks. The observed type III kerogen suggests gas generation potential. Although indications of higher thermal evolution occur the studied rocks suggest low maturation levels. The biogenic gas seeps in the studied research well further demonstrate the regional gas generation potential.

  1. Changes in denudation rates and erosion processes in the transition from a low-relief, arid orogen interior to a high-relief, humid mountain-front setting, Toro Basin, southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofelde, S.; Düsing, W.; Schildgen, T. F.; Wittmann, H.; Alonso, R. N.; Strecker, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    In tectonically active mountain belts positive correlations between denudation rates and hillslope angles are commonly observed, supporting the notion that landscape morphology may reflect tectonic forcing. However, this relationship generally breaks down at 30°, when hillslopes reach threshold angles. Beyond this threshold, faster denudation may occur by an increased contribution from mass-wasting processes. We test this idea in the 4000 km2 Toro Basin, a fault-bounded basin in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern Central Andes. This N-S oriented basin is located between low-relief, arid conditions in the orogen interior (N) and a high-relief, humid setting at its fluvial outlet (S). We measured in-situ produced 10Be concentration in fluvial sediments, which can be converted into basin-mean denudation rates, assuming a spatially uniform contribution of sediment from the catchment. However, in landslide-influenced areas, this assumption is often violated. Previous studies have suggested that clast-size material is mainly contributed by mass-wasting processes, whereas sand is derived from a broad range of erosional processes. Hence, a combination of clast and sand samples can reveal information about the basin-mean denudation rate as well as the contribution of mass-wasting processes. We sampled 13 pebble (1-3 cm) and sand (250-500 µm) pairs across the basin. The sand-derived denudation rates increase from N to S, ranging from 0.010 mm/yr to 1.337 mm/yr, and reveal a non-linear positive correlation with median basin slope. The clast/sand ratios also increase from N to S, indicating amplified mass-wasting processes with increasing slopes. To test if our ratios represent a real shift in erosional processes, we mapped different erosional processes in the study area (e.g. deep-seated landslides, scree erosion,.., diffusion). We assume that today's distribution of processes has not changed over the integration time of 10Be derived denudation rates. This detailed

  2. Isotopic composition of salt efflorescence from the sandstone castellated rocks of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schweigstillová, Jana; Přikryl, R.; Novotná, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 217-225 ISSN 0943-0105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : stable isotopes * salt efflorescence * sandstone Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2009

  3. Reconstruction of basal heat flow, surface temperature, source rock maturity, and hydrocarbon generation in salt-dominated dutch basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.M.; Echternach, M.S.C.; Witmans, N.; Abdul Fattah, R.

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly growing demand for improved understanding of the Dutch subsurface exists because of the need for alternative energy supplies, such as geothermal energy, as well as for finding and producing more oil and gas in this mature area for petroleum exploration. We use basin modeling to integrate

  4. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  5. Chapter 7. The GIS project for the geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas in the Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak and Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) focusing on the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Cotton Valley Group and the Lower Cretaceous Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the northern Gulf Coast region was developed as a visual-analysis tool for the U.S. Geological Survey's 2002 assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and natural gas resources in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces. The Central Energy Resources Team of the U.S. Geological Survey has also developed an Internet Map Service to deliver the GIS data to the public. This mapping tool utilizes information from a database about the oil and natural gas endowment of the United States-including physical locations of geologic and geographic data-and converts the data into visual layers. Portrayal and analysis of geologic features on an interactive map provide an excellent tool for understanding domestic oil and gas resources for strategic planning, formulating economic and energy policies, evaluating lands under the purview of the Federal Government, and developing sound environmental policies. Assessment results can be viewed and analyzed or downloaded from the internet web site, http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/ .

  6. Rubidium, Strontium, Bromide, and Total Iodine Concentrations Consolidate Evidence for Seawater Dissolution of the Jurassic Louann Salt as the Source of the Orca Basin Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijf, J.

    2007-05-01

    A profile of filtered seawater and brine samples was collected in the summer of 2003 from a depth of 1500 m down to the bottom of the anoxic, hypersaline Orca Basin (northern Gulf of Mexico). Using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), these samples were analyzed for alkali cations (Na+, K+, Rb+), alkaline earth cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+), and the major anions chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO42-). Major ion concentrations in the brine are consistent with previous studies, confirming that Na plus Cl make up more than 95% of its composition, hence governing its density and hydrodynamic stability. Binary mixing plots across the interface between deep Gulf of Mexico seawater and the anoxic brine are generally linear, but display substantial deviations from conservative behavior at the steepest part of the pycnocline for all analytes except Na, Cl, and Ca. Negative deviations signify localized cation removal by an adsorption or ion-exchange process, probably associated with the dense layers of particles that are trapped there. Especially strong Mg removal may be indicative of dolomitization, whereby the concomitant release of Ca counters its adsorption, resulting in zero net Ca removal. A positive deviation for sulfate is attributed to bacterial sulfide oxidation. Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and Ba in the homogeneous brine, reported here for the first time, are enriched by factors of 1.5, 1.4, and ~9, respectively, with respect to the overlying seawater. Unlike Ca and Sr, Ba concentrations in the brine are clearly controlled by the solubility of its sulfate salt (barite), causing a maximum of 670 nmol/kg at the interface. Several independent lines of evidence, for example downward decreasing salinity gradients in the sediment pore waters, seismic surveys revealing salt exposure on the upper slope, and the discovery of a brine river flowing into the Orca Basin, suggest that the brine is formed outside the basin, most likely by

  7. Trace elements and organic compounds in sediment and fish tissue from the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Giddings, Elise M.

    2004-01-01

    A study to determine the occurrence and distribution of trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds in sediment and in fish tissue was conducted in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program during 1998-99. Streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were collected concurrently at 11 sites and analyzed for trace-element concentration. An additional four sites were sampled for streambed sediment only and one site for fish tissue only. Organic compounds were analyzed from streambed-sediment and fish-tissue samples at 15 sites concurrently.Bed-sediment cores from lakes, reservoirs, and Farmington Bay collected by the NAWQA program in 1998 and by other researchers in 1982 were used to examine historical trends in trace-element concentration and to determine anthropogenic sources of contaminants. Cores collected in 1982 from Mirror Lake, a high-mountain reference location, showed an enrichment of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, tin, and zinc in the surface sediments relative to the deeper sediments, indicating that enrichment likely began after about 1900. This enrichment was attributed to atmospheric deposition during the period of metal-ore mining and smelting. A core from Echo Reservoir, in the Weber River Basin, however, showed a different pattern of trace-element concentration that was attributed to a local source. This site is located downstream from the Park City mining district, which is the most likely historical source of trace elements. Cores collected in 1998 from Farmington Bay show that the concentration of lead began to increase after 1842 and peaked during the mid-1980s and has been in decline since. Recent sediments deposited during 1996-98 indicate a 41- to 62-percent reduction since the peak in the mid-1980s.The concentration of trace elements in streambed sediment was greatest at sites that have been affected by historic mining

  8. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on preferred repository sites within the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.; Edgar, D.; Gonzales, S.; Domenico, P.; Harrison, W.; Engelder, T.; Tisue, M.

    1984-04-01

    Documents are being submitted to the Salt Repository Project Office (SRPO) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to satisfy milestones of the Salt Repository Project of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Some of these documents are being reviewed by multidisciplinary groups of peers to ensure DOE of their adequacy and credibility. Adequacy of documents refers to their ability to meet the standards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as enunciated in 10 CFR 60, and the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Credibility of documents refers to the validity of the assumptions, methods, and conclusions, as well as to the completeness of coverage. This report summarizes Argonne's review of ONWI's two-volume draft report entitled Identification of Preferred Sites within the Palo Duro Basin: Vol. 1 - Palo Duro Location A, and Vol. 2 - Palo Duro Location B, dated January 1984. Argonne was requested by DOE to review these documents on January 17 and 24, 1984 (see App. A). The review procedure involved obtaining written comments on the reports from three members of Argonne's core peer review staff and three extramural experts in related research areas. The peer review panel met at Argonne on February 6, 1984, and reviewer comments were integrated into this report by the review session chairman, with the assistance of Argonne's core peer review staff. All of the peer review panelists concurred in the way in which their comments were represented in this report (see App. B). A letter report and a draft of this report were sent to SRPO on February 10, 1984, and April 17, 1984, respectively. 5 references

  9. Uncertainty Analysis using Experimental Design Methods for Assessing CO2 Sequestration and Coal Bed Methane Production Potential of Subbituminous Coals of the Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Hanks, C.; Awoleke, O.

    2016-12-01

    Naturally fractured, unmineable coal seam reservoirs are attractive targets for geological sequestration of CO2 because of their high CO2-adsorption capacities and possible cost offsets from enhanced coal bed methane production (ECBM). In this study, we have investigated CO2 sequestration and CH4 production potential of the subbituminous Healy Creek Formation coals through preliminary sensitivity analyses, experimental design methods and fluid flow simulations. Our primary sensitivity analyses indicated that the total cumulative volumes of CO2 sequestered and CH4 produced from the Healy Creek coals are mostly sensitive to bottomhole injection pressure, coal matrix porosity, fracture porosity and permeability, and coal volumetric strain. The results of Plackett-Burman experimental design were used to further constrain the most influential reservoir parameters and generate proxy models for probabilistic reservoir forecasts. Our probabilistic estimates for the mature, subbituminous Healy Creek coals in the entire Nenana basin indicate that it is possible to sequestrate between 0.87 TCF (P10) and 0.2 TCF (P90) of CO2 while producing between 0.29 TCF (P10) and 0.1 TCF (P90) of CH4 at the end of 20-year forecast. Our study demonstrated application of experimental design methods and Monte Carlo analysis in reducing these uncertainties in reservoir properties and quantifying their effect on reservoir performance. In addition, the results of fluid flow scenarios show that the CO2 sequestration through a primary reservoir depletion method is the most effective way to inject CO2 in the coals of the Nenana basin. Including a horizontal well instead of the vertical well resulted in relatively high average gas production rates and subsequent faster production decline. Our CO2 buoyancy scenario suggested that the effect of CO2 buoyancy and the nature of the caprock should be considered when identifying potential geologic sites for CO2 sequestration and in CO2 storage capacity

  10. Laboratory testing of rock and salt samples for determination of specific gravity and total porosity of the Zeeck No. 1 well (PD-7), Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report contains the specific gravity and total porosity determinations for rock and salt samples from Zeeck No. 1 Well of the Permian Basin. The laboratory test samples were measured for water content, apparent specific gravity, specific gravity of solids, total porosity and effective porosity. Specimen descriptions including specimen number, formation/group, and lithologic description as well as typical data sheets are included in the appendices. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  11. Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program’s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation’s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System and the Idaho and Utah Public Drinking Water Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site.The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from 3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate

  12. Salt marsh dieback in coastal Louisiana: survey of plant and soil conditions in Barataria and Terrebonne basins, June 2000-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Materne, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden and extensive dieback of the perennial marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), which dominates regularly flooded salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines, occurred in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The objectives of this study were to assess soil and plant conditions in dieback areas of the Barataria-Terrebonne estuarine system as well as vegetative recovery during and after this dieback event. Multiple dieback sites were examined along 100 km of shoreline from the Atchafalaya River to the Mississippi River during the period from June 2000 through September 2001. The species primarily affected was S. alterniflora; sympatric species such as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn (black mangrove) and Juncus roemerianus Scheele (needlegrass rush) showed no visible signs of stress. The pattern of marsh dieback was distinctive with greatest mortality in the marsh interior, suggesting a correlation with local patterns of soil chemistry and/or hydrology. Little or no expansion of dieback occurred subsequent to the initial event, and areas with 50 percent or less mortality in the fall of 2000 had completely recovered by April 2001. Recovery was slower in interior marshes with 90 percent or greater mortality initially. However, regenerating plants in dieback areas showing some recovery were robust, and reproductive output was high, indicating that the causative agent was no longer present and that post-dieback soil conditions were actually promoting plant growth. Stands of other species within or near some dieback sites remained largely unchanged or expanded (A. germinans) into the dead salt marsh. The cause of the dieback is currently unknown. Biotic agents and excessive soil waterlogging/high sulfide were ruled out as primary causes of this acute event, although they could have contributed to overall plant stress and/or interacted with the primary agent to cause plant mortality. Our observations over the 15 month study

  13. Combining local lithofacies and global geochemical signals to test the acidification hypothesis for the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the U.S. Western Interior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. M.; Sageman, B. B.; Selby, D. S.; Oakes, R. L.; Bralower, T. J.; Parker, A. L.; Leckie, R. M.; Sepulveda, J.

    2015-12-01

    Strata preserving Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which span the Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T; Late Cretaceous), exhibit evidence of widespread anoxia, a major perturbation to the global carbon cycle, and increased biotic turnover rates. It has been hypothesized that a major volcanic (LIP) eruption, increased CO2 levels, and significant climate warming triggered the event. Recently, OAE2 has also been cited as a potential example of ocean acidification in Earth history and therefore has potential to offer predictive insights on impacts of increasing modern pCO2 levels. As part of an effort to test this hypothesis, the 131-m Smoky Hollow #1 (SH-1) core was drilled near Big Water, Utah during the summer of 2014. The core recovered an expanded stratigraphic record of OAE2 from the mud-rich western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. A high-resolution stable carbon isotope record from bulk organic carbon (δ13Corg) indicates near-continuous preservation of OAE2 with a sustained +2.5‰ excursion that is over 5 times the thickness of the same excursion at the C/T GSSP in Pueblo, Colorado. Notably, this record is characterized by a 1-m thick carbonate-barren interval at the δ13C excursion's onset. This may indicate an episode of ocean acidification driving suppressed carbonate sedimentation or carbonate dissolution. An alternative interpretation is that variations in carbonate concentrations are unrelated to changes in ocean chemistry and are instead driven by changes in local sedimentation patterns (e.g. transgressive-regressive parasequences). To test these hypotheses, a regional lithostratigraphic correlation to the nearshore Cottonwood Canyon section is constructed to assess whether prograding sandy parasequences may have altered carbonate sedimentation rates at the SH-1 locality. Initial osmium and δ13C chemostratigraphies are also developed to constrain the timing of perturbations in global geochemical cycles at the initiation of OAE2, including the onset of large

  14. Kinematic reconstitution and tectono-sedimentation associated to salt domes in deep water of Santos basin, Brazil; Reconstituicao cinematica e tectono-sedimentacao associada a domos salinos nas aguas profundas da bacia de Santos, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Manuela Fernandes [PETROBRAS E e P - Exploracao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Polo Centro], E-mail: manuela.caldas@petrobras.com.br; Zalan, Pedro Victor [PETROBRAS E e P - Exploracao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gestao de Projetos Exploratorios], E-mail: zalan@petrobras.com.br

    2009-05-15

    This article presents new methods for structural restoration and kinematic evolution of salt domes during the opening stages and growth of a passive margin in the Santos Basin. The traditional method or restoration of salt bodies uses software and a 3D database. Using 2D seismic data and adapting/improving methods published in the oil industry literature, we developed a method based on the observation of the stratal geometric patterns of sedimentary packages associated to the salt bodies such as tabular forms (straight parallel reflectors, pre or post-tectonic sedimentary sequences), or dish/bowl forms (with very distinct depocenters and thinned margins with fanning of dips, syntectonic/halokinetic sedimentary sequences), and on the determination/mapping of growth axes and thinning axes in halokinetic strata. Horizontal and vertical reconstitutions of the salt flow (inflation, deflation and horizontal flow) were deduced based on isochron (isopach maps in time) and axes maps and flattened seismic sections at the time of deposition of each associated sedimentary sequence. The resulting maps and reconstitutions presented an amazing correlation with the current patterns mapped in the study area. The interpreted tectonic phases of halokinetic evolution, deduced from the produced maps and reconstitutions, showed a good agreement with the regional events that affected the Santos Basin and adjoining basement. Based on those results, we believe that the application of this method provides an important contribution for the oil exploration industry, considering that it presents outstanding results based on 2D seismic data. It allows an understanding of the structural and kinematic evolution of the salt bodies and of the halokinetic sequences associated, with important implications on the modeling of petroleum systems, thus, reducing the risk of exploration prospects. (author)

  15. Modeling and assessing the function and sustainability of natural patches in salt-affected agro-ecosystems: Application to tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) in Hetao, upper Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Ramos, Tiago B.; Huang, Quanzhong; Huo, Zailin; Huang, Guanhua

    2017-09-01

    Relatively low-lying zones of natural vegetation within irrigated areas are not only carriers of biodiversity but also dry drainage areas of excess water and salts applied to nearby croplands. It is thus useful to have a correct understanding of the soil water-salt dynamics and plant water use for keeping the sustainability of those natural areas. The HYDRUS-dualKc model that couples the HYDRUS-1D model with the FAO-56 dualKc approach was extended to simulate the eco-hydrological processes in natural patches of Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao), upper Yellow River basin. Field experiments were conducted in a tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) dominated area during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated using the two-year experimental data, and applied to analyze the water and salt dynamics and the tamarisk water consumption for the present situation. Then, various groundwater depth (i.e. the depth from groundwater surface to water table, GWD) scenarios were simulated while considering the fluctuating and constant regimes of GWD changes, as well as variations of the rooting depth. Results indicated that this natural land functioned efficiently as a drainage area for subsurface flow and excess salt from surrounding croplands. However, the present GWDs were too shallow leading to high soil evaporation and severe salt stress. The soil evaporation accounted for 50% of the total evapotranspiration (ETa) while root zone salt storage increased about 50% during growing seasons. On the basis of scenario analysis, an optimum groundwater depth of 140-200 cm with smaller fluctuation was suggested for the growing seasons of natural patches. In addition, tamarisk growth could be largely improved if the roots can grow deeper with water table decline in the future. We demonstrated that monitoring and modeling could be used to support the development of water management strategies in Hetao aimed at conserving water while sustaining local

  16. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  17. A giant oil seep at a salt-induced escarpment of the São Paulo Plateau, Espírito Santo Basin, off Brazil: Host rock characteristics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Antonio Fernando Menezes; Iemini, Juliana Andrade; Viana, Adriano Roessler; Magnavita, Luciano Portugal; Dehler, Nolan Maia; Kowsmann, Renato Oscar; Miller, Dennis James; Bezerra, Sabrina Helena Diniz Gilaberte; Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos; Shimabukuro, Seirin; Nóbrega, Marcos, II

    2017-12-01

    An international research cruise named Iatá-Piuna took place on the São Paulo Plateau on May 2013 in the Campos and Espírito Santo basins, off Brazil. The cruise was carried ou on board the research vessel (R/V) Yokosuka that hosts the human operated vehicle (HOV) SHINKAI 6500. It aimed at finding chemosynthetic communities, composed of organisms capable of generating their own vital energy by metabolizing organic and inorganic compounds related to seeps. Identification of these organisms could provide information for understanding the origin of life, since they may resemble primitive organisms that existed in the initial stages of life on Earth. During Leg 2 (May 10-24, 2013), however, dives on the northern part of the São Paulo Plateau at the Espírito Santo Basin led to the discovery of a giant oil seep. The seep, ca. 3 nautical miles (ca. 5.6 km) in length is located along an outcrop of Eocene rocks on a salt-induced escarpment of the plateau and at a water depth of ca. 2700 m. The 200 m relief of the seafloor suggests that the seep takes place along an active fault system driven by salt diapirism. The oil was analyzed and identified as a severely biodegraded marine oil, generated by carbonate rocks within a minibasin located to the east of the escarpment. This represents valuable exploratory information because it proves that an active petroleum system is present in the context of minibasins associated with salt diapirism in the area.

  18. Salts slurries using in 'offshore' recent cementation in Campos Basin; Pastas salinas utilizadas em cimentacoes recentes 'offshore' na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Ricardo [BJ Services, Macae, RJ (Brazil); Simao, Cristina Aiex; Sledz, Marcelo [PETROBRAS S.A., RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS has recently begun active drilling on locations where the interest zone is below salt formations, which can be as thick as 2000 meters, formation that may contain mobile salts as taquihydryte. This paper refers to the slurries used on the first well drilled under those conditions and to slurry designs used in other similar wells. The challenge is to avoid the open hole closure by the taquihydryte before the next phase is drilled and cased. In order to do so, it was programmed to use a heavy spacer to maintain the wells stability for at least 30 days, due to hydrostatic pressure. This spacer and the heavy salt slurry (18,5 lb/gal) were used for the first time in Brazil. To cement the production casings, similar formulations were used, although with 15,8 lb/gal density slurries and a minimum of 10% bwow salt (NaCl). On the surface cementing operations, light slurries with sea water, salt, and, silicate and aluminate based additives, were designed and used, followed by the 15,8 lb/gal with 18% bwow salt slurry. Information about the different slurries are presented. (author)

  19. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... future projects being funded with Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project funds. The CAG will also...

  20. Chapter 6. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment-East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system (504902), Travis Peak and Hosston formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on the CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  1. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  2. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Sustainable Commercial Interior Design

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Órla

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the environmental benefits of 3 key areas in relation to interior design: Energy, Water and Air; energy efficient lighting, water efficient plumbing fixtures and the effects of interior materials and finishes on indoor air quality. Qualitative research methodology: Extensive literature review of texts available on these topics, and also of the relevant building codes and environmental legislation applicable to Irish interior designers and the built environment. ...

  4. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C.; Dry, B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Three-dimensional mapping of salt load in the Murray-Darling Basin, 1 Steps in calibration of airborne electromagnetic surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Dent, D.L.; Jones, G.; Galloway, D.

    2004-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic survey yields a three-dimensional map of ground electrical conductivity. The remotely sensed data are translated into salt load by field and laboratory calibration: drilling, measurement of borehole conductivity, electrical conductivity of 1 : 5 soil¿water extracts

  6. Infiltration of late Palaeozoic evaporative brines in the reelfoot rift: A possible salt source for Illinois Basin formation waters and MVT mineralizing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, E.L.; De Marsily, G.

    2001-01-01

    Salinities and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits provide important insights into the regional hydrology of the Illinois basin/Reelfoot rift system in late Palaeozoic time. Although the thermal regime of this basin system has been plausibly explained, the origin of high salinities in the basin fluids remains enigmatic. Topographically driven flow appears to have been essential in forming these MVT districts, as well as many other districts worldwide. However, this type of flow is recharged by fresh water making it difficult to account for the high salinities of the mineralizing fluids over extended time periods. Results of numerical experiments carried out in this study provide a possible solution to the salinity problem presented by the MVT zinc-lead and fluorite districts at the margins of the basin system. Evaporative concentration of surface water and subsequent infiltration into the subsurface are proposed to account for large volumes of brine that are ultimately responsible for mineralization of these districts. This study demonstrates that under a range of geologically reasonable conditions, brine infiltration into an aquifer in the deep subsurface can coexist with topographically driven flow. Infiltration combined with regional flow and local magmatic heat sources in the Reelfoot rift explain the brine concentrations as well as the temperatures observed in the Southern Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley districts.

  7. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this

  8. Identification of hazards for water environment in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin caused by the discharge of salt mine water containing particularly harmful substances and radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bondaruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Silesian urban-industrial agglomeration is one of the most industrialized areas in Europe. The intense industrialization should be attributed mostly to the presence of coal and other minerals deposits and its extraction. Mining areas of hard coal mines comprise approximately 25% of the total catchment area of watercourses in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin, including the river basin of the Upper Oder River and the Little Vistula River. The mining, its scope and depth, duration of mining works, extraction systems being used and the total volume of the drainage fundamentally affect the conditions of groundwater and surface water in the studied area. In this paper, an overall characteristics of the coal mining industry in the area of USCB was made, including the issues of its influence on water environment in the light of the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD and its guidelines transposed into Polish law. An analysis of the collected data, obtained from collieries, relating to the quantity and quality of water flowing into the workings and discharged to surface watercourses, was performed. An approach to the requirements for wastewater discharge into the environment by these enterprises was presented regarding the physicochemical parameters, possible harmful substances and radionuclides measured in mine waters. The main goal of the paper is to recognize the condition of surface water bodies in the area of Upper Silesian Coal Basin and to make the assessment of the biological condition using Ecological Risk Assessment and bioindication methods.

  9. Perancangan InteriorInterior World Center” di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Handojo, Renita Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Interior World Center is a place that contain all needs and matters related to world of interior. The main purpose of Interior World Center is to give access and facilitate people in fulfill their needs that concern and correspond with interior world, that is to say with combine and integrate several interior activity into one in corporated place. Inside of this building there are several commercial space related with the interior world. The commercial spaces will support each other in order ...

  10. Interior Space: Representation, Occupation, Well-Being and Interiority

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    This article will provide an overview of space as it is understood and engaged with from within the discipline of interior design/interior architecture. Firstly, the term interior will be described. Secondly, the paper will discuss space as a general concept, before exploring what space is speifically for the interior design/interior architecture discipline. How is space understood? What does space "look" like for interuior designers/interior architects?.

  11. Studies in Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  12. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  13. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the D'Appolonia report on Schematic Designs for Penetration Seals for a Repository in the Permian Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambley, D.F.; Stormont, J.C.; Russell, J.E.; Edgar, D.E.; Fenster, D.F.; Harrison, W.; Tisue, M.W.

    1984-09-01

    Argonne made the following recommedations for improving the reviewed reports. The authors of the report should: state the major assumptions of the study in Sec. 1.1 rather than later in the report; consider using salt for the shaft seals in salt horizons; reconsider whether keys are needed for the bulkheads; provide for interface grouting because use of expansive cement will not guarantee that interfaces will be impermeable; discuss the sealing schedule and, where appropriate, consider what needs to be done to ensure that emplaced radioactive waste could be retrieved if necessary; describe in more detail the sealing of the Dockum and Ogallala aquifers; consider an as low as reasonably achievable approach to performance requirements for the initial design phase; address the concerns in the 1983 US Nuclear Regulatory Commission document entitled Draft Technical Position: Borehole and Shaft Sealing of High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories; cite the requirements for release of radioactivity by referring to specific clauses in the regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency; and provide further explanation in the outline of future activities about materials development and verification testing. More emphasis on development of accelerated testing programs is also required

  14. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  15. Hanford Reach - Control of Salt Cedar Plants in an Isolated Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Target Invasive Species: salt cedar (Tamarix sp.; a Class “B” noxious weed in WA, “B” designated weed in OR) minimum of 32 acres within ~760 acres. Salt cedar...

  16. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  17. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, L M

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  18. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, L.M.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables

  19. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  20. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on their intuition and require solutions based on pure reason. The author of this paper argues for bringing intuitive decision making back into interior design as a legitimate design tactic.

  1. Interior design for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  2. Prefab-Interiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    qualities is significantly dependent on our constructive ability to economically and production-technically join building elements. Consequently this paper explores the potential for developing interiority as a theory and design principle for transforming constructive challenges within prefab practice....../S. As a research result the paper suggests a positioning of interiority as a theory and design principle for developing a sensuous prefab practice......., and practical realm of prefabrication, leaving the produced houses as monotonous box-like constructions rather than inhabitable homes. But what are the sensuous qualities actually spatially defining a home, and how to formulate design principles for developing and revealing these qualities within prefab...

  3. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  4. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  5. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General Article Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different combinations of the chemical phosphate with salts and minerals. Foods high in phosphate include dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, and certain meats. Phosphates found in dairy products ... People use phosphate salts for medicine. Be careful not to confuse phosphate ...

  7. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  8. INTUITION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Solovyova

    2008-01-01

    Intuition enables individuals to develop an understanding of the structure of complex systems. In interior design many decisions are reached intuitively even though the process of formulating solutions may be argued rationally. Intuition is intrinsically intertwined with our collateral experiences, memories, and implicit thought. Design intuition draws on our entire experience, not only on what we consciously isolate as relevant information. In education we prohibit students from relying on t...

  9. Late quaternary changes in lakes, vegetation, and climate in the Bonneville Basin reconstructed from sediment cores from Great Salt Lake: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    Sediment cores from Great Salt Lake (GSL) provide the basis for reconstructing changes in lakes, vegetation, and climate for the last ~ 40 cal ka. Initially, the coring site was covered by a shallow saline lake and surrounded by Artemisia steppe or steppe-tundra under a cold and dry climate. As Lake Bonneville began to rise (from ~ 30 to 28 cal ka), Pinus and subalpine conifer pollen percentages increased and Artemisia declined, suggesting the onset of wetter conditions. Lake Bonneville oscillated near the Stansbury shoreline between ~ 26 and ~ 24 cal ka, rose to the Bonneville shoreline by ~ 18 cal ka, and then fell to the Provo shoreline, which it occupied until ~ 15 cal ka. Vegetation changed during this time span, albeit not always with the same direction or amplitude as the lake. The pollen percentages of Pinus and subalpine conifers were high from ~ 25 to 21.5 cal ka, indicating cool and moist conditions during the Stansbury oscillation and for much of the rise toward the Bonneville shoreline. Pinus percentages then decreased and Artemisia became codominant, suggesting drier and perhaps colder conditions from ~ 21 to ~ 15 cal ka, when Lake Bonneville was at or near its highest levels.Lake Bonneville declined to a low level by ~ 13 cal ka, while Pinus pollen percentages increased, indicating that conditions remained cooler and moister than today. During the Younger Dryas interval, the brief Gilbert episode rise in lake level was followed by a shallow lake with a stratified water column. This lake rise occurred as Pinus pollen percentages were declining and those of Artemisia were rising (reflecting increasingly dry conditions), after which Artemisia pollen was at very high levels (suggesting cold and dry conditions) for a brief period.Since ~ 10.6 cal ka lacustrine conditions have resembled those of present-day GSL. Pollen spectra for the period from ~ 10.6 to 7.2 cal ka have low levels of conifer pollen and high (for the

  10. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  11. Trends in Streamflow Characteristics of Selected Sites in the Elkhorn River, Salt Creek, and Lower Platte River Basins, Eastern Nebraska, 1928-2004, and Evaluation of Streamflows in Relation to Instream-Flow Criteria, 1953-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Godberson, Julie A.; Steele, Gregory V.

    2009-01-01

    (06800000), Elkhorn River at Waterloo (06800500), Salt Creek at Greenwood (06803555), and Platte River at Louisville (06805500). In general, sites in the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk showed fewer significant trends than did sites downstream from Norfolk and sites in the Platte River and Salt Creek basins, where trends in low flows also were positive. Historical Platte River streamflow records for the streamflow-gaging station at Louisville, Nebraska, were used to determine the number of days per water year (Sept. 30 to Oct. 1) when flows failed to satisfy the minimum criteria of the instream-flow appropriation prior to its filing in 1993. Before 1993, the median number of days the criteria were not satisfied was about 120 days per water year. During 1993 through 2004, daily mean flows at Louisville, Nebraska, have failed to satisfy the criteria for 638 days total (median value equals 21.5 days per year). Most of these low-flow intervals occurred in summer through early fall. For water years 1953 through 2004, of the discrete intervals when flow was less that the criteria levels, 61 percent were 3 days or greater in duration, and 38 percent were 7 days or greater in duration. The median duration of intervals of flow less than the criteria levels was 4 consecutive days during 1953 through 2004.

  12. Interior of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  13. The long wavelength topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins, Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Sarah L.; Watters, Thomas R.; Robinson, Mark S.

    2005-11-01

    Topography derived from Mariner 10 stereo images is used to characterize the interior structure of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are shallow (~2.5 km and ~2 km deep, respectively) and relatively flat-floored. Beethoven basin has an interior topographic rise near the northwest margin. The topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben associated with lunar mascons are absent in both Beethoven and Tolstoj basins. The lack of mascon tectonic features suggests that either 1) the mercurian basins have a relatively thin veneer of fill material, 2) Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or 3) the basin fill material has little or no density contrast with the surrounding crust and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere.

  14. 75 FR 17465 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Salt Creek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... salt on the soil surface, resulting in the formation of barren salt flats. Specifically, evaporation of... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Salt Creek Tiger Beetle; Final Rule... of Critical Habitat for the Salt Creek Tiger Beetle AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  15. Identifying suitable piercement salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.; e.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes

  16. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  17. Interior design and healing architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Hansen, Allan Grutt

    2015-01-01

    Hospital design is today influenced by the design concept healing architecture, stating that the patients’ healing process is promoted through accommodating physical surroundings. However, despite the increasing amount of research in the field of healing architecture, research on interior design...... and materials are rather limited. To compliment research in hospital interior design with particular focus on the use of interior textiles, this pilot study explores if the patients’ preferences for more home-like hospital interiors can be linked to a preference for textile-based furniture and materials...... the interpretation of the quantitative and qualitative data. 21% of the participants requested interior design improvements, and had a pronounced preference for the textile-based furniture and materials. For this particular group, the link between home-like hospital interiors and textile materials were thus...

  18. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the same high, and feel withdrawal symptoms when they stop. People who abuse bath salts may feel driven to do whatever they can to keep getting high, including taking risks. Users can also develop what is called "excited delirium." When this happens, people get dehydrated , their muscle ...

  19. 76 FR 3655 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona... imported water supplies, using available capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin... groundwater wells in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, San Bernardino County, California. Existing recharge...

  20. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  1. Interior design conceptual basis

    CERN Document Server

    Sully, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into interior design as a conceptual way of thinking, which is about ideas and how they are formulated. The major themes of this book are the seven concepts of planning, circulation, 3D, construction, materials, colour and lighting, which covers the entire spectrum of a designer’s activity. Analysing design concepts from the view of the range of possibilities that the designer can examine and eventually decide by choice and conclusive belief the appropriate course of action to take in forming that particular concept, the formation and implementation of these concepts is taken in this book to aid the designer in his/her professional task of completing a design proposal to the client. The purpose of this book is to prepare designers to focus on each concept independently as much as possible, whilst acknowledging relative connections without unwarranted influences unfairly dictating a conceptual bias, and is about that part of the design process called conceptual analysis. It is assu...

  2. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  3. Graviatoms with de Sitter Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dymnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a graviatom with de Sitter interior as a new candidate to atomic dark matter generically related to a vacuum dark energy through its de Sitter vacuum interior. It is a gravitationally bound quantum system consisting of a nucleus represented by a regular primordial black hole (RPBH, its remnant or gravitational vacuum soliton G-lump, and a charged particle. We estimate probability of formation of RPBHs and G-lumps in the early Universe and evaluate energy spectrum and electromagnetic radiation of graviatom which can in principle bear information about a fundamental symmetry scale responsible for de Sitter interior and serve as its observational signatures.

  4. INTERIORITY - a prefab case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    and furnishing articulation hereof. In the second volume of the thesis; ‘INTERIORITY: a prefab case study’ this theory of interiority has been endeavored applied in a specific prefab project concerning the development of a novel prefab building system and housing series in collaboration with the Danish prefab......, tectonically. Hence, it has been a particular idea of the study to explore the relation between furniture, the spatial envelope itself, and its construct by using furniture as an architectural concept. Consequently, the thesis has specifically investigated whether this notion of interiority, describing...

  5. How Technology Influences Interior Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, Tish

    1999-01-01

    Examines telecommunication technology's influences on interior school design and effective learning, and discusses how to implement this technology into the school. Building the infrastructure to support telecommunications in an educational setting and the importance of effective lighting are discussed. (GR)

  6. Compressed Sensing Based Interior Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2010-01-01

    While the conventional wisdom is that the interior problem does not have a unique solution, by analytic continuation we recently showed that the interior problem can be uniquely and stably solved if we have a known sub-region inside a region-of-interest (ROI). However, such a known sub-region does not always readily available, and it is even impossible to find in some cases. Based on the compressed sensing theory, here we prove that if an object under reconstruction is essentially piecewise constant, a local ROI can be exactly and stably reconstructed via the total variation minimization. Because many objects in CT applications can be approximately modeled as piecewise constant, our approach is practically useful and suggests a new research direction of interior tomography. To illustrate the merits of our finding, we develop an iterative interior reconstruction algorithm that minimizes the total variation of a reconstructed image, and evaluate the performance in numerical simulation. PMID:19369711

  7. The Value of Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    example, integrating lighting ( technology ) with VDT (workflow) can help reduce glare and stress (eye fatigue). Facilitate Individuality. Interior...warn of a would’be intruder. Specialty Systems. The continuous advancement of lighting technology provides several creative options for individually

  8. Mirador - Earth Surface and Interior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. The goal of the Earth Surface and Interior focus area is to assess, mitigate and forecast the natural hazards that affect...

  9. A comparison of Bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert versus sagebrush habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatgrass has recently invaded marginal low elevation salt desert habitats across the Great Basin, USA. We tested the hypothesis that cheatgrass seed produced in populations from the more stressful salt desert versus upland sagebrush habitats should grow differently in salt desert soils compared to...

  10. Topography of Beethoven and Tolstoj Basins, Mercury: Implications for Lithospheric Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, S. L.; Watters, T. R.

    2005-12-01

    Interior structures of two mercurian basins, Beethoven and Tolstoj, are characterized using topography derived from Mariner 10 stereo images. The topography of the two mercurian basins is similar to that of lunar mare-filled basins, such as Serenitatis. In addition to topography, the tectonic features within Beethoven and Tolstoj basins are compared to those of lunar basins. Beethoven and Tolstoj basins exhibit little evidence of deformation compared to Caloris basin and their lunar counterparts. Well-developed basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben are characteristic of many lunar basins and are thought to result from lithospheric flexure in response to the superisostatic load from the mare basalts. The presence of wrinkle ridges in the floor of Caloris basin suggests that the basin interior has undergone compression, possibly the result of subsidence of the interior fill. Because both Beethoven and Tolstoj lack basin-concentric wrinkle ridges and arcuate graben, we suggest that either Mercury's elastic lithosphere was too strong for significant lithospheric flexure and subsidence to occur, or the basin fill material provides little density contrast and thus exerts little net load on the mercurian lithosphere. Compositional evidence from color-derived parameter images of Tolstoj basin indicates that the basin fill has an FeO abundance comparable to that of average mercurian crust. This suggests that the basin fill has a similar density to the surrounding crustal material and that the load may be insufficient to induce flexure.

  11. Specific investigations related to salt rock behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. In the French contribution the geological conditions have been investigated that might promote or prevent the formation of salt domes from layers in view of possible use of the latter type of formation. This was done theoretically by the finite element method, and a start was made with centrifuge tests. The density of a number of samples from salt and overburden from the Bresse basin was measured and it was shown that a favourable condition exists in this region for waste disposal. In the German contribution various subjects are touched upon, one being the effect of water on the mobility in the early stages of salt dome formation. Evidence was found for an anisotropy in salt. One Dutch contribution describes results of studies on the effect of small amounts of water on the rheology of salt. The results imply that flow laws obtained for salt at rapid strain rates and/or low confining pressure cannot be reliably extrapolated to predict the long term behaviour of wet or even very dry material under natural conditions. Preliminary results on the effect of water upon ion-mobility indicate a certain pseudo-absorptive capacity of salt e.g. for Sr

  12. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.

    2017-12-01

    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further suggests that these seismic zones operate within a field of predominantly pure shear driven primarily by north-south crustal shortening. Although the location and magnitude of the seismic activity in both basins are well defined by a network of seismic stations in the region, the tectonic controls on intraplate earthquakes and the heterogeneous nature of Alaska's continental interior remain poorly understood. We investigated the current crustal architecture and styles of tectonic deformation of the Nenana and Tanana basins using existing geological, geophysical and geochronological datasets. The results of our study demonstrate that the basements of the basins show strong crustal heterogeneity. The Tanana basin is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. Northeast-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. The Nenana basin has a fundamentally different geometry; it is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Fault. This study identifies two distinct modes of tectonic deformation in central Interior Alaska at present, and provides a basis for modeling the interplay between intraplate stress fields and major structural features that potentially influence the generation of intraplate earthquakes in the region.

  13. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  14. Interior Design Factors in Library Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Patricia Ann

    When planning the interior of a library facility, the planning team of librarian, library consultant, architect, and interior design consultant must focus attention on the basic principles of interior design and the psychological needs of the user. Colors for an interior should be selected with careful regard to space, light, and emotional and…

  15. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  16. Functional textiles in hospital interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe

    This PhD thesis explores the possibilities and design qualities of using functional textiles in the interior of hospital environments, and is the result of a three years collaboration between Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, and VIA University College, VIA Design. The project...... that the physical environments affect the patients’ level of stress and influence their process of recovery and healing. However, although research in this field of hospital design has increased substantially in recent years, knowledge on the use of new materials and textiles in hospital interiors is still rather...... limited. Concerned with the design potentials of using textiles in hospital interiors, the purpose of the PhD project has been to explore the possibilities and design qualities of using these materials in hospital design. Relating to both technical and aesthetic aspects of using functional textiles...

  17. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  18. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  19. Dewatering tailings impoundments : interior drains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlie, W.A.; Doehring, D.O.; Durnford, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    For the design of a new uranium tailings impoundment in the western United States, it was proposed that an interior drainage system be considered to economically and reliably minimize potential short- and long-term environmental impacts. The objectives were to decrease the effective hydraulic head on the clay liner, to dewater and stabilize the tailings, and to increase the amount of water recycled to the mill. In addition, desaturation of the impoundment would induce capillary pressure (negative porewater pressure), further reducing the potential movement of dissolved pollutants. This paper presents saturated and unsaturated seepage principles and reviews the concept, criteria and design of the various interior drainage systems considered

  20. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  1. Integrating Sustainability in Interior Design Studio

    OpenAIRE

    Karslı, Umut Tuğlu

    2013-01-01

    Teaching methods on concept of sustainability are frequently searched in the interior architecture education. The purpose of this study is to propose a model for integrating sustainability in interior design studio. In this context, the first part of the research defines relationship between sustainability and interior architecture and determines sustainable interior design principles. In the second part, an interior design studio model is proposed and principles determined in the first part ...

  2. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    favourably orientated with respect to pre-existing structures in the lithosphere. Furthermore, stresses derived from lithospheric potential energy variations as well as those from plate boundary forces must be taken into account in order to explain intraplate seismicity and deformation such as basin......Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon...

  3. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    distributions of tha A-weighted interior noise for tha four investigated tunvd diaper arrangements tor a simulated piopallei noisa with 10SO RPM are...Schiphol, The Netherlands 5) Matr.i Sap Imagerie at Informatique, St. Quentin en Yvelines, Franc* C) Rason Systea A/S, Slangarup, Denmark 7

  4. Crash simulations for interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, E.; Slaats, P.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    With the increasing number of compact cars, safety aspects becomes increasingly important for interior designs. The smaller dimensions of these cars do not only decrease the car mass, but also the energy absorption length, resulting in a more severe crash pulse. As a consequence, the inertia loading

  5. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  6. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  7. Chapter 8: Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Interior West bioregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Rice; Guy R. McPherson; Lisa J. Rew

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West bioregion is bounded on the east by the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains from Canada south to Mexico and on the west by the eastern foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington and Oregon and the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada in California. The bioregion includes the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mojave hot deserts and the Great Basin cold...

  8. 10. The surface and interior of venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  10. Type of superconductivity in Bechgaard's salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.

    1986-12-01

    If the superconductivity in Bechgaard's salts corresponds to a triplet pairing, an alternating magnetic field at the surface will excite spin waves in the interior of the superconductor. The detection of these waves might make it possible to experimentally resolve the nature of the superconducting pairing in these materials. 6 references.

  11. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  12. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  13. A collaborative program to provide native plant materials for the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Shaw; Mike Pellant; Matthew Fisk; Erin Denney

    2012-01-01

    The Great Basin as defined on a floristic basis includes the hydrographic Great Basin plus the Owyhee Uplands and Snake River Plain of southern Idaho (Fig. 1). The region encompasses about 60 million ha, of which more than two-thirds are publicly owned. Vegetation ranges from salt desert and sagebrush shrublands in the basins to conifer forests in the more than 200...

  14. Colour terms in the interior design process

    OpenAIRE

    Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D

    2015-01-01

    Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...

  15. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in other ancient halokinetic settings, they may have developed in arid, continental environments such as in the Precaspian Basin.

  16. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  17. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  18. Market Aspects of an Interior Design Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judy E.

    A project was conducted to evaluate a proposed interior design program in order to determine the marketability (job availability in the field of interior design and home furnishings merchandising) and the feasibility (educational requirements for entrance into the interior design and home furnishings merchandising job market) of the program. To…

  19. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  20. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices will be changing from 2370 South 2300 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84119-2022, to 2370 South Decker...

  1. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  2. Numerical simulation of salt cementation in the porous rocks adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Raphael; Li, Shiyuan; Marquart, Gabriele; Reuning, Lars; Niederau, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Porosity and permeability are among the most important petrophysical properties of reservoirs rocks in oil systems. Observations during exploration indicate that in the vicinity of salt domes the porosity of reservoir rocks is often reduced by halite cementation. In this study we present results of simulating the process of salt precipitation near salt diapirs by using a schematic model of a Zechstein diapir in the North Sea basin. The numerical simulation is based on solving the transport equations for heat, porous flow and dispersive and reactive chemical species. Chemical reaction and equilibrium is based on the PHREEQC computer code. In our model over-pressured brine is entering from below and is deflected towards the diapir due to an intermediate layer of low permeability. The high thermal conductivity of salt yields a lateral temperature gradient starting from the diapir. Due to this effect the simulated temperature profile shows lower temperatures close to the salt dome than in comparable depths further away. Caused by the temperature-controlled solubility of NaCl in the brine and supplied ions by the diapir, halite first precipitates near the salt diapir by cementing the pore spaces and thus reducing the porosity. Salt-precipitation in the simulation starts after 840 000 years and reduces the porosity from 10 % to 5.5 % after 19 Mill. years. The permanent influx of brine causes growth of the cementation area and the related reduction of porosity in the reservoir.

  3. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  4. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  5. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin

  6. Salt stress induces differential regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Olea europaea cultivars Frantoio (salt-tolerant) and Leccino (salt-sensitive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Borghi, Monica; Francini, Alessandra; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, De Yu; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey

  7. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is designated... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155...

  8. The impacts of mega discoveries of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt Santos Basin: Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050; Os impactos das mega descobertas de oleo e gas natural no pre-sal da Bacia de Santos: Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Reis, Lucio Eduardo Solano [Universidade da Amazonia (GEPEE/UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Socio-economia. Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas], e-mail: ruybahia@uol.com.br, e-mail: lereis2000@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a follow-up of four papers presented at the V CBPE 2006 e XI CBE 2006 updating the investment needs to expand the electric energy (EE) Offer. Such analysis revealed an hydro matrix over cost investments of 293 bi US$ (10bi US$/year) as compared to the hydro thermo matrix. Such data proof the unviability to supply the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions demand with Amazonian hydroelectricity. Furthermore, evaluations about the impacts of the huge underestimate volumes of proved reserves of oil and NG of 20 Gboe from the Projects Tupi, Carioca and Parati and Jupiter discoveries are limited to a small geographic area of 15,000 sqkm (122 x 122 km) that is only 9 percent of the Pre-Salt total area of 160,000 sqkm supporting the hypothesis of 160 Gboe for the ultimate ROR for both Campos and Pre-Salt Basins plus all others exploratory fronts offshore and onshore. In this probable case the mid-points of oil and NG will migrate to the 2070 year. Under these circumstances either scenarios will support the oil and NG self-sufficiencies for those regions Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions, up to the 2050 year and probably extended to the 2070 year. The estimated volume of the potential proved reserve NG Jupiter Project is also underestimate but large enough (7,0 Gboe = 1,100 billion of cubic meter= Gmc) to supply 80 percent (80 GW) of the total 101 GW expansion offer of EE up to the 2030 year. Finally there is not a single good reason to justify the supply the EE demand of the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions with the unviable Amazonian hydroelectricity. (author)

  9. Exoplanet's Figure and Its Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Zhang; Cheng-li, Huang

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of the observing technology, the observation and study on the exoplanets' oblateness and apsidal precession have achieved significant progress. The oblateness of an exoplanet is determined by its interior density profile and rotation period. Between its Love number k2 and core size exists obviously a negative correlation. So oblateness and k2 can well constrain its interior structure. Starting from the Lane-Emden equation, the planet models based on different polytropic indices are built. Then the flattening factors are obtained by solving the Wavre's integro-differential equation. The result shows that the smaller the polytropic index, the faster the rotation, and the larger the oblateness. We have selected 469 exoplanets, which have simultaneously the observed or estimated values of radius, mass, and orbit period from the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Exoplanet Archive, and calculated their flattening factors under the two assumptions: tidal locking and fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The result shows that the flattening factors are too small to be detected under the tidal locking assumption, and that 28% of exoplanets have the flattening factors larger than 0.1 under the fixed rotation period of 10.55 hours. The Love numbers under the different polytropic models are solved by the Zharkov's approach, and the relation between k2 and core size is discussed.

  10. Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a s...

  11. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  12. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  13. Determination of a constitutive law for salt at elevated temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseny, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    A constitutive law for natural rock salt is given that describes the relationship among strain rate, stress rate, stress, temperature, and time. Tests required to evaluate the constitutive parameters are identified, and procedures for performing these tests are described. Results are presented from a series of tests performed on bedded salt from the Palo Duro basin. These results are used to evaluate the constitutive law suitable for predicting stresses and deformations in a nuclear waste repository or other engineered structure in salt

  14. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  15. Perancangan Tata Cahaya pada Interior Rumah Tinggal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dila Hendrassukma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Homestay is a place where each individual coming back after doing her/his routine and non-routine daily activities. A good residential interior design would enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants. The majority of Indonesian population, Jakarta in particular, has been aware of the importance of designing their home interior properly. However, home interior lighting, which is key to successful design of an interior space, is often under-emphasized. Research tried to collect lighting techniques often used in residential interiors. The result is a brief explanation and easy to apply regarding the types of information that can be used to illuminate any activity on the interior of the residence. Qualitative method by literature study is used in the making of this research. 

  16. Vertical Redistribution of Ocean Salt Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liu, C.; Ponte, R. M.; Piecuch, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean salinity is an important proxy for change and variability in the global water cycle. Multi-decadal trends have been observed in both surface and subsurface salinity in the past decades, and are usually attributed to the change in air-sea freshwater flux. Although air-sea freshwater flux, a major component of the global water cycle, certainly contributes to the change in surface and upper ocean salinity, the salt redistribution inside the ocean can affect the surface and upper ocean salinity as well. Also, the mechanisms controlling the surface and upper ocean salinity changes likely depend on timescales. Here we examined the ocean salinity changes as well as the contribution of the vertical redistribution of salt with a 20-year dynamically consistent and data-constrained ocean state estimate (ECCO: Estimating Circulation and Climate of the Ocean). A decrease in the spatial mean upper ocean salinity and an upward salt flux inside the ocean were observed. These findings indicate that over 1992-2011, surface freshwater fluxes contribute to the decrease in spatial mean upper ocean salinity and are partly compensated by the vertical redistribution of salt inside the ocean. Between advection and diffusion, the two major processes determining the vertical exchange of salt, the advective term at different depths shows a downward transport, while the diffusive term is the dominant upward transport contributor. These results suggest that the salt transport in the ocean interior should be considered in interpreting the observed surface and upper ocean salinity changes, as well as inferring information about the changes in the global water cycle.

  17. Dynamics of prolonged salt movement in the Glückstadt Graben (NW Germany) driven by tectonic and sedimentary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, Michael; Kley, Jonas; Jähne-Klingberg, Fabian; Kukowski, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The formation of salt structures exerted a major influence on the evolution of subsidence and sedimentation patterns in the Glückstadt Graben, which is part of the Central European Basin System and comprises a post-Permian sediment thickness of up to 11 km. Driven by regional tectonics and differential loading, large salt diapirs, salt walls and salt pillows developed. The resulting salt flow significantly influenced sediment distribution in the peripheral sinks adjacent to the salt structures and overprinted the regional subsidence patterns. In this study, we investigate the geometric and temporal evolution of salt structures and subsidence patterns in the central Glückstadt Graben. Along a key geological cross section, the post-Permian strata were sequentially decompacted and restored in order to reconstruct the subsidence history of minibasins between the salt structures. The structural restoration reveals that subsidence of peripheral sinks and salt structure growth were initiated in Early to Middle Triassic time. From the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic, salt movement and salt structure growth never ceased, but were faster during periods of crustal extension. Following a phase from Late Jurassic to the end of the early Late Cretaceous, in which minor salt flow occurred, salt movement was renewed, particularly in the marginal parts of the Glückstadt Graben. Subsidence rates and tectonic subsidence derived from backstripping of 1D profiles reveal that especially the Early Triassic and Middle Keuper times were periods of regional extension. Three specific types of salt structures and adjacent peripheral sinks could be identified: (1) Graben centre salt walls possessing deep secondary peripheral sinks on the sides facing away from the basin centre, (2) platform salt walls, whose main peripheral sinks switched multiple times from one side of the salt wall to the other, and (3) Graben edge pillows, which show only one peripheral sink facing the basin centre.

  18. 75 FR 7291 - Northeastern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ..., Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: In accordance... (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Nevada Northeastern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All...

  19. Interior tomography: theory, algorithms and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hengyong; Ye, Yangbo; Wang, Ge

    2008-08-01

    The conventional wisdom states that the interior problem (reconstruction of an interior region from projection data along lines only through that region) is NOT uniquely solvable. While it remains correct, our recent theoretical and numerical results demonstrated that this interior problem CAN be solved in a theoretically exact and numerically stable fashion if a sub-region within the interior region is known. In contrast to the well-established lambda tomography, the studies on this type of exact interior reconstruction are referred to as "interior tomography". In this paper, we will overview the development of interior tomography, involving theory, algorithms and applications. The essence of interior tomography is to find the unique solution from highly truncated projection data via analytic continuation. Such an extension can be done either in the filtered backprojection or backprojection filtration formats. The key issue for the exact interior reconstruction is how to invert the truncated Hilbert transform. We have developed a projection onto convex set (POCS) algorithm and a singular value decomposition (SVD) method and produced excellent results in numerical simulations and practical applications.

  20. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  1. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  2. Major ions, δ18O, δ2H, and 87Sr/86Sr as tracers of the origin and evolution of dissolved salts in groundwaters of the Murray basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogramaci, S.S.; Herczeg, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwaters of the Murray and Renmark Group aquifers of south-eastern Australia were analysed for major ion content, δ 18 O, δ 2 H, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopes to provide an insight into possible mechanisms that control the chemical composition and salinity of groundwater. The groundwater salinity of the Murray Group Aquifer increases along the hydraulic gradient from fresh (∼500 mg/l) at the southeastern basin margin to saline (∼23,000 mg/l) at the north and northwestern part of the study are near the discharge zone. Although, the groundwater chemistry displays seawater like composition, the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values are similar to the mean winter rainfall, indicating that groundwater in the Murray Group Aquifer is of meteoric origin. The geochemical mass balance calculations suggest that the current chemical composition of fresh and brackish groundwater in the Murray Group Aquifer is produced by a combination of: evapotranspiration of rain water prior to recharge, equilibrium with carbonate minerals, and Na-Ca exchange reaction under soil gas pCO 2 of ∼10 -1.5 atm. The higher salinity of groundwater in the northern part of the study area (discharge zone) on the other hand, can be explained by the mixing of saline groundwater of the underlying Renmark Group Aquifer via upward leakage. A mixing model using Sr concentration and 86 Sr/ 87 Sr ratio has been applied to quantify the relative proportions of groundwater in the saline part of the Murray Group Aquifer that is derived from: (i) upward leakage from the Renmark Group Aquifer, (ii) local diffuse recharge, and (iii) laterally flowing groundwater of the Murray Group Aquifer. (author)

  3. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  4. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume II. Palo Duro basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and high variable precipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  5. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  6. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.

  7. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  8. Interior operators and topological connectedness | Castellini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A categorical notion of interior operator is used in topology to define connectedness and disconnectedness with respect to an interior operator. A commutative diagram of Galois connections is used to show a relationship between these notions and Arhangelskii and Wiegandt's notions of connectedness and ...

  9. 75 FR 8395 - Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder Project, San Bernardino and Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona... aquifer storage and recovery project. The project will install new groundwater wells at the Bunker Hill... Santa Ana River flows in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin during wet years for delivery to communities...

  10. 78 FR 35602 - Coeur d'Alene Basin Restoration Plan, Kootenai, Shoshone and Benewah Counties, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... restoration of the natural resources and services injured as a result of the release of mining related... OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Fish and Wildlife Service Coeur d'Alene Basin Restoration... Basin Restoration Plan by any of the following methods: Web site: www.restorationpartnership.org . Email...

  11. Structure and composition of giant planet interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    In the simplest model of a Jovian planet atmosphere, the atmospheric abundances are identical to the bulk interior abundances, except as modified by atmospheric condensation processes. This model is now known to be generally inadequate, on the basis of comparisons between detailed atmospheric composition measurements and (less-detailed) determinations of interior composition. The latter are primarily deduced by integrating high-pressure equations of state of plausible constituents to obtain interior models which satisfy observational constraints such as mass, radius, gravitational moments, luminosity and age. This chapter reviews the status of discrepancies between such determinations of interior and atmospheric composition, and reviews possible explanations via interior processes such as hydrogen-helium immiscibility and phase transitions in major constituents. We discuss the proposed structure of the core, mantle and deep atmosphere for each of the four giant planets

  12. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  13. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  14. [Salt and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  15. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  16. 43 CFR 44.40 - How does the Department process payments for lands in the Redwood National Park or Lake Tahoe Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for lands in the Redwood National Park or Lake Tahoe Basin? 44.40 Section 44.40 Public Lands: Interior... Governments for Interest in Lands in the Redwood National Park Or Lake Tahoe Basin § 44.40 How does the Department process payments for lands in the Redwood National Park or Lake Tahoe Basin? This section...

  17. Digital Interior Design by Stailia Design Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the thesis work is to research and create a web based service in a field of interior design. With my project, I am hoping to find out whether this kind of web service in the field of interior design can work in general and that the process together with the actual order form on internet is smooth from both customer and company point of view. The company has interior design related services but none entirely executed on the web. The target is to create a totally new service/pr...

  18. Computer vision based room interior design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nasir; Hussain, Saddam; Ahmad, Kashif; Conci, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a new application of computer vision. To the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first attempt to incorporate computer vision techniques into room interior designing. The computer vision based interior designing is achieved in two steps: object identification and color assignment. The image segmentation approach is used for the identification of the objects in the room and different color schemes are used for color assignment to these objects. The proposed approach is applied to simple as well as complex images from online sources. The proposed approach not only accelerated the process of interior designing but also made it very efficient by giving multiple alternatives.

  19. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  20. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  1. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  2. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-04-12

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600-900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies.

  3. Interior Design's Role in Educational Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mary Ann

    1986-01-01

    An experienced interior designer, equipped with a well-written educational specification, will specify the best materials and coordinate colors, materials, and furnishings in line with the district's budget. (MLF)

  4. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) and Drug Use Real Questions from Real ...

  5. Deformation and transport processes in salt rocks : An experimental study exploring effects of pressure and stress relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhammad, Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    The presence of evaporitic formations in sedimentary basins, often dominated by the salt mineral halite, is of great influence on the structural style developed during tectonic events. On a somewhat smaller scale, salt rocks often host a variety of deep solution mined caverns, which are increasingly

  6. Penerapan Interior Branding pada Hotel Yello

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Astri Indrawati

    2017-01-01

    The development of entertainment and tourism in Surabaya has lead to increasing of tourist arrival. This condition makes hotel businesses flourishing. The 3 star hotel is currently the best-selling hotel due to adequate facilities at current economic level. To cope with the competition, many 3 star hotels applied branding in the interior. Interior branding is formed not only from the visual beauty, but rather to the room's atmosphere that contains stories and unique messages to influence the ...

  7. Project management in interior design services

    OpenAIRE

    Şahinoglu, Alp

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references. In this study, the concept of project management is analyzed within the framework of interior design services. Project management has been defined as the managing and coordination of all human and physical resources, in order to accomplish the predetermined goals (aim of the proj...

  8. Discovering the interior of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.; Yagi, K.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from black hole (BH) mergers provides an inroad toward probing the interior of astrophysical BHs. The general-relativistic description of the BH interior is that of empty spacetime with a (possibly) singular core. Recently, however, the hypothesis that the BH interior does not exist has been gaining traction, as it provides a means for resolving the BH information-loss problem. Here, we propose a simple method for answering the following question: Does the BH interior exist and, if so, does it contain some distribution of matter or is it mostly empty? Our proposal is premised on the idea that, similar to the case of relativistic, ultracompact stars, any BH-like object whose interior has some matter distribution should support fluid modes in addition to the conventional spacetime modes. In particular, the Coriolis-induced Rossby (r-) modes, whose spectrum is mostly insensitive to the composition of the interior matter, should be a universal feature of such BH-like objects. In fact, the frequency and damping time of these modes are determined by only the object's mass and speed of rotation. The r-modes oscillate at a lower frequency, decay at a slower rate, and produce weaker GWs than do the spacetime modes. Hence, they imprint a model-insensitive signature of a nonempty interior in the GW spectrum resulting from a BH merger. We find that future GW detectors, such as Advanced LIGO with its design sensitivity, have the potential of detecting such r-modes if the amount of GWs leaking out quantum mechanically from the interior of a BH-like object is sufficiently large.

  9. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  10. The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mihyun Kang; Denise A. Guerin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Research that investigates how interior designers use environmentally sustainable interior design criteria in their design solutions has not been done. To provide a base to develop education strategies for sustainable interior design, this study examined the state of environmentally sustainable interior design practice. Approach: A national, Internet-based survey of interior design practitioners was conducted. To collect data, the random sample of US interior design practit...

  11. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  12. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  13. Salt effects on ionization equilibria of histidines in myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Y H; Fitch, C A; Bhattacharya, S; Sarkisian, C J; Lecomte, J T; García-Moreno E, B

    2000-09-01

    The salt dependence of histidine pK(a) values in sperm whale and horse myoglobin and in histidine-containing peptides was measured by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Structure-based pK(a) calculations were performed with continuum methods to test their ability to capture the effects of solution conditions on pK(a) values. The measured pK(a) of most histidines, whether in the protein or in model compounds, increased by 0.3 pH units or more between 0.02 M and 1.5 M NaCl. In myoglobin two histidines (His(48) and His(36)) exhibited a shallower dependence than the average, and one (His(113)) showed a steeper dependence. The (1)H-NMR data suggested that the salt dependence of histidine pK(a) values in the protein was determined primarily by the preferential stabilization of the charged form of histidine with increasing salt concentrations rather than by screening of electrostatic interactions. The magnitude and salt dependence of interactions between ionizable groups were exaggerated in pK(a) calculations with the finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann method applied to a static structure, even when the protein interior was treated with arbitrarily high dielectric constants. Improvements in continuum methods for calculating salt effects on pK(a) values will require explicit consideration of the salt dependence of model compound pK(a) values used for reference in the calculations.

  14. Salt attack in parking garage in block of flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Pavel; Frankeová, Dita; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    In recent years many new block of flats with parking garages placed inside the buildings were constructed. This tendency brings beyond question benefits for residents and also for city planning, but it requires new design and structural approaches and advanced material and construction solutions. The analysis of plaster damage on partition wall in parking garage in one of these buildings is presented in the paper. The damage of studied plaster is caused by the salts which are transported together with snow on cars undercarriage into garage area during winter. The snow melts and water with dissolved salts is transported by the capillary suction from concrete floor into the rendered partition wall. Based on the interior temperature, adsorbed water with dissolved chlorides evaporates and from the over saturated pore solution are formed salt crystals that damages the surface plaster layers. This damage would not occur if the partition wall was correctly isolated from the floor finish layer in the parking garage.

  15. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  16. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Dead Sea Rift Basins of Israel and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2016-01-01

    Following its middle Miocene inception, numerous basins of varying lengths and depths developed along the Dead Sea fault zone, a large continental transform plate boundary. The modern day left-lateral fault zone has an accumulated left-lateral offset of 105 to 110 km (65 to 68 mi). The deepest basin along the fault zone, the Lake Lisan or Dead Sea basin, reaches depths of 7.5 to 8.5 km (24,500 ft to 28,000 ft), and shows evidence of hydrocarbons. The basins are compartmentalized by normal faulting associated with rapid basin subsidence and, where present, domal uplift accompanying synrift salt withdrawal.

  17. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  18. Little salt spring, Florida: a unique underwater site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, C J; Cohen, A D; Emiliani, C; Holman, J A; Stipp, J J

    1979-02-16

    Little Salt Spring in southwest Florida, consisting of a shallow, water-filled basin above a deep, vertical underwater cavern, was a freshwater cenote in the peninsula's drier past. It collected and preserved perishable organic artifacts and other evidence of Paleo-Indian and Archaic Indian origin ranging in age from 12,000 to 9000 and from 6800 to 5200 years ago. An Archaic Period cemetery containing an estimated 1000 burials occupies an adjoining muck-filled slough and presently drowned portions of the basin of the spring. Artifacts and the nature of interment suggest a cultural link between the Archaic people and the much later Glades Tradition of southern Florida.

  19. Perancangan Interior Pusat Terapi Anak Autis Dan Indigo Berdasar Pendekatan Psikologi Interior Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayanto, Anastasia Vera

    2013-01-01

    Autism and indigo is one of unusual phenomena that happening to some childs. In the case of interior design with special needs-like autism and indigo children-, we need a spesific design that fulfill needs, efficient in doing therapy and self-development. Basicly from that reasons, the functions of interior design not only for fulfill functions and aesthetics, but also cares about society's problems, especially for special needs user's. This design based on approach of interior psy...

  20. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  1. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  2. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  3. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  4. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, Belarus and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Mark D.; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Steve; Ryan, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław; Spanski, Gregory T.; Wynn, Jeff; Yang, Chao

    2017-08-03

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Pripyat Basin, Belarus, and Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine, were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Pripyat Basin (in Belarus) and the Dnieper-Donets Basin (in Ukraine and southern Belarus) host stratabound and halokinetic Upper Devonian (Frasnian and Famennian) and Permian (Cisuralian) potash-bearing salt. The evaporite basins formed in the Donbass-Pripyat Rift, a Neoproterozoic continental rift structure that was reactivated during the Late Devonian and was flooded by seawater. Though the rift was divided, in part by volcanic deposits, into the separate Pripyat and Dnieper-Donets Basins, both basins contain similar potash‑bearing evaporite sequences. An Early Permian (Cisuralian) sag basin formed over the rift structure and was also inundated by seawater resulting in another sequence of evaporite deposition. Halokinetic activity initiated by basement faulting during the Devonian continued at least into the Permian and influenced potash salt deposition and structural evolution of potash-bearing salt in both basins.Within these basins, four areas (permissive tracts) that permit the presence of undiscovered potash deposits were defined by using geological criteria. Three tracts are permissive for stratabound potash-bearing deposits and include Famennian (Upper Devonian) salt in the Pripyat Basin, and Famennian and Cisuralian (lower Permian) salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin. In addition, a tract was delineated for halokinetic potash-bearing Famennian salt in the Dnieper-Donets Basin.The Pripyat Basin is the third largest source of potash in the world, producing 6.4 million metric tons of potassium chloride (KCl) (the equivalent of about 4.0 million metric tons of potassium oxide or K2O) in 2012. Potash production began in 1963 in the Starobin #1 mine, near the town of Starobin, Belarus, in the northwestern corner of the basin. Potash is currently produced from

  5. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  6. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  7. The Prefabricated Interior Design Studio: An Exploration into the History and Sustainability of Interior Prefabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the integration of prefabrication into an interior design studio. A review of the literature revealed that while there is a paucity of categorical research focused on this subject, the subject is historically significant with an abundance of evidence regarding the prefabrication of the interior environment dating back…

  8. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  9. 49 CFR 179.12 - Interior heater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior heater systems. 179.12 Section 179.12... Design Requirements § 179.12 Interior heater systems. (a) Interior heater systems shall be of approved... each compartment. (b) Each interior heater system shall be hydrostatically tested at not less than 13...

  10. Salt dissolution and collapse : one key to Western Canadian oil and gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halabura, S.P. [North Rim Exploration Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Potter, D. [Sito Energy Ltd., (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Issues regarding the poorly understood processes of salt dissolution and collapse within the Williston and Western Canada basins were explained. Salt collapse was described as being the dissolution and removal of various Paleozoic salts present within the basins. This process results in the altered structural attitude of overlying beds. Present understanding of salt collapse comes from subsurface mapping, seismic analysis and core examination. Good examples have been documented at Hummingbird, Kisbey and Rosetown, Saskatchewan. Examples of hydrocarbon pools associated with salt dissolution and collapse have been found in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. In Saskatchewan, salt dissolution and collapse has been known to control the occurrence of heavy oil and natural gas pools by creating a favourable structure and localizing the accumulation of reservoir-quality sand. The two immediate effects which are observed with the removal of salt from a dissolution site are: (1) lithified sediments forming the overburden fracture, sag and eventually collapse into the dissolution cavern, and (2) as salt is removed, but before breakage, the land at the surface begins to sag, creating a microbasin which fills with sediment, thus forming a stratigraphic anomaly. Core samples were exhibited which showed examples of both reservoir enhancement and reservoir destruction. 2 figs.

  11. Interior design. Mastering the master plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, C E

    1995-10-01

    Reflecting on the results of the survey, this proposed interior design master planning process addresses the concerns and issues of both CEOs and facility managers in ways that focus on problem-solving strategies and methods. Use of the interior design master plan process further promotes the goals and outcomes expressed in the survey by both groups. These include enhanced facility image, the efficient selection of finishes and furnishings, continuity despite staff changes, and overall savings in both costs and time. The interior design master plan allows administrators and facility managers to anticipate changes resulting from the restructuring of health care delivery. The administrators and facility managers are then able to respond in ways that manage those changes in the flexible and cost-effective manner they are striving for. This framework permits staff members to concentrate their time and energy on the care of their patients--which is, after all, what it's all about.

  12. Penerapan Psikologi Desain pada Elemen Desain Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of main interior designer’s assignments is to solve the problem within the facility. Problems may occur because the activities of design decision had done or will be done on the facility are not maximized. This problem can be reduced by rethinking the design through psychology design. Utilizing psychology design will help designer decide a better judgment of objects that affects the person using it in routine. The example of interior objects is wall, door, floor, color, and other elements of interior. Desk research method was used to support this article trough data collection from books and other professional institution websites. At the end, the conclusion of this article does not directly impact the result since it took time to persuade judgment of the user, but positively it will construct designer to rethink the design object.  

  13. Inequivalence of interior and exterior dynamical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    We begin a series of notes with the review of the historical distinction by Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi and other Founding Fathers of analytic dynamics, between the exteriordynamical problem, consisting of motion in vacuum under action-at-a-distance interactions, and the interior dynamical problem, consisting of motion within a resistive medium with the additional presence of contact, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. After recalling some of the historical reasons that led to the contemporary, virtually complete restriction of research to the exterior problem, we show that the interior dynamical problem cannot be reduced to the exterior one. This establishes the open character of the central objective of these notes: the identification of the space-time symmetries and relativities that are applicable to interior, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian systems. (author). 29 refs

  14. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  15. The Messinian evaporites in the Levant Basin: lithology, deformation and its evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Steinberg, Josh; Reshef, Moshe

    2017-04-01

    The lithological composition of the Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin remains controversial and salt deformation mechanisms are still not fully understood, due to the lack of high resolution 3D depth seismic data and well logs that record the entire evaporite sequence. We demonstrate how 3D Pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) and intra-salt tomography can lead to improved salt imaging. Using 3D PSDM seismic data with great coverage and deepwater well log data from recently drilled boreholes, we reveal intra-salt reflective units associated with thin clastic layers and a seismic transparent background consisting of uniform pure halite. Structural maps of all internal reflectors are generated for stratigraphy and attributes analysis. High amplitude fan structures in the lowermost intra-salt reflector are observed, which may indicate the source of the clastic formation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin comprises six units; the uppermost unit thickens towards the northwest, whereas the other units are uniform in thickness. The top of salt (TS) horizon is relatively horizontal, while all other intra-salt reflectors and base of salt (BS) dip towards the northwest. Different seismic attributes are used for identification of intra-salt deformation patterns. Maximum curvature maps show NW-striking thrust faults on the TS and upper intra-salt units, and dip azimuth maps are used to show different fold orientations between the TS and intra-salt units, which indicate a two-phase deformation mechanism: basin NW tilting as syn-depositional phase and NNE spreading of Plio-Pleistocene overburden as post-depositional phase. RMS amplitude maps are used to identify a channelized system on the TS. An evaporite evolution model during the MSC of the Levant Basin is therefore established based on all the observations. Finally the mechanical properties of the salts will be utilized to explore salt deformation in the Levant Basin

  16. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector

  17. Perancangan Interior Museum Film Indonesia Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Limantoro, Lim Renawati

    2013-01-01

    Surabaya is a city with a thriving cultural variety with a pluralistic society where people in Surabaya is more modern that easy to accept new things that developed in the community. Museum is a public place so that the necessary interior educative and informative and can be used as a sports-themed Indonesian films. The purpose of designing the interior of the film museum in Surabaya this is a venue to preserve Indonesian films and give knowledge to the people of Surabaya on the world of cine...

  18. Interior point algorithms theory and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.

  19. Ground Motion Prediction Atop Geometrically Complex Sedimentary Basins - The Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani-Kadmiel, S.; Tsesarsky, M.; Louie, J. N.; Gvirtzman, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The Dead Sea Transform (DST) is the source for some of the largest earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean. Several deep and structurally complex sedimentary basins are associated with the DST. These basins are up to 10 km deep and typically bounded by active fault zones. The low seismicity of the DST combined with the limited instrumental coverage of the seismic network in the area result in a critical knowledge gap. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the limited instrumental data with synthetic data based on computational modeling, in order to study the effects of earthquake ground motion in these sedimentary basins. We performed a 2D ground-motion analysis in the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) using a finite-difference code. Results indicate a complex pattern of ground motion amplification affected by the geometric features in the basin. To distinguish between the individual contributions of each geometrical feature in the basin, we developed a semiquantitative decomposition approach. This approach enabled us to interpret the DSB results as follows: (1) Ground-motion amplification as a result of resonance occurs basin-wide due to a high impedance contrast at the base of the uppermost layer; (2) Steep faults generate a strong edge-effect that further ampli- fies ground motions; (3) Sub-basins cause geometrical focusing that may significantly amplify ground motions; and (4) Salt diapirs diverge seismic energy and cause a de- crease in ground-motion amplitude. We address the significance of ground motion amplification due to geometrical focusing via an analytical and numerical study. We show that effective geometrical focusing occurs for a narrow set of eccentricities and velocity ratios, where seismic energy is converged to a region of ±0.5 km from surface. This mechanism leads to significant ground motion amplification at the center of the basin, up to a factor of 3; frequencies of the modeled spectrum are amplified up to the corner frequency of the source.

  20. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  1. Crossing the Salt Barrier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fry. RIVER. To cross the salt barrier is, therefore, an obligatory part of every amphihaline fish cycle. Figure 2a. Life Cycle of. Salmon. Adult salmon migrate from sea towards the river. After reaching their hatching ground, the eggs are laid in the gravel. The spawned fishes are called kelts. Alevin is a stage from hatching to fry.

  2. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  3. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Viden om forbrugernes holdning til og købsintention for saltreducerede fødevarer er central, i forhold til industriens udvikling af nye produkter og...... af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt...

  4. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  5. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  6. Metals removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  7. Actinide removal from spent salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  8. Dietary salt and gastric ulcer.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenberg, A

    1986-01-01

    Statistically significant linear correlations between geographic variations in salt consumption and mortality from gastric, but not duodenal ulcer, are reported. It is suggested that dietary consumption of salt is a risk factor in mortality from gastric ulcer.

  9. Should we eat less salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaye, François

    2013-05-01

    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular risk factor. There is overwhelming evidence that high salt consumption is a major cause of increased blood pressure. There is also a link between high salt consumption and risk of stroke, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, obesity, renal stones and stomach cancer. Reducing salt consumption leads to a decrease in blood pressure and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. There are no deleterious effects associated with reducing salt consumption and it is also very cost-effective. Many organizations and state governments have issued recommendations regarding the suitable amount of salt consumption. In France, the objective is a salt consumptionsalt comes from manufactured products in developed countries, reduction of salt consumption requires the participation of the food industry. The other tool is consumer information and education. Salt consumption has already decreased in France in recent years, but efforts must continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  11. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  12. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies.

  13. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  14. Interior Pathways to Dissipation of Mesoscale Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-27

    This talk at Goethe University asks What Powers Overturning Circulation? How does Ocean Circulation Equilibrate? There is a HUGE reservoir of energy sitting in the interior ocean. Can fluid dynamic instabilities contribute to the mixing required to drive global overturning circulation? Study designed to eliminate distinguished horizontal surfaces such as bottom BL and surface layer

  15. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock. ...

  16. Seismic View of the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    sound waves trapped in the solar interior. As these waves travel inwards they get refracted away from the radial direction due to increasing sound speed and at some depth they suffer a total internal reflection and turn back to the surface where they are reflected by the steeply falling density profile. Thus these modes are ...

  17. Discussion on interior greening decoration of residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, ZhiNeng

    2018-02-01

    Green plants bring endless natural energy into the room. This paper introduces the functions, principles and functions of indoor greening decoration from different angles. Its conclusion is that it has become an important measure to improve the living environment of the people, and through the interior greening decoration to create a harmonious living space of architecture, human and nature.

  18. Homemaking (Clothing and Interior Decorating), Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelso, Bessie; Anderson, Floyd L.

    Prepared by an instructor and curriculum development specialist of the Minnesota Work Opportunity Center, this course is designed to aid the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth develop skills in clothing and interior decorating. The approach focuses on the individual and the goals he desires to accomplish. During the first interview, the…

  19. Juno's first peek at Jupiter's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Tristan; Miguel, Yamila; Hubbard, William B.; Kaspi, Yohai; Reese, Daniel; Helled, Ravit; Galanti, Eli; Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean; Folkner, William M.; Anderson, John; Iess, Luciano; Durante, Daniele; Parisi, Marzia; Stevenson, David J.

    2017-04-01

    The first orbits of Juno around Jupiter have led to a considerable improvement in the measurement of the planet's even gravitational moments. We will discuss how this leads to better constraints on jovian interior models, and how internal differential rotation and equations of state play an important part in the analysis.

  20. Building of Requirement: Liberating Academic Interior Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Yelena; Dawkins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The authors focus on the strategies employed in the recent renovation of the William Johnston Building at Florida State University, in which the historical exterior was preserved, while the interiors were adapted to new functions as classrooms, study centers, and common spaces with intentionally undefined purposes. The building's various use…

  1. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  2. The interior structure of Ceres as revealed by surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Roger R.; Ermakov, Anton; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Raymond, Carol A.; Hager, Bradford; Zuber, Maria; King, Scott D.; Bland, Michael T.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Preusker, Frank; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Ceres, the largest body in the asteroid belt (940 km diameter), provides a unique opportunity to study the interior structure of a volatile-rich dwarf planet. Variations in a planetary body's subsurface rheology and density affect the rate of topographic relaxation. Preferential attenuation of long wavelength topography (≥150 km) on Ceres suggests that the viscosity of its crust decreases with increasing depth. We present finite element (FE) geodynamical simulations of Ceres to identify the internal structures and compositions that best reproduce its topography as observed by the NASA Dawn mission. We infer that Ceres has a mechanically strong crust with maximum effective viscosity ∼1025 Pa s. Combined with density constraints, this rheology suggests a crustal composition of carbonates or phyllosilicates, water ice, and at least 30 volume percent (vol.%) low-density, high-strength phases most consistent with salt and/or clathrate hydrates. The inference of these crustal materials supports the past existence of a global ocean, consistent with the observed surface composition. Meanwhile, we infer that the uppermost ≥60 km of the silicate-rich mantle is mechanically weak with viscosity <1021 Pa s, suggesting the presence of liquid pore fluids in this region and a low temperature history that avoided igneous differentiation due to late accretion or efficient heat loss through hydrothermal processes.

  3. Neotectonic and seismicidad in the Granada basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Vidal, F.; Miguel, F. de

    1984-01-01

    The depression of Granada is one of the Betics interior basins whose formation begun during the Middle Miocene and reached its individualization from the Upper Miocene. The main fracture directions are: N10-30E, N120-150E, N70-100E, some of them show great vertical jumpings. This seismic area is the most active in the Cordilleras Beticas (frequently like seismic series) and some destructive earthquakes occurred in the past. The higher seismic activity is concentrated in most subsident sectors of the area: the Vega de Granada, the Padul-Valle de Lecrin and the ''corredor de las Alpujarras'' prolongation about Arenas del Rey. (author)

  4. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  5. The SALT HRS Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Luke Martin Graham

    2012-05-01

    SALT HRS (Southern African Large Telescope High Resolution Échelle Spectrograph) is a high-resolution, high-efficiency spectrograph for the 11m SALT telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. The initial optical design work was performed at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Revisions to the concept, the mechanical design, manufacture, assembly and testing have been handled by the Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, at Durham University in the United Kingdom. SALT HRS is a fibre-fed échelle grating spectrograph with four operational modes: low-, medium- and high-resolution and high-stability modes, having spectral resolutions of R≈16000, 37000, 67000 and 67000 respectively over a wavelength range of 370-890nm. The instrument is of a dual channel, 'white pupil' design, in which the primary mirror acts to collimate light onto a single R4 échelle grating, and also to focus dispersed light to an intermediate focus. A dichroic beam-splitter separates the dispersed light into two separate spectral channels. Spherical pupil mirrors transfer the separated beams via a fold mirror to two wavelength-specific volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs) used as cross-dispersers. Cross-dispersed spectra are then imaged by two fully dioptric camera systems onto optimized CCD detectors. This thesis presents the results of the laboratory testing and specification of several critical sub-systems of SALT HRS, as well as the development of key software tools for the design verification and operation at the telescope. In Chapter 1 we first review the technical development of high-resolution spectroscopy and its specific implementation in SALT HRS. In Chapter 2 we develop a comprehensive throughput model of the entire system based on a combination of as-built performance and specific throughput measurements in the laboratory. This is used to make some specific predictions for the on-sky performance of SALT HRS and the magnitude limits for science targets. We also present a

  6. Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-02-08

    Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies.

  7. Mediterranean salt giants beyond the evaporite model: The Sicily perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo Manuella, Fabio; Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Hovland, Martin; Johnsen, Hans-Konrad; Rueslåtten, Håkon

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean salt giants, occurring both in sub-seafloor and in onshore settings (the "Gessoso Solfifera Group"), are traditionally explained by repeated cycles of desiccation and replenishment of the entire basin. However, such hypotheses are strongly biased by mass balance calculations and geodynamic considerations. In addition, any hypothesis without full desiccation, still based on the evaporite model, should consider that seawater brines start to precipitate halite when 2/3 of the seawater has evaporated, and hence the level of the basin cannot be the same as the adjacent ocean. On the other hand, hydrothermal venting of hot saline brines onto the seafloor can precipitate salt in a deep marine basin if a layer of heavy brine exists along the seafloor. This process, likely related to sub-surface boiling or supercritical out-salting (Hovland et al., 2006), is consistent with geological evidence in the Red Sea "Deeps" (Hovland et al., 2015). Although supercritical out-salting and phase separation can sufficiently explain the formation of several marine salt deposits, even in deep marine settings, the Mediterranean salt giant formations can also be explained by the serpentinization model (Scribano et al., 2016). Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites does not involve seawater salts, and large quantities of saline brines accumulate in pores and fractures of the sub-seafloor serpentinites. If these rocks undergo thermal dehydration, for example, due to igneous intrusions, brines and salt slurries can migrate upwards as hydrothermal plumes, eventually venting at the seafloor, giving rise to giant salt deposits over time. These hydrothermal processes can take place in a temporal sequence, as it occurred in the "Caltanissetta Basin" (Sicily). There, salt accumulation associated with serpentinization started during Triassic times (and even earlier), and venting of heavy brines onto the seafloor eventually occurred in the Messinian via the hydrothermal plume mechanism

  8. Large Impact Basins on Mercury: Global Distribution, Characteristics, and Modification History from MESSENGER Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Klimczak, Christian; Strom, Robert G.; Chapman, Clark R.; Prockter, Louise M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The formation of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) was an important process in the early evolution of Mercury and influenced the planet's topography, stratigraphy, and crustal structure. We catalog and characterize this basin population on Mercury from global observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft, and we use the new data to evaluate basins suggested on the basis of the Mariner 10 flybys. Forty-two certain or probable impact basins are recognized a few additional basins that may have been degraded to the point of ambiguity are plausible on the basis of new data but are classified as uncertain. The spatial density of large basins (D greater than or equal to 500 km) on Mercury is lower than that on the Moon. Morphological characteristics of basins on Mercury suggest that on average they are more degraded than lunar basins. These observations are consistent with more efficient modification, degradation, and obliteration of the largest basins on Mercury than on the Moon. This distinction may be a result of differences in the basin formation process (producing fewer rings), greater relaxation of topography after basin formation (subduing relief), and/or higher rates of volcanism during the period of heavy bombardment on Mercury compared to the Moon (burying basin rings and interiors).

  9. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  10. Status of Gulf Coast salt dome characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, O.E.; Gibbons, M.G.; Deyling, M.A.; McPherson, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Screening and characterization for a potential nuclear waste repository have progressed through the area phase in these Gulf Coast Salt Basins. The domes studied during the area phase are described briefly. The area characterization studies are outlined, and the resulting reports are listed. Geologic and environmental studies resulted in elimination of four domes from further consideration. The remaining domes were judged acceptable and were classified as to their favorability to license. Site characterization planning for location phase activities deals primarily with technical, environmental, and socioeconomic issues of concern to the states and/or to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), Department of Energy (DOE). These issues are listed and discussed. 16 references, 9 figures

  11. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  12. Salt-influenced structures in the mesozoic-tertiary cover of the southern North Sea, U.K.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Stewart, S. [Amerada Hess Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    A structural model encompassing the southern North Sea Basin west of the Central Graben has been developed that combines gravity gliding of the postsalt cover with basement tectonics. The basin differs from many salt basins in that it forms a closed system. Section construction and balancing through the cover of the North Sea need to take into account thin-skinned and thick-skinned extensions and contractions. The North Sea salt formed in Permian time in two large oval basins separated by the Mid North Sea High. The shape of these basins reflects variable patterns of thermal subsidence. Subsequent salt tectonics was governed by local graben structures and by regional uplift and subsidence. Rifting initiated during the Triassic and allowed reactive and locally passive diapirs to develop in the post-salt cover. In the southern North Sea, the Dowsing graben system in the cover is offset from the Dowsing fault zone below the salt. This offset in extensional structures probably relates to the salt thickness and to the position of the surface hinge line that controlled the onset of gravity gliding in the postsalt section. Gravity gliding of the cover into the Triassic-Jurassic Sole Pit trough and away from zones of rift flank uplift was associated with Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous extension in the Central North Sea; gliding caused asymmetric compressional pillows to develop downslope. Gravity spreading of the cover during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary was associated with tilting during thermal subsidence of the southern North Sea Basin, enhanced by pulses of tectonic inversion in the southern North Sea basement. The resultant glide tectonics formed new small grabens upslope and compressional pillows downslope. Where the compressional pillows were eroded sufficiently or faulted later, the salt broke through the thinned cover to produce new active and then passive diapirs, which drained the pillows to produce new rim synclines.

  13. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  14. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Mantle temperature as a control on the time scale of thermal evolution of extensional basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K. D.; Armitage, J. J.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Extension of the lithosphere, the thermo-mechanical boundary layer above the convecting mantle, is followed by cooling and subsidence. The timescale of oceanic basin subsidence is ~100 Myr whereas basins of the continental interior often subside continuously for more than 200 Myr after rifting....... Using numerical modelling, we show how these diverse rifting scenarios are unified when accounting for varying mantle potential temperature. At a temperature of 1300 °C, cooling is plate-like with nearly exponential subsidence as observed in oceanic basins. At 1200 °C, subsidence is almost linear...... and continues for more than 800 Myr. The longevity of basin subsidence in the continental interior can therefore be explained by variation of mantle temperature. An additional cause of the longevity of subsidence is related to the equilibrium thickness of the lithosphere which is increased by the local...

  16. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  17. Elemen Pembentuk Makna pada Sebuah Interior Arsitektur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dila Hendrassukma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing needs of the community, also increasing the need for space to accommodated those needs. With limited space available nowadays, it is not uncommon to change the old buildings’ function as a place to meet the social growing need of the space. However, it is must be remembered by architects and interior architects when changing the functions of a space that the old space has its own histories and particular meaning to people who had ever occupied it. Those histories and meanings should be included in the creation of the new function. Article gives and describes elements that need to be known in order to understand the sense of a space, such as drawing plans, scale, proportion, movement, transition and access that embodied in the architecture and interior space. Qualitative methods by literature study is used in the making of this article.. 

  18. Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.

  19. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  20. Giant Planet Interior Structure and Thermal Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Militzer, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the interior structure and composition of giant planets, and how this structure changes as these planets cool and contract over time. Here we define giant planets as those that have an observable hydrogen-helium envelope, which includes Jupiter-like planets, which are predominantly H/He gas, and Neptune-like planets which are predominantly composed of elements heavier than H/He. We describe the equations of state of planetary materials and the construction of static structural mode...

  1. Physics of the Earth’s Interior

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Corvol, Pierre; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions: the extent of certain recent natural disasters and their dramatic consequences have reminded us of the power of terrestrial phenomena and of the need for scientific research to understand the Earth’s dynamics more fully. Over the last twenty years the study of the Earth’s interior has witnessed a real revolution, owing in particular to the development of increasingly sophisticated seismic tomography techniques and the powerful computations made possi...

  2. Process design (exterior – interior design)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...

  3. Gravitational Higgs mechanism in neutron star interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Andrew; Horbatsch, Michael W.; Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2017-04-01

    We suggest that nonminimally coupled scalar fields can lead to modifications of the microphysics in the interiors of relativistic stars. As a concrete example, we consider the generation of a nonzero photon mass in such high-density environments. This is achieved by means of a light gravitational scalar, and the scalarization phase transition in scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. Two distinct models are presented, and phenomenological implications are briefly discussed.

  4. Interiors of the Planets [Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The number of scientists devoted to the problems of planetary interiors (especially for planets other than the Earth) is small, appropriately so in view of the limited data base. However, the recent results from deep space missions together with recent rapid advances in high pressure physics are providing planetary modelers with well-constrained problems and solutions of limited ambiguity. These advances are important and interesting for a wide community of planetary and oth...

  5. Perancangan Interior Hershey's Chocolate World Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    IGN. Ardana, Elisa Novita

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate is a food which is loved by many people, regardless of age. Currently, chocolate's type, flavor, and shapes is different and have varied. Nevertheless, the selling system of chocolate in Surabaya is still very conventional. In order for the chocolate sales to grow and become a profitable business opportunity, it is necessary to design the interior of chocolate shop that provides a challenge to the public to learn how to produce chocolate as a part of shopping activity and simultaneo...

  6. Asymmetric interiors for small black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College,City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science,University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-08-16

    We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement breaks down at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not see local geometry. This picture of the interior allows the CFT to reconcile unitary Hawking evaporation with the classical experience of infalling observers.

  7. Memahami Estetika dari Sudut Pandang Desain Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunida Sofiana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The term aesthetic has always become part of design. Without aesthetic, design has just a functional object. Aesthetic in design, particularly in interior design, has been influenced by many factors, which are aesthetic value, aesthetic perception, and time frame. Aesthetic has subjective meaning related to time frame and objective meaning related to implementation of element and principles of design on aesthetic term. Aesthetic perception is how we judge and see the object using our own thinking and value. Time frame is where and when the aesthetic value happens. Interior design trend right now has been influenced by technology in many ways so the concept of modern design theme is always the best choice for designer. However, using modern theme as a design concept has to be implemented as a whole theme and related to aesthetical value so that the design will gain much appreciation from others. This paper used deductive method to explain the theory of aesthetic and the implementation of aesthetic value in interior design context. Design should speak louder than it looked. 

  8. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building

  10. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  11. Vertical movement in mare basins: relation to mare emplacement, basin tectonics, and lunar thermal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships of linear rilles and mare ridges in the Serenitatis basin region of the moon are explained by a combination of lithospheric flexure in response to basin loading by basalt fill and a time-dependent global stress due to the thermal evolution of the lunar interior. The pertinent tectonic observations are the radial distance of basin concentric rilles or graben from the mare center; the location and orientation of mare ridges, interpreted as compressive features; and the restriction of graben formation to times older than 3.6 +- 0.2 b.y. ago, while ridge formation continued after emplacement of the youngest mare basalt unit (approx.3 b.y. ago). The locations of the graben are consistent with the geometry of the mare basalt load expected from the dimensions of multiring basins for values of the thickness of the elastic lithosphere beneath Serenitatis in the range 25--50 km at 3.6--3.8 b.y. ago. The locations and orientations of mare ridges are consistent with the load inferred from surface mapping and subsurface radar reflections for values of the elastic lithosphere thickness near 100 km at 3.0--3.4 b.y. ago. The thickening of the lithosphere beneath a major basin during the evolution of mare volcanism is thus clearly evident in the tectonics. The cessation of rille formation and the prolonged period of ridge formation are attributed to a change in the global horizontal thermal stress from extension to compression as the moon shifted from net expansion to overall cooling and contraction. Severe limits as placed on the range of possible lunar thermal histories. The zone of horizontal extensional stresses peripheral to mare loads favors the edge of mare basins as the preferred sites for mare basalt magma eruption in the later stages of mare fill, although subsidence may lead to accumulation of such young lavas in basin centers

  12. Classification plan and handling of the hydrographic basin of the Sueva River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil T, Walter O; Correa F, Hyarold

    1998-01-01

    The study was centered in the design of a classification proposal and handling for the basin of the Sueva River, guided to begin processes of the hydric resource conservation and that it allowed to harmonize the productive processes that are given to the interior of the basin with the environmental offer; strategies were designed guided to link to the community to the diagnostic process and design of the plan that shows the more relevant aspects of the environmental problem

  13. Tree-ring reconstruction of the level of Great Salt Lake, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Shih-Yu Wang; Brendan M. Buckley; Matthew F. Bekker

    2014-01-01

    Utah's Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a closed-basin remnant of the larger Pleistocene-age Lake Bonneville. The modern instrumental record of the GSL-level (i.e. elevation) change is strongly modulated by Pacific Ocean coupled ocean/atmospheric oscillations at low frequency, and therefore reflects the decadalscale wet/dry cycles that characterize the region. A within-...

  14. South Atlantic interbasin exchanges of mass, heat, salt and anthropogenic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, G.R.; McDonagh, E.L.; King, B.A.; Bryden, H.L.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Brown, P.J.; Schuster, U.; Speer, K.G.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    The exchange of mass, heat, salt and anthropogenic carbon (Cant) between the South Atlantic, south of 24°S, and adjacent ocean basins is estimated from hydrographic data obtained during 2008–2009 using an inverse method. Transports of anthropogenic carbon are calculated across the western (Drake

  15. Limnological studies on the Pretoria Salt Pan, a hypersaline maar lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pretoria Salt pan is shallow and alkaline with pronounced mesothermy at a depth of between 0.55 and 0.7 metres. Secchi disc transparencies ranged from 7 to 19 cm. Endorheic or closed drainage basins are widely distributed in many climate...

  16. Process-based management approaches for salt desert shrublands dominated by downy brome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome grass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion has severely altered key ecological processes such as disturbance regimes, soil nutrient cycling, community assembly, and successional pathways in semi-arid Great Basin salt desert shrublands. Restoring the structure and function of these severly alte...

  17. Origins of the Salado, Seven Rivers, and San Andres salt margins in Texas and New Mexico: Revision 1: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S.D.; Murphy, P.J.

    1987-02-01

    The present boundaries of the San Andres, Seven Rivers, and Salado salts generally lie along the periphery of the Palo Duro and Tucumcari Basins. Various geologic mechanisms occurring singularly or in combination determined the positions of the salt margins. These mechanisms include nondeposition of salt and syndepositional and postdepositional dissolution. In New Mexico, San Andres units pinch out against the Pedernal and Sierra Grande Uplifts, indicating that nondeposition established the original salt margins there. Syndepositional dissolution of exposed Upper San Andres salts occurred in response to Guadalupian upwarp of the basin margins. Triassic erosion differentially removed Permian salt-bearing formations along the uplifts. Late Tertiary dissolution is indicated by fill of north-south trending collapse valleys. In Texas, Guadalupian upwarp along the Amarillo Uplift caused pinchout of Units 2 and 3 in the Lower San Andres and influenced the deposition of subsequent salt-bearing strata. The discontinuity of Upper San Andres evaporites across the Amarillo Uplift suggests syndepositional dissolution. Along the eastern and northeastern basin margin, dissolution may have accompanied Triassic erosion of locally uplifted Upper Permian strata. Tertiary dissolution is recognized beneath anomalously thick Ogallala Formation sections that overlie collasped Permian strata. 49 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  19. Effect of Vegetation on Sediment Transport across Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. J.; Kirwan, M. L.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Ganju, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are a classic example of ecogeomorphology where interactions between plants and sediment transport govern the stability of a rapidly evolving ecosystem. In particular, plants slow water velocities which facilitates deposition of mineral sediment, and the resulting change in soil elevation influences the growth and species distribution of plants. The ability of a salt marsh to withstand sea level rise (SLR) is therefore dependent, among other factors, on the availability of mineral sediment. Here we measure suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) along a transect from tidal channel to marsh interior, exploring the role biomass plays in regulating the magnitude and spatial variability in vertical accretion. Our study was conducted in Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marshes along the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. At each site, we deployed and calibrated optical back scatter turbidity probes to measure SSC in 15 minute intervals in a tidal channel, on the marsh edge, and in the marsh interior. We visited each site monthly to measure plant biomass via clip plots and vertical accretion via two types of sediment tiles. Preliminary results confirm classic observations that biomass is highest at the marsh edge, and that SSC and vertical accretion decrease across the marsh platform with distance from the channel. We expect that when biomass is higher, such as in southern sites like Georgia and months late in the growing season, SSC will decay more rapidly with distance into the marsh. Higher biomass will likely also correspond to increased vertical accretion, with the greatest effect at marsh edge locations. Our study will likely demonstrate how salt marsh plants interact with sediment transport dynamics to control marsh morphology and thus contribute to marsh resilience to SLR.

  20. Tectonic types of deepwater basins and structural segmentation of the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2012-03-01

    Typification of tectonic structures is one of the important lines of tectonic research. Recently, I have published several articles, which are concerned with deepwater oceanic basins. This paper is focused on tectonic typification of deepwater basins of the North Atlantic. They are attributed to three types: perispreading, central thalassogenic, and pericontinental. The first type comprises the Irminger, Iceland, Greenland, and Lofoten basins. The first two basins are associated with the Reykjanes Ridge and the two others, with the Mohns Ridge. The central thalassogenic type is exemplified in the Norwegian Basin, while the pericontinental type in the Rockall Trough. Two systems of basins are distinguished by morphostructural and historical-geological features: the northern system of the Oligocene-Quaternary structures and the southern system of the Paleocene-Quaternary structures. The Greenland-Faroe tectonovolcanic zone serves as their tectonic interface. In the tectonic typology of their deepwater basins, the North Atlantic is closer to the Indian than to other oceans. The present-day configuration of the northern basins is determined by neotectonics. The tectonic movements in the northern system of basins at this stage were more contrasting than in the southern system. This explains the greater depth of the former basins. The spatial position of the deepwater basins belonging to different types determines the tectonic segmentation of the oceanic bottom. The southern, central, and northern latitudinal segments correspond to different geodynamic states of the Earth's interior.

  1. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  2. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  3. Temporal trends of forest interior conditions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; James. Wickham

    2012-01-01

    Nature's benefits derived from forest interior environments cannot be sustained if the natural capital of forest interior area is not sustained. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest loss and gain for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to determine whether forest interior environments were maintained at five spatial scales. A 1.1 percent net...

  4. Interior design students win two IDEC Student Design Competition awards

    OpenAIRE

    Watson-Bloch, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.

  5. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  6. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  8. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  9. Salt fluoridation and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthaler, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Salt, caprock, and sheath study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karably, L.S. Jr.; Jernigan, B.L.; Petre, I.C.; Sullivan, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Salt domes of the Gulf Coast region of the United States consist of four component parts: 1) a salt stock, 2) caprock material, 3) sheath material, and 4) the surrounding upturned sediments. Salt stock consists of remarkably pure halite (NaCl), which represents 90 to 99% of the total mass, with the major impurity being anhydrite. Salt stocks are markedly homogeneous and continuous with respect to composition, texture and structure. Caprock consists primarily of anhydrite, gypsum and calcite which commonly occur in monomineralic zones oriented roughly parallel to the top of the salt stock. Caprock composition varies markedly over any single salt stock as well as from one salt stock to another. Fracturing, porosity and permeability of caprock material are correspondingly variable, but are usually developed tto a higher degree in the upper portions of caprock; porosity and permeability may also be relatively high at the caprock-salt interface. Caprock is generally believed to form by residual accumulation of anhydrite from the dissolution of salt, with subsequent alteration of the anhydrite to calcite and gypsum. Sheath material, probably a mixture of sedimentary rocks (clastic and evaporite), formed as a result of mechanical interaction between the salt stock and surrounding sediments during diapirism. Sheath material is thought to be distributed throughout an external zone, consisting mainly of disturbed sediment, and an internal zone, consisting mainly of disturbed salt. Sheath material forms along a roughly cylindrical shear zone which encloses thesalt stock. Sheath material may be overpressured and is generally thought to be impermeable. Upturned sediments around the salt diapirs are the result of dome genesis; hovever, these sedimentary beds and other structures are beyond the scope of this report

  11. Area geological characterization report for the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The present state of knowledge of the geology, hydrogeology, and seismology of the Palo Duro and Dalhart basins is summarized as a basis for future siting studies for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Large portions of the Texas Panhandle, and especially the Palo Duro basin, have stable geologic conditions and a favorable evaporite stratigraphy that warrant further study. Five salt-bearing formations containing thick salt units are present within the basin. Salt beds appear to be persistent over wide areas, relatively flat lying and structurally undisturbed. Available hydrogeologic data suggest that favorable conditions for waste isolation are widespread. The level and rate of seismic activity are low throughout the Texas Panhandle. 335 references, 83 figures, 17 tables

  12. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  13. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  14. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  15. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  16. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  17. Surface-water resources of Polecat Creek basin, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1956-01-01

    A compilation of basic data on surface waters in Polecat Creek basin is presented on a monthly basis for Heyburn Reservoir and for Polecat Creek at Heyburn, Okla. Chemical analyses are shown for five sites in the basin. Correlation of runoff records with those for nearby basins indicates that the average annual runoff of the basin above gaging station at Heyburn is 325 acre-feet per square mile. Estimated duration curves of daily flow indicate that under natural conditions there would be no flow in Polecat Creek at Heyburn (drainage area, 129 square miles) about 16 percent of the time on an average, and that the flow would be less than 3 cubic feet per second half of the time. As there is no significant base flow in the basin, comparable low flows during dry-weather periods may be expected in other parts of the basin. During drought periods Heyburn Reservoir does not sustain a dependable low-water flow in Polecat Creek. Except for possible re-use of the small sewage effluent from city of Sapulpa, dependable supplies for additional water needs on the main stem will require development of supplemental storage. There has been no regular program for collection of chemical quality data in the basin, but miscellaneous analyses indicate a water of suitable quality for municipal and agricultural uses in Heyburn Reservoir and Polecat Creek near Heyburn. One recent chemical analysis indicates the possibility of a salt pollution problem in the Creek near Sapulpa. (available as photostat copy only)

  18. Sedimentation, accretion, and subsidence in marshes of Barataria Basin, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.S.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical accretion and sediment accumulation rates were determined from the distribution of 137 Cs in cores collected from fresh water, intermediate, brackish, and salt marshes in the Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Vertical accretion rates vary from about 1.3 cm.yr -1 in levee areas to 0.7 in backmarshes. Mineral sediment content of the marsh soil profile decreased with distance from the coast. Except in natural levee areas, marsh accretion rates are less than subsidence measured by water level data, however this alone cannot account for observed land-loss patterns in the basin area

  19. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem

  20. Interior Design 1992 Buyers Guide issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-30

    The Interior Design Magazine Buyers Guide is compiled with you, the designer, in mind. So it's packed with the most comprehensive collection of sources available anyplace--arranged for fast, easy access. First, the Keyword Index presents all the Buyers Guide product categories alphabetically (see the first tab divider). Refer to the page number indicated in the Product Index (second tab divider) to view various manufacturers of products under each category heading. Addresses, phone and fax numbers, regional and international showroom/representatives are located in the A-Z Index (third tab divider) in alphabetical order. Consult the table of contents for trade associations, lighting consultants, marts, and other useful sections.

  1. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after

  2. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  3. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  4. Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Mustard, J.; Taylor, L.; McCord, T.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Petro, N.; Clark, R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in the geological and thermal evolution of the Moon is the nature and history of mantle melting and its relationship to the formation and evolution of lunar multi-ringed basins. Mare volcanic deposits provide evidence for the nature, magnitude and composition of mantle melting as a function of space and time [1]. Many argue that mantle partial melts are derived from depths well below the influence of multiringed basin impact events [1], while others postulate that the formation of these basins can cause mantle perturbations that are more directly linked to the generation ascent and eruption of mare basalts [2,3]. In any case, longer-term basin evolution will considerably influence the state and orientation of stress in the lithosphere, and the location of mare volcanic vents in basins as a function of time [4]. Thus, the location, nature and ages of volcanic vents and deposits in relation to multi-ringed impact basins provides evidence for the role that these basins played in the generation of volcanism or in the influence of the basins on surface volcanic eruption and deposit concentration. Unfortunately, most lunar multi-ringed impact basins have been eroded by impacts or filled with lunar mare deposits [5-8], with estimates of the thickness of mare fill extending up to more than six km in the central part of some basins [9-11]. The interior of most basins (e.g., Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, Humorum) are almost completely covered and obscured. Although much is known about the lava filling of multi-ringed basins, and particularly the most recent deposits [5-8], little is known about initial stages of mare volcanism and its relationship to the impact event. One multi-ringed basin, Orientale, offers substantial clues to the relationships of basin interiors and mare basalt volcanism.

  5. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a >700,000 sq. km. remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed across the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-83.5 Ma. Canada Basin was filled by Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Beaufort-Mackenzie Deltaic System, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. The basin contains roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. Three fourths or more of this volume generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemipelagic deposits, which contain lenses to extensive interbeds of moderate amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits.Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin is correlative with stratigraphic sequences in these areas that contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks. In addition, worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas windows. Structural, stratigraphic and combined structural and stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin, and at least one of these contains bright spots. However, deep water (to almost 4000 m), remoteness from harbors and markets, and thick accumulations of seasonal to permanent sea ice (until its possible removal by global warming later this century) will require the discovery of very large deposits for commercial success in most parts of Canada Basin. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Influence of the Onion Creek salt diapir on the late Cenozoic history of Fisher Valley, southeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.

    1983-01-01

    Apparently, several pulses of salt flowed into the diapir between about 2-3 and 0.25Myr ago, and the diapir may still be active. The rising salt diapir impeded the flow of ancestral Fisher Creek, causing deposition of more than 125m of basin-fill sediments, and eventually diverted the creek down Cottonwood graben to the Dolores River about 0.25Myr ago. Onion Creek has eroded headward from the Colorado River, through both the diapir and the basin-fill sediments, and is about to capture Fisher Creek, restoring the original drainage course. -from Author

  7. Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data Collected in the U.S. Part of the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos Aquifer System in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas, November 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The transboundary Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system was identified as one of the priority transboundary aquifer systems for additional study by the United...

  8. Irregular plate boundary controls on Foreland Basin sedimentation (Miocene, Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Murat; Gürbüz, Kemal; Cronin, Bryan T.

    2015-11-01

    The northern movement of the Arabian Plate led to the development of a compressional regime in the south-eastern part of Turkey after the Late Cretaceous. The collision of the Arabian Plate with the Anatolide-Taurides Platform and subsequent development of the Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin at the beginning of the Miocene evolved as a result of this movement. An irregular plate geometry or promontory of the Arabian Plate caused partitioning of the plate margin (precollision-collision-postcollision). This irregular plate boundary was delimited by western and northern boundary faults and an interior basin fault. The NW-oriented small wedge top basins on the overlying Anatolide-Taurides Platform obliquely cut through the foredeep basin. The region (across the wedge top basin) on the irregular promontory of the underlying Arabian Plate contains different sedimentation depocentres. Small fining-upward submarine fan deposits (including pebbly channel deposits and coarsening-upward lobe sequences) are located at the centre of the irregular part of the plate (in the Tanır region) and overlie planktic foraminifera-bearing claystones. These submarine fan sediments pass outboard into distal interbedded turbidite claystones and siltstones in a downdip direction (S-SE). The boundary fault intersection of the promontory led to the development of a submarine slope environment with irregular sea-floor topography in the Fırnız area (4-5 km south-east of the Tanır region). The slump deposits, sandy debrites, and fine-grained thin-bedded turbidites filled this region. Structural alignments and seismicity associated with the plate margin were the main controlling factors on the geometry of the depocentre, sediment quantity, sediment input, sedimentary facies, local sea level changes, and post-sedimentary deformation in the Kahramanmaraş Foreland Basin.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  10. Hydrology and surface morphology of the Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley Playa, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Gregory C.

    1979-01-01

    The Bonneville Salt Flats and Pilot Valley are in the western part of the Great Salt Lake Desert in northwest Utah. The areas are separate, though similar, hydrologic basins, and both contain a salt crust. The Bonneville salt crust covered about 40 square miles in the fall of 1976, and the salt crust in Pilot Valley covered 7 square miles. Both areas lack any noticeable surface relief (in 1976, 1.3 feet on the Bonneville salt crust and 0.3 foot on the Pilot Valley salt crust).The salt crust on the Salt Flats has been used for many years for automobile racing, and brines from shallow lacustrine deposits have been used for the production of potash. In recent years, there has been an apparent conflict between these two major uses of the area as the salt crust has diminished in both thickness and extent. Much of the Bonneville Racetrack has become rougher, and there has also been an increase in the amount of sediment on the south end of the racetrack. The Pilot Valley salt crust and surrounding playa have been largely unused.Evaporite minerals on the Salt Flats and the Pilot Valley playa are concentrated in three zones: (1) a carbonate zone composed mainly of authigenic clay-size carbonate minerals, (2) a sulfate zone composed mainly of authigenic gypsum, and (3) a chloride zone composed of crystalline halite (the salt crust). Five major types of salt crust were recognized on the Salt Flats, but only one type was observed in Pilot Valley. Geomorphic differences in the salt crust are caused by differences in their hydrologic environments. The salt crusts are dynamic features that are subject to change because of climatic factors and man's activities.Ground water occurs in three distinct aquifers in much of the western Great Salt Lake Desert: (1) the basin-fill aquifer, which yields water from conglomerate in the lower part of the basin fill, (2) the alluvial-fan aquifer, which yields water from sand and gravel along the western margins of both playas, and (3) the

  11. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation [A10-1999-6000-100-00-0-0-3, 3501000] Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside-Corona Feeder... and distribution of local and imported water supplies, using available capacity in the Bunker Hill...

  12. 75 FR 4582 - Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Meetings, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: In... Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All... issues associated with public land management in Nevada. Meeting locations and topics for discussion...

  13. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan that will be analyzed in the Programmatic EIS include, but are not...

  14. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  15. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  16. Investigation of the utility of Gulf Coast salt domes for the storage or disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.D.; Thoms, R.L.; Kupfer, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of tectonic, geohydrologic, and cultural data led to the selection of three salt domes (Vacherie, Rayburn's, Prothro) in the North Louisiana Basin and three (Keechi, Mt. Sylvan, Palestine) in the Northeast Texas Basin. Results of the tectonic stability studies (monitoring of dome movement, quaternary, Mesozoic and Tertiary, seismic, corehole in Vacherie) and hydrologic stability studies (numerical modeling, caprock, mine leaks) are discussed in detail and recommendations for further study are given

  17. Investigation of the utility of Gulf Coast salt domes for the storage or disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.D.; Thoms, R.L.; Kupfer, D.H.

    1976-09-30

    Analysis of tectonic, geohydrologic, and cultural data led to the selection of three salt domes (Vacherie, Rayburn's, Prothro) in the North Louisiana Basin and three (Keechi, Mt. Sylvan, Palestine) in the Northeast Texas Basin. Results of the tectonic stability studies (monitoring of dome movement, quaternary, Mesozoic and Tertiary, seismic, corehole in Vacherie) and hydrologic stability studies (numerical modeling, caprock, mine leaks) are discussed in detail and recommendations for further study are given. (DLC)

  18. Global Cooling Drive Tectonic Scale Aridification of Asian Interior since Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Zhu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Global cooling and the uplift of Tibetan Plateau are two potential mechanisms for tectonic scale aridification of Asian interior since Miocene. However, their relative importance is still controversial due to lack of continuous paleoclimate record. Here, using a 164 m long sediment core from Site U1438 in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB) in the NW Pacific, we show that the tectonic scale aridification of Asian interior is linked to global cooling rather than the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. We analyzed the characteristics and variations of clastic mineral (e.g. quartz), clay minerals, radiogenic strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes of the fine pelagic mud intervals from the sediment core. These new evidences indicate a continuous input of Asian dust from Asian interior to ASB since Miocene. We found that Asian dust in the ASB overall increased starting from ca.15.0 Myr (mid-Miocene), and ca. 3.5 Myr (Late Pliocene). The variations of Asian dust transport and accumulation closely responds to known times of enhanced Asian aridification and prevailing westerlies. The overall and gradual increase of Asian dust since mid-Miocene and Late Pliocene are in agreement with the formation and development of the polar ice caps, and are coupled with the gradual decrease of the global temperature recorded by the δ18O ratio of forams, but lag behind the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. We argue that global cooling drove the aridification of the Asian interior and resulted in the increase of Asian dust deposition in the ASB.

  19. A geochemical approach for the evaluation of water availability and salinity in closed basins: the Draa Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, N.; Lgourna, Z.; Boutaleb, S.; Tagma, T.; Vinson, D. S.; Ettayfi, N.; Bouchaou, L.; Vengosh, A.

    2010-12-01

    In the sub-Saharan Draa Basin of southern Morocco, winter snowmelt from the Atlas Mountains is captured in a reservoir, stored, and discharged downstream for irrigation in six oases. The combined imported surface water and shallow groundwater exploitation for sustaining local agriculture is a common practice in many worldwide arid basins.. Like in many basins, the salinization of groundwater in the Draa Basin has become a limiting factor for agricultural development and long-term sustainability. .Since most of the IPCC climate models predict a significant decrease in precipitation in Northern Africa over the next few decades, water shortage and salinization induced from climate change are expected to exacerbate the existing water crisis. Evaluating the sources and mechanisms of this salinization can provide the necessary tools for sustainable water management in the Draa Basin that may be applied to many similarly arid basins. Here we present new geochemical results from 98 shallow groundwater and four surface water samples collected in May 2009 and April 2010. The samples were collected from upstream tributaries to the reservoir, the reservoir, and groundwater from in six oases downstream of the reservoir. The goal of the survey was to identify the sources of salinity using geochemical and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, and δ18O) signatures in the groundwater, which could derive from three possible sources (1) evaporation and recycling of the irrigation water; (2) dissolution of salts that were entrapped in the unsaturated zone; and (3) lateral flow of adjacent groundwater. The data show a large salinity range from fresh water to highly brackish water with total dissolved salts (TDS) exceeding 12,000 mg/L. The salinity increases with downstream flow between successive oases. Br/Cl and B/Cl ratios decrease with TDS, which suggests that the main mechanism of salinization in the Draa Basin is derived salt dissolution in the unsaturated zone and salinization of the

  20. Petroleum geology and resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, Ukraine and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Dnieper-Donets basin is almost entirely in Ukraine, and it is the principal producer of hydrocarbons in that country. A small southeastern part of the basin is in Russia. The basin is bounded by the Voronezh high of the Russian craton to the northeast and by the Ukrainian shield to the southwest. The basin is principally a Late Devonian rift that is overlain by a Carboniferous to Early Permian postrift sag. The Devonian rift structure extends northwestward into the Pripyat basin of Belarus; the two basins are separated by the Bragin-Loev uplift, which is a Devonian volcanic center. Southeastward, the Dnieper-Donets basin has a gradational boundary with the Donbas foldbelt, which is a structurally inverted and deformed part of the basin. The sedimentary succession of the basin consists of four tectono-stratigraphic sequences. The prerift platform sequence includes Middle Devonian to lower Frasnian, mainly clastic, rocks that were deposited in an extensive intracratonic basin. 1 The Upper Devonian synrift sequence probably is as thick as 4?5 kilometers. It is composed of marine carbonate, clastic, and volcanic rocks and two salt formations, of Frasnian and Famennian age, that are deformed into salt domes and plugs. The postrift sag sequence consists of Carboniferous and Lower Permian clastic marine and alluvial deltaic rocks that are as thick as 11 kilometers in the southeastern part of the basin. The Lower Permian interval includes a salt formation that is an important regional seal for oil and gas fields. The basin was affected by strong compression in Artinskian (Early Permian) time, when southeastern basin areas were uplifted and deeply eroded and the Donbas foldbelt was formed. The postrift platform sequence includes Triassic through Tertiary rocks that were deposited in a shallow platform depression that extended far beyond the Dnieper-Donets basin boundaries. A single total petroleum system encompassing the entire sedimentary succession is identified in

  1. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  2. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  3. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  4. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  5. Planetary Interior Modeling and Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating spectral admittance functions using Pioneer Venus gravity and topography data. These admittance functions provide a convenient means to carry out systematic geophysical studies over much of the surface of Venus with a variety of interior density models. The admittance functions are calculated in the observation space of line-of-sight (LOS) gravity. Both closed and open system petrological models are considered for the Tharsis region of Mars. An analytic theory for isostatic compensation on one-plate planet is applied, including membrane stresses in the lithosphere, self gravitation, and rotational ellipticity. Crucial to this stress modeling and also to the petrological modeling is the observation that the earliest fracturing seen in the Tharsis region is associated with isostatic stresses. The radial fractures that extend far from Tharsis are associated with an additional and/or a completely different mechanism.

  6. Seismic Constraints on Interior Solar Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; DeRosa, Marc L.

    2010-01-01

    We constrain the velocity spectral distribution of global-scale solar convective cells at depth using techniques of local helioseismology. We calibrate the sensitivity of helioseismic waves to large-scale convective cells in the interior by analyzing simulations of waves propagating through a velocity snapshot of global solar convection via methods of time-distance helioseismology. Applying identical analysis techniques to observations of the Sun, we are able to bound from above the magnitudes of solar convective cells as a function of spatial convective scale. We find that convection at a depth of r/R(solar) = 0.95 with spatial extent l < 30, where l is the spherical harmonic degree, comprise weak flow systems, on the order of 15 m/s or less. Convective features deeper than r/R(solar) = 0.95 are more difficult to image due to the rapidly decreasing sensitivity of helioseismic waves.

  7. Wall grid structure for interior scene synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenzhuo

    2015-02-01

    We present a system for automatically synthesizing a diverse set of semantically valid, and well-arranged 3D interior scenes for a given empty room shape. Unlike existing work on layout synthesis, that typically knows potentially needed 3D models and optimizes their location through cost functions, our technique performs the retrieval and placement of 3D models by discovering the relationships between the room space and the models\\' categories. This is enabled by a new analytical structure, called Wall Grid Structure, which jointly considers the categories and locations of 3D models. Our technique greatly reduces the amount of user intervention and provides users with suggestions and inspirations. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on three types of scenarios: conference rooms, living rooms and bedrooms.

  8. Interior design of the lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.

  9. Interior Design Based on Forough Farrokhzad Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sanami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to correlate between art, literature, architect and visualization to translate the emotions and aspirations embodied in a well-known poet such as Forough Farrokhzad. Forough Farrokhzad widely regarded as a famous Iranian poet and an advocate for women’s liberation and independence. She wrote during a time when Iranian women were facing extensive discrimination and prejudice. Many of her works are rich in feminist related aspects of Iranian women. By visualization of Forough’s inner feelings, one can see a great revaluation in society towards women feelings and emotions. Like any other human, poets and artist both have thoughts and dreams rich in colors and words capsulizing their imaginary world in possible dreams which are all related to each person’s personality, culture, environment and etc. One of the ways to understand a poet is to understand the depth of his/her thoughts through his/her poems. Thus the main purpose of this research is to review interior design based on in depth analysis of related poems. Psychoanalysis of symbols, themes and colors used in poems, can be used to supplement words in extracting symptoms and energy depicting the poet inner feelings and imaginations when designing. The results of the discussing symbols and colors used by Forough in most of her poems, indicate her interest in life, death, love, society, intellectuality and philosophy. Finally the researchers through usage of visual effects and pictures used in her designs tries to assist the viewers to understand and feel the poet’s emotions and passions for life at the time of creating the poems. Thus, it can be assumed that the interior design is based on poetry rich in motion and dynamism.

  10. La temperatura del interior de la tierra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslava R. Jesús A.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of defining the Earth interior temperature is analized from Heat Flow observations and the acceptance of convection processes in the mantle. Comparative analyses of thermal, adiabatic, and melting point profiles, allow to obtain the optimum temperature profile, wich fits the seismic model of a liquid external core.

    EI problema de definir la temperatura del interior de la Tierra, se analiza a partir de las observaciones del flujo térmico y la aceptación de procesos de convección en el manto.

    Análisis comparativos de perfiles térmicos, adiabáticos y de puntos de fusión, permiten obtener un perfil óptimo de distribución de temperaturas, que además satisface la observación sísmica de un núcleo externo líquido.

  11. Final report on Paradox Basin/Gulf Interior: Regulatory project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This final report on the Regulatory Project Manager (RPM) program begins with a discussion of the key products produced during the 9-year effort and then focuses on the work performed in the major disciplines. The report then discusses the management of the work effort and the Quality Assurance (QA) program. It concludes with a brief discussion of the records turned over to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) at the conclusion of the work. 14 figs., 14 tabs

  12. Trees and logs important to wildlife in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L. Bull; Catherine G. Parks; Torolf R. Torgersen

    1997-01-01

    This publication provides qualitative and quantitative information on five distinct structures: living trees with decayed parts, trees with hollow chambers, trees with brooms, dead trees, and logs. Information is provided on the value of these structures to wildlife, the decay or infection processes involved in the formation of these structures, and the principles to...

  13. Forest carnivore conservation and management in the interior Columbia basin: issues and environmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Witmer; Sandra K. Martin; Rodney D. Sayler

    1998-01-01

    Forest carnivores in the Pacific Northwest include 11 medium to large-sized mammalian species of canids, felids, mustelids, and ursids. These carnivores have widely differing status in the region, with some harvested in regulated furbearer seasons, some taken for depredations, and some protected because of rarity. Most large carnivores have declined in numbers or range...

  14. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering by enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Roels, Staf

    2009-01-01

    The significance of interior humidity in attaining sustainable, durable, healthy and comfortable buildings is increasingly recognised. Given their significant interaction, interior humidity appraisals need a qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of interior moisture buffering. While...... suggested protocols for the simple and fast measurement of the moisture buffer potential of interior elements allow qualitative assessment, none of these are currently dependable for a wide range of moisture production regimes. In response to these flaws, this paper introduces the production......-adaptive characterisation of the moisture buffer potential of interior elements and corroborates their superposition toward a room-enclosure moisture buffer potential. It is verified that this enables qualitative comparison of enclosures in relation to interior moisture buffering. It is moreover demonstrated that it forms...

  15. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  16. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Kajian Estetika Interior Restoran Boncafe Di Jalan Pregolan Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fanuel W., Yemima

    2014-01-01

    Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is a restaurant in Surabaya located at Pregolan Street 2, Tegal sari, Central Surabaya. Boncafe Pregolan restaurant built in 2007. The interior of Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is divided into several rooms, main entrance area, main dining area I, main dining area II, smoking dining area, and terrace dining. The aesthetic of interior Boncafe Pregolan restaurant is interesting to be analyzed, because of the interior's plays inside. The design principles implemented t...

  18. The Unheimliche Approach in the Making of Interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Deckers

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘The (ReCreative Workings of Existential Anguish in Interior Architecture’ aims to understand, and potentially incorporate, the unheimliche into interior-architectural design teaching. My inquiry addresses a paradoxical and disquieting force inside interiors that does not intimidate, but rather stimulates, the growth of imagination and creativity through design. How can one define the limits of one’s own certainties and how to overcome them even if they cause existential anguish? I will argue that existential anguish in interiors emerges in the tension between a particular belonging to existing affiliations and the fresh unfamiliarity of unexpected encounters. My inquiry complements prevailing values and norms in interior architecture as preset by society (identity, commodities, light, sight, and so on. Interior-architectural unheimlichkeit may engage in a disruptive design approach that triggers and allows the growth of other values, such as empathy, in interior architecture. The unheimliche may specify a small yet existential part of interior architecture as a discipline. How can existential anguish become a (recreative agency in design teaching? It can be argued that a series of pedagogic experiments entitled ‘Onheimelijk Studios’, as collectively organized with and by student co-researchers at the St Lucas School of Architecture, Belgium, contributes to the research of existential anguish through the designing and making of interiors.

  19. Young Stars with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  20. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Presley, M.W.; Handford, C.R.; Finley, R.J.; Dutton, S.P.; Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.; McGillis, K.A.; Simpkins, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Since early 1977, the Bureau of Economic Geology has been evaluating several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as part of the national nuclear repository program. The Bureau, a research unit of The University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, is carrying out a long-term program to gather and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for description, delineation, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins of the Texas Panhandle. The program in FY 79 has been subdivided into four broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, a geohydrology group, and a host-rock analysis group. The basin analysis group has delineated the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins, initiated natural resource assessment, and integrated data from 8000 ft (2400 m) of core material into salt-stratigraphy models. Salt depth and thickness have been delineated for seven salt-bearing stratigraphic units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely sensed data to describe surficial processes, including salt solution, slope retreat/erosion mechanisms, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The basin geohydrology group has begun evaluating both shallow and deep fluid circulation within the basins. The newly formed host-rock analysis group has initiated study of cores from two drilling sites for analysis of salt and the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. This paper, a summary report of progress in FY 79, presents principal conclusions and reviews methods used and types of data and maps generated

  1. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  2. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2004-12-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth in the future. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT), in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that these important members of the solar system are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission's RRT technique is analogous to doing a ``CAT scan" of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate >1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use a redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Deep interior has two targets (S-type 1999 ND43 and V-type Nyx ) whose composition bracket the diversity of solar system materials that we are likely to encounter, and are richly complementary.

  3. Salt Tectonics of the Abenaki Graben and Central Sable Subbasin: Insights from Regional Seismic Interpretation and Four-Dimensional Scaled Physical Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clarke

    The tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Abenaki graben and central Sable Subbasin of the north-central Scotian margin has been highly influenced by salt deformation. Shimeld (2004) has identified five salt subprovinces defined by varying salt structural styles across the margin. Although it has been hypothesized these varying structural styles are the result of complex salt basin morphologies and variable Mesozoic post-rift sedimentation patterns, there is still a lack of understanding of how these first order controlling factors specifically controlled the tectono-stratigraphic evolution across the margin. Disappointing petroleum exploration results from the last round of deepwater drilling supports the further need to investigate how variable salt basin morphologies, and depositional rates and patterns controlled salt deformation as well as the evolution of the margin. The purpose of this project is to integrate regional 2D seismic reflection data including the ION-GXT NovaSPAN dataset, with 4D scaled physical experiments to better understand the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Abenaki Graben and central Sable Subbasin. The study area is located in Shimeld's salt Subprovince III that comprises an extensive salt tongue-canopy system that has spread upwards of 80 km on the secondary detachment level. Seismic interpretation indicates an original salt basin characterized by a landward tapering wedge representing the Abenaki Graben, an intermediate high referred to as the North Sable High (NSH), and a symmetric graben with basin step representing the Sable Subbasin. The geometry of the salt basin floor is composed of rifted basement blocks and syn-rift fill that was originally been infilled with upwards of 2 km of Argo salt. Scaled 4D physical experiments simulating the study area indicate the presence of 4 kinematic domains from the shelf to slope including a: (1) Salt Weld and Pillow, (2) Normal Fault and Reactive Diapir, (3) Passive Diapir and Expulsion

  4. Optimal Power Flow by Interior Point and Non Interior Point Modern Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Połomski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of optimal power flow (OPF is to determine the optimal settings for control variables while respecting various constraints, and in general it is related to power system operational and planning optimization problems. A vast number of optimization methods have been applied to solve the OPF problem, but their performance is highly dependent on the size of a power system being optimized. The development of the OPF recently has tracked significant progress both in numerical optimization techniques and computer techniques application. In recent years, application of interior point methods to solve OPF problem has been paid great attention. This is due to the fact that IP methods are among the fastest algorithms, well suited to solve large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. This paper presents the primal-dual interior point method based optimal power flow algorithm and new variant of the non interior point method algorithm with application to optimal power flow problem. Described algorithms were implemented in custom software. The experiments show the usefulness of computational software and implemented algorithms for solving the optimal power flow problem, including the system model sizes comparable to the size of the National Power System.

  5. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pick up the salt shaker. Get tips on cutting back and how to build a healthier relationship ... from the start. Healthy Eating • Healthy Eating Home • Nutrition AHA Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Making Healthy Choices ...

  6. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and salt that cooks add to foods at restaurants and other food service establishments. Q. What are ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  7. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  8. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  9. Hydrogen-bonding catalysis of sulfonium salts

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Shiho; Kumatabara, Yusuke; Shimizu, Shoichi; Maruoka, Keiji; Shirakawa, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Although quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts are known as important catalysts in phase-transfer catalysis, the catalytic ability of tertiary sulfonium salts has not yet been well demonstrated. Herein, we demonstrate the catalytic ability of trialkylsulfonium salts as hydrogen-bonding catalysts on the basis of the characteristic properties of the acidic α hydrogen atoms on alkylsulfonium salts.

  10. Polymer Conformations in Ionic Microgels in the Presence of Salt: Theoretical and Mesoscale Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kobayashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the conformational properties of polymers in ionic microgels in the presence of salt ions by molecular dynamics simulations and analytical theory. A microgel particle consists of coarse-grained linear polymers, which are tetra-functionally crosslinked. Counterions and salt ions are taken into account explicitly, and charge-charge interactions are described by the Coulomb potential. By varying the charge interaction strength and salt concentration, we characterize the swelling of the polyelectrolytes and the charge distribution. In particular, we determine the amount of trapped mobile charges inside the microgel and the Debye screening length. Moreover, we analyze the polymer extension theoretically in terms of the tension blob model taking into account counterions and salt ions implicitly by the Debye–Hückel model. Our studies reveal a strong dependence of the amount of ions absorbed in the interior of the microgel on the electrostatic interaction strength, which is related to the degree of the gel swelling. This implies a dependence of the inverse Debye screening length κ on the ion concentration; we find a power-law increase of κ with the Coulomb interaction strength with the exponent 3 / 5 for a salt-free microgel and an exponent 1 / 2 for moderate salt concentrations. Additionally, the radial dependence of polymer conformations and ion distributions is addressed.

  11. Basement inheritance and salt tectonics in the SE Barents Sea: Insights from new potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, L.; Broenner, M.; Dumais, M. A.; Gradmann, S.; Grønlie, A.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the former `grey zone' between Russia and Norway has so far remained poorly constrained due to a lack of geophysical data. In 2014, we carried out a new aeromagnetic survey (BASAR-14) in the southern part of the new Norwegian offshore territory. Caledonian and Timanian structures, highlighted by the new potential field data, dominate the basement patterns and have exerted a strong influence on the structure and development of the overlying basins and basement highs. Clearly associated with NW-SE-oriented Timanian trends, the Tiddlybanken Basin represents an atypical sag basin that developed at the southern edge of the Fedynsky High. Regional extension and rapid sedimentation initiated the salt tectonics in the Barents Sea in the Early Triassic. Some of the pillows became diapiric during the Early Triassic and rejuvenated during subsequent Jurassic-Tertiary episodes of regional extension and/or compression. At present, quite a few large diapiric salt domes along the Nordkapp and Tiddlybanken basins are relatively shallow, locally reaching the seabed and thus show a clear bathymetric and magnetic signature. Quantitative modelling along 2D seismic transects was also carried out to constrain the structural and basement composition of the study area. The predominant NE-SW Mesozoic trend of the Nordkapp Basin represents a major crustal hinge zone between the Finnmark Platform, poorly affected by major crustal deformation, and the Bjarmeland Platform where Late Palaeozoic rifting controlled the widespread accumulation of salt deposits in Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time. The entire structure and segmentation of the Nordkapp Basin have been influenced by the inherited basement configuration highlighted by the new aeromagnetic data. Both the Nordkapp and the Tiddlybanken basins appear to lie at the edge of a peculiar thick and rigid crustal feature that coincides with a highly magnetic region. The abrupt termination of the eastern Nordkapp

  12. Present problems of the solar interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1986-01-01

    The standard model of solar evolution is reviewed and a number of problems highlighted. A fundamental question is whether there is any mixing of matter in the central regions, since such mixing could radically alter the model of the present Sun and modify our understanding of the evolution of other stars. Standard models of solar evolution become unstable to /sup 3/He driven global oscillations at an age of 3 x 10/sup 8/ years and this may drive some mixing, even if this is not the case the finite amptitude limit of these oscillations is likely to produce modifications in the standard model. Convective overshooting at the bottom of the outer convective zone leads to an increased depth of this zone and small changes in the interior. It is pointed out that the young Sun had a /sup 12/C driven convective core whose extent and duration depends on the extend of overshooting. Such a core is likely to produce a magnetic field which will affect the internal dynamics. The internal rotation of the sun remains an enigma and absence of knowledge of any internal magnetic field makes it difficult to study the problem. Rotationally driven instabilities are ineffective in the central chemically inhomogeneous regions but may contribute to the inward diffusion of lithium from the convective zone. These and other problems are considered, but few solutions are proposed

  13. Tidal constraints on the interior of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, C.; Tobie, G.; Verhoeven, O.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rambaux, N.

    2017-12-01

    As a prospective study for a future exploration of Venus, we compute the tidal response of Venus' interior assuming various mantle compositions and temperature profiles representative of different scenarios of Venus' formation and evolution. The mantle density and seismic velocities are modeled from thermodynamical equilibria of mantle minerals and used to predict the moment of inertia, Love numbers, and tide-induced phase lag characterizing the signature of the internal structure in the gravity field. The viscoelasticity of the mantle is parameterized using an Andrade rheology. From the models considered here, the moment of inertia lies in the range of 0.327 to 0.342, corresponding to a core radius of 2900 to 3450 km. Viscoelasticity of the mantle strongly increases the potential Love number relative to previously published elastic models. Due to the anelasticity effects, we show that the possibility of a completely solid metal core inside Venus cannot be ruled out based on the available estimate of k2 from the Magellan mission (Konopliv and Yoder, 1996). A Love number k2 lower than 0.27 would indicate the presence of a fully solid iron core, while for larger values, solutions with an entirely or partially liquid core are possible. Precise determination of the Love numbers, k2 and h2, together with an estimate of the tidal phase lag, are required to determine the state and size of the core, as well as the composition and viscosity of the mantle.

  14. Magnetism and the interior of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972, 11 magnetometers were sent to the moon. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the results of lunar magnetometer data analysis, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are 38, 103 (maximum), 3, and 327 gammas (maximum), respectively. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the Apollo 12 and 16 remanent fields are compressed during times of high plasma dynamic pressure. Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometers have mapped in detail the field above portions of the lunar surface and have placed an upper limit on the global permanent dipole moment. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. Magnetic fields are stronger in highland regions than in mare regions and stronger on the lunar far side than on the near side. The largest magnetic anomaly measured to date is between the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken on the lunar far side.

  15. Observational consequences of unstable stellar interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, M.

    2009-11-01

    Stars are responsible for the production of all the elements, aside from hydrogen, that constitute our body. To understand the life and death of such important astrophysical objects, their interiors need to be modeled. The evolution of stars, including the effects of rotation, internal magnetic fields, convection, thermohaline mixing and pair creation is the main topic of this study. Stars often come in pairs, and the consequences of binary interaction have been explored as well. A new channel for the formation of Long Gamma Ray-Bursts has been discovered thanks to the inclusion of the aforementioned effects. This scenario suggests that a possibly large fraction of long GRBs occurs in runaway stars. A novel study of convection in massive stars is also presented, showing that microturbulence in the photosphere of hot stars might be caused by the presence of sub-surface convection zones. Such study suggests that clumping in the winds of OB stars could be caused by the same mechanism, and that magnetic fields produced in such sub-surface convection zones could appear at the surface of OB stars.

  16. Experimental review on interior tire-road noise models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Bekke, D.A.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P

    2010-01-01

    Exterior and interior tire-road noise is a common problem for car and tire manufactures. Exterior tire-road noise is bounded by UN-ECE R117 and EC R661/2009. Interior tire-road noise on the other hand is determined by market requirements. Since the beginning of the last century different model

  17. Bootstrap method of interior-branch test for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, T

    1996-04-01

    Statistical properties of the bootstrap test of interior branch lengths of phylogenetic trees have been studied and compared with those of the standard interior-branch test in computer simulations. Examination of the properties of the tests under the null hypothesis showed that both tests for an interior branch of a predetermined topology are quite reliable when the distribution of the branch length estimate approaches a normal distribution. Unlike the standard interior-branch test, the bootstrap test appears to retain this property even when the substitution rate varies among sites. In this case, the distribution of the branch length estimate deviates from a normal distribution, and the standard interior-branch test gives conservative confidence probability values. A simple correction method was developed for both interior-branch tests to be applied for testing the reliability of tree topologies estimated from sequence data. This correction for the standard interior-branch test appears to be as effective as that obtained in our previous study, though it is much simpler. The bootstrap and standard interior-branch tests for estimated topologies become conservative as the number of sequence groups in a star-like tree increases.

  18. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  19. Field Dependence and Vocational Choice of Interior Design Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Diane M.; And Others

    One hundred ninety-three interior design college students were administered the Group Embedded Figures Test, a measure of field dependence, in order to evaluate two of Witkin's hypotheses regarding career choice. The career-differentiation hypothesis predicted that students electing to major in interior design would be field independent because…

  20. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Stephanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  1. Virtual Interior Design Based On VRML AND JAVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shaoliang

    Virtual reality has been involved in a wide range of academic and commercial applications. It can give users a natural feeling of the environment by creating realistic virtual worlds. In this paper, we use vrml and java to discuss the virtual interior design. EAI and JASI are used to realize the interaction between user and virtual interior scene.

  2. Interior Design Standards in the Secondary FCS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…

  3. Interior Design Education within a Human Ecological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Migette L.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Honey, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    An education based in human ecology can greatly benefit interior designers as they work to understand and improve the human condition. Design programs housed in colleges focusing on human ecology can improve the interior design profession by taking advantage of their home base and emphasizing the human ecological framework in the design curricula.…

  4. Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of

  5. Interior spatial layout with soft objectives using evolutionary computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Bengisu, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design problem of furniture arrangement in a residential interior living space, and addresses it by means of evolutionary computation. Interior arrangement is an important and interesting problem that occurs commonly when designing living spaces. It entails determining the

  6. Resilience of Athabascan subsistence systems to interior Alaska's changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary P. Kofinas; F. Stuart Chapin; Shauna BurnSilver; Jennifer I. Schmidt; Nancy L. Fresco; Knut Kielland; Stephanie Martin; Anna Springsteen; T. Scott Rupp

    2010-01-01

    Subsistence harvesting and wild food production by Athabascan peoples is part of an integrated social-ecological system of interior Alaska. We describe effects of recent trends and future climate change projections on the boreal ecosystem of interior Alaska and relate changes in ecosystem services to Athabascan subsistence. We focus primarily on moose, a keystone...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.97 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 1192.97 Section 1192.97 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.97 Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions...

  8. 49 CFR 38.77 - Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interior circulation, handrails and stanchions. 38.77 Section 38.77 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.77 Interior circulation, handrails and...

  9. Knotworking In An Interior Décor Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Fisker, Anna Marie

    2016-01-01

    These days, new buildings are being built at Aalborg University in Denmark, why interior décor processes are initiated. Planning the interior décor of Aalborg University is centralized at the Shared Service Center, where internal architects furnish the spaces and buy the selected furniture withou...

  10. Geomechanics considerations for through-and near-salt well design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, S.M.; Fredrich, Joanne T.

    2005-01-01

    Over the next decade a significant amount of exploration and new field developments will take place in salt provinces around the world - in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, and offshore Angola, Brazil, and North and West Africa. Salt formations provide both opportunities and challenges to the design and construction of the often complex wells to be drilled in these locations. An overview of the many geomechanical considerations necessary to ensure successful well construction when drilling in through-, sub- and near-salt environments is presented. The structural styles of deformed sediments adjacent to salt, combined with stress perturbations caused by the presence of salt, are used to assess the risk of encountering zones that might cause wellbore instability or lost-circulation problems. Well design examples are provided that show how near- and through-salt uncertainties may be included within a geomechanical well design for required mud weights while drilling. Salt is found in many hydrocarbon basins around the world. Significant deposits exist in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), offshore West Africa and Brazil, in the Southern North Sea, Egypt, and the Middle East (Figure 1(1)). In deep water offshore North America, the GoM and offshore Nova Scotia (NE Canada) are notable areas of current oil and gas exploration and production. Significant exploration activity is also targeting areas offshore Angola and Brazil. The extent of deepwater exploration in the GoM is illustrated in Figure 2 that shows the steady march into deeper water, together with a focusing of efforts in the Sigsbee Escarpment areas of Green Canyon, Walker Ridge and Atwater Valley. The deepest wells in the GoM are reaching true vertical depths of up to 32,000 feet, with maximum-recorded downhole pressures in excess of 26,000 psi and bottomhole temperatures in excess of 400 F. Such wells may penetrate considerable thicknesses of salt - up to 20,000 feet of salt is not unheard of. With substantial discoveries

  11. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  12. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  13. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  14. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  15. Dream Home: a multiview stereoscopic interior design system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Fu-Jen; Teng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Chung-Wei; Luo, An-Chun; Yang, Jinn-Cherng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-view stereoscopic interior design system, "Dream Home", has been developed to bring users new interior design experience. Different than other interior design system before, we put emphasis on its intuitive manipulation and multi-view stereoscopic visualization in real time. Users can do their own interior design just using their hands and eyes without any difficulty. They manipulate furniture cards directly as they wish to setup their living room in the model house task space, get the multi-view 3D visual feedback instantly, and re-adjust cards until they are satisfied. No special skills are required, and you can explore your design talent arbitrarily. We hope that "Dream Home" will make interior design more user-friendly, more intuitive, and more vivid.

  16. Opinion on Salt intake of Dutch children

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority

    2009-01-01

    The amount of salt in many, especially commercially prepared, food is too high. Reducing salt intake can contribute positively to public health. A reduction in salt intake at a young age reduces the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in later life. The salt intake of 2-6 year old Dutch children was estimated using the Dutch Food Consumption Survey, which was aimed at children in 2005/2006. The foods that contributed most to the total salt intake were determined.

  17. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  18. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  19. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  20. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  1. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  2. Regional summary and recommended study areas for the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This report summarizes the regional geologic and environmental characterizations that have been completed for the Permian region of study, and describes the procedure used to identify study areas for the next phase of investigation. The factors evaluated in the Permian region fall into three broad areas: health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic, and engineering and economic considerations. Health and safety considerations included salt depth and thickness, faults, seismic activity, groundwater, salt dissolution, energy and mineral resources, presence of boreholes, and interactive land uses. Salt depth and thickness was the key health and safety factor, and when mapped, provded to be a discriminator. The evaluation of environmental and socioeconomic conditions focused primarily on the presence of urban areas and on designated land uses such as parks, wildlife areas, and historic sites. Engineering and economic considerations centered primarily on salt depth, which was already evaluated in the health and safety area. The Palo Duro and Dalhart basins are recommended for future studies on the basis of geology. In these two basins, salt depth and thickness appear promising, and there is less likelihood of past or future oil and gas exploratory holes. Environmental and socioeconomic factors did not preclude any of the basins from further study. 66 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  3. Extremely low long-term erosion rates around the Gamburtsev Mountains in interior East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. E.; Thomson, S. N.; Reiners, P. W.; Hemming, S. R.; van de Flierdt, T.

    2010-11-01

    The high elevation and rugged relief (>3 km) of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) have long been considered enigmatic. Orogenesis normally occurs near plate boundaries, not cratonic interiors, and large-scale tectonic activity last occurred in East Antarctica during the Pan-African (480-600 Ma). We sampled detrital apatite from Eocene sands in Prydz Bay at the terminus of the Lambert Graben, which drained a large pre-glacial basin including the northern Gamburtsev Mountains. Apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He cooling ages constrain bedrock erosion rates throughout the catchment. We double-dated apatites to resolve individual cooling histories. Erosion was very slow, averaging 0.01-0.02 km/Myr for >250 Myr, supporting the preservation of high elevation in interior East Antarctica since at least the cessation of Permian rifting. Long-term topographic preservation lends credence to postulated high-elevation mountain ice caps in East Antarctica since at least the Cretaceous and to the idea that cold-based glaciation can preserve tectonically inactive topography.

  4. Subsurface Morphology and Scaling of Lunar Impact Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, K.; Collins, G. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Johnson, B. C.; Soderblom, J. M.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Impact bombardment during the first billion years after the formation of the Moon produced at least several tens of basins. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission mapped the gravity field of these impact structures at significantly higher spatial resolution than previous missions, allowing for detailed subsurface and morphological analyses to be made across the entire globe. GRAIL-derived crustal thickness maps were used to define the regions of crustal thinning observed in centers of lunar impact basins, which represents a less unambiguous measure of a basin size than those based on topographic features. The formation of lunar impact basins was modeled numerically by using the iSALE-2D hydrocode, with a large range of impact and target conditions typical for the first billion years of lunar evolution. In the investigated range of impactor and target conditions, the target temperature had the dominant effect on the basin subsurface morphology. Model results were also used to update current impact scaling relationships applicable to the lunar setting (based on assumed target temperature). Our new temperature-dependent impact-scaling relationships provide estimates of impact conditions and transient crater diameters for the majority of impact basins mapped by GRAIL. As the formation of lunar impact basins is associated with the first approximately 700 Myr of the solar system evolution when the impact flux was considerably larger than the present day, our revised impact scaling relationships can aid further analyses and understanding of the extent of impact bombardment on the Moon and terrestrial planets in the early solar system.

  5. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    . Hot spot assessment included 100 gauge stations in the river basin with discharge measurement by ADCP, turbidity (T) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), bed load by bed load traps, composition of salt, biochemical oxidation, nitrogen and phosphorous content in water, pH, redox and conductivity values, and also content of heavy metals in water, suspended matter and sediments. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than MPC for water fishery. Most contrast distribution is characteristic for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in the Selenga basin. The most severe pollution of aquatic systems in the basin caused by mining activities is characteristic for a small river Modonkul, which flows into Dzhida River (left tributary of Selenga).

  6. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Mission Status and Preliminary Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria; Smith, D. E.; Watkins, M. M.; Lehman, D. H.; GRAIL Science Team

    2012-05-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission is a component of the NASA Discovery Program. GRAIL is a twin-spacecraft lunar gravity mission that has two primary objectives: to determine the structure of the lunar interior, from crust to core; and to advance understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. These broad objectives are addressed by mapping the gravity field of the Moon to provide the structure of the crust & lithosphere, help understand the Moon’s asymmetric thermal evolution, determine the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertain the temporal evolution of crustal brecciation and magmatism, place constraints on the deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of the possible inner core. As a secondary objective, GRAIL observations will be used to extend understanding of the internal structure and thermal evolution of other terrestrial bodies. GRAIL launched successfully from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011, executed a low-energy trajectory to the Moon, and inserted the twin spacecraft into lunar orbit on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. A series of maneuvers brought both spacecraft into low-altitude (55-km), near-circular, polar lunar orbits, from which they will perform high-precision satellite-to-satellite ranging using a Ka-band payload along with an S-band link for time synchronization. Analysis of the spacecraft-to-spacecraft range-rate data will provide a direct measure of the lunar gravity, leading to a high resolution (30x30 km), high-accuracy (<10 mGal) global gravity field. Science data collection is scheduled to begin on March 8, 2012 and continue for approximately three months. An initial gravity field will be available about 30 days after the end of the data acquisition phase.

  7. Full waveform inversion of solar interior flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-12-10

    The inference of flows of material in the interior of the Sun is a subject of major interest in helioseismology. Here, we apply techniques of full waveform inversion (FWI) to synthetic data to test flow inversions. In this idealized setup, we do not model seismic realization noise, training the focus entirely on the problem of whether a chosen supergranulation flow model can be seismically recovered. We define the misfit functional as a sum of L {sub 2} norm deviations in travel times between prediction and observation, as measured using short-distance filtered f and p {sub 1} and large-distance unfiltered p modes. FWI allows for the introduction of measurements of choice and iteratively improving the background model, while monitoring the evolution of the misfit in all desired categories. Although the misfit is seen to uniformly reduce in all categories, convergence to the true model is very slow, possibly because it is trapped in a local minimum. The primary source of error is inaccurate depth localization, which, due to density stratification, leads to wrong ratios of horizontal and vertical flow velocities ({sup c}ross talk{sup )}. In the present formulation, the lack of sufficient temporal frequency and spatial resolution makes it difficult to accurately localize flow profiles at depth. We therefore suggest that the most efficient way to discover the global minimum is to perform a probabilistic forward search, involving calculating the misfit associated with a broad range of models (generated, for instance, by a Monte Carlo algorithm) and locating the deepest minimum. Such techniques possess the added advantage of being able to quantify model uncertainty as well as realization noise (data uncertainty).

  8. Statistical interior properties of globular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou-Ting, Jiang; Tai-Quan, Wu; Lin-Xi, Zhang; Ting-Ting, Sun

    2009-01-01

    The character of forming long-range contacts affects the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins deeply. As the different ability to form long-range contacts between 20 types of amino acids and 4 categories of globular proteins, the statistical properties are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Two parameters N C and N D are defined to confine the valid residues in detail. The relationship between hydrophobicity scales and valid residue percentage of each amino acid is given in the present work and the linear functions are shown in our statistical results. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity scale defined by chemical derivatives of the amino acids and nonpolar phase of large unilamellar vesicle membranes is the most effective technique to characterise the hydrophobic behavior of amino acid residues. Meanwhile, residue percentage P i and sequential residue length L i of a certain protein i are calculated under different conditions. The statistical results show that the average value of P i as well as L i of all-α proteins has a minimum among these 4 classes of globular proteins, indicating that all-α proteins are hardly capable of forming long-range contacts one by one along their linear amino acid sequences. All-β proteins have a higher tendency to construct long-range contacts along their primary sequences related to the secondary configurations, i.e. parallel and anti-parallel configurations of β sheets. The investigation of the interior properties of globular proteins give us the connection between the three-dimensional structure and its primary sequence data or secondary configurations, and help us to understand the structure of protein and its folding process well. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agocs, M M; Etzel, R A; Parrish, R G; Paschal, D C; Campagna, P R; Cohen, D S; Kilbourne, E M; Hesse, J L

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 "exposed" persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 "unexposed" persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  10. Compilation of data for thermomechanical analyses of four potential salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.; Loken, M.C.; Osnes, J.D.; Wagner, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report includes a collection and summarization of the data which are necessary to perform thermomechanical analyses of four potential salt repository sites: Paradox Basin, Utah; Permian Basin, Texas; Richton Dome, Mississippi; and Vacherie Dome, Louisiana. Thermal, mechanical, and hydrogeological material properties are presented so that the numerical analyses can be subdivided into three geometric regions: canister, disposal room, and repository site. Data are presented for the salt formations, the surrounding geological units, and for human-made materials placed in the repository such as the nuclear waste and its protective steel liner. Wherever possible, site-specific data are used which have been determined from laboratory testing of drill core or from interpretation of geophysical logs. Although much effort has been made to obtain the most appropriate data, there are deficiencies because some of the required site-specific data are either not available or are inconsistent with anticipated values

  11. Geology and geohydrology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, S.P.; Finley, R.J.; Galloway, W.E.; Gustavson, T.C.; Handford, C.R.; Presley, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Early in 1977 the Bureau of Economic Geology was invited to assemble and evaluate geologic data on several salt-bearing basins within the State of Texas as a contribution to the national nuclear repository program. In response to this request, the Bureau, acting as a technical research unit of the University of Texas at Austin and the State of Texas, initiated a long-term program to assemble and interpret all geologic and hydrologic information necessary for delineation, description, and evaluation of salt-bearing strata in the Panhandle area. The technical program can be subdivided into three broad research tasks, which are addressed by a basin analysis group, a surface studies group, and a basin geohydrology group. The basin analysis group has assembled the regional stratigraphic and structural framework of the total basin fill, initiated evaluation of natural resources, and selected stratigraphic core sites for sampling the salt and associated beds. Two drilling sites have provided nearly 8000 feet (2400 m) of core material for analysis and testing of the various lithologies overlying and interbedded with salt units. Concurrently, the surface studies group has collected ground and remotely-sensed data to describe surficial processes, including carbonate and evaporate solution, geomorphic evolution, and fracture system development. The newly formed basin geohydrology group will evaluate both shallow and deep circulation of fluids within the basins. This paper, a summary report of progress, reviews principal conclusions and illustrates the methodologies used and the types of data and displays generated

  12. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  13. High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of lower Paleozoic sheet sandstones in central North America: The role of special conditions of cratonic interiors in development of stratal architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Anthony C.; Miller, J.F.; McKay, R.M.; Palmer, A.R.; Taylor, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Well-known difficulties in applying sequence stratigraphic concepts to deposits that accumulated across slowly subsiding cratonic interior regions have limited our ability to interpret the history of continental-scale tectonism, oceanographic dynamics of epeiric seas, and eustasy. We used a multi-disciplinary approach to construct a high-resolution stratigraphic framework for lower Paleozoic strata in the cratonic interior of North America. Within this framework, these strata proved readily amenable to modern sequence stratigraphic techniques that were formulated based on successions along passive margins and in foreland basins, settings markedly different from the cratonic interior. Parasequences, parasequence stacking patterns, systems tracts, maximum flooding intervals, and sequence-bounding unconformities can be confidently recognized in the cratonic interior using mostly standard criteria for identification. The similarity of cratonic interior and foreland basin successions in size, geometry, constituent facies, and local stacking patterns of nearshore parasequences is especially striking. This similarity indicates that the fundamental processes that establish shoreface morphology and determine the stratal expression of retreat and progradation were likewise generally the same, despite marked differences in tectonism, physiography, and bathymetry between the two settings. Our results do not support the widespread perception that Paleozoic cratonic interior successions are so anomalous in stratal geometries, and constitute such a poor record of time, that they are poorly suited for modern sequence stratigraphic analyses. The particular arrangement of stratal elements in the cratonic interior succession we studied is no more anomalous or enigmatic than the variability in architecture that sets all sedimentary successions apart from one another. Thus, Paleozoic strata of the cratonic interior are most appropriately considered as a package that belongs in a

  14. High Spatial resolution remote sensing for salt marsh change detection on Fire Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes are under increasing pressure due to anthropogenic stressors including sea level rise, nutrient enrichment, herbivory and disturbances. Salt marsh losses risk the important ecosystem services they provide including biodiversity, water filtration, wave attenuation, and carbon sequestration. This study determines salt marsh change on Fire Island National Seashore, a barrier island along the south shore of Long Island, New York. Object-based image analysis was used to classifying Worldview-2, high resolution satellite, and topobathymetric LiDAR. The site was impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October of 2012 causing a breach in the Barrier Island and extensive overwash. In situ training data from vegetation plots were used to train the Random Forest classifier. The object-based Worldview-2 classification achieved an overall classification accuracy of 92.75. Salt marsh change for the study site was determined by comparing the 2015 classification with a 1997 classification. The study found a shift from high marsh to low marsh and a reduction in Phragmites on Fire Island. Vegetation losses were observed along the edge of the marsh and in the marsh interior. The analysis agreed with many of the trends found throughout the region including the reduction of high marsh and decline of salt marsh. The reduction in Phragmites could be due to the species shrinking niche between rising seas and dune vegetation on barrier islands. The complex management issues facing salt marsh across the United States including sea level rise and eutrophication necessitate very high resolution classification and change detection of salt marsh to inform management decisions such as restoration, salt marsh migration, and nutrient inputs.

  15. Geology and geohydrology of the east Texas Basin. Report on the progress of nuclear waste isolation feasibility studies (1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitler, C.W.; Agagu, O.K.; Basciano, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The program to investigate the suitability of salt domes in the east Texas Basin for long-term nuclear waste repositories addresses the stability of specific domes for potential repositories and evaluates generically the geologic and hydrogeologic stability of all the domes in the region. Analysis during the second year was highlighted by a historical characterization of East Texas Basin infilling, the development of a model to explain the growth history of the domes, the continued studies of the Quaternary in East Texas, and a better understanding of the near-dome and regional hydrology of the basin. Each advancement represents a part of the larger integrated program addressing the critical problems of geologic and hydrologic stabilities of salt domes in the East Texas Basin

  16. Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S

    2003-01-01

    Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment.

  17. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Natural Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Boegly, W.J.; Bradshaw, R.L.; Empson, F.M.; Hemphill, L.; Struxness, E.G.; Tamura, T.

    1960-01-01

    The proposed use of cavities in salt formations as a disposal site for radioactive wastes is based upon : 1. Existence of salt for geologic time periods, 2. The impermeability of salt to the passage of water; 3. The widespread geographical distribution of salt; 4. The extremely large quantities of salt available; 5. The structural strength of salt; 6. The relatively high thermal conductivity of salt in comparison with other general geologic formations; 7. The possible recovery of valuable fission products in the wastes injected into the salt; 8. The relative ease of forming cavities in salt by mining, and the even greater ease and low cost of developing solution cavities in salt; and 9. The low seismicity in the areas of major salt deposits. Radioactive liquid wastes can be stored in cavities in natural salt formations if the structural properties of the salt are not adversely affected by chemical interaction, pressure, temperature, and radiation. Analytical studies show that it is possible to-store 2-year-old 10,000 MWD/T, 800 gal/ton waste in a sphere of 10 ft diameter without exceeding a temperature of 200° F. Laboratory tests show that the structural properties and thermal conductivity of rock salt are not greatly altered by high radiation doses, although high temperatures increase the creep rate for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Chemical interaction of liquid wastes with salt produces chlorine and other chlorine compound gases, but the volumes are not excessive. The migration of nuclides through the salt and deformation of the cavity and chamber can only be studied in undisturbed salt in situ. One-fifth-scale models have been run in a bedded salt deposit in Hutchinson, Kansas, and full-scale field tests are in progress. (author) [fr

  19. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  20. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.