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Sample records for interim surface barrier

  1. TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM MJ

    2009-06-25

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  2. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  3. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.

  4. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.

  5. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration—Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-09-27

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  6. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy's Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  7. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration -- Vadose Zone Monitoring FY07 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Keller, Jason M.; Wittreich, Curtis D.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. is currently in the process of constructing a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to prevent the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture monitoring is being performed to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered and remotely-controlled system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions in four instrument nests (i.e., A, B, C, and D) and the site meteorological condition. Each instrument nest was composed of a capacitance probe with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units, a neutron probe access tube and a datalogger. Nests A and B also contained a drain gauge each. The principle variables monitored for this purpose are soil-water content, soil-water pressure, and soil-water flux. In addition to these, soil temperature, precipitation, and air temperature are measured. Data from each of the dataloggers were transmitted remotely to the receiving computer. The neutron probe access tube was used to perform quarterly manual measurements of soil-water content using a neutron probe. This monitoring system was used to assess the soil water conditions in the soil outside and within the footprint of the surface barrier to be emplaced in the Hanford T Tank Farm. Data to date is baseline under the condition without the interim surface barrier in place. All the instruments except the two drain gauges were functional in FY07. The capacitance-probe measurements showed that the soil-moisture content at relatively shallow depths (e.g., 0.6 and 0.9 m) was increasing since October 2006 and reached the highest in early January 2007 followed by a slight decrease. Soil-moisture contents at the depths of 1.3 m and

  8. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  9. Improved Barriers to Turbine Engine Fragments: Interim Report II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shockey, Donald

    1999-01-01

    ... the effects of uncontained engine bursts. SRI International is evaluating the ballistic effectiveness of fabric structures made from advanced polymers and developing a computational ability to design fragment barriers...

  10. Candida albicans colonization of surface-sealed interim soft liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olan-Rodriguez, L; Minah, G E; Driscoll, C F

    2000-12-01

    This in-vivo investigation evaluated the effect of 2 denture sealer agents on the microbial colonization of a newly placed soft interim denture liner during a period of 14 days. An interim soft denture liner (Coe-Soft; GC America, Alsip, IL) was coated with 2 different denture surface sealants (Palaseal [Heraeus Kulzer, Irvine, CA] and Mono-Poly [Plastodent, New York, NY]). Three rectangular wells of 1 cm wide x 2 cm long x 2 mm deep were placed in the intaglio of 10 maxillary complete dentures and filled with the soft liner material. The soft liner surface was treated with Palaseal (first well) and Mono-Poly (second well), and the unsealed (third well) was used as a control. These were exposed to the oral cavity for 14 days. The effect the sealant had in the prevention of Candidal colonization in vivo of the soft liner material was evaluated. Microbiological specimens were recovered from all samples and cultivated. Microbiological data from the control and 2-test samples in each denture were tabulated, and statistical analyses were performed. This investigation showed clear differences (p denture liner with either Palaseal or Mono-Poly significantly decreased yeast and bacterial colonization. . Copyright 2000 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  12. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  13. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  14. Photoelectric effect in surface-barrier structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, V.K.; Tupenevich, P.A.

    1985-08-01

    Deviations from the Fowler law were observed when investigating photoelectric emission in p-type ZnTe surface-barrier structures. The revealed peculiarities of the structure photosensitivity spectrum are explained by the electron transitions involving surface states at the metal-semiconductor interface. (author)

  15. Surface stability test plan for protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release.

  17. Surface barrier research at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Fayer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    At the DOE Hanford Site, a field-scale prototype surface barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a CERCLA treatability test. The above-grade barrier consists of a fine-soil layer overlying coarse layers of sands, gravels, basalt rock (riprap), and a low permeability asphalt layer. Two sideslope configurations, clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope, were built and are being tested. Design considerations included: constructability; drainage and water balance monitoring, wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation and biotic intrusion; subsidence and sideslope stability, and durability of the asphalt layer. The barrier is currently in the final year of a three-year test designed to answer specific questions related to stability and long-term performance. One half of the barrier is irrigated such that the total water applied, including precipitation, is 480 mm/yr (three times the long-term annual average). Each year for the past two years, an extreme precipitation event (71 mm in 8 hr) representing a 1,000-yr return storm was applied in late March, when soil water storage was at a maximum. While the protective sideslopes have drained significant amounts of water, the soil cover (2-m of silt-loam soil overlying coarse sand and rock) has never drained. During the past year there was no measurable surface runoff or wind erosion. This is attributed to extensive revegetation of the surface. In addition, the barrier elevation has shown a small increase of 2 to 3 cm that is attributed to a combination of root proliferation and freeze/thaw activity. Testing will continue through September 1997. Performance data from the prototype barrier will be used by DOE in site-closure decisions at Hanford

  18. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined

  19. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  20. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  1. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  2. Testing of isolation barrier sealing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Isolation barrier doors are to be installed in the 105KE and 105KW basins as part of the 1994 unreviewed safety question (USQ) resolution plan to isolate the fuel storage basin from the fuel discharge chute. Included in this installation is the placement of new sealing surfaces for the barriers by affixing stainless steel plates to existing carbon steel angle bars with a specially formulated epoxy adhesive/sealant material. The sealant is a two-part component consisting of an epoxy resin (the condensation product of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin) and a curing agent (a proprietary cycloaliphatic polyamine). The sealant is solvent free (complying with air pollution regulations) and capable of withstanding the surrounding radiation fields over an estimated 15-year service life. The epoxy sealant experiences negligible water damage partly because of its hydrophobic (water-repelling) nature. With bond tensile strengths measured at greater than 862 kPa (125 lbf/in 2 ), the epoxy sealant is judged acceptable for its intended application. The four-hour pot life of the epoxy sealant provides sufficient time to apply the epoxy, examine the epoxy bead for continuity, and position the stainless steel sealing plates

  3. Testing of isolation barrier sealing surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-12-15

    Isolation barrier doors are to be installed in the 105KE and 105KW basins as part of the 1994 unreviewed safety question (USQ) resolution plan to isolate the fuel storage basin from the fuel discharge chute. Included in this installation is the placement of new sealing surfaces for the barriers by affixing stainless steel plates to existing carbon steel angle bars with a specially formulated epoxy adhesive/sealant material. The sealant is a two-part component consisting of an epoxy resin (the condensation product of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin) and a curing agent (a proprietary cycloaliphatic polyamine). The sealant is solvent free (complying with air pollution regulations) and capable of withstanding the surrounding radiation fields over an estimated 15-year service life. The epoxy sealant experiences negligible water damage partly because of its hydrophobic (water-repelling) nature. With bond tensile strengths measured at greater than 862 kPa (125 lbf/in{sup 2}), the epoxy sealant is judged acceptable for its intended application. The four-hour pot life of the epoxy sealant provides sufficient time to apply the epoxy, examine the epoxy bead for continuity, and position the stainless steel sealing plates.

  4. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  5. Beta dosimetry with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.F.M.; Schuren, H.; Dreesen, K.

    1980-01-01

    A small dosimeter to measure the dose rate due to β-radiation in an energy independent fashion is described in detail. A surface barrier semi-conductor detector is used whose thickness of sensitive layer is changed by varying the detector voltage. The integral count rate can then be determined as a function of applied voltage and discrimination thresholds. The integral count rate can be related to β dose rate in an energy independent fashion only for a time constant of 0.25 μs. However, the use of a single channel analyzer permits an energy-independent determination of the β-dose rate with 0.25 or 0.5 μs time constants. The sensitivity of the device as a function of dose rate is investigation up to 600 rad/hr. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the device at a constant dose rate was shown to be uniform up to a dose of 50,000 rads. (UK)

  6. Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01

    This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier

  7. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bauskar

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  8. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  9. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J.; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A.; Kolar, Grant R.; Gleave, Martin E.; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Wilson, Mark R.; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye. PMID:26402857

  10. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, J.M.; Freedman, V.L.; Ward, A.L.; Chronister, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    tasks to achieve those outcomes. Full understanding of contaminant behavior in the deep vadose zone is constrained by four key data gaps: limited access; limited data; limited time; and the lack of an accepted predictive capability for determining whether surface barriers can effectively isolate deep vadose zone contaminants. Activities designed to fill these data gaps need to have these outcomes: (1) common evaluation methodology that provides a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination; (2) deep vadose zone data that characterize the lithology, the spatial distribution of moisture and contaminants, the physical, chemical, and biological process that affect the mobility of each contaminant, and the impacts to the contaminants following placement of a surface barrier; (3) subsurface monitoring to provide subsurface characterization of initial conditions and changes that occur during and following remediation activities; and (4) field observations that span years to decades to validate the evaluation methodology. A set of six proposed tasks was identified to provide information needed to address the above outcomes. The proposed tasks are: (1) Evaluation Methodology - Develop common evaluation methodology that will provide a clear, consistent, and defensible basis for evaluating groundwater impacts caused by placement of a surface barrier above deep vadose zone contamination. (2) Case Studies - Conduct case studies to demonstrate the applicability ofthe common evaluation methodology and provide templates for subsequent use elsewhere. Three sites expected to have conditions that would yield valuable information and experience pertinent to deep vadose zone contamination were chosen to cover a range of conditions. The sites are BC Cribs and Trenches, U Plant Cribs, and the T Farm Interim Cover. (3) Subsurface Monitoring Technologies - Evaluate minimally invasive

  11. Collective Phenomena In Volume And Surface Barrier Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2010-07-01

    Barrier discharges are increasingly used as a cost-effective means to produce non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure. This way, copious amounts of electrons, ions, free radicals and excited species can be generated without appreciable gas heating. In most applications the barrier is made of dielectric material. In laboratory experiments also the use of resistive, ferroelectric and semiconducting materials has been investigated, also porous ceramic layers and dielectric barriers with controlled surface conductivity. Major applications utilizing mainly dielectric barriers include ozone generation, surface cleaning and modification, polymer and textile treatment, sterilization, pollution control, CO2 lasers, excimer lamps, plasma display panels (flat TV screens). More recent research efforts are also devoted to biomedical applications and to plasma actuators for flow control. Sinu- soidal feeding voltages at various frequencies as well as pulsed excitation schemes are used. Volume as well as surface barrier discharges can exist in the form of filamentary, regularly patterned or laterally homogeneous discharges. Reviews of the subject and the older literature on barrier discharges were published by Kogelschatz (2002, 2003), by Wagner et al. (2003) and by Fridman et al. (2005). A detailed discussion of various properties of barrier discharges can also be found in the recent book "Non-Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure" by Becker et al. (2005). The physical effects leading to collective phenomena in volume and surface barrier discharges will be discussed in detail. Special attention will be given to self-organization of current filaments. Main similarities and differences of the two types of barrier discharges will be elaborated.

  12. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spatial organization and spatial dynamics of microbial populations in soil at a scale close to that of the microorganisms is scarce. While passive dispersal via water ow or soil biota is probably a major dispersal route, it is reasonable to consider that active dispersal also...... characterized by complex 3D geometry and variable hydration. To approach these questions we take advantage of the Porous Surface Model (PSM) a unique experimental platform that allows direct monitoring of microbial motion under precisely controlled matric potential. Using gfp-tagged Pseudomonas strains...

  13. Fabrication and characterization of fully depleted surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of fully depleted surface barrier type thin detectors needs thin silicon wafer of 20 - 30 μm thickness and flatness of ± 1 μm. Process has been developed for thinning silicon wafers to achieve thickness up to 20 - 30 μm from thicker (0.5 - 0.8 mm) silicon samples. These samples were used to fabricate fully depleted surface barrier detectors using Au contacts on n-type silicon. The detectors were characterized by measuring forward and reverse I-V characteristics and alpha energy spectra of Am-Pu source. (author)

  14. Ocular Surface as Barrier of Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Navas, Alejandro; López-Lizárraga, Erika Paulina; de Ribot, Francesc March; Peña, Alexandra; Graue-Hernández, Enrique O; Garfias, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sight is one of the most important senses that human beings possess. The ocular system is a complex structure equipped with mechanisms that prevent or limit damage caused by physical, chemical, infectious and environmental factors. These mechanisms include a series of anatomical, cellular and humoral factors that have been a matter of study. The cornea is not only the most powerful and important lens of the optical system, but also, it has been involved in many other physiological and pathological processes apart from its refractive nature; the morphological and histological properties of the cornea have been thoroughly studied for the last fifty years; drawing attention in its molecular characteristics of immune response. This paper will review the anatomical and physiological aspects of the cornea, conjunctiva and lacrimal apparatus, as well as the innate immunity at the ocular surface. PMID:26161163

  15. Effect of untreated zirconium oxide nanofiller on the flexural strength and surface hardness of autopolymerized interim fixed restoration resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhavaz, Abdolhamid; Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Ghasemi, Arman; Ghasemi, Azade; Alizadeh Sahraei, Abolfazl

    2017-07-08

    Autopolymerized poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin is commonly used for the construction of interim restorations; however, it has less than optimal mechanical properties. In this article, we evaluated the reinforcing effect of adding untreated zirconia nanoparticles on the flexural strength and surface hardness of this resin. A total of 80 specimens were fabricated. Forty each were used for the flexural strength test and for the surface hardness test. The specimens were categorized into four groups of 10 specimens each as follows: pure PMMA, PMMA with 1%, PMMA with 2.5%, and PMMA with 5% weight of untreated zirconia nanofillers. The flexural strength of the specimens was evaluated by the three-point bending test, and the surface hardness was assessed by micro Vickers hardness test. The data obtained from these tests were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. In addition, the fracture surface characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Flexural strength testing showed a significant increase in the group with 2.5% zirconia nanofillers, but not in the groups with 1% and 5% nanofillers. Surface hardness was also significantly increased in the groups with 2.5% and 5% nanofillers, but not in the 1% group. The SEM images showed a highly brittle fracture in the pure PMMA group and noticeably less brittle fracture in the group with PMMA with 2.5% weight of zirconia nanofillers. Several cracks and void were also observed in the group with 5% weight of nanofillers. Reinforcement of the autopolymerized acrylic resin with 2.5% weight of untreated zirconia nanofillers significantly increased its flexural strength and surface hardness. The interim restorations play an important role in protection of hard and soft oral tissue and providing the critical function and esthetics before the final restoration replacing. Temporary restorations must have sufficient flexural strength to resist deformation during mastication force. Moreover

  16. Impacts of the Interim Federal Health Program reforms: A stakeholder analysis of barriers to health care access and provision for refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonipillai, Valentina; Baumann, Andrea; Hunter, Andrea; Wahoush, Olive; O'Shea, Timothy

    2017-11-09

    Changes to the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) in 2012 reduced health care access for refugees and refugee claimants, generating concerns among key stakeholders. In 2014, a new IFHP temporarily reinstated access to some health services; however, little is known about these changes, and more information is needed to map the IFHP's impact. This study explores barriers occurring during the time period of the IFHP reforms to health care access and provision for refugees. A stakeholder analysis, using 23 semi-structured interviews, was conducted to obtain insight into stakeholder perceptions of the 2014 reforms, as well as stakeholders' position and their influence to assess the acceptability of the IFHP changes. The majority of stakeholders expressed concerns about the 2014 IFHP changes as a result of the continuing barriers posed by the 2012 retrenchments and the emergence of new barriers to health care access and provision for refugees. Key barriers identified included lack of communication and awareness, lack of continuity and comprehensive care, negative political discourse and increased costs. A few stakeholders supported the reforms as they represented some, but limited, access to health care. Overall, the reforms to the IFHP in 2014 generated barriers to health care access and provision that contributed to confusion among stakeholders, the transfer of refugee health responsibility to provincial authorities and the likelihood of increased health outcome disparities, as refugees and refugee claimants chose to delay seeking health care. The study recommends that policy-makers engage with refugee health stakeholders to formulate a policy that improves health care provision and access for refugee populations.

  17. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  18. INFLUENCE OF WORKPIECE SURFACE PREPARATION ON THERMAL BARRIER COATING DURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Petrova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the impact of workpiece surface quality on adhesive strength and durability of thermal barrier coating. The result revealed that the roughness of metal layer influences on the adhesion of ceramic coating and depends the thickness of ceramic crystals when using method of Electron beam deposition.

  19. Ab initio transport across bismuth selenide surface barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Awadhesh

    2014-11-24

    © 2014 American Physical Society. We investigate the effect of potential barriers in the form of step edges on the scattering properties of Bi2Se3(111) topological surface states by means of large-scale ab initio transport simulations. Our results demonstrate the suppression of perfect backscattering, while all other scattering processes, which do not entail a complete spin and momentum reversal, are allowed. Furthermore, we find that the spin of the surface state develops an out-of-plane component as it traverses the barrier. Our calculations reveal the existence of quasibound states in the vicinity of the surface barriers, which appear in the form of an enhanced density of states in the energy window corresponding to the topological state. For double barriers we demonstrate the formation of quantum well states. To complement our first-principles results we construct a two-dimensional low-energy effective model and illustrate its shortcomings. Our findings are discussed in the context of a number of recent experimental works.

  20. The development of surface barriers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-03-01

    Engineered barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Much of the waste that would be disposed of by in-place stabilization currently is located in relatively shallow subsurface structures such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via the following pathways: plant, animal, and human intrusion; water infiltration; erosion; and the exhalation of noxious gases. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed to protect wastes disposed of ''in place'' from the transport pathways identified previously (Figure 1). The protective barrier consists of a variety of different materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt, etc.) placed in layers to form an above-grade mound directly over the waste zone. Surface markers are being considered for placement around the periphery of the waste sites to inform future generations of the nature and hazards of the buried wastes. In addition, throughout the protective barrier, subsurface markers could be placed to warn any inadvertent human intruders of the dangers of the buried wastes (Figure 2)

  1. Hanford protoype surface barrier status report: FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Freeman, H.D.; Walters, W.H. Jr.; Ligotke, M.W.; Campbell, M.D.; Ward, A.L.; Link, S.O.; Smith, S.K.; Gilmore, B.G.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-12-01

    A full-scale prototype surface barrier has been constructed at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier has been built to evaluate design, construction, and performance features of a surface barrier that may be used for in-place disposal of wastes at the Hanford Site. The design basis and construction of the prototype have been documented. A testing and monitoring plan has been published outlining specific tests planned for the prototype. The current report describes initial testing activities conducted in FY 1994 and outlines activities for testing and monitoring at the prototype barrier in the future. Asphalt permeability was tested during construction of the prototype in April and May 1994. Cores taken from the asphalt concrete layer were tested in the laboratory and found to have hydraulic conductivities below 1E-09 cm/s. Field measurements of hydraulic conductivity taken on the asphalt concrete using a specially-designed falling head permeameter were more than ten times higher than those from core tests. The higher values are attributed to transient flow through the permeameter seal. In spite of this difficulty, the more rapid field measurements (1-day tests in the field compared to 3 months in the laboratory) gave values as low as IE-09 cm/s and averaged about IE-08 cm/s. Samples of fluid-applied asphalt material, used as a sealant on the asphalt concrete layer, were. tested in the laboratory and found to have hydraulic conductivities below IE-10 cm/s. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity taken on an adjacent asphalt test pad using a sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI) were initiated in September 1994 and are expected to be completed in November 1994. Construction of the prototype surface barrier was completed in August 1994

  2. Interim Report: Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove Dissolved Uranium From Groundwater, Fry Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fry Canyon site in southeastern Utah was selected in 1996 as a long-term field demonstration site to assess the performance of selected permeable reactive barriers for the removal of uranium (U) from groundwater.

  3. Surface barrier silicon detectors with a large active area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Husimi, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kim, C.; Ohkawa, S.; Sakai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Surface barrier silicon detectors with a large active area have been produced by using high resistive n-type silicon crystals, diameters of which are 3 to 5 inches. High quality detectors with a low leakage current and a low noise were achieved by developing the improved surface treatment. Characteristics of detectors obtained are good in energy resolution compared with conventional large area Si(Li) detectors. It has also been confirmed that local dead region is not found from measuring results of photo-pulse injection

  4. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of cellulose nanofibre surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Madsen, Bo; Berglund, Linn

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment was applied to modify cellulose nanofibre (CNF) surfaces with and without ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment improved the wetting by deionised water and glycerol, and increased the contents of oxygen, carbonyl group, and carboxyl group...... and amorphous phases. Ultrasonic irradiation also improved the uniformity of the treatment. Altogether, it is demonstrated that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is a promising technique to modify the CNF surface before composite processing....... on the nanofibre surface. Ultrasonic irradiation further enhanced the wetting and oxidation of the nanofibre coating. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed skeleton-like features on the plasma-treated surface, indicating preferential etching of weaker domains, such as low-molecular weight domains...

  5. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  6. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  7. Direct plasma NOx reduction using single surface dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroushawi, Feisal; Stamate, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    NOx reduction using direct atmospheric barrier discharge in air-NO mixture at different voltages and flow rates is inversigated. Reduction rate of 80% is achieved at 3.18 W/cm2 power density and gas mixture of 20 slm air and 0.006 slm NO. The ozone for NO reduction is produced by a honeycomb...... structured DBD with a total surface of 12.56 cm2. The reduction process is investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, chemiluminsecence, mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy....

  8. Using a nitrogen dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcia, G; Anderson, C A; Brown, N M D

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, continuing previous work, we report on the installation and the testing of an experimental dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor run in a controlled atmospheric pressure gaseous environment other than air. Here, the effects of a N 2 -DBD treatment on the surface of a test polymer material (UHMW polyethylene) are examined, reported, discussed and compared to results obtained previously following air-DBD treatment. Surface analysis and characterization were performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy before and following the DBD processing described. The discharge parameters used were correlated with the changes in the surface characteristics found following DBD treatments of various durations in a nitrogen atmosphere. The work focuses on the control of the gaseous environment supporting the discharge and on the possibility of overcoming the potentially dominant effect of reactive oxygen-related species, derived from any residual air present. The results obtained underline the very high reactivity of such species in the discharge, but are encouraging in respect of the possibility of the implantation or generation of functional groups other than oxygen-related ones at the surface of interest. The processing conditions concerned simulate 'real' continuous high speed processing, allowing the planning of further experiments, where various gaseous mixtures of the type X + N 2 will be used for controlled surface functionalization

  9. Application of dielectric surface barrier discharge for food storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine BELLEBNA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is a powerful oxidizer and has much higher disinfection potential than chlorine and other disinfectants. Ozone finds its application mainly in water treatment and air purification Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD method has proved to be the best method to produce ozone. Dried air or oxygen is forced to pass through a 1-2 mm gap. The aim of this study was to show that disinfection system using ozone generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD is an effective alternative to be used in food industry and ensures a safe quality of air for optimum preservation of fruits and vegetables. The DBDs are specific kind of discharges because one (or sometimes both electrodes is covered by a dielectric material, thereby preventing the discharge to move towards electrical breakdown. A succession of microdischarges occurs rapidly; their "lifetime" is in the range of a few nanoseconds. One of their most important applications is the production of ozone for air treatment, used mainly in the area of food industry, for extending the storage life of foods. After the achievement of a surface DBD reactor of cylindrical shape and its electrical characterization, it was then used as an ozone generator for air disinfection. Obtained results have shown that this reactor used as an ozone generator is effective for disinfection of air by removing viruses, bacteria and pathogens, causing the slowdown of the ripening process of fruits and vegetables.

  10. Readiness Review Plan for the Interim Remedial Action on Surface Debris in Waste Area Grouping 11 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Readiness Review Plan was prepared by the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 Site Project Readiness Review Team as an overview of the Interim Remedial Action on Surface Debris in WAG 11 project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, including major readiness milestones, criteria development methodology, and a list of events to occur as part of the review process for determining readiness for each project phase

  11. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  12. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 2 of this IM/IRA Plan contains OU 2 surface water, sediment, ground water and soil chemistry data, as well as the South Walnut Creek Basin Surface Water IM/IRA schedule and a tabulation of ARARs. (FL)

  13. Gamma detection: an unusual application for surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtenbaum de Iacub, Silvana; Matatagui, Emilio

    1983-01-01

    The silicon surface barrier detectors (SBD), may be ideal devices to be used in dose indicators for the monitoring of gamma radiations; the SBD working as a cavity sensor. The measurement consists in counting the number of pulses that exceeds a certain level of discrimination, this number being proportional to the absorbed dose. The spectral distribution of the pulses gives an idea of the existing photons field's energy. Characteristic spectra obtained with different gamma-and X ray sources are described and analyzed, and tests are carried out by using different sensitive volumes of the detector in order to determine significant parameters for a gamma-monitor system. The results from the measurements indicate: a) high sensitivity of the system with SBD (high density of material); b) low background: enviromental backgrounds are reliably registered (approx. 10μ R/h); c) minimum detectable energies of the order of 60 keV; d) possibility to determine high exposure rates (approx. 100 R/h); e) for emitters of low Z, the result is approximately independent from the gamma energy. These results suggest the possibility of constructing fixed and portable systems, appropriate for gamma monitoring, which utilize SBD as sensors; these devices are adequate for working at enviroment temperatures, being compact, reliable, with low polarization voltages, and of relatively low cost. (M.E.L.) [es

  14. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project Near Surface Test Facility 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of the reclamation project for the Hanford Site Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation project is to return disturbed sites as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native species. Gable Mountain is dominated by two plant communities: a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) -- Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) community and a stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida) -- Sandberg's bluegrass community. Disassembly of the site installations began on March 15, 1988, and the site was returned to original contours by December 12, 1988. Two separate revegetation methods were employed at the NSTF to meet differing site constraints. Vegetative cover and density in the revegetation plots were assessed in April 1989 and again in June 1989 and 1990. It is extremely unlikely that the sand pit, borrow pit, box cuts, generator pad area, or ventilation fan area will reach the reclamation objectives set for these areas within the next 50 years without further intervention. These areas currently support few living plants. Vegetation on revegetated native soils appears to be growing as expected. Vegetation growth on the main waterline is well below the objective. To date, no shrubs have grown on the area, growth of native grasses is well below the objective, and much of the area has been covered with the pit run material, which may not support adequate growth. Without further treatments, the areas without the pit run material will likely revert to a nearly pure cheatgrass condition. 44 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Surface wave climatology and its variability in the North Indian Ocean based on ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; Sanilkumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Johnson, G.

    -Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global atmospheric reanalysis product (ERA-Interim) for the period 1979–2012 are analyzed. Annual average significant wave height (SWH) of the NIO ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 m and the seasonal average is highest (3–3.5 m) during...

  16. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.A.; Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper

  17. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northeast Barrier Islands 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a

  18. Diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge -- basic properties and its application in surface treatment of nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacik, Dusan; Rahel, Jozef; Kubincova, Jana; Zahoranova, Anna; Cernak, Mirko

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma surface treatments have become a hot topic because of the potential of fast and efficient in-line processing fabrication without expensive vacuum equipment. A major problem of atmospheric pressure treatment in air is insufficient treatment uniformity because, particularly at the higher plasma power densities, the air plasma has the tendency of filamentation and transition into an arc discharge. Diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) plasma source has been developed to overcome these problems. This type of discharge enables to generate macroscopically homogeneous thin (˜ 0.3 mm) plasma layer with power density of some 100 W/cm^3 practically in any gas without admixture of He. It was found that the ambient air plasma of DCSBD is capable to make lightweight polypropylene nonwoven fabrics permanently hydrophilic, without any pinholing and with low power consumption of some 1 kWh/kg.

  19. Stimulated emission of surface plasmons by electron tunneling in metal-barrier-metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, D. P.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that correlation currents arising from the superposition of pairs of states on distinct sides of a potential barrier in metal-barrier-metal structures can result in inelastic tunneling through the emission of surface plasmons. Net gain of an externally excited plasmon field is possible.

  20. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, M.J.; Berg, B.M. van den; Avramut, M.C.; Faas, F.G.; Vlag, J. van der; Rops, A.L.; Ravelli, R.B.; Koster, B.J.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Vink, H.; Rabelink, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this

  1. Surface barrier and bulk pinning in MgB$_2$ superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Pissas, M.; Moraitakis, E.; Stamopoulos, D.; Papavassiliou, G.; Psycharis, V.; Koutandos, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a modified method of preparation of the new superconductor MgB$_2$. The polycrystalline samples were characterized using x-ray and magnetic measurements. The surface barriers control the isothermal magnetization loops in powder samples. In bulk as prepared samples we always observed symmetric magnetization loops indicative of the presence of a bulk pinning mechanism. Magnetic relaxation measurements in the bulk sample reveal a crossover of surface barrier to bulk pinning.

  2. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.

  3. Experimental study on the 1/f noise in surface-barrier particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Korbel, K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the 1/f noise origins in a surface-barrier particle detector are presented. In these experiments an ordinary surface-barrier detector provided with a reasonably designed guard-ring was used. The measurements of the noise spectra were performed in the ''floating'' and ''balanced'' guard-ring conditions. This way two components of the 1/f noise were determined: the noise occuring due to the surface phenomena, connected with the flow of the surface leakage current, and the noise originated in the bulk of semiconductor, caused by the mobility fluctuation of charge carriers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. AC surface flashover strength and barrier effect of LN 2 for HTS transformer with simulated electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jong-Man; Baek, Seung-Myeong; Kim, Hae-Jong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2003-10-01

    In the response to an increasing demand for electrical energy, much effort aimed to develop and commercialise HTS power equipments is going on around the world. For the development, it is necessary to establish the dielectric technology in LN 2. Hence many types of dielectric tests should be carried out to understand the dielectric phenomena at cryogenic temperature and to gather various dielectric data. Among the many types dielectric tests, the characteristic of surface flashover and the barrier effect were conducted with the simulated electrode after analysing the insulating configuration of the pancake-coil-type HTS transformer. The influence of a barrier on the dielectric strength was measured according to the size of the barrier, the position of the barrier and the effect of the back-electrode. It was shown that the effectiveness, namely the ratio of the breakdown voltage in presence of barrier to the voltage without barrier, is highest when the barrier is placed at the needle electrode side. The effect increased up to 1.8 times when collar length is 10 mm. The flashover characteristic with back-electrode was remarkably lower than the characteristic without one in the case the electrodes located at the same surface of dielectric plate. On the contrary, in the case the barrier was placed between the electrodes, the characteristic was even improved slightly.

  5. Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer

  6. Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer.

  7. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  8. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  9. Surface modification of polyethylene by diffuse barrier discharge plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Števiar, M.; Popelka, A.; Chodák, I.; Mosnáček, J.; Špírková, Milena; Janigová, I.; Kleinová, A.; Sedliačik, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2013), s. 516-523 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : low-density polyethylene * plasma discharge * surface modification Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2013

  10. Long-Term Drainage from the Riprap Side Slope of a Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang

    2017-07-01

    Surface barriers designed to isolate underground nuclear waste in place are expected to function for at least 1000 years. To achieve this long design life, such barriers need to be protected with side slopes against wind- and water-induced erosion and damage by natural or human activities. However, the side slopes are usually constructed with materials coarser than the barrier. Their hydrological characteristics must be understood so that any drainage from them is considered in the barrier design and will not compromise the barrier function. The Prototype Hanford Barrier, an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier, was constructed in 1994 at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, with a gravel side slope and a riprap side slope. The soil water content in the gravel side slope and drainage from both side slopes have been monitored since the completion of construction. The monitoring results show that under natural precipitation the annual drainage rates from the two types of side slopes were very similar and about 5 times the typical recharge from local soil with natural vegetation and 40 times the barrier design criterion. The higher recharge from the side slopes results in some of the drainage migrating laterally to the region beneath the ETC barrier. This edge effect of the enhanced drainage was evaluated for a period of 1000 years by numerical simulation. The edge effect was quantified by the amount of water across the barrier edges and the affecting distance of the barrier edges. These results indicate that design features can be adjusted to reduce the edge effect when necessary.

  11. Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1992 and 1993 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company to design and test an earthen cover system that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company provided engineering design support for the program. Work on barrier design has been under way at Hanford for nearly 10 years. The comprehensive development of a long-term barrier, formerly the Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program, was initiated in FY 1986, and a general field-tested design is expected to be completed by FY 1998. Highlights of efforts in FY 1992 and FY 1993 included the resumption of field testing, the completion of the prototype barrier design, and the convening of an external peer review panel, which met twice with the barrier development team. The review panel provided helpful guidance on current and future barrier development activities, while commending the program for its significant technical contributions to innovative barrier technology development

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S. J.; Jacobson, J. J.; Martian, P.; Martineau, R.; Soto, R.

    2003-01-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent migration of the waste due to infiltration of surface water. The design lifespan for such barriers ranges from 30 to 1000 years, depending on hazard and regulations. In light of historical performance, society needs a better basis for predicting barrier performance over long time periods and tools for optimizing maintenance of barriers while in service. We believe that, as in other industries, better understanding of the dynamics of barrier system degradation will enable improved barriers (cheaper, longer-lived, simpler, easier to maintain) and improved maintenance. We are focusing our research on earthen caps, especially those with evapo-transpiration and capillary breaks. Typical cap assessments treat the barrier's structure as static prior to some defined lifetime. Environmental boundary conditions such as precipitation and temperature are treated as time dependent. However, other key elements of the barrier system are regarded as constant, including engineered inputs (e.g., fire management strategy, irrigation, vegetation control), surface ecology (critical to assessment of plant transpiration), capillary break interface, material properties, surface erosion rate, etc. Further, to be conservative, only harmful processes are typically considered. A more holistic examination of both harmful and beneficial processes will provide more realistic pre-service prediction and in-service assessment of performance as well as provide designers a tool to encourage beneficial processes while discouraging harmful processes. Thus, the

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, S. J.; Jacobson, J. J.; Martian, P.; Martineau, R.; Soto, R.

    2003-02-25

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent migration of the waste due to infiltration of surface water. The design lifespan for such barriers ranges from 30 to 1000 years, depending on hazard and regulations. In light of historical performance, society needs a better basis for predicting barrier performance over long time periods and tools for optimizing maintenance of barriers while in service. We believe that, as in other industries, better understanding of the dynamics of barrier system degradation will enable improved barriers (cheaper, longer-lived, simpler, easier to maintain) and improved maintenance. We are focusing our research on earthen caps, especially those with evapo-transpiration and capillary breaks. Typical cap assessments treat the barrier's structure as static prior to some defined lifetime. Environmental boundary conditions such as precipitation and temperature are treated as time dependent. However, other key elements of the barrier system are regarded as constant, including engineered inputs (e.g., fire management strategy, irrigation, vegetation control), surface ecology (critical to assessment of plant transpiration), capillary break interface, material properties, surface erosion rate, etc. Further, to be conservative, only harmful processes are typically considered. A more holistic examination of both harmful and beneficial processes will provide more realistic pre-service prediction and in-service assessment of performance as well as provide designers a tool to encourage beneficial processes while discouraging harmful processes

  14. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-06-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the research and development activities of the Superconducting Super Collider project carried out from the completion of the Reference Designs Study (May 1984) to June 1985. It was prepared by the SSC Central Design Group in draft form on the occasion of the DOE Annual Review, June 19--21, 1985. Now largely organized by CDG Divisions, the bulk of each chapter documents the progress and accomplishments to date, while the final section(s) describe plans for future work. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a basic brief description of the SSC, its physics justification, its origins, and the R&D organization set up to carry out the work. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the main results of the R&D program, the tasks assigned to the four magnet R&D centers, and an overview of the future plans. The reader wishing a quick look at the SSC Phase I effort can skim Chapter 1 and read Chapter 2. Subsequent chapters discuss in more detail the activities on accelerator physics, accelerator systems, magnets and cryostats, injector, detector R&D, conventional facilities, and project planning and management. The magnet chapter (5) documents in text and photographs the impressive progress in successful construction of many model magnets, the development of cryostats with low heat leaks, and the improvement in current-carrying capacity of superconducting strand. Chapter 9 contains the budgets and schedules of the COG Divisions, the overall R&D program, including the laboratories, and also preliminary projections for construction. Appendices provide information on the various panels, task forces and workshops held by the CDG in FY 1985, a bibliography of COG and Laboratory reports on SSC and SSC-related work, and on private industrial involvement in the project.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Long-Term Performance of Near-Surface Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Jacobson, Jacob Jordan; Soto, Rafael; Martian, Pete; Martineau, Richard Charles

    2003-02-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent migration of the waste due to infiltration of surface water. The design lifespan for such barriers ranges from 30 to 1000 years, depending on hazard and regulations. In light of historical performance, society needs a better basis for predicting barrier performance over long time periods and tools for optimizing maintenance of barriers while in service. We believe that, as in other industries, better understanding of the dynamics of barrier system degradation will enable improved barriers (cheaper, longer-lived, simpler, easier to maintain) and improved maintenance. We are focusing our research on earthen caps, especially those with evapo-transpiration and capillary breaks. Typical cap assessments treat the barrier’s structure as static prior to some defined lifetime. Environmental boundary conditions such as precipitation and temperature are treated as time dependent. However, other key elements of the barrier system are regarded as constant, including engineered inputs (e.g., fire management strategy, irrigation, vegetation control), surface ecology (critical to assessment of plant transpiration), capillary break interface, material properties, surface erosion rate, etc. Further, to be conservative, only harmful processes are typically considered. A more holistic examination of both harmful and beneficial processes will provide more realistic pre-service prediction and in-service assessment of performance as well as provide designers a tool to encourage beneficial processes while discouraging harmful processes. Thus

  16. The development of permanent isolation surface barriers: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of in situ (in place) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). The current focus of development efforts is to design barriers that will function in a semiarid to subhumid climate, Emit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero amounts, be maintenance free, and last up to 1000 years or more. A series of field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies have been conducted for several years. The results of tests to date confirm that the Hanford barrier concepts are valid for both present and wetter climatic conditions. The data collected also have provided the foundation for the design of a large prototype barrier to be constructed later in 1993. This paper presents the results of some of the field tests, experiments, and lysimeter studies.

  17. Low-temperature hydrogenation of diamond nanoparticles using diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Čech, J.; Kozak, Halyna; Artemenko, Anna; Ižák, Tibor; Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Černák, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2602-2607 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atmospheric plasma * diamond nanoparticles * diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge * FTIR * XPS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  18. Mid-Holocene sea surface conditions and riverine influence on the inshore Great Barrier Reef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, R.C.; Perry, C.T.; Smithers, S.G.; Leng, M.J.; Grove, C.A.; Sloane, H.J.; Unsworth, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of Sr/Ca, d18O, and spectral luminescence ratios (G/B) from a mid-Holocene Porites sp. microatoll recovered from the nearshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR). These records were used as proxies to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), the d18O of surrounding seawater (d18Osw),

  19. A peer review of the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    A panel of technical experts was organized to peer review the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) and to provide a specific review of a preconceptual prototype barrier design initiated during fiscal year (FY) 1990. The technical peer review of the BDP and the prototype is being conducted in three phases, two of which have been completed. This document presents the peer review panel's findings on the first two phases of the peer review process. Biointrusion and water intrusion control are discussed, along with design life, vegetation, and climate impact

  20. Surface modification of nanofibrillated cellulose films by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, the water contact angle of NFC films increased and the values were comparable with those of PLA films. On the other hand, surface chemical characterization revealed inhomogeneity of the plasma treatment and limited improvement in adhesion between NFC and PLA films......A dielectric barrier discharge in a gas mixture of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and O2 was used for tailoring the surface properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films. The surface chemical composition of plasma-modified NFC was characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time....... Further research in this direction is required in order to enhance the uniformity of the plasma treatment results....

  1. Test Plan to Assess Fire Effects on the Function of an Engineered Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Berlin, Gregory T.; Cammann, Jerry W.; Leary, Kevin D.; Link, Steven O.

    2008-09-29

    Wildfire is a frequent perturbation in shrub steppe ecosystems, altering the flora, fauna, atmosphere, and soil of these systems. Research on the fire effects has focused mostly on natural ecosystems with essentially no attention on engineered systems like surface barriers. The scope of the project is to use a simulated wildfire to induce changes in an engineered surface barrier and document the effects on barrier performance. The main objective is to quantify the effects of burning and the resulting post-fire conditions on alterations in soil physical properties; hydrologic response, particularly the water balance; geochemical properties; and biological properties. A secondary objective is to use the lessons learned to maximize fire protection in the design of long-term monitoring systems based on electronic sensors. A simulated wildfire will be initiated, controlled and monitored at the 200-BP-1 barrier in collaboration with the Hanford Fire Department during the fall of 2008. The north half of the barrier will be divided into nine 12 x 12 m plots, each of which will be randomly assigned a fuel load of 2 kg m-2 or 4 kg m-2. Each plot will be ignited around the perimeter and flames allowed to carry to the centre. Any remaining unburned vegetation will be manually burned off using a drip torch. Progress of the fire and its effects will be monitored using point measurements of thermal, hydrologic, and biotic variables. Three measures of fire intensity will be used to characterize fire behavior: (1) flame height, (2) the maximum temperature at three vertical profile levels, and (3) total duration of elevated temperature at these levels. Pre-burn plant information, including species diversity, plant height, and canopy diameter will be measured on shrubs from the plots to be burned and from control plots at the McGee ranch. General assessments of shrub survival, recovery, and recruitment will be made after the fire. Near-surface soil samples will be collected pre- and

  2. A surface barrier detector for simultaneous detection of α and β particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Fumio

    1981-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors are indispensable as the solid detectors with high energy resolution. Ge detectors are used for gamma-ray spectroscopy and its applied fields, while Si detectors are used as the detectors for charged particles such as α and β rays and low energy X-ray. In this paper, it is reported that the Si detector developed in the author's laboratory is suitable to monitor very weak radioactivity. The Si detector is a rectifier, but in order to capture radiation, it has large area and increased thickness, and a window is provided for incident charged particles. The Si detectors are classified into three types according to the manufacturing methods, namely surface barrier type, PN joint type and Li drift type. The Si detector introduced here is of surface barrier type, but it is characterized by the use of P-type Si with superhigh purity. The method of manufacturing this detector, its specifications and characteristics are described. Because of the surface barrier type, it can be produced simply in short time, and the yield of products is good. The stability is good, and the sensitivity is high, accordingly very weak radioactivity can be measured. As the examples of measurements, the results of uranium ore and fertilizer on the market are compared. Also the utilization as surface contamination meters is explained. (Kako, I.)

  3. The Barrier Properties of PET Coated DLC Film Deposited by Microwave Surface-Wave PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhua; Chen, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by microwave surface-wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) web for the purpose of the barrier property improvement. In order to characterize the properties of DLC coatings, we used several substrates, silicon wafer, glass, and PET web and KBr tablet. The deposition rate was obtained by surface profiler based on the DLC deposited on glass substrates; Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was carried out on KBr tablets to investigate chemical composition and bonding structure; the morphology of the DLC coating was analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on Si substrates. For the barrier properties of PET webs, we measured the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) after coated with DLC films. We addressed the film barrier property related to process parameters, such as microwave power and pulse parameter in this work. The results show that the DLC coatings can greatly improve the barrier properties of PET webs.

  4. PEO-like Plasma Polymers Prepared by Atmospheric Pressure Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordeev, I.; Choukourov, A.; Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Biederman, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2012), s. 782-791 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD104/09/H080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fibrinogen * non-fouling properties * PEO * plasma polymerization * surface dielectric barrier discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  5. Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcia, G; Anderson, C A; Brown, N M D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report and discuss a surface treatment method, using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of random filamentary type. This offers a convenient, reliable and economic alternative for the controlled modification (so far, largely dependent on surface oxidation) of various categories of material surfaces. Remarkably uniform treatment and markedly stable modified surface properties result over the entire area of the test surfaces exposed to the discharge even at transit speeds simulating those associated with continuous on-line processing. The effects of air-DBD treatment on the surfaces of various polymer films and polymer-based fabrics were studied. The dielectric barrier concerned has been characterized in terms of the energy deposited by the discharge at the processing electrodes and the resultant modifications of the surface properties of the treated samples were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle/wickability measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the surface treatment parameters, such as the energy deposited by the discharge, the inter-electrode gap and the treatment time were examined and related to the post-treatment surface characteristics of the materials processed. Relationships between the processing parameters and the properties of the DBD treated samples were thus established. Of the three process variables investigated, the duration of the treatment was found to have a more significant effect on the surface modifications found than did the discharge energy or the inter-electrode gap. Very short air-DBD treatments (fractions of a second in duration) markedly and uniformly modified the surface characteristics for all the materials treated, to the effect that wettability, wickability and the level of oxidation of the surface appear to be increased strongly within the first 0.1-0.2 s of treatment. Any subsequent surface modification following longer treatment (>1.0 s) was less important

  6. Dielectric barrier discharge for surface treatment: application to selected polymers in film and fibre form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcia, G.; Anderson, C. A.; Brown, N. M. D.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we report and discuss a surface treatment method, using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of random filamentary type. This offers a convenient, reliable and economic alternative for the controlled modification (so far, largely dependent on surface oxidation) of various categories of material surfaces. Remarkably uniform treatment and markedly stable modified surface properties result over the entire area of the test surfaces exposed to the discharge even at transit speeds simulating those associated with continuous on-line processing. The effects of air-DBD treatment on the surfaces of various polymer films and polymer-based fabrics were studied. The dielectric barrier concerned has been characterized in terms of the energy deposited by the discharge at the processing electrodes and the resultant modifications of the surface properties of the treated samples were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle/wickability measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the surface treatment parameters, such as the energy deposited by the discharge, the inter-electrode gap and the treatment time were examined and related to the post-treatment surface characteristics of the materials processed. Relationships between the processing parameters and the properties of the DBD treated samples were thus established. Of the three process variables investigated, the duration of the treatment was found to have a more significant effect on the surface modifications found than did the discharge energy or the inter-electrode gap. Very short air-DBD treatments (fractions of a second in duration) markedly and uniformly modified the surface characteristics for all the materials treated, to the effect that wettability, wickability and the level of oxidation of the surface appear to be increased strongly within the first 0.1-0.2 s of treatment. Any subsequent surface modification following longer treatment (>1.0 s) was less important

  7. Role of low-order rational surfaces in transport barrier formation on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, F.

    2010-11-01

    In the Large Helical Device, edge transport barrier (ETB) was formed by H-mode transition near the low-order rational surfaces, that is, at the ι/2π=1 resonant layer (ι/2π: the rotational transform) in outward-shifted plasmas of R ax =3.9m (R ax : the magnetic axis position in the vacuum field), and the ι/2π=2 resonant layer in inward-shifted plasmas of R ax =3.6m. The ι/2π=1 and 2 resonant layers reside in the stochastic field region existing just outside the last closed magnetic surface (LCFS). In the outward-shifted plasmas, H-modes without edge localized modes (ELM-free H-modes) followed by giant ELMs were obtained, while H-modes with high frequency and low amplitude ELMs were obtained in the inward-shifted plasmas. A new type of barrier formation induced by TAE bursts was observed in the plasmas of R ax =3.6m, where the transport barrier is formed near the ι/2π=1 surface locates inside LCFS. (author)

  8. Improving Hydrophobicity of Glass Surface Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Treatment in Atmospheric Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui; Kuffel, E

    2007-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in industrial applications, especially in material surface treatment. In this paper, the treatment of a glass surface for improving hydrophobicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air is conducted, and the surface properties of the glass before and after the DBD treatment are studied by using contact angle measurement, surface resistance measurement and wet flashover voltage tests. The effects of the applied voltage and time duration of DBD on the surface modification are studied, and the optimal conditions for the treatment are obtained. It is found that a layer of hydrophobic coating is formed on the glass surface after spraying a thin layer of silicone oil and undergoing the DBD treatment, and the improvement of hydrophobicity depends on DBD voltage and treating time. It seems that there exists an optimum treating time for a certain applied voltage of DBD during the surface treatment. The test results of thermal aging and chemical aging show that the hydrophobic layer has quite stable characteristics. The interaction mechanism between the DBD plasma and the glass surface is discussed. It is concluded that CH 3 and large molecule radicals can react with the radicals in the glass surface to replace OH, and the hydrophobicity of the glass surface is improved accordingly

  9. Surface treatment of aramid fiber by air dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Caixia; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Bin; Wang Qian

    2011-01-01

    Aramid fiber samples are treated by air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure; the plasma treatment time is investigated as the major parameter. The effects of this treatment on the fiber surface physical and chemical properties are studied by using surface characterization techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed to determine the surface morphology changes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is analyzed to reveal the surface chemical composition variations and dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) is used to examine the changes of the fiber surface wettability. In addition, the wetting behavior of a kind of thermoplastic resin, poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK), on aramid fiber surface is also observed by SEM photos. The study shows that there seems to be an optimum treatment condition for surface modification of aramid fiber by the air DBD plasma. In this paper, after the 12 s, 27.6 W/cm 3 plasma treatment the aramid fiber surface roughness is significantly improved, some new oxygen-containing groups such as C-O, C=O and O=C-O are generated on the fiber surface and the fiber surface wettability is greatly enhanced, which results in the better wetting behavior of PPESK resin on the plasma-treated aramid fiber.

  10. Analysis of Samples Collected from the Surface of Interim Storage Canisters at Calvert Cliffs in June 2017: Revision 01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In June 2017, dust and salt samples were collected from the surface of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) dry storage canisters at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant. The samples were delivered to Sandia National laboratories for analysis. Two types of samples were collected: filter-backed Scotch-Brite TM pads were used to collect dry dust samples for characterization of salt and dust morphologies and distributions; and Saltsmart TM test strips were used to collect soluble salts for determining salt surface loadings per unit area. After collection, the samples were sealed into plastic sleeves for shipping. Condensation within the sleeves containing the Scotch-Brite TM samples remobilized the salts, rendering them ineffective for the intended purpose, and also led to mold growth, further compromising the samples; for these reasons, the samples were not analyzed. The SaltSmart TM samples were unaffected and were analyzed by ion chromatography for major anions and cations. The results of those analyses are presented here.

  11. Effects of air dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment time on surface properties of PBO fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Ping; Jia Caixia; Chen, Mingxin; Li Bin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment time on surface properties of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fiber were investigated. The surface characteristics of PBO fiber before and after the plasma treatments were analyzed by dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DCA measurements indicated that the surface wettability of PBO fiber was improved significantly by increasing the fiber surface free energy via air DBD plasma treatments. The results were confirmed by the improvement of adhesion of a kind of thermoplastic resin to PBO fiber which was observed by SEM, showing that more resin was adhering evenly to the fiber surface. AFM measurement revealed that the surface topography of PBO fiber became more complicated and the surface roughness was greatly enhanced after the plasma treatments, and XPS analysis showed that some new polar groups (e.g. -O-C=O) were introduced on plasma treated PBO fiber surface. The results of this study also showed that the surface properties of PBO fiber changed with the elongation of plasma treatment time.

  12. Hollow hexagonal pattern with surface discharges in a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyu; Dong, Lifang; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying; Du, Tian; Hao, Fang

    2017-05-01

    The hollow hexagonal pattern involved in surface discharges is firstly investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The spatiotemporal structures of the pattern are studied using an intensified charge-coupled device and photomultiplier. Instantaneous images taken by an intensified charge-coupled device and optical correlation measurements show that the surface discharges are induced by volume discharges. The optical signals indicate that the discharge filaments constituting the hexagonal frame discharge randomly at the first current pulse or the second pulse, once or twice. There is no interleaving of several sub-lattices, which indicates that the ‘memory’ effect is no longer in force due to surface discharges. By using the emission spectrum method, both the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the surface discharges are larger than that of the volume discharges.

  13. Single-electron transport driven by surface acoustic waves: Moving quantum dots versus short barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the response of the acoustoelectric-current driven by a surface-acoustic wave through a quantum point contact in the closed-channel regime. Under proper conditions, the current develops plateaus at integer multiples of ef when the frequency f of the surface-acoustic wave...... or the gate voltage V-g of the point contact is varied. A pronounced 1.1 MHz beat period of the current indicates that the interference of the surface-acoustic wave with reflected waves matters. This is supported by the results obtained after a second independent beam of surface-acoustic wave was added......, though at different current values, as if they were superposed on each other. Their presence could result from two independent quantization mechanisms for the acoustoelectric-current. We point out that short potential barriers determining the properties of our nominally long constrictions could lead...

  14. Safety indicators used to prove the role of natural barrier for Saligny near surface disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, Ortenzia; Durdun, I.; Ionita, Gh.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The siting process for a near surface repository suitable for the radioactive waste resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation and decommissioning (low level radioactive waste with small amounts of long lived radionuclides) started in 1992 and it included the collection of data from specific field and laboratory works for each site selection stage as well as different safety performance evaluation. According to the IAEA standards (Safety Guide No.111-G-3.1, 1994), the purpose of the siting process is not to get the best solution but to find out 'an acceptable solution, with sufficient safety reserves'. Since 1996, detailed field and investigation works were performed in Saligny preferred site including an experimental area to test the improvement method proposed for the foundation ground of repository, as well as detailed performance assessments using specific computer codes. The paper presents the results of recent performance assessments for the natural barrier of disposal system. The calculations were done using HYDRUS 2D, FEHM and AMBER computer codes. The endpoint of the Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site [CITON and SCN, Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site, 2007, pages 8.2.1-1 to 8.2.1-22 and 8-63 to 8-70] was the assessment of safety indicators. Individual annual effective dose for exposed peoples (both workers and general public) was the main safety indicator. In the same document, the radionuclide concentration in the disposal system compartments has been evaluated, as supplementary safety indicator of repository barriers (especially to confirm the natural barrier performance). The results confirmed the performance of natural barrier: the maximum extension of H-3 and Co-60 contaminant plume after repository closure remains more above underground water level. In the aquifer, iodine concentration reaches a value of 10 -15 mol/l, at the same magnitude order with the admitted limit from CFR

  15. Leaching action of EJ-13 water on unirradiated UO2 surfaces under unsaturated conditions at 90 degree C: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Veleckis, E.; Tani, B.S.

    1991-07-01

    A set of experiments, based on the application of the Unsaturated Test method to the reaction of UO 2 with EJ-13 water, has been conducted over a period of 182.5 weeks. One half of the experiments have been terminated, while one half are still ongoing. Solutions that have dripped from UO 2 specimens have been analyzed for all experiments, while the reacted UO 2 surfaces have been examined for only the terminated experiments. A pulse of uranium release from the UO 2 solid, in conjunction with the formation of dehydrated schoepite on the surface of the UO 2 , was observed during the 39- to 96-week period. Thereafter, the uranium release decreased and a second set of secondary phases was observed. The latter phases incorporate cations from the EJ-13 water and include boltwoodite, uranophane, sklodowskite, compreignacite, and schoepite. The experiments are being continued to monitor for additional changes in solution composition and secondary phase formation, and have now reached the 319-week period. 9 refs., 17 figs., 25 tabs

  16. Interim Report by Asia International Grid Connection Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, Ryo

    2018-01-01

    The Asia International Grid Connection Study Group Interim Report examines the feasibility of developing an international grid connection in Japan. The Group has investigated different cases of grid connections in Europe and conducted research on electricity markets in Northeast Asia, and identifies the barriers and challenges for developing an international grid network including Japan. This presentation introduces basic contents of the interim report by the Study Group.

  17. Mechanism analysis of the affect the copper line surface roughness after FA/O alkaline barrier CMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaojiao, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Jin, Cui

    2014-12-01

    The surface roughness seriously affects the performance of devices after barrier CMP. Due to the high surface roughness of copper line, the local resistance of a device will be high when working, then the copper line will overheat prompting the generation of electro-migration and the circuit will lose efficacy. Reducing the surface roughness of the copper line in barrier CMP is still an important research topic. The main factors influencing the surface roughness of copper line in alkaline barrier slurry are analyzed in the paper. Aimed at influencing the law on the surface roughness of copper line, using a new type of alkaline barrier slurry with a different pH of the chelating agent and changing the content of non-ionic surfactant, we then analyze the influencing law both on the surface roughness of copper line, and the influence mechanism. The experimental results show that with a chelating agent with a low pH value in the barrier slurry, the surface roughness of the copper line is 1.03 nm and it is the lowest in all of the barrier slurries, and with the increase of non-ionic surfactant concentration, the surface roughness of copper line is reduced to 0.43 nm, meeting the demand of further development of integrated circuits.

  18. Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Martijn J C; van den Berg, Bernard M; Avramut, M Cristina; Faas, Frank G A; van der Vlag, Johan; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Koster, Bram J; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Vink, Hans; Rabelink, Ton J

    2013-05-01

    Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this hypothesis, we disturbed the ESL in C57Bl/6 mice using long-term hyaluronidase infusion for 4 weeks and monitored albumin passage using immunolabeling and correlative light-electron microscopy that allows for complete and integral assessment of glomerular albumin passage. ESL ultrastructure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy using cupromeronic blue and by localization of ESL binding lectins using confocal microscopy. We demonstrate that glomerular fenestrae are filled with dense negatively charged polysaccharide structures that are largely removed in the presence of circulating hyaluronidase, leaving the polysaccharide surfaces of other glomerular cells intact. Both retention of native ferritin [corrected] in the glomerular basement membrane and systemic blood pressure were unaltered. Enzyme treatment, however, induced albumin passage across the endothelium in 90% of glomeruli, whereas this could not be observed in controls. Yet, there was no net albuminuria due to binding and uptake of filtered albumin by the podocytes and parietal epithelium. ESL structure and function completely recovered within 4 weeks on cessation of hyaluronidase infusion. Thus, the polyanionic ESL component, hyaluronan, is a key component of the glomerular endothelial protein permeability barrier. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Barrier Properties of PET by Depositing a Layer of DLC Films on Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diamond-like carbon films (DLC films depositing on the Poly (ethylene terephthalate (PET surface are obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD, and the working gases are acetylene and argon gas. Surface morphology and the internal structure of DLC films are investigated by using Raman and FESEM, and the barrier properties of PET films which have been deposited the DLC films are tested in this paper. The results show that the deposition process parameters have an important effect on structure and performance of DLC films. It is shown that the diamond-like carbon films prepared by PECVD system are an amorphous carbon films which mixed with sp3 bond and sp2 bond. The best oxygen barrier property and water vapor barrier property of PET films are increased by 11 times and 12 times, respectively, in which the ID/IG ratio of the DLC film is nearly 0.76, and the sp3 content is about 40%.

  20. The Effects of Fire on the Function of the 200-BP-1 Engineered Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Hasan, Nazmul; Draper, Kathryn E.

    2009-09-01

    A critical unknown in use of barrier technology for long-term waste isolation is performance after a major disturbance especially when institutional controls are intact, but there are no resources to implement corrective actions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of wild fire on alterations the function of an engineered barrier. A controlled burn September 26, 2008 was used to remove all the vegetation from the north side of the barrier. Flame heights exceeded 9 m and temperatures ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Post-fire analysis of soil properties show significant decreases in wettability, hydraulic conductivity, air entry pressure, organic matter, and porosity relative to pre-fire conditions whereas dry bulk density increased. Decreases in hydraulic conductivity and wettabilty immediately after the fire are implicated in a surface runoff event that occurred in January 2009, the first in 13 years. There was a significant increase in macro-nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity. After one year, hydrophobicity has returned to pre-burn levels with only 16% of samples still showing signs of decreased wettability. Over the same period, hydraulic conductivity and air entry pressure returned to pre-burn levels at one third of the locations but remained identical to values recorded immediately after the fire at the other two thirds. Soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated after 1 year. Species composition on the burned surface changed markedly from prior years and relative to the unburned surface and two analog sites. An increase in the proportion of annuals and biennials is characteristic of burned surfaces that have become dominated by ruderal species. Greenhouse seedling emergence tests conducted to assess the seed bank of pre- and post-burn soils and of two analog sites at the McGee Ranch show no difference in the number of species emerging from soils collected

  1. Response surface modeling and analysis of barrier and optical properties of maize starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sridhar, R

    2013-09-01

    In this work, four factors with three level Box-Behnken response surface design was employed to investigate the influence of process variables (maize starch, sorbitol, agar and Tween-80) on the barrier (water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, thickness, moisture content and solubility) and optical (transparency) properties of the maize starch based edible films. Casting method was employed to prepare the edible films. The results showed that, addition of sorbitol and Tween-80 reduces the water vapor and oxygen permeability of the films, its due to the reduction of molecular mobility between polymer matrixes, where as, it also increases the thickness, moisture content, solubility and transparency of the films. The results were analyzed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models are developed for all responses in order to predict the effect of process variables over the barrier and optical properties of the films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Remote sensing of sea surface temperatures during 2002 Barrier Reef coral bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Strong, Alan E.; Skirving, William

    Early in 2002, satellites of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) detected anomalously high sea surface temperatures (SST) developing in the western Coral Sea, midway along Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This was the beginning of what was to become the most significant GBR coral bleaching event on record [Wilkinson, 2002]. During this time, NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) provided satellite data as part of ongoing collaborative work on coral reef health with the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). These data proved invaluable to AIMS and GBRMPA as they monitored and assessed the development and evolution of SSTs throughout the austral summer, enabling them to keep stakeholders, government, and the general public informed and up to date.

  3. Creation of fluorocarbon barriers on surfaces of starch-based products through cold plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yousoo

    Two kinds of starch foam trays (starch and aspen-starch foam trays) were produced using a lab model baking machine. Surfaces of the trays were treated with CF4 and SF6 plasma to create fluorine-rich layers on the surfaces, which might show strong water resistance. The plasma parameters, such like RF power, gas pressure and reaction time, were varied to evaluate the effects of each parameter on fluorination of surfaces. The atomic concentrations of fluorine, oxygen and carbon on samples' surfaces were earned from ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and contact angles of sample surfaces were measured for hydrophobicity. For water resistance of plasma treated surfaces, liquid water uptake and water vapor uptake test were performed. Also, equilibrium moisture contents of unmodified and plasma treated samples were measured to evaluate biodegradability of plasma treated samples. Fluorine-rich barriers were created on sample surfaces treated with CF 4 and SF6 plasma. The fluorine atomic concentrations of treated sample surfaces were ranged from 34.4% to 64.4% (CF4 treatment) and 43.6% to 57.9% (SF6 treatment). It was found at both plasma gases that plasma parameters affected total fluorine concentration and carbon-peak shapes in ESCA surveys, which imply different distributions of mono- or multi-fluoro carbon's contents. In various reaction times, it was found that total fluorine contents were decreased after a critical point as the reaction time was prolonged, which may imply that a dominant mechanism has been changed from deposition or functionalization to etching. Oxygen atomic concentration was decreased at sample surfaces treated by both plasmas. In the case of SF6 plasma, it was proved that the removal of oxygen surely occurred because there was no addition of sulfur species. Plasma treated sample surfaces had high contact angles with distilled water up to 150° and the high values of angles have been kept constant up to for 15 minutes. Fluorine

  4. Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SSDBD) Device for Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Reduction and Flow Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research effort explores the use of a nanosecond pulse driven offset semiconducting surface dielectric barrier discharge (SSDBD) device for the control...

  5. Significant improvement in the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes on molecularly modified Gallium Nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.

  6. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Hindle, Samantha J; Rusan, Zeid M; Orng, Souvinh; Eddison, Mark; Halliwill, Kyle; Bainton, Roland J

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  7. The Drosophila surface glia transcriptome: evolutionary conserved blood-brain barrier processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K DeSalvo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS function is dependent on the stringent regulation of metabolites, drugs, cells, and pathogens exposed to the CNS space. Cellular blood-brain barrier (BBB structures are highly specific checkpoints governing entry and exit of all small molecules to and from the brain interstitial space, but the precise mechanisms that regulate the BBB are not well understood. In addition, the BBB has long been a challenging obstacle to the pharmacologic treatment of CNS diseases; thus model systems that can parse the functions of the BBB are highly desirable. In this study, we sought to define the transcriptome of the adult Drosophila melanogaster BBB by isolating the BBB surface glia with FACS and profiling their gene expression with microarrays. By comparing the transcriptome of these surface glia to that of all brain glia, brain neurons, and whole brains, we present a catalog of transcripts that are selectively enriched at the Drosophila BBB. We found that the fly surface glia show high expression of many ABC and SLC transporters, cell adhesion molecules, metabolic enzymes, signaling molecules, and components of xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Using gene sequence-based alignments, we compare the Drosophila and Murine BBB transcriptomes and discover many shared chemoprotective and small molecule control pathways, thus affirming the relevance of invertebrate models for studying evolutionary conserved BBB properties. The Drosophila BBB transcriptome is valuable to vertebrate and insect biologists alike as a resource for studying proteins underlying diffusion barrier development and maintenance, glial biology, and regulation of drug transport at tissue barriers.

  8. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Pile-up and defective pulse rejection by pulse shape discrimination in surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeland, K.A.; Kristiansson, P.

    1994-01-01

    A technique to reject pile-up pulses and defective tail pulses from surface barrier detectors by the use of pulse shape discrimination is demonstrated. The electronic implementation of the pulse shape discrimination is based upon the zero crossing technique and for data reduction multiparameter techniques are used. The characteristic τ value for pile-up rejection is shown to be less than 56 ns. Its effect on detection limits from tail reduction in Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and pile-up peak suppression is discussed. ((orig.))

  10. Microstructure Analysis of Laser Remelting for Thermal Barrier Coatings on the Surface of Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the preparation and organization performance of thermal barrier coatings (TCBs on the surface of titanium were studied experimentally. Nanostructured 8 wt% yttria partially stabilized zirconia coatings were deposited by air plasma spraying. The microstructure of nanostructured and the conventional coating was studied after laser remelting. It has shown that formed a network of micro-cracks and pits after laser remelting on nanostructured coatings. With the decrease of the laser scanning speed, mesh distribution of micro cracks was gradually thinning on nanostructured coatings. Compared with conventional ceramic layers, the mesh cracks of nanostructured coating is dense and the crack width is small.

  11. Technical study of a thermally dense long term interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, A.; Badie, M.; Duret, B.; Bricard, A.

    2001-01-01

    The COFRE concept is aimed at the surface and thermal densification of the interim storage facility for irradiated fuels. The facility provides the biological shielding. A conditioning cell is used to load and retrieve the fuel assemblies. The facility container is the second containment barrier. The high power levels are managed by an auxiliary cooling system whose original feature is the passive use of a water evaporation-condensation cycle in a sealed circuit. The removable evaporator abuts the container. The air cooled condenser is placed outside the facility. Contact resistance and heat pipe mode were successfully modelled and are undergoing experimental validation on the THERESE and REBECA loops. (author)

  12. Conservation objectives and sea-surface temperature anomalies in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Weeks, Scarla

    2012-10-01

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological processes have long been considered important in marine systems, but seldom have conservation objectives been set for them. Climate change makes the consideration of the dynamics of ecological processes in the design of marine protected areas critical. We analyzed sea-surface temperature (SST) trends and variability in Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) for 25 years and formulated and tested whether three sets of notional conservation objectives were met to illustrate the potential for planning to address climate change. Given mixed and limited evidence that no-take areas increase resilience to disturbances such as anomalously high temperatures (i.e., temperatures ≥1 °C above weekly mean temperature), our conservation objectives focused on areas less likely to be affected by such events at extents ranging from the entire Great Barrier Reef to the system of no-take zones and individual no-take zones. The objective sets were (1) at least 50% of temperature refugia (i.e., pixels that had high-temperature anomalies Great Barrier Reef increased significantly in some regions, and some of the conservation objectives were met by the park's current zoning plan. Dialogue between conservation scientists and managers is needed to develop appropriate conservation objectives under climate change and strategies to meet them. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Roughness modification of surfaces treated by a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrascu, N; Apetroaei, N; Popa, G

    2002-01-01

    Local modifications of surface roughness are very important in many applications, as this surface property is able to generate new mechano-physical characteristics of a large category of materials. Roughness is one of the most important parameters used to characterize and control the surface morphology, and techniques that allow modifying and controlling the surface roughness present increasing interest. In this respect we propose the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as a simple and low cost method that can be used to induce controlled roughness on various surfaces in the nanoscale range. DBD is produced in helium, at atmospheric pressure, by a pulsed high voltage, 28 kV peak to peak, 13.5 kHz frequency and 40 W power. This type of discharge is a source of energy capable of modifying the physico-chemical properties of the surfaces without affecting their bulk properties. The discharge is characterized by means of electrical probes and, in order to analyse the heat transfer rate from the discharge to the tre...

  14. Surface Treatment of Polypropylene Films Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge with Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changquan; Zhang Guixin; Wang Xinxin; Chen Zhiyu

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma is of interest for industrial applications. In this study, polypropylene (PP) films are modified by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a non-uniform magnetic field in air at atmospheric pressure. The surface properties of the PP films before and after a DBD treatment are studied by using contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of treatment time on the surface modification with and without a magnetic field is investigated. It is found that the hydrophilic improvement depends on the treatment time and magnetic field. It is also found that surface roughness and oxygen-containing groups are introduced onto the PP film surface after the DBD treatment. Surface roughness and oxygen-containing polar functional groups of the PP films increase with the magnetic induction density. The functional groups are identified as C-O, C=O and O-C=O by using XPS analysis. It is concluded that the hydrophilic improvement of PP films treated with a magnetic field is due to a greater surface roughness and more oxygen-containing groups. (plasma technology)

  15. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  16. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  17. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  18. Compact Surface Plasmon Resonance System with Au/Si Schottky Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Takuya; Kuroda, Yuta; Noda, Kentaro; Binh-Khiem, Nguyen; Kan, Tetsuo; Shimoyama, Isao

    2018-01-30

    Ethanol concentration was quantified by the use of a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system, which electrically detects hot electrons via a Schottky barrier. Although it is well known that SPR can be used as bio/chemical sensors, implementation is not necessarily practical, due to the size and cost impediments associated with a system with variable wavelength or angle of incidence. However, scanning capability is not a prerequisite if the objective is to use SPR in a sensor. It is possible to build a small, inexpensive SPR sensor if the optics have no moving parts and a Schottky barrier is used for electrical current detection in place of a photodetector. This article reports on the design and performance of such a novel SPR sensor, and its application for quantifying ethanol concentration. As the concentration of ethanol is increased, the change in the angle dependence of the SPR current is observed. This change can be understood as a superposition of contributions of SPR coupled with the +3rd- and -3rd-order diffraction. Moreover, real-time monitoring of ethanol concentration was demonstrated using the proposed SPR system.

  19. Bean-Livingston surface barrier and magnetic properties of granular superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, K. I.; Rakhmanov, A. L.

    1992-06-01

    The magnetic flux penetration into a granular superconductor is studied, accounting for the Bean-Livingston surface barrier (BLSB). It is shown that the magnetic flux distribution is strongly affected by the BLSB in the case of large, closely packed granules. In particular, the intergranular magnetic field HO appears to be much higher than the external field H when Hsize and λ is the London penetration depth). The effects related to the difference between H and HO are discussed in the framework of a simplified model of a granular superconductor. The magnetic flux distribution is studied in the regular system of isotropic and anisotropic granules. The form of the HO( H) curve is calculated for both increasing and decreasing field H. It is shown that the existence of the BLSB results in the strong hysteresis of the HO( H) curve. The relation between these effects and the form of the magnetic field dependence of critical current in ceramic superconductors is discussed.

  20. Coincidence system for absolute measuring of radionuclide activity using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma radionuclides has been developed at IPEN. Two surface barrier detectors are coupled to two thin-window NaI(Tl) crystals, suitable for low energy gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of a Am-241 solution. The absolute activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4πα-γ coincidence technique. The alpha efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the source or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained by the linear extrapolation method, using a flow-gas 4π proportional counter. The agreement between the results were around 99.5%. (Author) [pt

  1. Dynamical seasonal prediction of summer sea surface temperatures in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, C. M.; Alves, O.

    2009-03-01

    Coral bleaching is a serious problem threatening the world coral reef systems, triggered by high sea surface temperatures (SST) which are becoming more prevalent as a result of global warming. Seasonal forecasts from coupled ocean-atmosphere models can be used to predict anomalous SST months in advance. In this study, we assess the ability of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology seasonal forecast model (POAMA) to forecast SST anomalies in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with particular focus on the major 1998 and 2002 bleaching events. Advance warning of potential bleaching events allows for the implementation of management strategies to minimise reef damage. This study represents the first attempt to apply a dynamical seasonal model to the problem of coral bleaching and predict SST over a reef system for up to 6 months lead-time, a potentially invaluable tool for reef managers.

  2. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  3. Surface modification of chitosan/PEO nanofibers by air dielectric barrier discharge plasma for acetylcholinesterase immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorraki, Naghme, E-mail: n.dorraki@web.sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safa, Nasrin Navab [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanfar, Mehdi [Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghomi, Hamid [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid [Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We used an economical and effective method for surface modification. • Chitosan/PEO nanofibrous membranes were modified by air-DBD plasma. • The most NH{sub 3}{sup +} group was generated on the 6 min plasma modified membrane. • We immobilized acetylcholinesterase on the plasma modified and unmodified membranes. • More enzyme activity was detected on the modified membrane by plasma. - Abstract: There are different methods to modify polymer surfaces for biological applications. In this work we have introduced air-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure as an economical and safe method for modifying the surface of electrospun chitosan/PEO (90/10) nanofibers for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilization. According to the contact angle measurement results, the nanofibers become highly hydrophilic when they are exposed to the DBD plasma for 6 min in compared to unmodified membrane. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) results reveal hydroxyl, C=O and NH{sub 3}{sup +} polar groups increment after 6 min plasma treatment. Contact angle measurements and ATR-FTIR results are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AChE at pH 7.4 carries a negative charge and after immobilization on the surface of plasma-treated nanofibrous membrane attracts the NH{sub 3}{sup +} group and more enzyme activity is detected on the plasma-modified nanofibers for 6 min in compared to unmodified nanofibers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used for the surface topography and morphology characterization. The results have proved that air-DBD plasma is a suitable method for chitosan/PEO nanofibrous membrane modification as a biodegradable and functionalized substrate for enzyme immobilization.

  4. Thin surface layers of SiO2 obtained from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in electric discharges stabilized by a dielectric barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Szalowski, K.; Fabianowski, W.; Rzanek-Boroch, Z.; Gutkowski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reported research was devoted to the process of thin layer deposition in a discharge at atmospheric pressure stabilized by a dielectric barrier. Thin surface layers composed mainly of silicon dioxide were produced by polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane vapor in mixtures with helium gas with a small amount of oxygen. The influence was studied of the voltage applied and of the time elapsed in the deposition process, on the thickness of the layer, as were the changes of composition of the deposited layers during and after storage. It is shown that good passivating pinhole-free silicon oxide layers can be produced in surface barrier discharges. (J.U.)

  5. Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The September 1985 Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP) is the third revision of this document. In the future, the HWMP will be updated on an annual basis or as major changes in disposal planning at Hanford Site require. The most significant changes in the program since the last release of this document in December 1984 include: (1) Based on studies done in support of the Hanford Defense Waste Environmental Impact Statement (HDW-EIS), the size of the protective barriers covering contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, and single-shell tanks has been increased to provide a barrier that extends 30 m beyond the waste zone. (2) As a result of extensive laboratory development and plant testing, removal of transuranic (TRU) elements from PUREX cladding removal waste (CRW) has been initiated in PUREX. (3) The level of capital support in years beyond those for which specific budget projections have been prepared (i.e., fiscal year 1992 and later) has been increased to maintain Hanford Site capability to support potential future missions, such as the extension of N Reactor/PUREX operations. The costs for disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes are identified in four major areas in the HWMP: waste storage and surveillance, technology development, disposal operations, and capital expenditures

  6. Numerical Investigation of Scattering from a Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuator under Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD, which is widely used to control turbulence in aerodynamics, has a significant effect on the radar cross-section (RCS. A four-way linearly synthesized SDBD air plasma actuator is designed to bolster the plasma effects on electromagnetic waves. The diffraction angle is calculated to predict the RCS because of the periodic structure of staggered electrodes. The simplified plasma modeling is utilized to calculate the inhomogeneous surface plasma distribution. Monostatic RCS shows the diffraction in the plane perpendicular to the electrode array and the notable distortion by plasma. In comparison, the overall pattern is maintained in the parallel plane with minor plasma effects. The trends also appear in the bistatic RCS, which has a significant difference in the observation plane perpendicular to the electrodes. The peaks by Bragg’s diffraction are shown, and the RCS is reduced by 10 dB in a certain range by the plasma effect. The diffraction caused by the actuator and the inhomogeneous air plasma should be considered in designing an SDBD actuator for a wide range of application.

  7. Active species delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments to bacteria biofilms on the surface of apple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, He; Liu, Xin; Lu, Xinpei [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, HuBei (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Dawei, E-mail: ldw636@msn.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, HuBei (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-07-15

    The atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma has shown a significant potential as a novel food decontamination technology. In this paper, we report a computational study of the intersection of negative streamer produced by air dielectric barrier discharge with bacteria biofilm on an apple surface. The structure, conductivities, and permittivities of bacteria biofilm have been considered in the Poisson's equations and transportation equations of charge and neutral species to realize self-consistent transportation of plasma between electrode and charging surfaces of apple. We find that the ionization near the biofilm facilitates the propagation of negative streamer when the streamer head is 1 mm from the biofilm. The structure of the biofilm results in the non-uniform distribution of ROS and RNS captured by flux and time fluence of these reactive species. The mean free path of charged species in μm scale permitted the plasma penetrate into the cavity of the biofilm, therefore, although the density of ROS and RNS decrease by 6–7 order of magnitude, the diffusion results in the uniform distribution of ROS and RNS inside the cavity during the pulse off period.

  8. Diversity and Activity of Diazotrophs in Great Barrier Reef Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Furnas, Miles J; Carney, Richard L; McKinnon, A D; Seymour, Justin R

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies between bioavailable nitrogen (N) concentrations and phytoplankton growth rates in the oligotrophic waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) suggest that undetermined N sources must play a significant role in supporting primary productivity. One such source could be biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation through the activity of "diazotrophic" bacterioplankton. Here, we investigated N 2 fixation and diazotroph community composition over 10° S of latitude within GBR surface waters. Qualitative N 2 fixation rates were found to be variable across the GBR but were relatively high in coastal, inner and outer GBR waters, reaching 68 nmol L -1 d -1 . Diazotroph assemblages, identified by amplicon sequencing of the nifH gene, were dominated by the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum , γ-proteobacteria from the Gamma A clade, and δ-proteobacterial phylotypes related to sulfate-reducing genera. However, diazotroph communities exhibited significant spatial heterogeneity, correlated with shifts in dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations. Specifically, heterotrophic diazotrophs generally increased in relative abundance with increasing concentrations of phosphate and N, while Trichodesmium was proportionally more abundant when concentrations of these nutrients were low. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of diazotroph community composition and N 2 fixation dynamics within the oligotrophic, N-limited surface waters of the GBR. Our observations highlight the need to re-evaluate N cycling dynamics within oligotrophic coral reef systems, to include diverse N 2 fixing assemblages as a potentially significant source of dissolved N within the water column.

  9. Elimination of diazinon insecticide from cucumber surface by atmospheric pressure air-dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorraki, Naghme; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Ghomi, Hamid; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-12-06

    The food industry is in a constant search for new technologies to improve the commercial sterilization process of agricultural commodities. Plasma treatment may offer a novel and efficient method for pesticide removal from agricultural product surfaces. To study the proposed technique of plasma food treatment, the degradation behavior of diazinon insecticide by air-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was investigated. The authors studied the effect of different plasma powers and treatment times on pesticide concentration in liquid form and coated on the surface of cucumbers, where the diazinon residue was analyzed with mass spectroscopy gas chromatography. Our results suggest that atmospheric pressure air-DBD plasma is potentially effective for the degradation of diazinon insecticide, and mainly depends on related operating parameters, including plasma treatment time, discharge power, and pesticide concentrations. Based on the interaction between reactive oxygen species and electrons in the plasma with the diazinon molecule, two degradation pathway of diazinon during plasma treatment are proposed. It was also found that produced organophosphate pesticides are harmless and less hazardous compounds than diazinon.

  10. Uniformity analysis of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) processed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaozong; Brown, Norman M. D.; Meenan, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, operating in air at atmospheric pressure, has been used to induce changes in the surface properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. The effects that the key DBD operating parameters: discharge power, processing speed, processing duration, and electrode configurations, have on producing wettability changes in the PET surface region have been investigated. The approach taken involves the application of an Taguchi experimental design and robust analysis methodology. The various data sets obtained from these analyses have been used to studies the effect of the operating parameters on the surface uniformity and efficiency of the said treatment. In general, the results obtained indicate that DBD plasma processing is an effective method for the controlled surface modification of PET. Relatively short exposures to the atmospheric pressure discharge produces significant wettability changes at the polymer film surface, as indicted by pronounced reductions in the water contact angle measured. It was observed that the wettability of the resultant surface shows no significant differences in respect to orientation parallel (L-direction) or perpendicular (T-direction) to the electrode long axis. However, there was significant differences between the data obtained from these two orientations. Analysis of the role of each of the operating parameters concerned shows that they have a selective effectiveness with respect to resultant surface modification in terms of uniformity of modification and wettability. The number of treatment cycles and the electrode configuration used were found to have the most significant effects on the homogeneity of the resultant PET surface changes in L- and T-orientation, respectively. On the other hand, the applied power showed no significant role in this regard. The number of treatment cycles was found to be the dominant factor (at significance level of 0.05) in respect of water contact angle

  11. Designed cellulose nanocrystal surface properties for improving barrier properties in polylactide nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Pérez, Etzael; Bras, Julien; Almeida, Giana; Plessis, Cédric; Belgacem, Naceur; Perré, Patrick; Domenek, Sandra

    2018-03-01

    Nanocomposites are an opportunity to increase the performance of polymer membranes by fine-tuning their morphology. In particular, the understanding of the contribution of the polymer matrix/nanofiller interface to the overall transport properties is key to design membranes with tailored selective and adsorptive properties. In that aim, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposites were fabricated with chemically designed interfaces, which were ensuring the compatibility between the constituents and impacting the mass transport mechanism. A detailed analysis of the mass transport behaviour of different permeants in CNC/PLA nanocomposites was carried out as a function of their chemical affinity to grafted CNC surfaces. Penetrants (O 2 and cyclohexane), which were found to slightly interact with the constituents of the nanocomposites, provided information on the small tortuosity effect of CNC on diffusive mass transport. The mass transport of water (highly interacting with CNC) and anisole (interacting only with designed CNC surfaces) exhibited non-Fickian, Case II behaviour. The water vapour caused significant swelling of the CNC, which created a preferential pathway for mass transport. CNC surface grafting could attenuate this phenomenon and decrease the water transport rate. Anisole, an aromatic organic vapour, became reversibly trapped at the specifically designed CNC/PLA interface, but without any swelling or creation of an accelerated pathway. This caused the decrease of the overall mass transport rate. The latter finding could open a way to the creation of materials with specifically designed barrier properties by designing nanocomposites interfaces with specific interactions towards permeants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser surface modification of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on AISI H13 tool steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents laser surface modification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating to seal porosity defect. Laser surface modification on plasma sprayed YSZ was conducted using 300W JK300HPS Nd: YAG laser at different operating parameters. Parameters varied were laser power and pulse frequency with constant residence time. The coating thickness was measured using IM7000 inverted optical microscope and surface roughness was analysed using two-dimensional Mitutoyo Surface Roughness Tester. Surface roughness of laser surface modification of YSZ H-13 tool steel decreased significantly with increasing laser power and decreasing pulse frequency. The re-melted YSZ coating showed higher hardness properties compared to as-sprayed coating surface. These findings were significant to enhance thermal barrier coating surface integrity for dies in semi-solid processing.

  13. Development of a alpha spectrometer system with the surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Marcus Alexandre Vallini de

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an α spectrometer of low cost and home made technology. The spectrometer is mounted in a double NIM module and includes a surface barrier detector and dedicate electronic system. Six barrier surface detectors were made, three of which with η type silicon wafer 3350 Ω.cm, 270mm 2 and three other with ρ type silicon wafer 5850 Ω.cm and 220mm 2 . The rectifier and the ohmic contacts were prepared at high vacuum (10 -2 to 10 -3 Pa) evaporation with 40μg/cm 2 of Au and Al respectively for the η type detectors, and with Al and Au respectively for the ρ type detectors. The electronic system is composed by a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier with the operational amplifier LF-356 mounted with 1OOMΩ feedback resistor and a 0.5 pF capacitor. The linear amplifier is also based in the LF-356 and the LM-310 operational amplifier. The bipolar output is formatted through a (CR) 2- (RC) 4 shaping network and the unipolar output is obtained through a CR-(RC) 4 shaping system which is sufficient to realize a almost true Gaussian shaping pulse with a time constant of 3.0μs. This format was chosen because we can expect a low counting rate and the gaussian pulse can improve the signal/noise ratio. The first CR differentiation has also a active pole-zero cancellation network.The resolution of detectors for 241 Am α particles at room temperature (24 degree) vary 21 to 44 keV FWHM. The electronic noise of the noise of the system is 7.5 keV FWHM at OpF input capacitance. The overall resolution of the spectrometer was found to be 62 keV FWHM at room temperature. The simplicity of the electronic system, the low cost of the construction and the overall resolution show that this alpha spectrometer can be readily used in measurements where high resolution is not a premium. (author)

  14. Charge modification of the endothelial surface layer modulates the permeability barrier of isolated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; VanBavel, Ed; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that modulation of the effective charge density of the endothelial surface layer ( ESL) results in altered arterial barrier properties to transport of anionic solutes. Rat mesenteric small arteries ( diameter similar to 190 mu m) were isolated, cannulated, perfused, and superfused

  15. The development of dielectric barrier discharges in gas gaps and on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, Valentin I.; Pietsch, Gerhard J.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) occur in configurations which are characterized by a dielectric layer between conducting electrodes. Two basic configurations can be distinguished: a volume discharge (VD) arrangement with a gas gap; and a surface discharge (SD) arrangement with surface electrode(s) on a dielectric layer and an extensive counter electrode on its reverse side. At atmospheric pressure the DBD consists of numerous microdischarges (VD) and discharge steps (SD), respectively, their number being proportional to the amplitude of the voltage. These events have a short duration in the range of some 10 ns transferring a certain amount of charge within the discharge region. The total transferred charge determines the current and hence the volt-ampere characteristic of each arrangement. The microdischarges (discharge steps) have a complicated spatial structure. The discharge patterns on the dielectric surface depend on the polarity and amplitude of the applied voltage as well as on the specific capacity of the dielectric. Experimental findings on DBDs in air and oxygen are presented and discussed. On the basis of a self-consistent two-dimensional modelling the temporal and spatial development of a microdischarge and discharge step are investigated numerically. The results lead to an understanding of the dynamics of DBDs. Although in VD arrangements cathode-directed streamers appear especially in electronegative gases, their appearance is rather unlikely in SD arrangements. The application of DBDs for plasma-chemical reactions is determined by the productivity, with which the energy of the electric field can be converted into internal states of atoms and/or molecules. Depending on the desired product it could be both the generation of internal electronic states of molecules or atoms and dissociation products of molecules. The discharge current and current density of DBDs in both the SD and VD arrangements as well as the energy release and energy density

  16. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM 241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author) [pt

  17. Electric field strength and plasma delay in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Inbe, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1994-01-01

    The resistivity change of a silicon irradiated by high energy neutrons became an interest of study associated with the large scale accelerator projects . The increase of the resistivity of the silicon of a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) was studied as a function of neutron fluence. The plasma delay, which was an interesting but not favorite timing property of the SSBD, was reported being dependent on the resistivity of silicon . The neutron irradiation brings the change of timing property as well as the resistivity change on the SSBD. The resistivity dependence of the plasma delay should be studied for the purpose of high energy accelerator experiments. Some empirical formulae of the plasma delay were reported, however, there were no discussions on the physical meanings of the resistivity dependence of the plasma delay. The plasma delay in a SSBD is discussed in the light of electric field strength in the depletion layer of the SSBD. The explanation of the plasma delay is presented taking into account of the competing two electric forces. The resistivity of the silicon affects the plasma delay through the electric forces. 3 figs, 3 refs. (author)

  18. The Th17 Lineage: From Barrier Surfaces Homeostasis to Autoimmunity, Cancer, and HIV-1 Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sue Wacleche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The T helper 17 (Th17 cells represent a subset of CD4+ T-cells with unique effector functions, developmental plasticity, and stem-cell features. Th17 cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity against fungal and bacterial infections at skin and mucosal barrier surfaces. Although Th17 cells have been extensively studied in the context of autoimmunity, their role in various other pathologies is underexplored and remains an area of open investigation. This review summarizes the history of Th17 cell discovery and the current knowledge relative to the beneficial role of Th17 cells in maintaining mucosal immunity homeostasis. We further discuss the concept of Th17 pathogenicity in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and HIV infection, and we review the most recent discoveries on molecular mechanisms regulating HIV replication/persistence in pathogenic Th17 cells. Finally, we stress the need for novel fundamental research discovery-based Th17-specific therapeutic interventions to treat pathogenic conditions associated with Th17 abnormalities, including HIV infection.

  19. Characterization of surface dielectric barrier discharge influenced by intermediate frequency for ozone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Osawa, Naoki; Wedaa, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the intermediate frequency (1–10 kHz) of the sinusoidal driving voltage on the characteristics of a developed surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD)-based reactor having spikes on its discharge electrode. Moreover, its influence on the production of ozone and nitrogen oxide byproducts is evaluated. The results show that SDBD is operated in the filamentary mode at all the frequencies. Nevertheless, the pulses of the discharge current at high frequencies are much denser and have higher amplitudes than those at low frequencies. The analysis of the power consumed in the reactor shows that a small portion of the input power is dissipated in the dielectric material of SDBD source, whereas the major part of the power is consumed in the plasma discharge. The results of the ozone production show that higher frequencies have a slightly adverse effect on the ozone production at relatively high energy density values, where the ozone concentration is slightly decreased when the frequency is increased at the same energy density. The temperature of the discharge channels and gas is not a crucial factor for the decomposition of ozone in this reactor, while the results of the measurements of nitrogen oxides characteristics indicate that the formation of NO and NO 2 has a significant adverse effect on the production efficiency of ozone due to their oxidation to another nitrogen oxides and their catalytic effect. (paper)

  20. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  1. Spin-related tunneling through a nanostructured electric-magnetic barrier on the surface of a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Jun

    2012-01-27

    We investigate quantum tunneling through a single electric and/or magnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We found that (1) the propagating behavior of electrons in such system exhibits a strong dependence on the direction of the incident electron wavevector and incident energy, giving the possibility to construct a wave vector and/or energy filter; (2) the spin orientation can be tuned by changing the magnetic barrier structure as well as the incident angles and energies.PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc; 73.20.-r; 73.23.-b; 75.70.-i.

  2. The Nord interim store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leushacke, D.F.; Rittscher, D.

    1996-01-01

    In line with the decision taken in 1990 to shut down and decommission the Greifswald and Rheinsberg Nuclear Power Stations, the waste management concept of the Energiewerke Nord is based on direct and complete decommissioning of the six shut down reactor units within the next fifteen years. One key element of this concept is the construction and use of the Zwischenlager Nord (Nord Interim Store, ZLN) for holding the existing nuclear fuels and for interim and decay storage of the radioactive materials arising in decommissioning and demolition. The owner and operator of the store is Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and Energiewerke Nord GmbH. The interim store has the functions of a processing and treatment station and buffer store for the flows of residues arising. As a radioactive waste management station, it accommodates nuclear fuels, radioactive waste or residues which are not treated any further. It is used as a buffer store to allow the materials accumulating in disassembly to be stored temporarily before or after treatment in order to ensure continuous loading of the treatment plants. When operated as a processing station, the ZLN is able to handle nearly all types of radioactive waste and residues arising, except for nuclear fuels. These installations allow the treatment of radioactive residues to be separated from the demolition work both physically and in time. The possibilities of interium storage and buffer storage of untreated waste and waste packages make for high flexibility in logistics and waste management strategy. (orig.) [de

  3. STUDY OF DESTRUCTION PROCESSES OF SYNTHETIC SURFACE-ACTIVE SUBSTENCES (SURFFACTANTS IN BARRIER DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Grinevich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic data of degradation on aqueous solutions of surfactants in the plasma of barrier discharge are presented. The possible mechanism of proceeding processes is offered and considered. It is shown that the treatment in a barrier discharge results in decomposition efficiency of 95%. It is established that the main product of degradation are carboxylic acids.

  4. SURFACE-ALTERED ZEOLITES AS PERMEABLE BARRIERS FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Robert S.; Li, Zhaohui; Roy, Stephen J.; Burt, Todd; Johnson, Timothy L.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this effort is to develop and test a zeolite-based permeable barrier system for containing and remediating contaminated groundwater. The projected product is an engineered and tested permeable barrier system that can be adopted by the commercial sector

  5. Humidity effects on surface dielectric barrier discharge for gaseous naphthalene decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A.; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi

    2018-04-01

    Experiments are performed using dry and humid air to clarify the effects of water vapour on the characteristics of surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) and investigate its impact on the performance of the SDBD for decomposition of gaseous naphthalene in air stream. The current characteristics, including the discharge and the capacitive currents, are deeply analyzed and the discharge mechanism is explored. The results confirmed that the humidity affected the microdischarge distribution without affecting the discharge mode. Interestingly, it is found that the water vapour had a significant influence on the capacitance of the reactor due to its deposition on the discharge electrode and the dielectric, which, in turn, affects the power loss in the dielectric and the total power consumed in the reactor. Thus, the factor of the humidity effect on the power loss in the dielectric should be considered in addition to its effect on the attachment coefficient. Additionally, there was an optimum level of the humidity for the decomposition of naphthalene in the SDBD, and its value depended on the gas composition, where the maximum naphthalene decomposition efficiency in O2/H2O is achieved at the humidity level ˜10%, which was lower than that obtained in air/H2O (˜28%). The results also revealed that the role of the humidity in the decomposition efficiency was not significant in the humidified O2 at high power level. This was attributed to the significant increase in oxygen-derived species (such as O atoms and O3) at high power, which was enough to overcome the negative effects of the humidity.

  6. Investigation of atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge and its application to surface modification of textile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoliang Tang; Gao Qiu; Hankun Xie; Xianping Feng

    2005-01-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an ac power supply. In this paper, the spectral lines of plasma emission at atmospheric pressure were recorded by using a grating spectrograph, and all signals will be directly and immediately sent to the computer for data processing and analysis during the experiments. The spectrum lines of nitrogen, helium and argon plasma emission at atmospheric pressure were separately recorded and qualitatively analyzed using spectral diagnosis equipment of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma. The spectrum lines of the second positive system of nitrogen (c 3 π μ → B 3 Π g ), two characteristic spectrum lines of helium (3 1 P 1 → 2 1 S 0 , 3 3 D → 3 3 P), and all of neutral argon atom spectrum lines in the range 680 to 780 nm are recognized. For controlling the process of material surface modification promptly, the electron temperature of DBD plasma is quantitatively analyzed using relative intensity of argon spectrum lines. The relationships among the plasma parameters, such as discharge current and discharge power measured by Lissajous figure of the oscilloscope, were analyzed by using improved DBD equipment. The variation of plasma discharge current following the change of discharge gaps indicates an existence of critical gap distance. When the gap between electrodes is less than that the critical gap, a quasi-stable atmospheric pressure DBD plasma source can be achieved after carefully controlled discharge voltage and current. The experimental results indicate that a critical discharge gap is an important parameter to improve the quality of materials processing. The result is of great importance to DBD at atmospheric pressure and its application to materials processing. (author)

  7. Variations in return value estimate of ocean surface waves - a study based on measured buoy data and ERA-Interim reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Naseef, T.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2017-10-01

    An assessment of extreme wave characteristics during the design of marine facilities not only helps to ensure their safety but also assess the economic aspects. In this study, return levels of significant wave height (Hs) for different periods are estimated using the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) based on the Waverider buoy data spanning 8 years and the ERA-Interim reanalysis data spanning 38 years. The analysis is carried out for wind-sea, swell and total Hs separately for buoy data. Seasonality of the prevailing wave climate is also considered in the analysis to provide return levels for short-term activities in the location. The study shows that the initial distribution method (IDM) underestimates return levels compared to GPD. The maximum return levels estimated by the GPD corresponding to 100 years are 5.10 m for the monsoon season (JJAS), 2.66 m for the pre-monsoon season (FMAM) and 4.28 m for the post-monsoon season (ONDJ). The intercomparison of return levels by block maxima (annual, seasonal and monthly maxima) and the r-largest method for GEV theory shows that the maximum return level for 100 years is 7.20 m in the r-largest series followed by monthly maxima (6.02 m) and annual maxima (AM) (5.66 m) series. The analysis is also carried out to understand the sensitivity of the number of observations for the GEV annual maxima estimates. It indicates that the variations in the standard deviation of the series caused by changes in the number of observations are positively correlated with the return level estimates. The 100-year return level results of Hs using the GEV method are comparable for short-term (2008 to 2016) buoy data (4.18 m) and long-term (1979 to 2016) ERA-Interim shallow data (4.39 m). The 6 h interval data tend to miss high values of Hs, and hence there is a significant difference in the 100-year return level Hs obtained using 6 h interval data compared to data at 0.5 h interval. The

  8. Surface behavior of polyamide 6 modified by barrier plasma in oxygen and nitrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Popelka, A.; Valentín, M.; Chodák, I.; Špírková, Milena; Tóth, A.; Kleinová, A.; Sedliačik, J.; Lehocký, M.; Maronek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2014), s. 31-38 ISSN 1023-666X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : adhesion * AFM * barrier plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2014

  9. Surface Cracking and Interface Reaction Associated Delamination Failure of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming

    2003-01-01

    ...%Y2O3 and mullite/BSAS/Si thermal and environmental barrier coating system on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were characterized after long-term combined laser thermal gradient and furnace cyclic...

  10. Measuring variation of indoor radon concentration using bare nuclear tracks detectors, scintillation counters and surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, I.; Mahat, R.H.; Amin, Y.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bare LRI 15 nuclear track detectors , scintillators counter and surface barrier detectors were used to measured the indoor radon concentration in various location within two rooms. Spatial variation of the radon concentration is caused by positioning of the door, windows, furniture, cracks in the building and also distances from floor, wall and ceiling. It is found that the change in temperature are causing radon concentration to increase at certain time of the day

  11. Design and construction of a system for determination of Radon-222 by a surface-barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work the design and construction of a system for the determination of 222 Rn is described, which utilizes silicon surface-barrier detectors. The 222 Rn gas was obtained a source of 226 Ra electrodeposited on stainless-steel discs. The well separated energies with this system makes possible the measurement and identification of alpha particles of 222 Rn, and its daughters 210 Po, 218 Po and 214 Po. (Author) 3 figs, 19 refs

  12. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  13. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  14. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrico, P. F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, M.; De Miccolis Angelini, R.M.; Minafra, A.; Trotti, P.; Ambrico, M.; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 30 (2017), č. článku 305401. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) * bio-decontamination * etching * polymers * biomolecules * spores * surface treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa77c8

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography-Eastern Louisiana Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Louisiana barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 6 and 7, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using

  16. Plasma-polymerized SiOx deposition on polymer film surfaces for preparation of oxygen gas barrier polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    SiOx films were deposited on surfaces of three polymeric films, PET, PP, and Nylon; and their oxygen gas barrier properties were evaluated. To mitigate discrepancies between the deposited SiOx and polymer film, surface modification of polymer films was done, and how the surface modification could contribute to was discussed from the viewpoint of apparent activation energy for the permeation process. The SiOx deposition on the polymer film surfaces led to a large decrease in the oxygen permeation rate. Modification of polymer film surfaces by mans of the TMOS or Si-COOH coupling treatment in prior to the SiOx deposition was effective in decreasing the oxygen permeation rate. The cavity model is proposed as an oxygen permeation process through the SiOx-deposited Nylon film. From the proposed model, controlling the interface between the deposited SiOx film and the polymer film is emphasized to be a key factor to prepare SiOx-deposited polymer films with good oxygen gas barrier properties. (author)

  17. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  18. A sensitivity-based approach to optimize the surface treatment of a low-height tramway noise barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolibois, Alexandre

    Transportation noise has become a main nuisance in urban areas, in the industrialized world and across the world, to the point that according to the World Health Organization 65% of the European population is exposed to excessive noise and 20% to night-time levels that may harm their health. There is therefore a need to find new ways to mitigate transportation noise in urban areas. In this work, a possible device to achieve this goal is studied: a low-height noise barrier. It consists of a barrier typically less than one meter high placed close to the source, designed to decrease significantly the noise level for nearby pedestrians and cyclists. A numerical method which optimizes the surface treatment of a low-height barrier in order to increase its insertion loss is presented. Tramway noise barriers are especially studied since the noise sources are in this case close to the ground and would be attenuated more by the barrier. The acoustic behavior of the surface treatment is modeled via its admittance. It can be itself described by a few parameters (flow resistivity, geometrical dimensions...), which can then be optimized. It is proposed to couple porous layers and micro-perforated panel (MPP) resonators in order to take advantage of their different acoustic properties. Moreover, the optimization is achieved using a sensitivity-based method, since in this framework the gradient of the attenuation can be evaluated accurately and efficiently. Several shapes are considered: half-cylinder, quarter-cylinder, straight wall, T-shape and square shape. In the case of a half-cylindrical geometry, a semi-analytical solution for the sound field in terms of a series of cylindrical waves is derived, which simplifies the sensitivity calculation and optimization process. The boundary element method (BEM) is used to evaluate the attenuation for the remaining shapes, and in this case the sensitivity is evaluated using the adjoint state approach. For all considered geometries, it is

  19. PHYSIOLOGIC AND ANATOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRAIN SURFACE GLIA BARRIER OF DROSOPHILA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K.; Mayer, Nasima; Mayer, Fahima; Bainton, Roland J.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) physiology requires special chemical, metabolic and cellular privileges for normal function, and blood brain barrier (BBB) structures are the anatomic and physiologic constructs that arbitrate communication between the brain and body. In the vertebrate BBB two primary cell types create CNS exclusion biology, a polarized vascular endothelium (VE) and a tightly associated single layer of astrocytic glia (AG). Examples of direct action by the BBB in CNS disease are constantly expanding, including key pathophysiologic roles in multiple sclerosis, stroke and cancer. In addition, its role as a pharmacologic treatment obstacle to the brain is long standing, thus molecular model systems that can parse BBB functions and understand the complex integration of sophisticated cellular anatomy and highly polarized chemical protection physiology are desperately needed. Compound barrier structures that use two primary cell types (i.e. functional bicellularity) are common to other humoral/CNS barrier structures. For example, invertebrates use two cell layers of glia, perineurial and subperineurial, to control chemical access to the brain, and analogous glial layers, fenestrated and pseudocartridge, to maintain the blood-eye barrier (BEB). In this article we summarize our current understanding of brain-barrier glial anatomy in Drosophila, demonstrate the power of live imaging as a screening methodology for identifying physiologic characteristics of BBB glia, and compare the physiologies of Drosophila barrier layers to the VE/AG interface of vertebrates. We conclude that the many unique BBB physiologies are conserved across phyla and suggest new methods for modeling CNS physiology and disease. PMID:21351158

  20. Physiologic and anatomic characterization of the brain surface glia barrier of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Michael K; Mayer, Nasima; Mayer, Fahima; Bainton, Roland J

    2011-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) physiology requires special chemical, metabolic, and cellular privileges for normal function, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) structures are the anatomic and physiologic constructs that arbitrate communication between the brain and body. In the vertebrate BBB, two primary cell types create CNS exclusion biology, a polarized vascular endothelium (VE), and a tightly associated single layer of astrocytic glia (AG). Examples of direct action by the BBB in CNS disease are constantly expanding, including key pathophysiologic roles in multiple sclerosis, stroke, and cancer. In addition, its role as a pharmacologic treatment obstacle to the brain is long standing; thus, molecular model systems that can parse BBB functions and understand the complex integration of sophisticated cellular anatomy and highly polarized chemical protection physiology are desperately needed. Compound barrier structures that use two primary cell types (i.e., functional bicellularity) are common to other humoral/CNS barrier structures. For example, invertebrates use two cell layers of glia, perineurial and subperineurial, to control chemical access to the brain, and analogous glial layers, fenestrated and pseudocartridge, to maintain the blood-eye barrier. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of brain-barrier glial anatomy in Drosophila, demonstrate the power of live imaging as a screening methodology for identifying physiologic characteristics of BBB glia, and compare the physiologies of Drosophila barrier layers to the VE/AG interface of vertebrates. We conclude that many unique BBB physiologies are conserved across phyla and suggest new methods for modeling CNS physiology and disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Atmospheric deposition process for enhanced hybrid organic-inorganic multilayer barrier thin films for surface protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mohammad Mutee ur; Kim, Kwang Tae; Na, Kyoung Hoan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, organic polymer poly-vinyl acetate (PVA) and inorganic aluminum oxide (Al2O3) have been used together to fabricate a hybrid barrier thin film for the protection of PET substrate. The organic thin films of PVA were developed through roll to roll electrohydrodynamic atomization (R2R-EHDA) whereas the inorganic thin films of Al2O3 were grown by roll to roll spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-SAALD) for mass production. The use of these two technologies together to develop a multilayer hybrid organic-inorganic barrier thin films under atmospheric conditions is reported for the first time. These multilayer hybrid barrier thin films are fabricated on flexible PET substrate. Each layer of Al2O3 and PVA in barrier thin film exhibited excellent morphological, chemical and optical properties. Extremely uniform and atomically thin films of Al2O3 with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.64 nm and 1.94 nm respectively concealed the non-uniformity and irregularities in PVA thin films with Ra of 2.9 nm and 3.6 nm respectively. The optical transmittance of each layer was ∼ 80-90% while the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of hybrid barrier was in the range of ∼ 2.3 × 10-2 g m-2 day-1 with a total film thickness of ∼ 200 nm. Development of such hybrid barrier thin films with mass production and low cost will allow various flexible electronic devices to operate in atmospheric conditions without degradation of their properties.

  2. Performance of engineered barrier materials in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The primary objectives of the CRP were to: promote the sharing of experiences of the Member States in their application of engineered barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities; help enhance their use of engineered barriers by improving techniques and methods for selecting, planning and testing performance of various types of barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities. The objective of this publication is to provide and overview of technical issues related to the engineered barrier systems and a summary of the major findings of each individual research project that was carried out within the framework of the CRP. This publication deals with a general overview of engineered barriers in near surface disposal facilities, key technical information obtained within the CRP and overall conclusions and recommendations for future research and development activities. Appendices presenting individual research accomplishments are also provided. Each of the 13 appendices was indexed separately

  3. Layout designs of surface barrier coatings for boosting the capability of oxygen/vapor obstruction utilized in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Chen; He, Jing-Yan

    2018-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diode-based flexible and rollable displays have become a promising candidate for next-generation flexible electronics. For this reason, the design of surface multi-layered barriers should be optimized to enhance the long-term mechanical reliability of a flexible encapsulation that prevents the penetration of oxygen and vapor. In this study, finite element-based stress simulation was proposed to estimate the mechanical reliability of gas/vapor barrier design with low-k/silicon nitride (low-k/SiNx) stacking architecture. Consequently, stress-induced failure of critical thin films within the flexible display under various bending conditions must be considered. The feasibility of one pair SiO2/SiNx barrier design, which overcomes the complex lamination process, and the critical bending radius, which is decreased to 1.22 mm, were also examined. In addition, the influence of distance between neutral axes to the concerned layer surface dominated the induced-stress magnitude rather than the stress compliant mechanism provided from stacked low-k films.

  4. Thermal and induced flow characteristics of radio frequency surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuation at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei-long; Li Jun; Song Hui-min; Jin Di; Jia Min; Wu Yun

    2017-01-01

    Thermal and induced flow velocity characteristics of radio frequency (RF) surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuation are experimentally investigated in this paper. The spatial and temporal distributions of the dielectric surface temperature are measured with the infrared thermography at atmospheric pressure. In the spanwise direction, the highest dielectric surface temperature is acquired at the center of the high voltage electrode, while it reduces gradually along the chordwise direction. The maximum temperature of the dielectric surface raises rapidly once discharge begins. After several seconds (typically 100 s), the temperature reaches equilibrium among the actuator’s surface, plasma, and surrounding air. The maximum dielectric surface temperature is higher than that powered by an AC power supply in dozens of kHz. Influences of the duty cycle and the input frequency on the thermal characteristics are analyzed. When the duty cycle increases, the maximum dielectric surface temperature increases linearly. However, the maximum dielectric surface temperature increases nonlinearly when the input frequency varies from 0.47 MHz to 1.61 MHz. The induced flow velocity of the RF SDBD actuator is 0.25 m/s. (paper)

  5. Deactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms on a Tooth Surface Using He Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imola, Molnar; Judit, Papp; Alpar, Simon; Sorin, Dan Anghel

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the low temperature atmospheric helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms formed on tooth surface. Pig jaws were also treated by plasma to detect if there is any harmful effect on the gingiva. The plasma was characterized by using optical emission spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated that the discharge is very effective in deactivating Streptococcus mutans biofilms. It can destroy them with an average decimal reduction time (D-time) of 19 s and about 98% of them were killed after a treatment time of 30 s. According to the survival curve kinetic an overall 32 s treatment time would be necessary to perform a complete sterilization. The experimental results presented in this study indicated that the helium dielectric barrier discharge, in plan-parallel electrode configuration, could be a very effective tool for deactivation of oral bacteria and might be a promising technique in various dental clinical applications.

  6. Deactivation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms on a Tooth Surface Using He Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar Imola; Papp Judit; Simon Alpar; Anghel Sorin Dan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the low temperature atmospheric helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms formed on tooth surface. Pig jaws were also treated by plasma to detect if there is any harmful effect on the gingiva. The plasma was characterized by using optical emission spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated that the discharge is very effective in deactivating Streptococcus mutans biofilms. It can destroy them with an average decimal reduction time (D-time) of 19 s and about 98% of them were killed after a treatment time of 30 s. According to the survival curve kinetic an overall 32 s treatment time would be necessary to perform a complete sterilization. The experimental results presented in this study indicated that the helium dielectric barrier discharge, in plan-parallel electrode configuration, could be a very effective tool for deactivation of oral bacteria and might be a promising technique in various dental clinical applications.

  7. Surface modification of thermoplastic poly(vinyl alcohol)/saponite nanocomposites via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization enhanced by air dielectric discharges barrier plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Weijun; Lu Canhui

    2012-01-01

    To improve the water resistance of thermoplastic poly(vinyl alcohol)/saponite nanocomposites (TPVA), a simple two-step method was developed for the covalent immobilization of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiators on the TPVA surfaces enhanced by air dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma treatment, and hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes were then grafted onto the surface of TPVA via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The chemical composition, morphology and hydrophobicity of the modified TPVA surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The water resistance of the surface-functionalized PMMA was evaluated by the contact angle and water adsorption method. It was shown that air DBD plasma treatment activated the TPVA surface and accelerated the immobilization of ATRP initiator on the TPVA surface. Compared with TPVA control, TPVA modified by SI-ATRP can be grafted well-defined and covalently tethered network PMMA brushes onto the surface and the hydrophobicity of TPVA were significantly enhanced.

  8. Federal Interim Storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; McBride, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has developed a program for providing Federal Interim Storage servies for spent nuclear fuel which complies with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Although very little constructive activity in providing storage facilities can be undertaken by DOE until fuel has been certified by NRC as eligible for FIS, DOE planning and background information is such as to provide reasonable assurance that its obligations can be fulfilled when the required certifications have been issued. A fee structure providing fuel recovery of all costs associated with the FIS program, as required by the Act, has been developed. It provides for an equitable distribution of costs among users, based on the quantity of fuel requiring storage

  9. Interim geotechnical data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This issue, the Interim Geotechnical Field Data Report, presents information obtained from the geotechnical activities at the WIPP site underground facilities since the last quarterly report. It also includes cumulative plots which contain all previous data. Finally, it continues the geotechnical analyses and interpretations of the data. The GFDR is organized into two principal parts. The first part, Geotechnical Field Data, presents in graphical form all the data collected since April 1982 from the geomechanical instruments. Presented in the second part, Evaluation and Analyses, are preliminary interpretations and analyses of the data. In this report, continuing geotechnical assessment of all the facility features is presented. Also included in the second part are separate sections on evaluation and interpretation of the instrumentation measurements, and an updated description and evaluation of observed behavior of the underground openings

  10. Preventive maintenance study : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This interim report details the performance of 69 test sites treated with various preventive maintenance treatments. The maintenance treatments applied included crack sealing, full lane chip sealing, wheel path chip sealing, dig outs (mill and fill),...

  11. Bentonite engineered barrier building method for radioactive waste on sub-surface disposal test project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takuo; Takahashi, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Kunifumi; Namiki, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    The engineering barriers such as clay and concrete materials are planned to use for covering radioactive waste in cavern-type disposal facility. The requirement to clay barrier is very low permeability, which could be satisfied by high density Bentonite, and such a compaction method will be needed. Two methods, compaction and air shot, were tested in engineering scale for constructing a high-density clay barrier. Two types of compaction equipments, 'Teasel plate' and 'Plate compacter', were developed and engineering scale experiments were performed for compacting Bentonite only and Bentonite-sand-aggregate mixture. As a result, the Teasel plate can reach higher density Bentonite in relatively short time in comparison to other equipments. While, regarding air shot method, an air-shot machine in a tunnel construction site was tested by different water adding methods (wet, dry, and half wet). It is concluded that the dry and half wet constructing methods will achieve reasonable workability. As a result, the best construction option can be chosen according to the locations of radioactive waste facility. (author)

  12. Frequency-dependent transition from homogeneous to constricted shape in surface dielectric barrier discharge and its impact on biological target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazukin, A. V.; Serdukov, Y. A.; Pinchuk, M. E.; Stepanova, O. M.; Krivov, S. A.; Grabelnykh, O. I.

    2018-01-01

    The results of an experimental research of influence the surface dielectric discharge products excited by alternating sinusoidal voltage with RMS of 3.5 kV across the barrier of aluminum nitride with frequency of 50 Hz–100 kHz on a germination of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are presented. The stimulation effect on seedling morphological characteristics (sprout length and total length of roots) was observed but its reproducibility with combining the same processing conditions and subsequent germination is insignificant.

  13. Skidding accidents : considerations on road surface and vehicle characteristics : summary of the present situation. Provisional recommendation concerning skidding resistance of road surfaces investigation programme. Interim report of the SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents"

    1970-01-01

    This is the first report of SWOV Working Group "Tyres, road surfaces and skidding accidents". Skidding is considered to be an important contributory factor in traffic accidents. Skidding can in principle be prevented in two ways, viz: (1) reduction of the minimum necessary friction, and (2)

  14. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshari, Esmail, E-mail: e.afshari@mail.sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid [Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghomi, Hamid [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We fabricated polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. • The surface nanofibers were modified by gaseous (air, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and argon) dielectric barrier discharge. • Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase immobilization. • Chemical analysis showed that after modification of nanofibers by air plasma, the carboxyl group increased. • After air plasma treatment, reusability and storage stability of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanofibers improved. - Abstract: Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO{sub 2}, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  15. Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, K.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of radon dosimetry, it is customary to measure radon ( 222 Rn) concentration while potential health hazard is due to the radon short-lived progeny. When radon is in secular equilibrium, the measured activity of radon equals the activity of radon's progeny. However, in practical cases an inequilibrium between radon and its progeny exists which is measured in terms of the equilibrium factor. To determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in a closed environment various shapes of passive dosimeters based upon solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are employed. In order to observe the dependence of equilibrium factor upon shapes or effective volumes, experiments have been performed replacing the SSNTDs with a surface barrier detector in Karlsruhe diffusion chamber, pen-type and box-type dosimeters. Using the collected alpha spectra, the equilibrium factor has been determined for a radon-air mixture in a custom designed radon chamber simulating a closed environment of a room. The results show that the radon equilibrium factor is about 0.20 for different shapes of dosimeters studied in this research. It is concluded that the determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny does not depend upon effective volume or shape of the passive dosimeters using alpha spectroscopic data acquired by surface barrier detector. (orig.)

  16. Surface modification of PET films using dielectric barrier discharge driven by repetitive nanosecond-pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Tao; Zhang Cheng; Long Kaihua; Wang Jue; Zhang Dongdong; Yan Ping; Zhou Yuanxiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, surface treatment of PET films for improving the hydrophilicity using DBD excited by unipolar nanosecond-pulses is presented. Homogeneous and filamentary discharge are obtained under certain experimental conditions and then used to modify the surface of PET films. The properties of PET films before and after treatment are characterized with water contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The experimental results show that static water contact angles decrease after DBD plasma treatment and the observed contact angle is changed from 80 degree for the untreated samples to 20 degree after treatment. However, the decrease of contact angles is not continuous and it will reach a saturation state after certain treatment time. The improvement of surface hydrophilicity can be attributed to the enhancement of the surface roughness and introduction of oxygen-containing polar functional groups. In contrast with the filamentary DBD treatment, the homogenous DBD is more effective in PET surface treatment. (authors)

  17. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-06-01

    The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Sisbnd Osbnd C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  18. Two very long chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase genes, acs-20 and acs-22, have roles in the cuticle surface barrier in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, the surface barrier is essential for maintaining the internal environment. In mammals, the barrier is the stratum corneum. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4 is a key factor involved in forming the stratum corneum barrier. Mice lacking Fatp4 display early neonatal lethality with features such as tight, thick, and shiny skin, and a defective skin barrier. These symptoms are strikingly similar to those of a human skin disease called restrictive dermopathy. FATP4 is a member of the FATP family that possesses acyl-CoA synthetase activity for very long chain fatty acids. How Fatp4 contributes to skin barrier function, however, remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes, acs-20 and acs-22, that are homologous to mammalian FATPs. Animals with mutant acs-20 exhibited defects in the cuticle barrier, which normally prevents the penetration of small molecules. acs-20 mutant animals also exhibited abnormalities in the cuticle structure, but not in epidermal cell fate or cell integrity. The acs-22 mutants rarely showed a barrier defect, whereas acs-20;acs-22 double mutants had severely disrupted barrier function. Moreover, the barrier defects of acs-20 and acs-20;acs-22 mutants were rescued by acs-20, acs-22, or human Fatp4 transgenes. We further demonstrated that the incorporation of exogenous very long chain fatty acids into sphingomyelin was reduced in acs-20 and acs-22 mutants. These findings indicate that C. elegans Fatp4 homologue(s have a crucial role in the surface barrier function and this model might be useful for studying the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying human skin barrier and relevant diseases.

  19. Polytetrafluoroethylene surface modification by filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Hao Lili; Yang Hao; Xie Xiangqian; Qiu Yuchang; Edmund, Kuffel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films are modified using non-equilibrium plasma generated by homogeneous DBD in air at medium pressure, and the results are compared to those treated by using filamentary DBD in air at atmospheric pressure. The surface properties of PTFE films before and after the treatments are studied using contact angle and surface energy measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the plasma treatments modify the PTFE surface in both morphology and composition. The PTFE films modified in both treatments show a remarkable decrease in water contact and a remarkable increase in surface energy. XPS analysis reveals that oxygen-containing polar groups are introduced onto the PTFE surface, and SEM analysis shows that the surfaces of the films are etched after both the treatments. It is found that homogeneous DBD is more effective in PTFE surface modification than filamentary DBD as it can make the contact angle decline to a lower level by introducing more oxygen-containing groups, and the possible reason for this effect is discussed.

  20. Interim Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S.; Goswami, S.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Benedetto, E.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Martini, M.; Prior, G.; Ballett, P.; Pascoli, S.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Kopp, J.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Neuffer, D.; Parke, S.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Blondel, A.; Dufour, F.; Laing, A.; Soler, F.J.P; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Dornan, P.; Eccleston, R.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Bogacz, A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Bhattacharya, S.; Majumdar, D.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Zisman, M.; Cline, D.; Stratakis, D.; Ding, X.; Coloma, P.; Donini, A.; Gavela, B.; Lopez Pavon, J.; Maltoni, M.; Bromberg, C.; Bonesini, M.; Hart, T.; Kudenko, Y.; Mondal, N.; Antusch, S.; Blennow, M.; Ota, T.; Abrams, R.J.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Beard, K.B.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R.P.; Roberts, T.J.; Yoshikawa, C.Y.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; de Gouvea, A.; Graves, V.B.; Kuno, Y.; Peltoniemi, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Witte, H.; Mezzetto, M.; Rigolin, S.; McDonald, K.T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.; Snopok, P.; Tortora, L.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J.R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, R.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Thomason, J.W.G.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Samulyak, R.; Mishra, S.R.; Petti, R.; Dracos, M.; Yasuda, O.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Li, T.; Martin-Albo, J.; Huber, P.; Back, J.; Barker, G.; Harrison, P.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was established by the community at the ninth "International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, super-beams, and beta- beams" which was held in Okayama in August 2007. The IDS-NF mandate is to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility on the timescale of 2012/13. In addition, the mandate for the study [3] requires an Interim Design Report to be delivered midway through the project as a step on the way to the RDR. This document, the IDR, has two functions: it marks the point in the IDS-NF at which the emphasis turns to the engineering studies required to deliver the RDR and it documents baseline concepts for the accelerator complex, the neutrino detectors, and the instrumentation systems. The IDS-NF is, in essence, a site-independent study. Example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL, have been identified to allow site-specific issues to be addressed in the cost analysis that will be presented in the RDR. The choice of example sites shou...

  1. Effect of dielectric barrier discharge treatment on surface nanostructure and wettability of polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Zhirong; Chen, Yuyue

    2017-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabrics are treated with atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve surface wettability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that micro- to nano-scale textures appear on the treated PLA surfaces dependent on the treatment time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the DBD plasma treatments result in decreased carbon contents and increased oxygen contents as well as slightly increased nitrogen contents. The water contact angle decreases sharply with the increase of the DBD plasma treatment time. The super hydrophilic PLA surfaces (the water contact angle reached 0°) are obtained when the treatment time is longer than 90 s. Ninety days after the DBD plasma treatment, the XPS analysis shows that Csbnd O/Csbnd N and Cdbnd O/Osbnd Cdbnd O percentages decline for all treatment groups. However, the water contact angle is kept constant at 0° for the groups treated above 90 s, which could be due to the oxidized nano-structured layer on the DBD plasma treated PLA surfaces.

  2. Plasma treatment of detonation and HPHT nanodiamonds in diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge in H.sub.2./sub./N.sub.2./sub. flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čech, J.; Kozak, Halyna; Artemenko, Anna; Černák, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 10 (2016), s. 2680-2686 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04790S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amination * diamond * diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge * nanomaterials * surface functionalization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  3. Thermal barriers for compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Cory J.; Lustbader, Jason A.

    2017-10-17

    An aspect of the present disclosure is a thermal barrier that includes a core layer having a first surface, a second surface, and a first edge, and a first outer layer that includes a third surface and a second edge, where the third surface substantially contacts the first surface, the core layer is configured to minimize conductive heat transfer through the barrier, and the first outer layer is configured to maximize reflection of light away from the barrier.

  4. Immediate and early non-occlusal loading of Straumann implants with a chemically modified surface (SLActive) in the posterior mandible and maxilla: interim results from a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Axel; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Korostoff, Jonathan; Guerra, Fernando; Krafft, Tim; Brägger, Urs

    2008-05-01

    Immediate and early loading of dental implants can simplify treatment and increase overall patient satisfaction. The purpose of this 3-year prospective randomized-controlled multicenter study was to assess the differences in survival rates and bone level changes between immediately and early-loaded implants with a new chemically modified surface (SLActive). This investigation shows interim results obtained after 5 months. Patients > or =18 years of age missing at least one tooth in the posterior maxilla or mandible were enrolled in the study. Following implant placement, patients received a temporary restoration either on the day of surgery (immediate loading) or 28-34 days after surgery (early loading); restorations consisted of single crowns or two to four unit fixed dental prostheses. Permanent restorations were placed 20-23 weeks following surgery. The primary efficacy variable was change in bone level (assessed by standardized radiographs) from baseline to 5 months; secondary variables included implant survival and success rates. A total of 266 patients were enrolled (118 males and 148 females), and a total of 383 implants were placed (197 and 186 in the immediate and early loading groups, respectively). Mean patient age was 46.3+/-12.8 years. After 5 months, implant survival rates were 98% in the immediate group and 97% in the early group. Mean bone level change from baseline was 0.81+/-0.89 mm in the immediate group and 0.56+/-0.73 mm in the early group (Pimplants with an SLActive can be used predictably in time-critical (early or immediate) loading treatment protocols when appropriate patient selection criteria are observed. The mean bone level changes observed from baseline to 5 months (0.56 and 0.81 mm) corresponded to physiological observations from other studies, i.e., were not clinically significant. The presence of a significant center effect and treatment x center interaction indicated that the differences in bone level changes between the two groups

  5. Interim report on the activity hold-up and ease of decontamination of permanent coatings and surface treatments incorporated in a glove box floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.T.; Eccles, E.W.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Turner, A.D.; Dawson, R.K.

    1987-12-01

    A commercial GRP glove box has been equipped with 1 square foot tiles of alternative flooring materials. These comprise highly polished GRP, PEEK, electropolished stainless steel, cold-rolled stainless steel foil, bright nickel electroplate on stainless steel and hard chrome electroplate on stainless steel. The natural GRP finish was used as a reference surface. Standard PuO 2 handling and floor abrasion operations have been carried out on a regular basis. Subsequently, the floor tiles have been decontaminated by swabbing with Arklone soaked tissues and a mass balance has determined the fraction of PuO 2 unaccounted to be about 1%. Hard, smooth surfaces are promising to give the best performance in minimising activity retention under these abrasive conditions to ∼ 100 μg cm -2 . Glove box aerosol concentrations have also been monitored as a function of time after the completion of handling operations by air sampling and by gravity settling. After an initial rapid decrease over ∼ 2 hours, a steady state is reached corresponding to ∼ 1 ng/l of PuO 2 . (author)

  6. Interim report on the activity hold-up, and ease of decontamination of permanent coatings and surface treatments incorporated in a glove box floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.T.; Eccles, E.W.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Turner, A.D.; Dawson, R.K.

    1987-11-01

    A commercial glass reinforced plastic (GRP) glove box has been equipped with 1 square foot tiles of alternative flooring materials. These comprise highly polished GRP, poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK), electropolished stainless steel, cold-rolled stainless steel foil, bright nickel electroplate on stainless steel and hard chrome electroplate on stainless steel. The natural GRP finish was used as a reference surface. Standard PuO 2 handling and floor abrasion operations have been carried out on a regular basis. Subsequently, the floor tiles have been decontaminated by swabbing with Arklone soaked tissues and a mass balance has determined the fraction of PuO 2 unaccounted to be about 1%. Hard, smooth surfaces are promising to give the best performance in minimizing activity retention under these abrasive conditions to ∼ 100 μg cm -2 . Glove box aerosol concentrations have also been monitored as a function of time after the completion of handling operations by air sampling and by gravity settling. After an initial rapid decrease over ∼ 2 hours, a steady state is reached corresponding to ∼ 1 ng/l of PuO 2 . (author)

  7. [Study on Square Super-Lattice Pattern with Surface Discharge in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xue-jiao; Dong, Li-fang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qian; Feng, Jian-yu

    2016-02-01

    Square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge consisting of central spots and dim spots is firstly observed in the mixture of argon and air by using a dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrodes. By observing the image, it is found that the central spot is located at the centriod of its surrounding four dim spots. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The brightness of the central spot and is quite different from that of the dim spot, which indicates that the plasma states of the central spot and the dim spot may be differentiated. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the central spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³ IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the central spot and the dim spot are calculated respectively. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-->1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the central spot and the dim spot. It is found that the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the central spot in the same argon content The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the central spot and the dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 90% to 99.9%. The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the determinative effect on the formation of the dim spot The experimental results above play an important role in studying the formation mechanism of surface discharg&of square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge. In addition, the studies exert an influence on the application of surface discharge and volume discharge in different fields.

  8. Local environment dependance of the water diffusion energy barrier onto the (101) anatase surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Lorenzo; Gala, Fabrizio; Zollo, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption properties of TiO2 surfaces with biological environments have shown to be very important for bio-compatibility properties. Interactions of biological molecules with inorganic materials in aqueous systems, are mediated by water molecules. Hence the understanding of the possible conformations that water molecules can assume on the inorganic surfaces it is very important. Many studies concerning the structural conformations of adsorbed water molecules on rutile and anatase, the most likely exposed surface phases, show that the first layer of adsorbed water molecules play a crucial role in mediating the structural and physical properties of the upper interacting environment layers. In this contest we performed a detailed analysis of the possible conformations of the first layer of water molecules adsorbed on the (101) TiO2 surface; total energy calculations and NEB techniques, in contest of the DFT theory, has been used to study the stability and the diffusion properties as a further insight of our previous studies about this topic.

  9. Quantum corrections to potential energy surfaces and their influence on barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, P.G.; Goeke, K.W.; Bonn Univ.

    1980-01-01

    A microscopic theory suitable for the description of fission processes and other large-amplitude collective phenomena is presented. The approach makes use of an optimal collective path, which is constructed by means of adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) techniques as to show maximal de-coupling of collective and non-collective degrees of freedom. Although this involves a classical concept, the theory fully incorporates quantum effects associated with extracting a collective Schroedinger equation from adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theories (ATDHF). The quantum corrections are discussed extensively, and calculations in the two-centre shell model show, e.g. that they reduce the second barrier by 2 MeV and the life-time by a factor of 10 -7 . The relationships of the presented quantized ATDHF approach to the random-phase approximation (RPA) and a generalized dynamic generator co-ordinate method are investigated. For the construction of the optimal fission path, simple step-by-step methods are suggested. (author)

  10. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-12-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  11. The Homestake Interim Laboratory and Homestake DUSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead South Dakota is proposed for the National Science Foundation's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The gold mine provides expedient access to depths in excess of 8000 feet below the surface (>7000 mwe). Homestake's long history of promoting scientific endeavours includes the Davis Solar Neutrino Experiment, a chlorine-based experiment that was hosted at the 4850 Level for more than 30 years. As DUSEL, Homestake would be uncompromised by competition with mining interests or other shared uses. The facility's 600-km of drifts would be available for conversion for scientific and educational uses. The State of South Dakota, under Governor Rounds' leadership, has demonstrated exceptionally strong support for Homestake and the creation of DUSEL. The State has provided funding totalling $46M for the preservation of the site for DUSEL and for the conversion and operation of the Homestake Interim Laboratory. Motivated by the strong educational and outreach potential of Homestake, the State contracted a Conversion Plan by world-recognized mine-engineering contractor to define the process of rehabilitating the facility, establishing the appropriate safety program, and regaining access to the facility. The State of South Dakota has established the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority to oversee the transfer of the Homestake property to the State and the rehabilitation and preservation of the facility. The Homestake Scientific Collaboration and the State of South Dakota's Science and Technology Authority has called for Letters of Interest from scientific, educational and engineering collaborations and institutions that are interested in hosting experiments and uses in the Homestake Interim Facility in advance of the NSF's DUSEL, to define experiments starting as early as 2007. The Homestake Program Advisory Committee has reviewed these Letters and their initial report has been released. Options for

  12. Helicobacter pylori dwelling on the apical surface of gastrointestinal epithelium damages the mucosal barrier through direct contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Hongyu; Yu, Lu; Cao, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial junctions and mucins compose a major portion of the mucosal barrier. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections induce alterations of the tight junctions and adherens junctions in epithelial cells, although the precise mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. The expression of adhesion molecules and MUC1 was systematically investigated in gastrointestinal epithelial cells infected with H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we developed several new in vitro methods to study the relationships between the bacterium and the dysfunction of tight junctions using Boyden Chambers. The expression of a series of junctional molecules and MUC1 decreased in the cultured cells that were infected with H. pylori. According to the degree of damage at the tight junctions, direct contact of H. pylori with the apical membrane of the cells resulted in the greatest increase in permeability compared to basal membrane binding or non-binding of H. pylori to the cells. Similarly, we noted that H. pylori infection could reduce the expression and glycosylation of MUC1. Helicobacter pylori dwelling on the apical surface of the gastrointestinal epithelium could directly induce serious injury of the mucosal barrier, and the new methods outlined here, based on the Boyden Chamber system, could be very useful for studying the relationships between bacteria and their target cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reactivity and control of III-V surfaces for passivation and Schottky barrier formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    The N-for-As, P-for-As and Sb-for-As anion exchange reactions at GaAs surfaces, and the N-for-P anion exchange reaction at the GaP surface have been investigated with the aim at the formation of a thin high-gap surface layer for passivation of GaAs and GaP. Among the investigated anion exchange reactions, the P-for-As results in the formation of a ternary alloys GaP y As 1-y not effective for GaAs passivation. The Sb-for-As anion exchange does not occur and results in segregation of Sb at the GaAs surface. The Sb overlayer is effective in the chemical passivation of GaAs. The N-for-As anion exchange by a remote N 2 -H 2 (a mixture of 97% N 2 -3% H 2 ) radiofrequency plasma nitridation procedure forms a very thin (∼5 Angst) GaN layer that is successful in the electronic and chemical passivation of GaAs(1 0 0) surfaces. The N 2 -H 2 (a mixture of 97% N 2 -3% H 2 ) nitridation has been found completely different from the pure N 2 nitridation which, in contrast, do not provide GaAs passivation, because the formation of Ga-N bonds accompanies with AsN and the segregation of elemental As at the GaN/GaAs interface. GaAs-GaN based Schottky structures have also been deposited and characterized by I-V measurements. A chemical and kinetic mechanism for the anion exchange reactions which takes into account also the competitive formation of PAs, AsN, and PN isoelectronic compounds is proposed

  14. Surface diffusion of long chainlike molecules: The role of memory effects and stiffness on effective diffusion barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelt, T.; Vattulainen, Ilpo Tapio

    2000-01-01

    studies with chains of different lengths lead to a conclusion that, for a single diffusing chain, the memory contribution in E-A(T) decreases along with an increasing chain length and is almost negligible in the case of very long chains. Finally, we close this work by discussing our results in light......We study the coverage dependence of surface diffusion for chainlike molecules by the fluctuating-bond model with a Monte Carlo dynamics. The model includes short-ranged excluded volume interactions between different chains as well as an intrachain bond angle potential to describe the chain...... stiffness. Our primary aim is to consider the role played by chain stiffness and the resulting memory effects in tracer diffusion, and in particular their role in the effective tracer diffusion barrier E-A(T) extracted from the well-known Arrhenius form. We show that the memory effects in tracer diffusion...

  15. A problem finding in calibration of Si(Au) surface-barrier semiconductor detector and a simple resolved method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhangyong; Ruan Fangfang; Lu Rongchun; Chinese Academy of Sccience, Beijing; Yang Zhihu; Tan Jilian; Shao Caojie; Cai Xiaohong; Zhang Hongqiang; Shao Jianxiong; Cui Ying; Xie Jiangshan; Gao Zhimin

    2007-01-01

    In calibration of Si(Au) surface-barrier semiconductor detector, we find the peak-channel of 241 Am standard radioactive source shift with the position and the size of incident window. The reason may be result from the non-uniformity of Au-layer plated on Si-layer, because it may increase the probability of electron-vacancy pair recombination, but the exact reason is not clear. Dut to this problem is disadvantage to heavy ion-atom impact experiment; we resolve it by fixing up the position and the size of incident window and calibrating two sets of spectrometers, which placed symmetrically in the target room. Thus, this two set of apparatus can measure the back-scattered ions simultaneously in ion-atom impact experiment. We could obtain reliable experimental results by comparing with the two back-scattering spectra. (authors)

  16. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  17. Field-emitting Townsend regime of surface dielectric barrier discharges generated in CO2 emerging at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in CO2 from atmospheric pressure up to supercritical conditions (Tc = 304.13 K, pc = 7.4 MPa) generated using 10-kHz ac excitation are studied experimentally. Two discharge regimes are obtained: the standard and field-emitting Townsend regimes. The former resembles typical surface DBDs that have streamer-like characteristics, but the latter has not been reported previously. Here we present an analysis of the electrical and optical diagnostics of the field-emitting Townsend discharge regime using current-voltage and charge-voltage measurements, imaging, optical emission spectroscopy, and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Using an electrical model, it is possible to calculate the discharge-induced capacitances of the plasma and the dielectric, as well as the space-averaged values of the surface potential and the potential drop across the discharge. The model also accounts for the space-averaged Laplacian field by including the capacitance due to the fringe electric field from the electrode edge. The electrical characteristics are similar to those of atmospheric-pressure Townsend DBDs, i.e. self-sustained DBDs with minimal space-charge effects. The purely continuum emission spectrum is due to electron-neutral bremsstrahlung, with a corresponding average electron temperature of 2600 K. Raman spectra of CO2 near the critical point demonstrate that the discharge increases the average gas temperature by less than 1 K. This work was supported financially in part by MEXT and JSPS.

  18. Ozone production using a power modulated surface dielectric barrier discharge in dry synthetic air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 743-754 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ozone * surface DBD * synthetic air * nitrogen oxides * production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.728, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7p1j46381150510/fulltext. pdf

  19. Influence of Power Modulation on Ozone Production Using an AC Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.; Prukner, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2010), s. 607-617 ISSN 0272-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0176 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Ozone * Surface DBD * Oxygen * Production efficiency Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Disc harge Physics Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/28539775w5243513/

  20. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Bian, Jie; Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi; Wan, Jinglin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  1. Fast enhancement on hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface using low-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weimin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Zhou, Xiaoyan, E-mail: zhouxiaoyan@njfu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Zhang, Xiaotao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Bian, Jie [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China); Shi, Shukai; Nguyen, Thiphuong; Chen, Minzhi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center of Fast-growing Trees and Agri-fiber Materials, Nanjing 210037 (China); Wan, Jinglin [Nanjing Suman Plasma Technology Co., Ltd, Enterprise of Graduate Research Station of Jiangsu Province, No. 3 Youyihe Road, Nanjing 210001 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma working under low pressure is easy to realize industrialization. • Enhancing process finished within 75 s. • Plasma treatment leads to the increase in equilibrium contact angle by 330%. • Tinfoil film with simple chemical structure was used to reveal the mechanism. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of woody products leads to deformation and cracks, which greatly limits its applications. Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma using hexamethyldisiloxane was applied in poplar wood surface to enhance the hydrophobicity. The chemical properties, micro-morphology, and contact angles of poplar wood surface before and after plasma treatment were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical contact angle measurement (OCA). Moreover, tinfoil film was used as the base to reveal the enhancement mechanism. The results showed that hexamethyldisiloxane monomer is first broken into several fragments with active sites and hydrophobic chemical groups. Meanwhile, plasma treatment results in the formation of free radicals and active sites in the poplar wood surface. Then, the fragments are reacted with free radicals and incorporated into the active sites to form a network structure based on the linkages of Si-O-Si and Si−O−C. Plasma treatment also leads to the formation of acicular nano-structure in poplar wood surface. These facts synergistically enhance the hydrophobicity of poplar wood surface, demonstrating the dramatically increase in the equilibrium contact angle by 330%.

  2. Tunnel barrier schottky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Rongming; Cao, Yu; Li, Zijian; Williams, Adam J.

    2018-02-20

    A diode includes: a semiconductor substrate; a cathode metal layer contacting a bottom of the substrate; a semiconductor drift layer on the substrate; a graded aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor barrier layer on the drift layer and having a larger bandgap than the drift layer, the barrier layer having a top surface and a bottom surface between the drift layer and the top surface, the barrier layer having an increasing aluminum composition from the bottom surface to the top surface; and an anode metal layer directly contacting the top surface of the barrier layer.

  3. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Wolery

    2005-01-01

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks

  4. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  5. Choosing or becoming an interim administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Nancy M

    2005-01-01

    Filling an administrative position on an interim basis requires careful deliberation even when the decision has to be made quickly. A poor fit, even for a short-term position, can lead to problems for the interim administrator, the subsequent permanent administrator, faculty, staff, students, and the nursing program. This article poses questions for decision makers who are contemplating filling a position with an interim appointee. These decision makers must determine the need for an interim administrator, his or her role, the anticipated length of an interim appointment, and whether the interim appointee can apply for the permanent position. In addition, relevant questions are presented for those persons who are considering accepting an interim position, including questions about the position itself and their preparation and personal goals and considerations for leaving the temporary position.

  6. Primer for the Interim Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltys, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Being successful in the role of an Interim Chair requires an approach to transitional leadership that is different from that of individuals filling the Chair role permanently. This article reviews pertinent literature on the topic. Method: The author reviewed the literature, cited pertinent articles, and supplemented with personal…

  7. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  8. Systematic investigation of the barrier discharge operation in helium, nitrogen, and mixtures: discharge development, formation and decay of surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, R.; Bogaczyk, M.; Wagner, H.-E.

    2014-09-01

    As a logical extension to previous investigations of the barrier discharge (BD) in helium and nitrogen, the present work reports on the operation in any mixtures of both pure gases. Using a well-established plane-parallel discharge cell configuration allows to study the influence of the He/N2 mixing ratio on the formation of different discharge modes. Their characterization was made by measuring the discharge emission development together with the formation and decay of surface charges on a bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20, BSO) crystal. This was realized by the simultaneous application of the spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and the electro-optic Pockels effect in combination with a CCD high speed camera. The existence diagram for diffuse and filamentary BDs was determined by varying the amplitude and shape of the applied voltage. Over the entire range of the He/N2 ratio, the diffuse mode can be operated at moderate voltage amplitudes whereas filamentation occurs at significant overvoltage and is favoured by a high voltage slew rate. Irrespective of the discharge mode, the overall charge transfer during a discharge breakdown is found to be in excellent agreement with the amount of accumulated surface charges. An exponential decay of the surface charge deposited on the BSO crystal is induced by LED illumination beyond a typical discharge cycle. During the decay process, a broadening of the radial profiles of positive as well as negative surface charge spots originating from previous microdischarges is observed. The investigations contribute to a better understanding of the charge accumulation at a dielectric.

  9. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Paolo F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Minafra, Angelantonio; Trotti, Pasquale; Ambrico, Marianna; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor.

  10. A study in the surface treatment of the barrier of a nuclear fuel protector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo Seung; Chang, Si Young; Lee, Du Hyung; Noh, Bong Hyun; Kim, Ye Na

    2009-06-01

    Materials used in the nuclear power plant, such as pipe, are needed to endure severe corrosion because they could expose the high temperature coolant under radiation. Up to now, the HT9 steel(12Cr-1MoVW) which is one of Ferritic Martensite Stainless steels has been applied because of its high swelling resistance. However, its applications are limited to the temperature of approximately 500 .deg. C. Therefore, it has been strongly demanded that the materials have excellent corrosion resistance concurrent with high mechanical properties such as fracture toughness and irradiation resistance at higher temperatures of more than 500 .dec. C for high efficiency of operating reactor. In order to overcome the corrosion problem of irradiated HT9 steel causing severe environmental problem, particularly, the ceramic coating methods could be applied. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) emerged as a novel technique being capable of thick, dense and hard oxide ceramic coatings on the surface of light materials. In this study, we focused on applying the newly developed coating method, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) which was mainly developed for non-ferrous materials such as Al, Mg and Ti, for the HT9 steel. And then, we investigated and evaluated the possibility of application of PEO method for HT9 steel treated with/without aluminum cladding based on the microstructure observation of coatings formed under various processing parameters such as current ratio, electrolyte and time. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) treatment, which is an advancement of the conventional electrochemical anodizing treatment and leads to the local formation of a plasma by a spark on the metal surface, is expected to be a promising surface treatment that can overcome the drawbacks of HT9 steel. We applied PEO treatment for HT9 steel. We tried to find the effect of processing parameters, such as coating time, current ratio and electrolyte, on PEO coatings of HT9 steel, and also studied

  11. Performance of engineered barriers materials in near surface disposal facilities in Spain. Appendix 11: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    2001-01-01

    In October 1992 the Ministry of Industry and Energy issued the Operating License of El Cabril Near Surface Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba, some 100 km away from Cordoba city. Waste packages, mainly 0.22 m 3 steel drums, containing solidified waste in a cement based waste form or pellets coming from the super-compaction process, are placed inside concrete disposal containers. These containers are made of reinforced concrete and in their construction fabrication joints have been avoided. Once these containers are filled with 18 drums (0.22 m 3 ) or 30 to 60 compaction pellets, they are backfilled and sealed with a mortar grout, resulting into a solid block. These blocks are then disposed of inside concrete vaults, called disposal cells, each one with a capacity for 320 containers. The full vaults are backfilled with gravel in the existing central gap left to absorb fabrication and handling tolerances. Then a plastic film is placed on the containers to prevent a true union between the last layer of disposal containers and the massed concrete layer cast to protect the workers during the construction of the closing slab. This 0.5 m thick closing slab is made of reinforced concrete and is protected by acrylic/fibreglass unperceived film. Galleries are made of a 300 kg/cm 2 characteristic strength concrete

  12. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IESWTR balances the need for treatment with potential increases in disinfection by -products. The materials found on this page are intended to assist public water systems and state in the implementation of the IESWTR.

  13. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ji; Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m 2 g -1 , the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  14. Permeable reactive barrier of surface hydrophobic granular activated carbon coupled with elemental iron for the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cao Limei; Guo Rui; Jia Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Granular activated carbon was modified with dimethyl dichlorosilane to improve its surface hydrophobicity, and therefore to improve the performance of permeable reactive barrier constructed with the modified granular activated carbon and elemental iron. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the surface silicon concentration of the modified granular activated carbon is higher than that of the original one, leading to the increased surface hydrophobicity. Although the specific surface area decreased from 895 to 835 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, the modified granular activated carbon could adsorb 20% more 2,4-dichlorophenol than the original one did in water. It is also proven that the permeable reactive barrier with the modified granular activated carbon is more efficient at 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination, in which process 2,4-dichlorophenol is transformed to 2-chlorophenol or 4-chlorophenol then to phenol, or to phenol directly.

  15. Properties of materials dedicated for the construction of isolation plugs-barriers in underground workings connecting an underground nuclear waste repository with a ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Plewa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of tests of basic properties of selected materials dedicated for the construction of artificial isolation barriers in underground workings, which connect an underground disposal site with a surface of the ground. The modified waste from coal fired power generation plants have been considered as a potentially useful materials for this application.

  16. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  17. Effect of electrode configuration on the uniformity of atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier air micro-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Qi, Zhihua; Ji, Longfei; Zhao, Yao; Chang, Xuewei; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Dongping

    2018-02-01

    The electrode configuration of atmospheric pressure air discharge is one of the key elements that have significant effects on the discharge properties. In this study, double-sided printed circuit boards with square-shaped lattice structure are used to generate surface dielectric barrier air micro-discharge (SDBAMD) at atmospheric pressure. The effects of the lattice width on the discharge properties are reported. The uniformity of the SDBAMD is evaluated by adopting the digital image processing method. Our measurements show that the power and ignition voltage of the SDBAMD significantly depended on the configuration of the grounded electrode. The digital image processing results show that the uniformity of the SDBAMD is severely affected by the lattice width, and the most uniform discharge is achieved at the lattice width of 2.0 mm. The numerical model based on COMSOL demonstrated that increasing the lattice width can lead to an increase in the electric field in the vicinity of the grounded electrode and a decrease in the lattice center. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the different electrode configurations can change the interaction between the space charges during the discharge, which ultimately affects the uniformity of the SDBAMD.

  18. Funneling effect of alpha particles on the charge collection efficiency in N type silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Field funneling due to SEE in microelectronic device affects the charge collection efficiency. • Charge collection efficiency from alpha particles in a N type SSB device was calculated. • GEANT4, a Monte Carlo code and ATLAS, a numerical code have been used. • The simulation results have been validated through comparison with the experimental results. - Abstract: There are three different mechanisms of charge collection in a semiconductor charge particle detector, such as the drift of carriers in depletion zone, the drift of carriers in an extended electrical field along the ion track or funneling effect and the diffusion of carriers. In this work, the funneling effect on charge collection efficiency due to alpha particle track in a N type silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated. GEANT4, as Monte Carlo code, has been used for estimation of the deposit energy distribution in the component. In addition, the semiconductor device simulator, ATLAS, has been used in calculation of charge collection efficiency. The simulation results have been validated through comparison with the available experimental results. The calculated charge collection efficiency has good agreement with experiment. Without considering the funneling effect and diffusion, the calculation results underestimate the charge collection efficiency within 60%. Our overall results were indicative of the fact that considering funneling effect, considerably improves the accuracy of the charge collection efficiency estimation

  19. Microfibrillated cellulose and borax as mechanical, O₂-barrier, and surface-modulating agents of pullulan biocomposite coatings on BOPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Carlo A; Campanella, Gaetano; Türe, Hasan; Olsson, Richard T; Farris, Stefano

    2016-06-05

    Multifunctional composite coatings on bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films were obtained using borax and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) added to the main pullulan coating polymer. Spectroscopy analyses suggested that a first type of interaction occurred via hydrogen bonding between the C6OH group of pullulan and the hydroxyl groups of boric acid, while monodiol and didiol complexation represented a second mechanism. The deposition of the coatings yielded an increase in the elastic modulus of the entire plastic substrate (from ∼2GPa of the neat BOPP to ∼3.1GPa of the P/B+/MFC-coated BOPP). The addition of MFC yielded a decrease of both static and kinetic coefficients of friction of approximately 22% and 25%, respectively, as compared to the neat BOPP. All composite coatings dramatically increased the oxygen barrier performance of BOPP, especially under dry conditions. The deposition of the high hydrophilic coatings allowed to obtain highly wettable surfaces (water contact angle of ∼18°). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ion activation energy delivered to wounds by atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharges: sputtering of lipid-like surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J; Ning Ning; Graves, David B

    2012-01-01

    The application of atmospheric pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. These effects are attributed to production of UV photon fluxes, electric fields and beneficial radicals which intersect with biological reaction chains, and to energetic ions bombarding the surface. In this paper we report on results from a computational investigation of the ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) in a dielectric-barrier discharge sustained in air incident directly on cell membranes for small dry and wet wounds in human skin. We found that ion energies in excess of 20-30 eV can be delivered onto cell membranes of dry wounds, and up to 60 eV onto the liquid interface of the wet wound. The details of the IEADs depend on the orientation of the cell membrane and on the relative location of the plasma streamer to the wound. Using results from a molecular dynamics simulation of ion sputter probabilities of typical lipid-like material, we show that prolonged exposure of the cell membrane to such IEADs can produce significant carbon removal. (paper)

  1. Ion activation energy delivered to wounds by atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharges: sputtering of lipid-like surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Ning, Ning; Graves, David B.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-03-01

    The application of atmospheric pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. These effects are attributed to production of UV photon fluxes, electric fields and beneficial radicals which intersect with biological reaction chains, and to energetic ions bombarding the surface. In this paper we report on results from a computational investigation of the ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) in a dielectric-barrier discharge sustained in air incident directly on cell membranes for small dry and wet wounds in human skin. We found that ion energies in excess of 20-30 eV can be delivered onto cell membranes of dry wounds, and up to 60 eV onto the liquid interface of the wet wound. The details of the IEADs depend on the orientation of the cell membrane and on the relative location of the plasma streamer to the wound. Using results from a molecular dynamics simulation of ion sputter probabilities of typical lipid-like material, we show that prolonged exposure of the cell membrane to such IEADs can produce significant carbon removal.

  2. Electron density in surface barrier discharge emerging at argon/water interface: quantification for streamers and leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanović, Nikola; Galmiz, Oleksandr; Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Brablec, Antonín; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy, fast intensified CCD imaging and electrical measurements were applied to investigate the basic plasma parameters of surface barrier discharge emerging from a conductive water electrode. The discharge was generated at the triple-line interface of atmospheric pressure argon gas and conductive water solution at the fused silica dielectrics using a sinusoidal high-voltage waveform. The spectroscopic methods of atomic line broadening and molecular spectroscopy were used to determine the electron densities and the gas temperature in the active plasma. These parameters were obtained for both applied voltage polarities and resolved spatially. Two different spectral signatures were identified in the spatially resolved spectra resulting in electron densities differing by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that two discharge mechanisms take a place: the streamer and the leader one, with electron densities of 1014 and 1016 cm‑3, respectively. This spectroscopic evidence is supported by the combined diagnostics of electrical current measurements and phase-resolved intensified CCD camera imaging.

  3. Development of neutron detector using sensor type surface barrier with (n,p) and (n,α) converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, Tufic

    1999-01-01

    A Si semiconductor detector, surface barrier type, with a slim film of a converter material capable to produce charged particles was used as a sensor of neutrons in an environment of a zero power reactor. Two types of converters were used to improve the detection efficiency: (1) the polyethylene, n(CH 2 ), which produces recoil protons from the (n,p) interaction and, (2) the 10 B which generates a particle from the (n,alpha) reaction. The optimal thickness of those converters was determined experimentally and specifically for the polyethylene a mathematical model R(ips) = ε p · N 0 ·(1-e -Σ·Χ ) ·e -μ ·Χ + ε n · N 0 · -Σ · Χ was used to fit to the experimental data. For the polyethylene converter the thickness was of 0.058 cm (62.64 mg.cm -2 ) while for the 10 B it was equal to 6.55 [μm (1.54 mg.cm -2 ). The converter of polyethylene or 10 B improved the detection efficiency to a factor of 4.7 and 3.0 respectively. The comparison of the spectrum of the background radiation with the spectra of the recoil protons and the a radiation from the 10 B it was concluded that the polyethylene presented better performance than the 10 B converter. (author)

  4. Electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector with the presence of a dielectric plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic change of the electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) is studied. With the presence of a dielectric plasma column in the depletion layer of the SSBD, the electric field strength inside/outside the plasma column is suppressed/enhanced. As the length and the dielectric constant of the plasma column become shorter and smaller, the suppression and enhancement of the electric field strength become less. The electric field strength recovers the initial state, when the plasma column disappears. When the electrons and holes are inside/outside the dielectric plasma column, they have less/more electric potential than the one they have when there is no plasma column. During the movement of the electron/hole outside the plasma column to the positive/negative electrode, the enhanced electric field strength becomes smaller. Electron and hole pairs, which are the parts of the dielectric plasma column, arrive at positive and negative electrodes, having insufficient electric potential to induce the unit charge. This paper shows that the presence of a dielectric plasma column explains the main part of the residual defect in a SSBD. ((orig.))

  5. Interim Bayesian Persuasion: First Steps

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes a first attempt at building a theory of interim Bayesian persuasion. I work in a minimalist model where a low or high type sender seeks validation from a receiver who is willing to validate high types exclusively. After learning her type, the sender chooses a complete conditional information structure for the receiver from a possibly restricted feasible set. I suggest a solution to this game that takes into account the signaling potential of the sender's choice.

  6. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  7. Comparison of interim restorations fabricated by CAD/CAM with those fabricated manually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayyan, Mohammad M; Aboushelib, Moustafa; Sayed, Nagwa M; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Jimbo, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Interim restorations represent an essential treatment step; however, the optimal resin material for long-term interim restorations requires investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the color stability, water sorption, wear resistance, surface hardness, fracture resistance, and microleakage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-(CAD/CAM) fabricated interim restorations with those of manually fabricated interim restorations. Epoxy replicas were made from a prepared maxillary first premolar. On the replicas, interim crowns were fabricated and divided into the following groups: CAD/CAM poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blocks (CC), autopolymerizing temporary resin (AP), automix temporary resin (AM), and thermoplastic resin (TP). After cementation, all specimens were subjected to thermocycling and dynamic fatigue. The CIE Laboratory color coordinates were then recorded before and after immersion in coffee, tea, carbonated cola, and red wine. Water sorption was evaluated by using an immersion technique. Wear resistance was measured in a surface abrasion device. Vickers microhardness was measured on polished specimens. Fracture resistance was evaluated by axial loading with a universal testing machine. Marginal dye penetration was evaluated by sectioning the interim restorations after immersion in methylene blue (α=.05). Colorimetric analysis revealed a large degree of color alteration (ΔE) in the manually fabricated interim restorations: AP = ΔE of 6.7 ±2); AM = ΔE of 7.1 ±1.5), and TP = ΔE of =5.4 ±3.1. The CC group demonstrated color stability (ΔE=2.1 ±0.2). CAD/CAM interim restorations demonstrated significantly lower water sorption, higher wear resistance, higher surface hardness, and significantly higher fracture resistance (1289±56N) compared with manually fabricated interim restorations (AP=996 ±45, AM=899 ±37, and TP=1179 ±41). The stereomicroscopic examination of sectioned specimens demonstrated the absence of

  8. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  9. Addendum to IFMIF-CDA interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Ida, Mizuho

    1996-08-01

    During the second IFMIF-CDA Design Integration Workshop, the conceptual design and contents of 'IFMIF-CDA Interim Report' were examined and discussed at both general and group meetings. Based on these discussion, the final IFMIF-CDA Report will be modified from the 'Interim Report'. This report describes the outline of these modification. (author)

  10. Guidelines for Preparing Interim Technical Reports

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    The interim technical report explains what was achieved with the money and time spent on a project during a specific reporting period. The interim report specifically .... o knowledge creation (new knowledge embodied in forms other than publications or reports: new technologies, new methodologies, new curricula, new ...

  11. Vet Centers. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This interim final rule amends regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  12. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  13. Effect of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles on thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin-based coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Radoman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel soy alkyd-based nanocomposites (NCs were prepared using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs surface modified with different gallates, and for the first time with imine obtained from 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oleylamine (DHBAOA. Unmodified and surface modified anatase TiO2 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the amount of adsorbed ligands was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results. Surface modification of TiO2 NPs was confirmed by FTIR and UV-Vis spectra. The influence of the TiO2 surface modification on the dispersion of TiO2 NPs in alkyd resin, thermal, barrier and mechanical properties and chemical resistance of alkyd resin/TiO2 NC coatings was investigated. The obtained results revealed that glass transition temperature of all investigated NCs is lower than for pure resin, that the presence of TiO2 NPs surface modified with gallates had no significant influence on the thermooxidative stability of alkyd resin, while TiO2-DHBAOA NPs slightly improved alkyd resin thermooxidative stability. Also, the presence of surface modified TiO2 NPs improved barrier properties, increased stress and strain at break and hardness and chemical resistance and decreased modulus of elasticity and abrasion resistance of alkyd resin.

  14. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  15. The strain effect in the surface barrier structures prepared on the basis of n-Si and p-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatkarimov, O.O.; Tuychiev, U.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the ways of creation of large deformations in small volume of the semiconductor is the deformation created by a needle. At insignificant change of external influence the large deformation under a needle in small volume of the semiconductor the significant change of electrophysical parameters of the semiconductor in small volume is created. Therefore, in the present work the results of researches of local pressure influence on physical properties of surface barrier structures has been performed on the basis of silicon with Ni and Mn impurity. The relative changes of a direct current made on the basis n-Si and p-Si from a different degree of compensation are given depending on size of local pressure are shown. Change of current in structures Au-Si -Sb with specific resistance of base ρ=80 Ω·cm and ρ=200 Ω·cm are I p /I 0 =3-3.5 times and I P /I ) =2-2.5 times at pressure P=1.6·10 8 Pa respectively. These data show, that in structures received on the basis of initial silicon, change of a direct current with pressure is in inverse proportion to size of resistance of base of the diode. And in structures Au-Si -Sb with specific resistance of base ρ=5·10 2 Ω·cm and ρ=3·10 3 Ω·cm these changes accordingly are I P /I 0 =7 and I P /I 0 =14. Changes of direct current relative to initial value for structures on the basis p-Si with specific resistance ρ=7·10 2 Ω·cm and ρ=4·10 3 Ω·cm) are I P /I 0 =9 and I P /I 0 =16 respectively. The same changes of direct current of structures on the basis P-Si at local pressure are I P /I 0 =2-2.5. The given values I P /I 0 testify that as in structures Au-Si -Sb, and structures Sb-p-Si -Au, unlike structures on the basis of initial silicon, the values I P /I 0 are increased with increase of specific resistance of base of structures

  16. Sound trapping and dredging barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wang, Xiaonan; Yu, Wuzhou; Jiang, Zaixiu; Mao, Dongxing

    2017-06-01

    When sound barriers are installed on both sides of a noise source, degradation in performance is observed. Barriers having negative-phase-gradient surfaces successfully eliminate this drawback by trapping sound energy in between the barriers. In contrast, barriers can also be designed to "dredge" the energy flux out. An extended model considering higher-order diffractions, which resulted from the interplay of the induced surface wave and barrier surface periodicity, is presented. It is found that the sound dredging barriers provide a remarkable enhancement over the trapping ones, and hence have the potential to be widely used in noise control engineering.

  17. Characterization of step-edge barrier crossing of para-sexiphenyl on the ZnO (101[combining macron]0) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczynski, Karol; Herrmann, Philipp; Heimel, Georg; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2016-09-14

    Mass transport processes of conjugated organic molecules (COMs) on inorganic surfaces are essential elements in thin film deposition for hybrid optoelectronic devices. Defects and in particular surface step-edges dictate the molecular nucleation and growth morphology, which itself determine many physical properties of the resulting hybrid interface. Here, we explore the detailed molecular kinetics and transport rates of a single physisorbed para-sexiphenyl (p-6P) molecule crossing a step-edge (a "hetero-Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier") on the inorganic ZnO (101[combining macron]0) surface by a combination of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and passage time theory. We determine temperature- and charge-dependent (free) energy landscapes, position-dependent diffusion coefficients, and ultimately the mean first passage time over the step-edges. We find two completely different step-edge crossing mechanisms, the occurrence and rates of which simultaneously depend on both electrostatic and thermal molecule-surface coupling. In weakly coupled systems, the molecule crosses the step relatively quickly (in nanoseconds) by log-roll mechanisms while for strongly coupled systems, it crosses relatively slowly (in microseconds) in a strictly perpendicular fashion. In the latter process, "internal friction" from intramolecular bending and torsional degrees of freedom contribute a significant corrugation to the overall crossing barrier. Furthermore, we show that crossing pathways can also change qualitatively with step-edge height. The great complexity in hetero-barrier crossing of COMs (in contrast to simple atoms) revealed in this study has implications on the interpretation and possible control of nucleation and growth mechanisms at surface defects in hybrid systems.

  18. Development of self-assembled molecular structures on polymeric surfaces and their applications as ultrasonically responsive barrier coatings for on-demand, pulsatile drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Connie Sau-Kuen

    Nature in the form of DNA, proteins, and cells has the remarkable ability to interact with its environment by processing biological information through specific molecular recognition at the interface. As such, materials that are capable of triggering an appropriate biological response need to be engineered at the biomaterial surface. Chemically and structurally well-defined self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), biomimetics of the lipid bilayer in cell membranes, have been created and studied mostly on rigid metallic surfaces. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of methods to generate a molecularly designed surface for biomedical polymers and thus provides an enabling technology to engineer a polymeric surface precisely at a molecular and cellular level. To take this innovation one step further, we demonstrated that such self-assembled molecular structure coated on drug-containing polymeric devices could act as a stimulus-responsive barrier for controlled drug delivery. A simple, one-step procedure for generating ordered, crystalline methylene chains on polymeric surfaces via urethane linkages was successfully developed. The self-assemblies and molecular structures of these crystalline methylene chains are comparable to the SAM model surfaces, as evidenced by various surface characterization techniques (XPS, TOF-SIMS, and FTIR-ATR). For the first time, these self-assembled molecular structures are shown to function collectively as an ultrasound-responsive barrier membrane for pulsatile drug delivery, including delivery of low-molecular-weight ciprofloxacin and high-molecular-weight insulin. Encouraging results, based on the insulin-activated deoxyglucose uptakes in adipocytes, indicate that the released insulin remained biologically active. Both chemical and acoustic analyses suggest that the ultrasound-assisted release mechanism is primarily induced by transient cavitation, which causes temporary disruption of the self-assembled overlayer, and thus allows

  19. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  20. In vitro evaluation of the marginal integrity of CAD/CAM interim crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin Khng, Kwang Yong; Ettinger, Ronald L; Armstrong, Steven R; Lindquist, Terry; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy of interim crowns made with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems has not been well investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal integrity of interim crowns made by CAD/CAM compared with that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) crowns. A dentoform mandibular left second premolar was prepared for a ceramic crown and scanned for the fabrication of 60 stereolithical resin dies, half of which were scanned to fabricate 15 Telio CAD-CEREC and 15 Paradigm MZ100-E4D-E4D crowns. Fifteen Caulk and 15 Jet interim crowns were made on the remaining resin dies. All crowns were cemented with Tempgrip under a 17.8-N load, thermocycled for 1000 cycles, placed in 0.5% acid fuschin for 24 hours, and embedded in epoxy resin before sectioning from the mid-buccal to mid-lingual surface. The marginal discrepancy was measured using a traveling microscope, and dye penetration was measured as a percentage of the overall length under the crown. The mean vertical marginal discrepancy of the conventionally made interim crowns was greater than for the CAD/CAM crowns (P=.006), while no difference was found for the horizontal component (P=.276). The mean vertical marginal discrepancy at the facial surface of the Caulk crowns was significantly greater than that of the other 3 types of interim crowns (Pcrowns was significantly larger than that of the other 3 types, with no difference at the lingual margins (P=.150). The mean percentage dye penetration for the Paradigm MZ100-E4D crowns was significantly greater and for Jet crowns significantly smaller than for the other 3 crowns (Pcrowns at the facial surface and with the horizontal marginal discrepancies of the Caulk interim crowns at the lingual surface (Pcrowns fabricated by CAD/CAM as compared with PMMA crowns; however, this difference was not observed for the horizontal component. The percentage dye penetration was correlated with vertical and horizontal

  1. Free-Energy Barrier of Filling a Spherical Cavity in the Presence of Line Tension: Implication to the Energy Barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel States on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Spherical Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-09-20

    The free-energy barrier of filling a spherical cavity having an inner wall of various wettabilities is studied. The morphology and free energy of a lens-shaped droplet are determined from the minimum of the free energy. The effect of line tension on the free energy is also studied. Then, the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet is determined from the generalized Young's equation. By increasing the droplet volume within the spherical cavity, the droplet morphology changes from spherical with an equilibrium contact angle of 180° to a lens with a convex meniscus, where the morphological complete drying transition occurs. By further increasing the droplet volume, the meniscus changes from convex to concave. Then, the lens-shaped droplet with concave meniscus spreads over the whole inner wall, resulting in an equilibrium contact angle of 0° to leave a spherical bubble, where the morphological complete wetting transition occurs. Finally, the whole cavity is filled with liquid. The free energy shows a barrier from complete drying to complete wetting as a function of droplet volume, which corresponds to the energy barrier between the Cassie and Wenzel states of the superhydrophobic surface with spherical cavities. The free-energy maximum occurs when the meniscus of the droplet becomes flat, and it is given by an analytic formula. The effect of line tension is expressed by the scaled line tension, and this effect is largest at the free-energy maximum. The positive line tension increases the free-energy maximum, which thus increases the stability of the Cassie superhydrophobic state, whereas the negative line tension destabilizes the superhydrophobic state.

  2. Surface Treatment of PEOT/PBT (55/45 with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Air, Helium, Argon and Nitrogen at Medium Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Cools

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the surface modification of 300PEO-PEOT/PBT 55/45 thin films using a medium pressure dielectric barrier discharge system operated in argon, helium, nitrogen or dry air to improve cell-surface interactions of this established biomaterial. The first part of the paper describes the optimization of the plasma processing parameters using water contact angle goniometry. The optimized samples are then characterized for changes in surface topography and surface chemical composition using atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XPS respectively. For all plasma treatments, a pronounced increase in surface wettability was observed, of which the extent is dependent on the used plasma discharge gas. Except for dry air, only minor changes in surface topography were noted, while XPS confirmed that the changes in wettability were mainly chemical in nature with the incorporation of 5–10% of extra oxygen as a variety of polar groups. Similarly, for the nitrogen plasma, 3.8% of nitrogen polar groups were additionally incorporated. Human foreskin fibroblast (HFF in vitro analysis showed that within the first 24 h after cell seeding, the effects on cell-surface interactivity were highly dependent on the used discharge gas, nitrogen plasma treatment being the most efficient. Differences between untreated and plasma-treated samples were less pronounced compared to other biodegradable materials, but a positive influence on cell adhesion and proliferation was still observed.

  3. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  4. Nucleation and initial growth of atomic layer deposited titanium oxide determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the effect of pretreatment by surface barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, David C., E-mail: dccameron@mail.muni.cz [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Krumpolec, Richard, E-mail: richard.krumpolec@fmph.uniba.sk [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 4 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ivanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatiana.ivanova@lut.fi [ASTRaL team, Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Homola, Tomáš, E-mail: tomas.homola@mail.muni.cz [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko, E-mail: cernak@physics.muni.cz [R& D Centre for Low-Cost Plasma and Nanotechnology Surface Modification, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows initial nucleation and growth process in atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide. • Quantum confinement effects were used to measure evolution of crystallite size. • Crystallite surface density can be extracted from ellipsometric surface roughness data and crystallite size. • Pretreatment of silicon substrates by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge has only minor effects on titanium dioxide film nucleation and growth. - Abstract: This paper reports on the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterise the initial nucleation stage of the atomic layer deposition of the anatase phase of titanium dioxide on silicon substrates. Careful control and analysis of the ellipsometric measurements enables the determination of the evolution of crystallite diameter and surface density in the nucleation stage before a continuous film is formed. This growth behaviour is in line with atomic force microscopy measurements of the crystallite size. The crystallite diameter is a linear function of the number of ALD cycles with a slope of approximately 1.7 Å cycle{sup −1} which is equivalent to a layer growth rate of 0.85 Å cycle{sup −1} consistent with a ripening process which increases the crystallite size while reducing their density. The crystallite density decreases from ∼3 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3} in the initial nucleation stages to ∼3 × 10{sup 15} m{sup −3} before the film becomes continuous. The effect of exposing the substrate to a diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge in an air atmosphere before deposition was measured and only small differences were found: the plasma treated samples were slightly rougher in the initial stages and required a greater number of cycles to form a continuous film (∼80) compared to the untreated films (∼50). A thicker layer of native oxide was found after plasma treatment.

  5. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  6. Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the work with identification and structuring of features, events and processes (FEPs) that has been carried out within the scope of the SR-Can safety assessment up to the time of the interim reporting of the project. The overall objective of the work is to develop a database of features, events and processes in a format that would facilitate both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of the FEP analysis as well as facilitate revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. This overall objective also includes the development of procedures for a systematic FEP analysis as well as to apply these procedures in order to arrive at an SR-Can version of the FEP database. The work started by implementing the content of the SR 97 Process report into a database format suitable for import and processing of FEP information from other sources. The SR 97 version of the database was systematically audited against the NEA database with Project FEPs, version 1.2. In addition, an earlier audit of the SR 97 process report against the interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type was revisited and updated. Relevant FEPs from the audit were sorted into three main categories in the SR-Can database i) FEPs related to the initial states of the repository system, ii) FEPs related to internal processes of the repository system, and iii) FEPs related to external impacts on the repository system. These groups of FEPs were further processed for making decisions on how to handle these FEPs in the assessment. Biosphere processes were not included in the SR 97 Process report and there is thus not the same basis for updating these descriptions as for the engineered barriers and the geosphere. All biosphere FEPs from the audit have therefore been compiled in a single category in the database, but remain to be further handled. FEPs were also categorised as irrelevant or as being related to methodology on a general

  7. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate; Fabricacao e caracterizacao de detector de barreira de superficie a partir de substrato de silicio comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  8. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  9. Methods Data Qualification Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sam Alessi; Tami Grimmett; Leng Vang; Dave McGrath

    2010-09-01

    The overall goal of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is to maintain data provenance for all NGNP data including the Methods component of NGNP data. Multiple means are available to access data stored in NDMAS. A web portal environment allows users to access data, view the results of qualification tests and view graphs and charts of various attributes of the data. NDMAS also has methods for the management of the data output from VHTR simulation models and data generated from experiments designed to verify and validate the simulation codes. These simulation models represent the outcome of mathematical representation of VHTR components and systems. The methods data management approaches described herein will handle data that arise from experiment, simulation, and external sources for the main purpose of facilitating parameter estimation and model verification and validation (V&V). A model integration environment entitled ModelCenter is used to automate the storing of data from simulation model runs to the NDMAS repository. This approach does not adversely change the why computational scientists conduct their work. The method is to be used mainly to store the results of model runs that need to be preserved for auditing purposes or for display to the NDMAS web portal. This interim report demonstrates the currently development of NDMAS for Methods data and discusses data and its qualification that is currently part of NDMAS.

  10. Electric Characteristic Enhancement of an AZO/Si Schottky Barrier Diode with Hydrogen Plasma Surface Treatment and AlxOx Guard Ring Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the design and fabrication of AZO/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs with hydrogen plasma treatment on silicon surface and AlxOx guard ring were presented. The Si surface exhibited less interface defects after the cleaning process following with 30 w of H2 plasma treatment that improved the switching properties of the following formed SBDs. The rapid thermal annealing experiment also held at 400 °C to enhance the breakdown voltage of SBDs. The edge effect of the SBDs was also suppressed with the AlxOx guard ring structure deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD at the side of the SBDs. Experimental results show that the reverse leakage current was reduced and the breakdown voltage increased with an addition of the AlxOx guard ring. The diode and fabrication technology developed in the study were applicable to the realization of SBDs with a high breakdown voltage (>200 V, a low reverse leakage current density (≤72 μA/mm2@100 V, and a Schottky barrier height of 1.074 eV.

  11. Surface modification of electrospun PVA/chitosan nanofibers by dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure and studies of their mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Punamshree; Ojah, Namita; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Mohan, Kiranjyoti; Gogoi, Dolly; Dolui, Swapan Kumar; Choudhury, Arup Jyoti

    2018-03-22

    In this paper, surface of electrospun PVA/Cs nanofibers is modified using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and the relationship between the observed mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the nanofibers and plasma-induced surface properties is discussed. Plasma treatment of electrospun PVA/Cs nanofibers is carried out with both inert (argon, Ar) and reactive (oxygen, O 2 ) gases at atmospheric pressure. Incorporation of oxygen-containing polar functional groups on the surface of Ar-plasma treated (PVA/Cs/Ar) and O 2 -plasma treated (PVA/Cs/O 2 ) nanofibers and increase in surface roughness contribute to the improvement of surface wettability and the decrease of contact angle with water of the nanofibers. Both PVA/Cs/Ar and PVA/Cs/O 2 nanofibers show high tensile strength (11.6-15.6%) and Young's modulus (33.8-37.3%) as compared to the untreated one. Experimental results show that in terms of haemolytic activity the PVA/Cs/Ar and PVA/Cs/O 2 nanofibers do not cause structural changes of blood cells and meet the biocompatibility requirements for blood-contacting polymeric materials. MTT cell viability results further reveals improvement in biocompatibility of PVA/Cs nanofibers after Ar and O 2 plasma treatment. The results suggest that DBD plasma treated electrospun PVA/Cs nanofibers have the potential to be used as wound dressing and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface oxidation of a Melinex 800 PET polymer material modified by an atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Naiyi; Upadhyay, Deepesh J.; Anderson, Colin A.; Meenan, Brian J.; Brown, Norman M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Surface properties of a Melinex 800 PET polymer material modified by an atmospheric-pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been studied using X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement. The results show that the material surface treated by the DBD was modified significantly in chemical composition, with the highly oxidised carbon species increasing as the surface processing proceeds. The surface hydrophilicity was dramatically improved after the treatment, with the surface contact angle reduced from 81.8 o for the as-supplied sample to lower than 50 deg. after treatment. Post-treatment recovery effect is found after the treated samples were stored in air for a long period of time, with the ultimate contact angles, as measured, being stabilised in the range 58-69 deg. after the storage, varying with the DBD-treatment power density. A great amount of the C-O type bonding formed during the DBD treatment was found to be converted into the C=O type during post-treatment storage. A possible mechanism for this bond conversion has been suggested

  13. Elemental (C/N ratios) and Isotope (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) Compositions of Surface Sediments from the Barrier Islands in the Nakdong River Estuary, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Woo, Han Jun; Jeong, Kap-Sik; Kang, Jeongwon; Choi, Jae Ung; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2017-04-01

    The Nakdong River Estuary (NRE) in South Korea is a typical, artificially-manipulated estuary and blocked by two large dam. The Noksan Dam, built in 1934, blocks the flow of the West Nakdong River, and the NRE Dam was completed between 1983 and 1987 to regulate the flow of the East Nakdong River (called the Eulsuk River locally). For the past half century, several huge industrial complexes have been developed in the reclaimed land near the NRE. In the estuary, the hydraulic circulation has been markedly modified caused by the changes in the river discharge and geomorphic configuration of such as the formation of a series of barrier islands, the two large dams resulting from the artificial control of the natural river flow and upstream intrusion of saltwater by the operation of the two large dams. Consequently, the saltwater wedge that once reached approximately 40 km upstream is now blocked at the dam, considerably reducing the tidal prism. The estuary is typified by barrier-lagoon system with various subenvironments and microtidal with a 1.5 m tidal range. We investigated the elemental (C/N ratios) and isotopic (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) compositions of organic matters in various composition in the surface sediments in the NRE. In May 2015, 90 surface sediment samples were collected on and around three islands in the NRE. The mean grain size of the barrier island system in the NRE ranged from 1.1 to 8.9 Φ (average 3.9 Φ) in mean grain size, and they were composed of various sediment types, including muddy Sand (S), sandy Mud (sM), and Mud (M). A useful application of the C/N ratios is as a proxy for assessment of organic matter source change, related to the sediment origins terrestrial or marine. The C/N ratios (average, 5.88) imply that the organic matter in the study area was of marine origins, as indicated by the lower ratios between 4 and 10. The isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (δ13CTOC, δ15NTN) indicated the deposition of algae-derived organic

  14. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Ki; Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong; Kim, Hong Ja; Jung, Donggeun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts. • Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment using micro plasma discharge. - Abstract: Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature

  15. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  16. Design review report FFTF interim storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Final Design Review Report for the FFTF Interim Storage Cask. The Interim Storage Cask (ISC) will be used for long term above ground dry storage of FFTF irradiated fuel in Core Component Containers (CCC)s. The CCC has been designed and will house assemblies that have been sodium washed in the IEM Cell. The Solid Waste Cask (SWC) will transfer a full CCC from the IEM Cell to the RSB Cask Loading Station where the ISC will be located to receive it. Once the loaded ISC has been sealed at the RSB Cask Loading Station, it will be transferred by facility crane to the DSWC Transporter. After the ISC has been transferred to the Interim Storage Area (ISA), which is yet to be designed, a mobile crane will be used to place the ISC in its final storage location

  17. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  18. Interim Administrators in Higher Education: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Marie Thielke; Neubrander, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the roles and experiences of interim administrators in higher education. A survey was given to current and recent interim administrators in four-year public universities and colleges across the United States. The goals were to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using and serving as interims, and to solicit…

  19. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  20. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120.890 Section 120.890 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may...

  1. An Approach for Evaluating the Technical Quality of Interim Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Marion, Scott; Perie, Marianne; Gong, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of schools and districts have expressed interest in interim assessment systems to prepare for summative assessments and to improve teaching and learning. However, with so many commercial interim assessments available, schools and districts are struggling to determine which interim assessment is most appropriate to their needs.…

  2. Interim financial reporting in function of proper decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the attributes of interim financial reporting, as well as performs overview and interpretation of International Accounting Standard 34 which deals with this issue. The paper emphasizes risk and effects of interim financial statements implementation in decision making process. Time and cost limitations significantly influence the level of reliability on interim reports since those reports were not audited.

  3. Interim financial reporting in function of proper decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Kaćanski Slobodan; Tomašević Stevan; Vlaović-Begović Sanja

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the attributes of interim financial reporting, as well as performs overview and interpretation of International Accounting Standard 34 which deals with this issue. The paper emphasizes risk and effects of interim financial statements implementation in decision making process. Time and cost limitations significantly influence the level of reliability on interim reports since those reports were not audited.

  4. Experimental and modelling study of the effect of airflow orientation with respect to strip electrode on ozone production of surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikeš, J.; Pekárek, S.; Soukup, I.

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the effect of airflow orientation with respect to the strip active electrode on concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide produced in a planar generator based on the surface dielectric barrier discharge. The orientation of the airflow was tested in parallel and perpendicular with respect to the strips. It was found that in the investigated range of average discharge power, the ozone concentration increases approximately by 25% when airflow was oriented in parallel with respect to the strips in comparison with perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Similarly the increase of nitrogen dioxide concentration was observed for parallel orientation of the airflow with respect to the strips in comparison with the perpendicular orientation of the airflow. Within the range of wavelengths from 250 to 1100 nm, the changes of intensities of spectral lines associated with airflow orientation have been observed. A 3D numerical model describing ion trajectories and airflow patterns have also been developed.

  5. Building barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, Kursad

    2017-10-02

    Formation of tissue barriers starts in early development where it is critical for normal cell fate selection, differentiation and organogenesis. Barrier maintenance is critical to the ongoing function of organs during adulthood and aging. Dysfunctional tissue barrier formation and function at any stage of the organismal life cycle underlies many disease states.

  6. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at a radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past eight years, several interim remedial actions have been taken at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), primarily to reduce radon and gamma radiation exposures and to consolidate radioactive waste into a waste containment facility. Interim remedial actions have included capping of vents, sealing of pipes, relocation of the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transfer and consolidation of waste, upgrading of storage buildings, construction of a clay cutoff wall (to limit the potential groundwater transport of contaminants), treatment and release of contaminated water, interim use of a synthetic liner, and emplacement of an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces fabricated on aluminum as a barrier to corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Lu, Zhou; Zhang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were fabricated over aluminum. • SLIPS depress the adherence of sulfate reducing bacteria in static seawater. • SLIPS inhibit the microbiological corrosion of aluminum in static seawater. • The possible microbiological corrosion protection mechanism of SLIPS is proposed. - Abstract: Microbiological corrosion induced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is one of the main threatens to the safety of marine structure. To reduce microbiological corrosion, slippery liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) were designed and fabricated on aluminum substrate by constructing rough aluminum oxide layer, followed by fluorination of the rough layer and infiltration with lubricant. The as-fabricated SLIPS were characterized with wettability measurement, SEM and XPS. Their resistances to microbiological corrosion induced by SRB were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical measurement. It was demonstrated that they present high resistance to bacteria adherence and the resultant microbiological corrosion in static seawater

  8. Assessment of radiation emitted by the colour video monitors using a silicon surface-barrier detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.; Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 5% of the commonly used colour monitors tested showed radiation levels on the screen surface approaching the dose rate of 5 μGy/h. There is practically no difference between 'low radiation' monitors and other monitors. The level of radiation emitted to the sides is generally higher than that of X-ray photons emerging from the surface of the screen. Although the contribution to the effective dose of a person exposed to radiation from the monitors may be below the limit set for the general public, the skin and eye lens dose may reach significant levels, taking into account some factors such as a high density of monitors in small rooms, short distance, long exposure time, etc. (M.D.)

  9. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  10. Positioning of the Precursor Gas Inlet in an Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Reactor, and its Effect on the Quality of Deposited TiOx Thin Film Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Píchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film technology has become pervasive in many applications in recent years, but it remains difficult to select the best deposition technique. A further consideration is that, due to ecological demands, we are forced to search for environmentally benign methods. One such method might be the application of cold plasmas, and there has already been a rapid growth in studies of cold plasma techniques. Plasma technologies operating at atmospheric pressure have been attracting increasing attention. The easiest way to obtain low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure seems to be through atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (ADBD. We used the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD method applying atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (ADBD plasmafor TiOx thin films deposition, employing titanium isopropoxide (TTIP and oxygen as reactants, and argon as a working gas. ADBD was operated in filamentary mode. The films were deposited on glass. We studied the quality of the deposited TiOx thin film surface for various precursor gas inlet positions in the ADBD reactor. The best thin films quality was achieved when the precursor gases were brought close to the substrate surface directly through the inlet placed in one of the electrodes.High hydrophilicity of the samples was proved by contact angle tests (CA. The film morphology was tested by atomic force microscopy (AFM. The thickness of the thin films varied in the range of (80 ÷ 210 nm in dependence on the composition of the reactor atmosphere. XPS analyses indicate that composition of the films is more like the composition of TiOxCy.

  11. Lowering the barriers to computational modeling of Earth's surface: coupling Jupyter Notebooks with Landlab, HydroShare, and CyberGIS for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Castronova, A. M.; Phuong, J.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Strauch, R. L.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Wang, S. W.; Yin, D.; Barnhart, K. R.; Tucker, G. E.; Hutton, E.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Adams, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to test hypotheses about hydrology, geomorphology and atmospheric processes is invaluable to research in the era of big data. Although community resources are available, there remain significant educational, logistical and time investment barriers to their use. Knowledge infrastructure is an emerging intellectual framework to understand how people are creating, sharing and distributing knowledge - which has been dramatically transformed by Internet technologies. In addition to the technical and social components in a cyberinfrastructure system, knowledge infrastructure considers educational, institutional, and open source governance components required to advance knowledge. We are designing an infrastructure environment that lowers common barriers to reproducing modeling experiments for earth surface investigation. Landlab is an open-source modeling toolkit for building, coupling, and exploring two-dimensional numerical models. HydroShare is an online collaborative environment for sharing hydrologic data and models. CyberGIS-Jupyter is an innovative cyberGIS framework for achieving data-intensive, reproducible, and scalable geospatial analytics using the Jupyter Notebook based on ROGER - the first cyberGIS supercomputer, so that models that can be elastically reproduced through cloud computing approaches. Our team of geomorphologists, hydrologists, and computer geoscientists has created a new infrastructure environment that combines these three pieces of software to enable knowledge discovery. Through this novel integration, any user can interactively execute and explore their shared data and model resources. Landlab on HydroShare with CyberGIS-Jupyter supports the modeling continuum from fully developed modelling applications, prototyping new science tools, hands on research demonstrations for training workshops, and classroom applications. Computational geospatial models based on big data and high performance computing can now be more efficiently

  12. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  13. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  14. 76 FR 58790 - Notice of Interim Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... customers, and the O&M Committee to ensure that operation and maintenance is properly funded and charged.... Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) is including three rate alternatives. All of the rate alternatives have a revenue requirement of $59,600,000. Rate Scenario 1--Interim Operating Plan The final...

  15. 45 CFR 86.71 - Interim procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures [Interim... Music classes, [43]; 86.34(f) Physical education, [43, 56, 58]; Sex education, [43, 57]; 86.34(e.... 901, 902, Education Amendments of 1972, 86 Stat. 373, 374; 20 U.S.C. 1681, 1682) Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  16. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  17. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people

  18. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  19. 40 CFR 180.319 - Interim tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim tolerances. 180.319 Section 180.319 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Raw agricultural commodity Coordination product of zinc ion and maneb Fungicide 1.0 (Calculated as...

  20. Interim Prosthesis Options for Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh

    2017-06-01

    Dental implants have become a popular treatment modality for replacing missing teeth. In this regard, the importance of restoring patients with function during the implant healing period has grown in recent decades. Esthetic concerns, especially in the anterior region of the maxilla, should also be considered until the definitive restoration is delivered. Another indication for such restorations is maintenance of the space required for esthetic and functional definitive restorations in cases where the implant site is surrounded by natural teeth. Numerous articles have described different types of interim prostheses and their fabrication techniques. This article aims to briefly discuss all types of implant-related interim prostheses by different classification including provisional timing (before implant placement, after implant placement in unloading and loading periods), materials, and techniques used for making the restorations, the type of interim prosthesis retention, and definitive restoration. Furthermore, the abutment torque for such restorations and methods for transferring the soft tissue from interim to definitive prostheses are addressed. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  2. Understanding the Risk of Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Interim Storage Containers for the Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel: Evolution of Brine Chemistry on the Container Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    Although the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking is well known, uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that exist on the surface of the storage containers. While a diversity of salts is present in atmospheric aerosols, many of these are not stable when placed onto a heated surface. Given that the surface temperature of any container storing spent nuclear fuel will be well above ambient, it is likely that salts deposited on its surface may decompose or degas. To characterize this effect, relevant single and multi-salt mixtures are being evaluated as a function of temperature and relative humidity to establish the rates of degassing, as well as the likely final salt and brine chemistries that will remain on the canister surface.

  3. Influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechereau, François; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer parallel to the cathode plane. Experimentally, a discharge reignition in the air gap below the dielectrics has been observed. With a 2D fluid model, it is shown that due to the fast rise of the high voltage applied and the sharp point used, a first positive spherical discharge forms around the point. Then this discharge propagates axially and impacts the dielectrics. As the first discharge starts spreading on the upper dielectric surface, in the second air gap with a low preionization density of {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , the 2D fluid model predicts a rapid reignition of a positive discharge. As in experiments, the discharge reignition is much slower, a discussion on physical processes to be considered in the model to increase the reignition delay is presented. The limit case with no initial seed charges in the second air gap has been studied. First, we have calculated the time to release an electron from the cathode surface by thermionic and field emission processes for a work function φ \\in ≤ft[3,4\\right] eV and an amplification factor β \\in ≤ft[100,220\\right] . Then a 3D Monte Carlo model has been used to follow the dynamics of formation of an avalanche starting from a single electron emitted at the cathode. Due to the high electric field in the second air gap, we have shown that in a few nanoseconds, a Gaussian cloud of seed charges is formed at a small distance from the cathode plane. This Gaussian cloud has been used as the initial condition of the 2D fluid model in the second air gap. In this case, the propagation of a double headed discharge in the second air gap has been observed and the reignition delay is in rather good agreement with experiments.

  4. Investigation of fundamental and high order optical transitions in α-Fe2O3 thin films using surface barrier electroreflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, H. A.; Al-Kuhaili, M. F.; Durrani, S. M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we use surface barrier electroreflectance technique to probe the optical transitions in hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin film. An electric field was induced normal to the surface of α-Fe2O3 thin film in an Ag/α-Fe2O3/Ag based capacitor type structure and the corresponding electroreflectance analysis was performed. Based on the electroreflectance analysis, we observed the fundamental as well as two high order critical points associated with α-Fe2O3. Standard critical point model was used to find the exact energy locations and the broadening parameters associated with these critical points. The existence of the fundamental critical point was further confirmed by the spectrophotometric analysis. The quantitative analysis based on the electro-optic energy confirmed that the obtained electroreflectance spectrum was within the low field regime, and the obtained critical points above the fundamental transition were attributed to the high order transitions of electrons from the valence band to the deep in the conduction band.

  5. The effect of incorporation, orientation and silane treatment of glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Gupta; Reddy, Y G

    2011-03-01

    Fracture of interim fixed partial dentures (FPD) is of important concern to the dental surgeon, especially with long-span fixed partial dentures or areas of heavy occlusal stress. Polymers used in interim FPDs, reinforced with glass fibers have shown to have a positive effect on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs. Since little research has been done on the influence of silane treated glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of silane treatment of glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim FPDs and its correlation with the position of fiber reinforcement and length of the span of the interim FPD. Interim FPDs were fabricated from an autopolymerizing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin. Seven FPDs were made in each group. The FPDs in the control group were unreinforced, and in the other groups the FPDs were reinforced either with non silane treated glass fiber or with silane treated glass fiber. The fibers were placed in two different locations in the FPDs. Three length of span of FPDs were tested. The load was applied to the FPD by a steel ball placed in the center of the pontic space. One Way Anova, Two Way Anova, Studentized range test (Scheffe's). Results showed that the load required for fracturing the unreinforced FPDs varied from 272 to 998 N. Mean fracture load of reinforced FPDs varied from 536 to 1642 N. One-way analysis of variance showed that the position of fibers and the silane treatment fibers significantly affected the fracture load. The results of this study suggested that the silane treatment of glass fibers had a marked improvement in the fracture resistance of FPDs as compared to untreated glass fibers. Selective placement of the glass fibers at the undersurface of the pontic and the occlusal surface of the interim fixed partial denture showed more increase in the fracture resistance as compared to the randomly distributed glass fibers. The glass fiber reinforcement is

  6. An investigation of bergmounds as analogs to erosion control factors on protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    Included in several of the final disposal strategies proposed in the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (DOE-RL 1986a) is design of a protective barrier to isolate the underlying waste sites from the environment. The conceptual protective barrier design requires a fine-grained sediment to retain precipitation near the top of the barrier where evapotranspiration can recycle the moisture back into the atmosphere. The design incorporates gravel into the topsoil as one way to reduce its erosion. Information is needed to determine the optimal ratio of gravel to topsoil needed to reduce erosion without significantly reducing evapotranspiration, and its effect on erosion. Bergmounds are mounds with a gravelly surface that were formed about 13,000 years ago and represent natural analogs to the topsoil portion of the protective barrier. The primary goal of this study was to identify characteristics of bergmounds and the effects of these characteristics, especially the gravelly surface, on the amount and rate of erosion. A secondary goal was to apply a technique normally used to estimate vegetation cover to measure percent gravel cover, and to compare this technique with particle size distribution based on weight percent. Four bergmounds were investigated for this study, two in a windy site and two in a more sheltered site. Each bergmound was sampled in eight locations. Two methods were used to estimate the amount of surface gravel: the ocular point-intercept method which estimates the percent gravel cover, and sieved samples of the surface sediments which measure the percent gravel by weight. Holes were dug at each bergmound's eight sampling sites to examine and sample the subsurface sediments

  7. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  8. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  9. Free standing TiO2 nanotube array electrodes with an ultra-thin Al2O3 barrier layer and TiCl4 surface modification for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianfeng; Guan, Dongsheng; Huo, Jingwan; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications.Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated with free standing TiO2 nanotube (TNT) array films, which were prepared by template assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) with precise wall thickness control. Efforts to improve the photovoltaic performance were made by using Al2O3 barrier layer coating in conjunction with TiCl4 surface modification. An Al2O3 thin layer was deposited on the TNT electrode by ALD to serve as the charge recombination barrier, but it suffers from the drawback of decreasing the photoelectron injection from dye into TiO2 when the barrier layer became too thick. With the TiCl4 treatment in combination with optimal thickness coating, this problem could be avoided. The co-surface treated electrode presents superior surface property with low recombination rate and good electron transport property. A high conversion efficiency of 8.62% is obtained, which is about 1.8 times that of the device without surface modifications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis spectra of desorbed N719 dyes from

  10. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part II. Relevant technologies and performance evaluation. Interim report on research work on smart vehicle concepts for military use on the ocean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned water-traversing limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications is reported. The areas covered include prime movers, power transformers and actuators, structural considerations, physical control, joint servo-control, motion control, visual data and the ocean surface, smartness, and vehicle characterization. (TFD)

  11. Pathways to deep decarbonization - Interim 2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The interim 2014 report by the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), coordinated and published by IDDRI and the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN), presents preliminary findings of the pathways developed by the DDPP Country Research Teams with the objective of achieving emission reductions consistent with limiting global warming to less than 2 deg. C. The DDPP is a knowledge network comprising 15 Country Research Teams and several Partner Organizations who develop and share methods, assumptions, and findings related to deep decarbonization. Each DDPP Country Research Team has developed an illustrative road-map for the transition to a low-carbon economy, with the intent of taking into account national socio-economic conditions, development aspirations, infrastructure stocks, resource endowments, and other relevant factors. The interim 2014 report focuses on technically feasible pathways to deep decarbonization

  12. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  13. Gaz de France interim financial report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This financial report contains the unaudited condensed financial statements of Gaz de France Group for the first half ended June 30, 2007, which were reviewed by the audit committee on August 27, 2007 and by the board of directors at its meeting on August 28, 2007. It includes forward-looking statements concerning the objectives, strategies, financial position, future operating results and the operations of Gaz de France Group. These statements reflect the Group's current perception of its activities and the markets in which it operates, as well as various estimates and assumptions considered to be reasonable. Content: interim management report (highlights of the first half of 2007, revenues and results for the period, financial structure, data on outstanding stock, outlook); interim consolidated financial statements (consolidated statements of income, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of cash flows, recognized income and expenses, statements of changes in shareholders' equity, note to the consolidated financial statements); statement by the person responsible for the interim financial report; statutory auditors' report. (J.S.)

  14. The Interim Financial Statements: The Case of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Rogdaki, E.I.; Kazantzis, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The following paper refers to the accounting and auditing issues which emerge in the preparation of the interim financial statements of the companies: Firstly, the interim financial statements are defined as being the financial statements that provide useful information about the financial position and the financial results of a company which are realized and accrued during the fiscal year. The interim financial statements can be prepared on a monthly basis, on a quarterly basis or covering a...

  15. Coplanar surface barrier discharge ignited in water vapor—a selective source of OH radicals proved by (TA)LIF measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, V.; Tučeková, Z.; Dvořák, P.; Kováčik, D.; Slavíček, P.; Zahoranová, A.; Voráč, J.

    2018-01-01

    Coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was ignited in pure water vapor at atmospheric pressure in order to generate highly oxidizing plasma with one specific type of reactive radicals. In order to prevent water condensation the used plasma reactor was heated to 120 {}\\circ C. The composition of the radical species in the discharge was studied by methods based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and compared with analogous measurements realized in the same coplanar DBD ignited in air. Fast collisional processes and laser-surface interaction were taken into account during LIF data processing. It was found that coplanar DBD ignited in water vapor produces hydroxyl (OH) radicals with concentration in the order of 1020 m-3, which is 10× higher than the value measured in discharge in humid air (40% relative humidity at 21 {}\\circ C). The concentration of atomic hydrogen radicals in the DBD ignited in water vapor was below the detection limit, which proves that the generation of oxidizing plasma with dominance of one specific type of reactive radicals was achieved. The temporal evolution, spatial distribution, power dependence and rotational temperature of the OH radicals was determined in the DBD ignited in both water vapor and air.

  16. Cell-based in vitro blood-brain barrier model can rapidly evaluate nanoparticles' brain permeability in association with particle size and surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Sanshiro; Fujioka, Kouki; Inoue, Yuriko; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-01-24

    The possibility of nanoparticle (NP) uptake to the human central nervous system is a major concern. Recent reports showed that in animal models, nanoparticles (NPs) passed through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). For the safe use of NPs, it is imperative to evaluate the permeability of NPs through the BBB. Here we used a commercially available in vitro BBB model to evaluate the permeability of NPs for a rapid, easy and reproducible assay. The model is reconstructed by culturing both primary rat brain endothelial cells and pericytes to support the tight junctions of endothelial cells. We used the permeability coefficient (P(app)) to determine the permeability of NPs. The size dependency results, using fluorescent silica NPs (30, 100, and 400 nm), revealed that the Papp for the 30 nm NPs was higher than those of the larger silica. The surface charge dependency results using Qdots® (amino-, carboxyl-, and PEGylated-Qdots), showed that more amino-Qdots passed through the model than the other Qdots. Usage of serum-containing buffer in the model resulted in an overall reduction of permeability. In conclusion, although additional developments are desired to elucidate the NPs transportation, we showed that the BBB model could be useful as a tool to test the permeability of nanoparticles.

  17. Influence of Surface Passivation on AlN Barrier Stress and Scattering Mechanism in Ultra-thin AlN/GaN Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. J.; Song, X. B.; Wang, Y. G.; Fang, Y. L.; Feng, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-thin AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with, and without, SiN passivation were fabricated by the same growth and device processes. Based on the measured DC characteristics, including the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and output current-voltage ( I- V) curves, the variation of electron mobility with gate bias was found to be quite different for devices with, and without, SiN passivation. Although the AlN barrier layer is ultra thin ( c. 3 nm), it was proved that SiN passivation induces no additional tensile stress and has no significant influence on the piezoelectric polarization of the AlN layer using Hall and Raman measurements. The SiN passivation was found to affect the surface properties, thereby increasing the electron density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) under the access region. The higher electron density in the access region after SiN passivation enhanced the electrostatic screening for the non-uniform distributed polarization charges, meaning that the polarization Coulomb field scattering has a weaker effect on the electron drift mobility in AlN/GaN-based devices.

  18. DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge surface treatments on fluorine-doped tin oxide for perovskite solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Hsuan; Cheng, I.-Chun; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen DC-pulse atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) and nitrogen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were applied to pre-treat fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ treatment (substrate temperature: ~400 °C) for 10 s can effectively increase the wettability, whereas nitrogen DBD treatment (maximum substrate temperature: ~140 °C) achieved limited improvement in wettability even with increased treatment time of 60 s. XPS results indicate that 10 s APPJ, 60 s DBD, and 15 min UV-ozone treatment of FTO glass substrates can decontaminate the surface. A PSC fabricated on APPJ-treated FTO showed the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.90%; by contrast, a PSC with nitrogen DBD-treated FTO shows slightly lower PCE of 12.57% which was comparable to that of a PSC on FTO treated by a 15 min UV-ozone process. Both nitrogen DC-pulse APPJ and nitrogen DBD can decontaminate FTO substrates and can be applied for the substrate cleaning step of PSC.

  19. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  20. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  1. Safety aspects of spent nuclear fuel interim storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays safety and security of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) interim storage installations are very important, due to a great concentration of fission products, actinides and activation products. In this kind of storage it is necessary to consider the physical security. Nuclear installations have become more vulnerable. New types of accidents must be considered in the design of these installations, which in the early days were not considered like: fissile material stolen, terrorists' acts and war conflicts, and traditional accidents concerning the transport of the spent fuel from the reactor to the storage location, earthquakes occurrence, airplanes crash, etc. Studies related to airplane falling had showed that a collision of big commercials airplanes at velocity of 800 km/h against SNF storage and specially designed concrete casks, do not result in serious structural injury to the casks, and not even radionuclides liberation to the environment. However, it was demonstrated that attacks with modern military ammunitions, against metallic casks, are calamitous. The casks could not support a direct impact of this ammo and the released radioactive materials can expose the workers and public as well the local environment to harmful radiation. This paper deals about the main basic aspects of a dry SNF storage installation, that must be physically well protected, getting barriers that difficult the access of unauthorized persons or vehicles, as well as, must structurally resist to incidents or accidents caused by unauthorized intrusion. (author)

  2. T Tank Farm Interim Cover Test - Design Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim cover on the surface. Such a cover is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has prepared a design plan to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim cover. A three-dimensional numerical simulation of water movement beneath a cover was conducted to guide the design of the plan. Soil water content, water pressure, and temperature will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests will be installed, one inside and one outside of the proposed cover. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests, both inside the proposed cover, will be installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron access tube and a capacitance probe (to measure water content), and four heat-dissipation units (to measure pressure head and temperature). A datalogger and a meteorological station will be installed outside of the fence. Two drain gauges will be installed in locations inside and outside the cover for the purpose of measuring soil water flux.

  3. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  4. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-10-09

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  5. 78 FR 70244 - Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0104] RIN 0960-AH45 Electronic Interim Assistance Reimbursement Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We reimburse States that provide interim assistance to Supplemental...

  6. Decision on performing interim analysis for comparative clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Kyongsun; Jacobus, Susanna; Uno, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    In randomized-controlled trials, interim analyses are often planned for possible early trial termination to claim superiority or futility of a new therapy. While unblinding is necessary to conduct the formal interim analysis in blinded studies, blinded data also have information about the potential treatment difference between the groups. We developed a blinded data monitoring tool that enables investigators to predict whether they observe such an unblinded interim analysis results that supports early termination of the trial. Investigators may skip some of the planned interim analyses if an early termination is unlikely. We specifically focused on blinded, randomized-controlled studies to compare binary endpoints of a new treatment with a control. Assuming one interim analysis is planned for early termination for superiority or futility, we conducted extensive simulation studies to assess the impact of the implementation of our tool on the size, power, expected number of interim analyses, and bias in the treatment effect. The numerical study showed the proposed monitoring tool does not affect size or power, but dramatically reduces the expected number of interim analyses when the effect of the treatment difference is small. The tool serves as a useful reference when interpreting the summary of the blinded data throughout the course of the trial, without losing integrity of the study. This tool could potentially save the study resources and budget by avoiding unnecessary interim analyses.

  7. Transuranic waste storage and assay facility (TRUSAF) interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, K.D.

    1995-09-01

    The TRUSAF ISB is based upon current facility configuration and procedures. The purpose of the document is to provide the basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and the authorization basis for the TRUSAF at the Hanford Site. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1977) is superseded by this document

  8. 28 CFR 94.41 - Interim emergency payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim emergency payment. 94.41 Section 94.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Payment of Claims § 94.41 Interim emergency payment...

  9. General certification procedure of enterprises and interim job enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Int. At. Energy Agency, Wien

    2002-01-01

    This procedure defines the certification global process of enterprises employing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities and interim job enterprises proposing workers of A or B category for nuclear facilities. This certification proves the enterprises ability to satisfy the specification ''E'' of the CEFRI and the interim job enterprises to satisfy the specification ''I'' of the CEFRI. (A.L.B.)

  10. Presidential Transition: The Experience of Two Community College Interim Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand the experiences of two community college interim presidents, their characteristics, and how they led institutions following an abrupt presidential departure. There were two fundamental questions framing this research study, 1. How do two interim community college presidents lead…

  11. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707...

  12. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-01-01

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste

  13. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  14. Installation of a permeable reactive barrier at the mining complex facility in Los Gigantes - Cordoba : Monitoring plan of surface and underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande Cobian, Juan D.; Sanchez Proano, Paula; Cicerone, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission declares under its Environmental policy the commitment to restore those sites where activities concerning Uranium mining were developed. It makes it beyond the scope of the Project of Environmental Restitution of the Uranium Mining (PRAMU from its Spanish abbreviation). The Chemistry of Water and Soil Division at the Environmental Chemistry and Energy Generation Department belonging to the Chemistry Management Office assist the PRAMU on the installation of an hydroxyapatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) inside the Mining Complex facility placed at Los Gigantes in the Argentine province of Cordoba (in advance named the site). Among the preliminary assessment activities that are being carried out before the installation of the PRB, it has been prepared a monitoring program of surface water and groundwater useful to develop an environmental baseline suitable for the efficiency assessment of the corrective action to be applied. An exploratory campaign was conducted in the site with the aim of establishing a monitoring net of meteorological and hydrological, as well as physical, chemical and biological parameters in matrixes of sediments, water and suspended particulate matter collected on a regular time basis from its surface water and groundwater bodies. The processed results turn into useful environmental information to: a) determine the status of the environmental baseline of the site, b) establish a water quality index (WQI) to manage the natural resource quality according to a rational basis, c) plan experiments related to the design process of a biogenic hydroxyapatite PRB and d) apply chemometric and mechanistic models to forecast the contaminants mobilization through different scenarios and improve the engineering design of the PRB. Once achieved the hydrogeological characterisation of the site and taking into account the originality of the system the following results have been reached: 1) The boundaries of

  15. A Modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-Sea Surface Temperature Calibration for Isopora Corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, L. D.; Linsley, B. K.; Potts, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Most coral-based paleoceanographic studies have used massive colonies of Porites or Faviidae, due to their long, continuously accreted skeletal records and sub-annual resolution, but other sub-massive corals provide an untapped resource. The genus Isopora is a dominant reef builder in some high-energy environments in the tropical western Pacific, and was a major component of cores recovered on IODP Leg 325 off the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Despite its abundance, Isopora remains largely unexplored and hence underutilized in paleoceanographic studies. We present a modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) calibration of modern Isopora corals (n=3) collected from inner and outer reef locations ranging from 1-13m depth by Heron Island in the southern GBR in 2012. Pairing the Isopora Sr/Ca record with monthly SST yielded an average relationship of SST=-11.48×(Sr/Ca)+131.1 (r2 = 0.42-0.78). The Sr/Ca sensitivity of -0.087 mmol/mol/°C is similar to the sensitivity for Porites that was corrected for tissue layer smoothing effects determined by Gagan et al. (2012). The similarity between our Sr/Ca-SST sensitivity and the corrected sensitivity for Porites suggests tissue layer effects are minimal in Isopora. The mean annual SST amplitude recorded by the corals from 2008-2011 (full annual cycles) was 5.3°C and the average δ18O annual cycle of 1.1‰ approximates that expected if salinity had little effect on coral δ18O, assuming a previously established conversion of -0.23‰ (δ18O)/°C for biogenic aragonite. The average annual salinity amplitude of 0.3 in gridded data from around Heron Island supports our conclusion that δ18O variability is forced almost completely by SST. This modern Sr/Ca-SST calibration will expand the paleoceanographic utility of Isopora and, by assisting interpretation of Sr/Ca data from fossil corals collected during IODP 325, will better constrain the timing and magnitude of sea level changes and surface conditions since the Last

  16. 50 CFR 259.30 - Application for Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement (“Interim CCF Agreement”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Date of construction, acquisition, or reconstruction, (vii) Fishery of operation (which in this section... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Interim Capital Construction Fund Agreement (âInterim CCF Agreementâ). 259.30 Section 259.30 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL...

  17. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  18. Energy Barriers and Driving Forces Associated with the Dynamic Transformation of Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0516 ENERGY BARRIERS AND DRIVING FORCES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION OF TI-6AL-4V (PREPRINT) S.L...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 December 2017 Interim 19 March 2014 – 11 November 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY BARRIERS AND DRIVING FORCES...The energy barriers and driving forces associated with dynamic transformation in Ti-6Al-4V are evaluated. It is shown that the stored energy is less

  19. The importance of dye chemistry and TiCl4 surface treatment in the behavior of Al2O3 recombination barrier layers deposited by atomic layer deposition in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Thomas P; Bakke, Jonathan R; Ding, I-Kang; Hardin, Brian E; Nguyen, William H; Mondal, Rajib; Bailie, Colin D; Margulis, George Y; Hoke, Eric T; Sellinger, Alan; McGehee, Michael D; Bent, Stacey F

    2012-09-21

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to fabricate Al(2)O(3) recombination barriers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) employing an organic hole transport material (HTM) for the first time. Al(2)O(3) recombination barriers of varying thickness were incorporated into efficient ss-DSSCs utilizing the Z907 dye adsorbed onto a 2 μm-thick nanoporous TiO(2) active layer and the HTM spiro-OMeTAD. The impact of Al(2)O(3) barriers was also studied in devices employing different dyes, with increased active layer thicknesses, and with substrates that did not undergo the TiCl(4) surface treatment. In all instances, electron lifetimes (as determined by transient photovoltage measurements) increased and dark current was suppressed after Al(2)O(3) deposition. However, only when the TiCl(4) treatment was eliminated did device efficiency increase; in all other instances efficiency decreased due to a drop in short-circuit current. These results are attributed in the former case to the similar effects of Al(2)O(3) ALD and the TiCl(4) surface treatment whereas the insulating properties of Al(2)O(3) hinder charge injection and lead to current loss in TiCl(4)-treated devices. The impact of Al(2)O(3) barrier layers was unaffected by doubling the active layer thickness or using an alternative ruthenium dye, but a metal-free donor-π-acceptor dye exhibited a much smaller decrease in current due to its higher excited state energy. We develop a model employing prior research on Al(2)O(3) growth and dye kinetics that successfully predicts the reduction in device current as a function of ALD cycles and is extendable to different dye-barrier systems.

  20. The importance of dye chemistry and TiCl4 surface treatment in the behavior of Al2O3 recombination barrier layers deposited by atomic layer deposition in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brennan, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to fabricate Al 2O 3 recombination barriers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs) employing an organic hole transport material (HTM) for the first time. Al 2O 3 recombination barriers of varying thickness were incorporated into efficient ss-DSSCs utilizing the Z907 dye adsorbed onto a 2 μm-thick nanoporous TiO 2 active layer and the HTM spiro-OMeTAD. The impact of Al 2O 3 barriers was also studied in devices employing different dyes, with increased active layer thicknesses, and with substrates that did not undergo the TiCl 4 surface treatment. In all instances, electron lifetimes (as determined by transient photovoltage measurements) increased and dark current was suppressed after Al 2O 3 deposition. However, only when the TiCl 4 treatment was eliminated did device efficiency increase; in all other instances efficiency decreased due to a drop in short-circuit current. These results are attributed in the former case to the similar effects of Al 2O 3 ALD and the TiCl 4 surface treatment whereas the insulating properties of Al 2O 3 hinder charge injection and lead to current loss in TiCl 4-treated devices. The impact of Al 2O 3 barrier layers was unaffected by doubling the active layer thickness or using an alternative ruthenium dye, but a metal-free donor-π-acceptor dye exhibited a much smaller decrease in current due to its higher excited state energy. We develop a model employing prior research on Al 2O 3 growth and dye kinetics that successfully predicts the reduction in device current as a function of ALD cycles and is extendable to different dye-barrier systems. © This journal is the Owner Societies 2012.

  1. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  2. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  3. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  4. A modern Sr/Ca-δ18O-sea surface temperature calibration for Isopora corals on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Logan D.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Potts, Donald C.

    2017-02-01

    Isopora (Acroporidae) is a genus of often encrusting, branching to submassive corals that are common in many shallow habitats on modern and fossil Indo-West Pacific reefs. Although abundant, Isopora is largely absent from paleoceanographic literature. The scarcity of large Porites and the abundance of Isopora retrieved from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 325 focused paleoceanographic attention on Isopora. Here we provide the first independent high-resolution calibration of both Sr/Ca and δ18O for temperature analyses based on Isopora and demonstrate its consistency with Porites records. We developed modern skeletal Sr/Ca- and δ18O-sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations based on five modern Isopora colonies from Heron Island in the southern GBR. Pairing the coral Sr/Ca record with monthly SST data yielded Sr/Ca-SST sensitivities from -0.061 ± 0.004 (centered) to -0.083 ± 0.007 (raw) mmol/mol °C-1 based on reduced major axis regressions. These sensitivities are in the middle of the range of published Porites values and overlap most published values for Isopora, -0.075 ± 0.011 to -0.065 ± 0.011 mmol/mol °C-1. The δ18O-SST sensitivities range from -0.184 ± 0.014 (centered) to -0.185 ± 0.014 (raw) ‰ °C-1, assuming that all seasonal variation in δ18O was due to SST. These δ18O-SST sensitivities are smaller than the widely accepted value of -0.23‰ °C-1 for biogenic aragonite but are at the upper end of high-resolution Porites-defined sensitivities that are consistently less than the aforementioned established value. Our results validate the use of Isopora as an alternative source of paleoceanographic records in habitats where large massive Porites are scarce or absent.

  5. Development and Application of Sr/Ca-δ18O-Sea Surface Temperature calibrations for Last Glacial Maximum-Aged Isopora corals in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, L. D.; Linsley, B. K.; Potts, D. C.; Felis, T.; Mcgregor, H. V.; Gagan, M. K.; Inoue, M.; Tudhope, A. W.; Esat, T. M.; Thompson, W. G.; Tiwari, M.; Fallon, S.; Humblet, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Webster, J.

    2016-12-01

    Isopora (Acroporidae) are sub-massive to massive corals found on most modern and fossil Indo-Pacific reefs. Despite their abundance, they are largely absent from the paleoceanographic literature but have the potential to provide proxy data where other commonly used corals, such as Porites, are sparse. The retrieval of Isopora fossils during International Ocean Discovery Program Leg 325 in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) signaled the need to evaluate their possible paleoceanographic utility. We developed modern skeletal Sr/Ca- and δ18O-sea surface temperature (SST) calibrations for six modern Isopora colonies collected at Heron Island in the southern GBR. Pairing the coral Sr/Ca record with monthly SST data yielded Reduced Major Axis Sr/Ca- and δ18O-SST sensitivities of -0.054 mmol/mol/°C and -0.152 ‰/°C, respectively, falling within the range of published Porites values. We applied our Isopora-based regressions and previously published sensitivities from other species to a suite (n=37) of fossil samples collected from IODP 32. The calibrations produced a range of 3-7°C of warming, averaging 5°C, in the GBR from 22 ka to modern climate. This SST change is similar or slightly larger than other coral studies and larger than planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca records. The planktonic Mg/Ca records from the Indonesian and Western Pacific Warm Pools indicate a warming of 3-3.5°C since 23ka (Linsley et al., 2010) while a fossil coral record from Tahiti indicates a warming of 3.2°C from 9.5ka to present (DeLong et al., 2010) and western Pacific coral records suggest a cooling of 5-6°C (Gagan et al., 2010; Guilderson et al., 1994: Beck et al., 1997), although these value might require rescaling (Gagan et al., 2012) resulting in slightly warmer temperature calculations. Our Isopora fossils from the GBR speak to the spatial heterogeneity of warming since the LGM and the continued need to develop more records for a more comprehensive understanding of the deglaciation.

  6. Effectiveness of interim remedial actions at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Seay, W.M.; McNamee, E.

    1990-01-01

    There are 190,000 m 3 of contaminated soils, wastes, and residues stored at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS). The residues have a volume of 18,000 m 3 and contain about 1,930 Ci of 226 Ra, which accounts for most of the radioactivity. Since 1980, actions have been taken to minimize potential radiological risks and prevent radionuclide migration. Interim actions included capping vents, sealing pipes, relocating the perimeter fence (to limit radon risk), transferring and consolidating wastes, upgrading storage buildings, constructing a clay cutoff wall (to limit potential ground-water transport of contaminants), treating and releasing contaminated water, using a synthetic liner, and using an interim clay cap. An interim waste containment facility was completed in 1986. Environmental monitoring showed a decrease in radon concentrations and in external gamma radiation from 1982 to 1986; levels have been stable since 1986. Uranium and radium concentrations in surface water have decreased; very low concentrations have been detected in stream sediments, and concentrations in ground water have remained stable. Recent monitoring showed that NFSS is in compliance with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiation protection standards

  7. Seismic waves and seismic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, S. V.

    2011-05-01

    The basic idea of seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers are suggested. For example, vertical barriers resembling a wall in a soil can protect from Rayleigh and bulk waves. The FEM simulation reveals that to be effective, such a barrier should be (i) composed of layers with contrast physical properties allowing "trapping" of the wave energy inside some of the layers, and (ii) depth of the barrier should be comparable or greater than the considered seismic wave length. Another type of seismic barrier represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents some types of surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning non-propagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of non-existence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  8. Retention of long-term interim restorations with sodium fluoride enriched interim cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strash, Carolyn

    Purpose: Interim fixed dental prostheses, or "provisional restorations", are fabricated to restore teeth when definitive prostheses are made indirectly. Patients undergoing extensive prosthodontic treatment frequently require provisionalization for several months or years. The ideal interim cement would retain the restoration for as long as needed and still allow for ease of removal. It would also avoid recurrent caries by preventing demineralization of tooth structure. This study aims to determine if adding sodium fluoride varnish to interim cement may assist in the retention of interim restorations. Materials and methods: stainless steel dies representing a crown preparation were fabricated. Provisional crowns were milled for the dies using CAD/CAM technology. Crowns were provisionally cemented onto the dies using TempBond NE and NexTemp provisional cements as well as a mixture of TempBond NE and Duraphat fluoride varnish. Samples were stored for 24h then tested or thermocycled for 2500 or 5000 cycles before being tested. Retentive strength of each cement was recorded using a universal testing machine. Results: TempBond NE and NexTemp cements performed similarly when tested after 24h. The addition of Duraphat significantly decreased the retention when added to TempBond NE. NexTemp cement had high variability in retention over all tested time periods. Thermocycling for 2500 and 5000 cycles significantly decreased the retention of all cements. Conclusions: The addition of Duraphat fluoride varnish significantly decreased the retention of TempBond NE and is therefore not recommended for clinical use. Thermocycling significantly reduced the retention of TempBond NE and NexTemp. This may suggest that use of these cements for three months, as simulated in this study, is not recommended.

  9. Monitoring Multidecadal satellite earth observation of soil moisture products through land surface reanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albergel, C.; Dorigo, W.; Balsamo, G.; Sabatar, J; de Rosnay, P.; Isaksen, I; Brocca, L; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture from ERA-Land, a revised version of the land surface components of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim), is used to monitor at a global scale the consistency of a new microwave based multi-satellite surface soil moisture date set

  10. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH

    2008-08-12

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

  11. Effect of interim cement application on bond strength between resin cements and dentin: Immediate and delayed dentin sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigagão, Vinícius C; Barreto, Luis F D; Gonçalves, Kellem A S; Amaral, Marina; Vitti, Rafael P; Neves, Ana C C; Silva-Concílio, Laís R

    2017-06-01

    Despite the advances in materials and techniques, adhesion to dentin is challenging because of the complex composition of dentin's mineral, organic, and fluid phases. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 different resin cements (conventional and self-adhesive) with or without previous dentin sealing and the effect of interim cement. Forty-five molars were embedded into acrylic resin blocks and a flat dentin surface was exposed. Twenty teeth (n=5 per group) were treated with the conventional resin cement associated with etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesive approaches, applied before (immediate dentin sealing) or after (delayed dentin sealing) the application/removal of interim cement. Another 25 teeth (n=5, per group) were treated with self-adhesive resin cement with (self-etch mode [immediate dentin sealing or delayed dentin sealing]) or without adhesive application. Furthermore, in the self-adhesive resin cement group, the application of polyacrylic acid for dentin etching before cementation was evaluated. Composite resin blocks were cemented onto flat, treated dentin surfaces, and the assemblies were sectioned into bar-shaped specimens for microtensile bond strength testing. The data were subjected to 1-way ANOVA followed by the post-hoc Tukey test (α=.05). The failure patterns were classified as cohesive, adhesive, or mixed. The application of adhesive before interim cement (immediate dental sealing) promoted the highest values of bond strength for both resin cements (Presin cement, polyacrylic acid-enhanced bond strength after the application of interim cement. The application of dental adhesive immediately after tooth preparation (immediate dentin sealing) and before the use of an interim cement promoted the highest values of bond strength to dentin with the resin cements tested. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interim report and accounts 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    An interim set of accounts and reports is presented here for 1993/1994 for the health science company Amersham International. The company's research programs focus on developments in life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance, with particular expertise in the application of radioactivity to labelling and detection at the molecular level. This report which covers the half-year to 30 September 1993 shows promising financial results, with turnover, operating profits and earnings per share all having risen. All life science markets report growth although difficult trading conditions are being reported in Europe. Two products in the Healthcare business have achieved progress, a pain palliation agent for bone metastases has been launched in the United States, and European approval has been gained for a new technetium based heart imaging agent. Further growth is expected for the company. (UK)

  13. Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Interim Hanford Waste Management Technology Plan (HWMTP) is a companion document to the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (HWMP). A reference plan for management and disposal of all existing and certain projected future radioactive Hanford Site Defense Wastes (HSDW) is described and discussed in the HWMP. Implementation of the reference plan requires that various open technical issues be satisfactorily resolved. The principal purpose of the HWMTP is to present detailed descriptions of the technology which must be developed to close each of the technical issues associated with the reference plan identified in the HWMP. If alternative plans are followed, however, technology development efforts including costs and schedules must be changed accordingly. Technical issues addressed in the HWMTP and HWMP are those which relate to disposal of single-shell tank wastes, contaminated soil sites, solid waste burial sites, double-shell tank wastes, encapsulated 137 CsCl and 90 SrF 2 , stored and new solid transuranic (TRU) wastes, and miscellaneous wastes such as contaminated sodium metal. Among the high priority issues to be resolved are characterization of various wastes including early determination of the TRU content of future cladding removal wastes; completion of development of vitrification (Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant) and grout technology; control of subsidence in buried waste sites; and development of criteria and standards including performance assessments of systems proposed for disposal of HSDW. Estimates of the technology costs shown in this report are made on the basis that all identified tasks for all issues associated with the reference disposal plan must be performed. Elimination of, consolidation of, or reduction in the scope of individual tasks will, of course, be reflected in corresponding reduction of overall technology costs

  14. Surface Characteristics of Nanoparticles Determine Their Intracellular Fate in and Processing by Human Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Julia V.; Kalicharan, Dharamdajal; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette; Hoekstra, Dick; Zuhorn, Inge S.

    A polarized layer of endothelial cells that comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) precludes access of systemically administered medicines to brain tissue. Consequently, there is a need for drug delivery vehicles that mediate transendothelial transport of such medicines. Endothelial cells use a

  15. Gas barrier properties of nanocomposites based on in situ polymerized poly(n-butyl methacrylate) in the presence of surface modified montmorillonite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herrera-Alonso, J. M.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Marand, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 349, 1-2 (2010), s. 251-257 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500651; GA MŠk ME09058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : barrier membranes * nanocomposites * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.673, year: 2010

  16. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  17. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  18. Computerization of material test data reporting system : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-01

    This study was initiated to provide an integrated system of reporting, storing, and retrieving of construction and material test data using computerized (storage-retrieval) and quality control techniques. The findings reported in this interim report ...

  19. 14 CFR 136.41 - Interim operating authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tribal lands. (2) ATMP limitation. The Administrator may grant interim operating authority under this paragraph (c) only if the ATMP for the park or tribal lands to which the application relates has not been...

  20. Interim research assessment 2003-2005 - Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    This report primarily serves as a source of information for the 2007 Interim Research Assessment Committee for Computer Science at the three technical universities in the Netherlands. The report also provides information for others interested in our research activities.

  1. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  2. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines

  3. ITER interim design report package and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents the technical basis which underlay the Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis submitted to the ITER Councils (IC-8 and IC-9) Records of decisions and the ''ITER Interim Design Report Package''. This publication contains ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions, TAC-8 Report, SRG Report, CP's Report on Tentative Sequence of Events and Parties' Views on the IDR Package and Parties' Technical Comments on the IDR Package. Figs, tabs

  4. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  5. The information content of SFAS No 131 interim segment reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Joong-Seok Cho

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the effect of implementation of SFAS No.131 on companies' information environments by assessing the effect of interim period financial reports. Especially, using Beaver's information content measures, it investigates the market's reaction to interim period financial reporting under SFAS No.131. The empirical results of the information content test show that the adoption of SFAS No.131 does not affect the market's reaction. For the volume reaction test, no d...

  6. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  7. 40 Years of Experience of NIRAS / Belgoprocess on the Interim Storage of Low, Intermediate and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Ghys, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess have gained over time an extended experience on the interim storage of Low-Intermediate and High level waste. • An systematic inspection strategy was developed in order the verify the conformity of the different waste-packages and corrective measures were taken to guarantee safe storage conditions. • From 2022 , ONDRAF/NIRAS will operate a surface disposal facility for LLW

  8. International Peer Review of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's SR-Can interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Budhi; Bailey, Lucy; Bennett, David G.; Egan, Mike; Roehlig, Klaus

    2004-12-01

    demonstration (e.g. allocation of safety to different barrier functions and the role of dilution); Basis and methods for scenario selection and evaluation; Assessment of model framework for consequence analysis and compliance evaluation (e.g. justification of models, and parameters); Methods for biosphere modelling including the transition zone from basement rock to quaternary deposits and ecosystems; Methods for risk analysis, including the use of probabilistic methods, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, estimation of probabilities, averaging of risk; and Quality assurance measures including handling of expert judgments. Among its conclusions, the IRT considers that the SR-Can Interim Report describes a logical methodology for undertaking a safety assessment that could be used as a component of a safety case to support a licence application. SKB's assessment methodology also includes some innovative and positive components, such as the use of safety function indicators and analytical models. From the IRT's perspective, the main deficiencies in SKB's programme and approach relate less to the methodology and more to the rigour with which safety assessment needs to be conducted to support a formal licence application. There are a number of areas, for example in the development of scenarios and in the management and treatment of uncertainty, where current evidence suggests a need for greater clarity and traceability. More generally, it is recommended that SKB should ensure that all aspects of the safety assessment are conducted in accordance with auditable project-specific guidance and QA procedures. In view of the above, and the fact that SKB has acknowledged that some further development work remains to be done, the IRT believes that it could be a challenge for SKB to conduct and present a safety assessment of suitable quality within the currently proposed timescale for delivery of the SR-Can assessment and the 2006 licence application

  9. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  10. Analysis of removal of residual decay heat from interim storage facilities by means of the CFD program FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, W.; Hages, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of nuclear licensing procedures of on-site interim storage facilities for dual purpose casks it is necessary, among other things, to provide proof of sufficient removal of the residual decay heat emitted by the casks. The results of the analyses performed for this purpose define e.g. the boundary conditions for further thermal analyses regarding the permissible cask component temperatures or the maximum permissible temperatures of the fuel cladding tubes of the fuel elements stored in the casks. Up to now, for the centralized interim storage facilities in Germany such analyses were performed on the basis of experimental investigations using scaled-down storage geometries. In the engineering phase of the Lingen on-site interim storage facility, proof was furnished for the first time using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program FLUENT. The program FLUENT is an internationally recognized and comprehensively verified program for the calculation of flow and heat transport processes. Starting from a brief discussion of modeling and the different boundary conditions of the computation, this contribution presents various results regarding the temperatures of air, cask surfaces and storage facility components, the mass flows through the storage facility and the heat transfer at the cask surface. The interface point to the cask-specific analyses is defined to be the cask surface

  11. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  12. The EMEFS model evaluation. An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dennis, R.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Seilkop, S.K. [Analytical Sciences, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, ON (Canada); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N. [Computer Sciences Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Karamchandani, P.; Venkatram, A. [ENSR Consulting and Engineering, Camarillo, CA (United States); Fung, C.; Misra, P.K. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hansen, D.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Chang, J.S. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center

    1991-12-01

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Sequential interim analyses of survival data in DNA microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Klaus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of biomarkers that are correlated with therapy response and thus with survival is an important goal of medical research on severe diseases, e.g. cancer. Frequently, microarray studies are performed to identify genes of which the expression levels in pretherapeutic tissue samples are correlated to survival times of patients. Typically, such a study can take several years until the full planned sample size is available. Therefore, interim analyses are desirable, offering the possibility of stopping the study earlier, or of performing additional laboratory experiments to validate the role of the detected genes. While many methods correcting the multiple testing bias introduced by interim analyses have been proposed for studies of one single feature, there are still open questions about interim analyses of multiple features, particularly of high-dimensional microarray data, where the number of features clearly exceeds the number of samples. Therefore, we examine false discovery rates and power rates in microarray experiments performed during interim analyses of survival studies. In addition, the early stopping based on interim results of such studies is evaluated. As stop criterion we employ the achieved average power rate, i.e. the proportion of detected true positives, for which a new estimator is derived and compared to existing estimators. Results In a simulation study, pre-specified levels of the false discovery rate are maintained in each interim analysis, where reduced levels as used in classical group sequential designs of one single feature are not necessary. Average power rates increase with each interim analysis, and many studies can be stopped prior to their planned end when a certain pre-specified power rate is achieved. The new estimator for the power rate slightly deviates from the true power rate but is comparable to other estimators. Conclusions Interim analyses of microarray experiments can provide

  14. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  16. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  17. Performance of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, V.; Dean, P.V.; McLellan, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Engineered barriers, both vertical and horizontal, have been used to isolate hazardous wastes from contact, precipitation, surface water and groundwater. The primary objective of this study was to determine the performance of subsurface barriers installed throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years to contain hazardous wastes. Evaluation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or equivalent caps was a secondary objective. A nationwide search was launched to select hazardous waste sites at which vertical barrier walls and/or caps had been used as the containment method. None of the sites selected had an engineered floor. From an initial list of 130 sites, 34 sites were selected on the basis of availability of monitoring data for detailed analysis of actual field performance. This paper will briefly discuss preliminary findings regarding the design, construction quality assurance/construction quality control (CQA/CQC), and monitoring at the 34 sites. In addition, the short-term performance of these sites (less than 5 years) is presented since very little long-term performance data was available

  18. Demonstration of close-coupled barriers for subsurface containment of buried waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.

    1996-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. Close-coupled barrier technology is applicable for final, interim, or emergency containment of subsurface waste forms. Consequently, when considering the diversity of technology application, the construction emplacement and material technology maturity, general site operational requirements, and regulatory compliance incentives, the close-coupled barrier system provides an alternative for any hazardous or mixed waste remediation plan. This paper discusses the installation of a close-coupled barrier and the subsequent integrity verification

  19. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  20. Effect of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles on thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin-based coatings

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Radoman; J. V. Dzunuzovic; K. T. Trifkovic; T. Palija; A. D. Marinkovic; B. Bugarski; E. S. Dzunuzovic

    2015-01-01

    Novel soy alkyd-based nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) surface modified with different gallates, and for the first time with imine obtained from 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oleylamine (DHBAOA). Unmodified and surface modified anatase TiO2 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, while the amount of adsorbed ligands w...

  1. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy: Application to roaming in ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Kramer, Zeb C., E-mail: zebcolterkramer@gmail.com; Ezra, Gregory S., E-mail: gse1@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Carpenter, Barry K., E-mail: carpenterb1@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, and Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Iraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)

    2016-02-07

    We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.

  2. 78 FR 56750 - Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear... Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-026, ``Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues ] Associated with... Notice: Draft Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated with New Reactors. ML12326A742...

  3. 78 FR 20503 - Energy Conservation Program: Availability of the Interim Technical Support Document for High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC36 Energy Conservation Program: Availability of the Interim Technical Support... interim technical support document (TSD) for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps energy conservation....aspx/ruleid/23 . This Web page contains links to the interim technical support document and other...

  4. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE's Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities

  5. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  6. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.

    1992-04-01

    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  7. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  8. 24 CFR 35.1330 - Interim controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paint, treatments for friction and impact surfaces where levels of lead dust are above the levels... assessment report shall be used to control identified hazards, except that, if only paint stabilization is... work practices in accordance with § 35.1350. (c) Friction and impact surfaces. (1) Friction surfaces...

  9. An interim report on the State of Nevada socioeconomic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This Interim Report is a report on work in progress and presents findings from the research to date on the potential consequences of a repository for the citizens of Nevada. The research and findings in the Report have been subjected to rigorous peer review as part of the state's effort to insure independent, objective analysis that meets the highest professional standards. The basic research effort will continue through June 1990 and will enable the state to refine and clarify the findings presented in this Interim Report

  10. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings

  11. Single-shell tank interim stabilization risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basche, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Risk Analysis is to provide a cost and schedule risk analysis of HNF-2358, Rev. 1, Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization Project Plan (Project Plan) (Ross et al. 1998). The analysis compares the required cost profile by fiscal year (Section 4.2) and revised schedule completion date (Section 4.5) to the Project Plan. The analysis also evaluates the executability of the Project Plan and recommends a path forward for risk mitigation

  12. Dual function of novel pollen coat (surface proteins: IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity disrupting the airway epithelial barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., "de-fatted", and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen (BGP by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP and endoxylanase (EXY. The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic

  13. N-2(A(3)Sigma(+)(u)) time evolution in N-2 atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier discharge driven by ac voltage under modulated regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrico, P. F.; Šimek, Milan; Dilecce, G.; De Benedictis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 23 (2009), s. 231503-231503 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Atmospheric pressure surface-DBD * Nitrogen metastable * LIF * Optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009

  14. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  15. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control

  16. Verification of maximum impact force for interim storage cask for the Fast Flux Testing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.W.; Chang, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform an impact analysis of the Interim Storage Cask (ISC) of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for a 4-ft end drop. The ISC is a concrete cask used to store spent nuclear fuels. The analysis is to justify the impact force calculated by General Atomics (General Atomics, 1994) using the ILMOD computer code. ILMOD determines the maximum force developed by the concrete crushing which occurs when the drop energy has been absorbed. The maximum force, multiplied by the dynamic load factor (DLF), was used to determine the maximum g-level on the cask during a 4-ft end drop accident onto the heavily reinforced FFTF Reactor Service Building's concrete surface. For the analysis, this surface was assumed to be unyielding and the cask absorbed all the drop energy. This conservative assumption simplified the modeling used to qualify the cask's structural integrity for this accident condition

  17. Wayne Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, begun in 1984, was continued in 1989 at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Wayne Township, New Jersey. The WISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive material remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The monitoring program at WISS measures radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation levels; and uranium, radium, and thorium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. The radiation dose was calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual to verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard (100 mrem/yr) and to assess its potential effects on public health. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) during calendar year 1989. 26 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs

  18. GPS water vapor and its comparison with radiosonde and ERA-Interim data in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaoui, Houaria; Kahlouche, Salem; Belbachir, Ahmed Hafid; Van Malderen, Roeland; Brenot, Hugues; Pottiaux, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using global positioning system (GPS) data has become an effective tool in meteorology, weather forecasting and climate research. This paper presents the estimation of precipitable water (PW) from GPS observations and meteorological data in Algeria, over three stations located at Algiers, Bechar and Tamanrasset. The objective of this study is to analyze the sensitivity of the GPS PW estimates for the three sites to the weighted mean temperature ( T m), obtained separately from two types of T m- T s regression [one general, and one developed specifically for Algeria ( T s stands for surface temperature)], and calculated directly from ERA-Interim data. The results show that the differences in T m are of the order of 18 K, producing differences of 2.01 mm in the final evaluation of PW. A good agreement is found between GPS-PW and PW calculated from radiosondes, with a small mean difference with Vaisala radiosondes. A comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim shows a large difference (4 mm) in the highlands region. This difference is possibly due to the topography. These first results are encouraging, in particular for meteorological applications in this region, with good hope to extend our dataset analysis to a more complete, nationwide coverage over Algeria.

  19. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  20. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes--an interim analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    group). The primary end point was hospitalization or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: Because the mean follow-up was only 3.75 years, our interim analysis had limited statistical power to detect treatment differences. A total of 217 patients in the rosiglitazone group and 202 patients...

  1. The Forward Testing Effect: Interim Testing Enhances Inductive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunliang; Shanks, David R.

    2018-01-01

    "Induction" refers to the process in which people generalize their previous experience when making uncertain inferences about the environment that go beyond direct experience. Here we show that interim tests strongly enhance inductive learning. Participants studied the painting styles of eight famous artists across four lists, each…

  2. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by shipping...

  3. Options for the interim storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    1995-01-01

    Different concepts for the interim storage of spent fuel arising from operation of a NPP are discussed. We considered at reactor as well as away from reactor storage options. Included are enhancements of existing storage capabilities and construction of a new wet or dry storage facility. (author)

  4. New York State interim waste management cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.S.; Watts, R.J.; Jorgensen, J.R.; Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., NY)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and quantify the comparative costs associated with including or excluding Class A utility wastes at a centralized interim waste management facility in New York State. The objective of the study is to assess the unit costs and total statewide costs associated with two distinct scenarios: (1) the case where non-utility Class A LLRW is received, incinerated and stored at the centralized interim facility, and utility Class A wastes are held without incineration at respective nuclear power plant interim onsite facilities without incineration; and (2) the alternative case where both utility and non-utility Class A wastes are accepted, incinerated and stored at the centralized facility. Unit costs to waste generators are estimated for each of the two cases described. This is followed by an estimation of the statewide cost impact to the public. The cost impact represents the cost differential resulting from the exclusion of utility Class A waste from the centralized NYS interim waste management facility. The principal factors comprising the cost differential include (1) higher unit disposal fees charged to non-utility waste generators, which are passed along in the costs of products and services; and (2) costs to utilities due to construction of additional onsite storage capacity, which in turn are charged to electric rate payers

  5. 40 CFR 266.103 - Interim status standards for burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during interim status to industrial furnaces (e.g., kilns, cupolas) that feed hazardous waste for a..., owners and operators shall not feed hazardous waste that has a heating value less than 5,000 Btu/lb, as..., beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, silver, and thallium in each feed stream (hazardous waste...

  6. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  7. 39 CFR 211.4 - Interim personnel regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim personnel regulations. 211.4 Section 211.4... under the Postal Reorganization Act. (b) Continuation of Personnel Provisions of Former title 39, U.S.C... collective bargaining agreement under the Postal Reorganization Act, all provisions of former title 39, U.S.C...

  8. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  9. Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-05-22

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  10. Students' interim literacies as a dynamic resource for teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the notion of 'interim literacies'by drawing on data from a research project which used linguistic and intertextual analysis of first year student writing in economics to investigate the intersection of academic discourse and student voice. This research has provided a rich set of data to illustrate the ways in ...

  11. 17 CFR 210.10-01 - Interim financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... flows from operating activities and showing cash changes from investing and financing activities... dividends declared per share applicable to common stock. The basis of the earnings per share computation... registrant, and where consistent with the protection of investors, permit the omission of any of the interim...

  12. N2(A3+u) behaviour in a N2-NO surface dielectric barrier discharge in the modulated ac regime at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Ambrico, P. F.; Dilecce, G.; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; De Benedictis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 12 (2010), s. 124003-124003 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : surface barier discharge * laser induced fluorescence * metastables * nitric oxide Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/43/12/124003/pdf/0022-3727_43_12_124003.pdf

  13. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  16. Representation of the Antarctic circumpolar vortex mixing barrier in a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Chris; Conway, Jono; Bodeker, Greg; Renwick, James

    2017-04-01

    Dynamical processes that occur in the stratosphere between 15 and 50 km above Earth's surface can affect circulation in the troposphere and have an impact on weather and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Vortex (ACV) forms each winter and spring as a zone of strong stratospheric westerly winds surrounding Antarctica. The ACV presents a barrier to transport of air masses between middle and high-latitudes, and contributes to stratospheric temperatures above the polar region dropping sufficiently low in spring to allow for ozone loss. The processes controlling the permeability of the ACV, and how they are likely to respond to a changing climate and a recovering ozone hole, have not been well studied, and as a result are not well simulated in Global Climate Models, particularly in terms of sub-grid scale turbulent diffusion which is parameterized in the models. The UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) is used to examine vortex permeability using both the "New Dynamics" and the upgraded "ENDGame" dynamical cores. Results are compared against reanalysis representations of vortex permeability using the MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim reanalyses data sets, which have been shown to have superior performance in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere when compared against NCEP-CFSR, and MERRA reanalyses. Results are expected to lead to improved representation of ACV transport process in Global Climate Models and subsequent improvements in climate modelling.

  17. Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most effective the barriers should be continuous and depending on use, have few or no breaches. A breach may be formed through numerous pathways including: discontinuous grout application, from joints between panels and from cracking due to grout curing or wet-dry cycling. The ability to verify barrier integrity is valuable to the DOE, EPA, and commercial sector and will be required to gain full public acceptance of subsurface barriers as either primary or secondary confinement at waste sites. It is recognized that no suitable method exists for the verification of an emplaced barrier's integrity. The large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers makes detection of leaks challenging. This becomes magnified if the permissible leakage from the site is low. Detection of small cracks (fractions of an inch) at depths of 100 feet or more has not been possible using existing surface geophysical techniques. Compounding the problem of locating flaws in a barrier is the fact that no placement technology can guarantee the completeness or integrity of the emplaced barrier. This report summarizes several commonly used or promising technologies that have been or may be applied to in-situ barrier continuity verification

  18. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives

  19. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  20. Targeted delivery of rosmarinic acid across the blood-brain barrier for neuronal rescue using polyacrylamide-chitosan-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles with surface cross-reacting material 197 and apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Rajesh, Rajendiran

    2017-08-07

    Rosmarinic acid-loaded polyacrylamide-chitosan-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs) were grafted with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) for targeting of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rescuing degenerated neurons. The polymeric nanocarriers were prepared by microemulsion, solvent diffusion, grafting, and surface modification, and CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs were used to treat human brain-microvascular endothelial cells, RWA264.7 cells, and Aβ-insulted SK-N-MC cells. Experimental results revealed that an increase in the weight percentage of PAAM decreased the particle size, zeta potential, and grafting efficiency of CRM197 and ApoE. In addition, surface DSPE-PEG(2000) could protect CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs against uptake by RWA264.7 cells. An increase in the concentration of CRM197 and ApoE decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance and increased the ability of propidium iodide and RA to cross the BBB. The order in the viability of apoptotic SK-N-MC cells was CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs > CRM197-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs > RA. Thus, CRM197-ApoE-RA-PAAM-CH-PLGA NPs can be a promising formulation to deliver RA to Aβ-insulted neurons in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  2. Interim initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pers, Karin (ed.) [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    A thorough description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the SR-Can safety assessment. The initial state refers to the state at the time of deposition for the spent fuel and the engineered barriers and the natural, undisturbed state at the time of beginning of excavation for the repository for the geosphere and the biosphere. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, where copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. For the purpose of the safety assessment the engineered portion of the repository system has been divided into a number of consecutive barriers or sub-systems. The importance of a particular feature for safety has influenced the resolution into components. In principle, components close to the source term and those that play an important role for safety are treated in more detail than more peripheral components. For the option with 40 years of reactor operation, the quantity of BWR fuel is estimated at 7200 tonnes and the quantity of PWR fuel at 2300 tonnes. The fuel burn-up may vary from 15 MWd/kgU up to 60 MWd/kg. Geometric aspects of the fuel cladding tubes of importance in the safety assessment are, as a rule, handled sufficiently pessimistically in analyses of radionuclide transport that differences between different fuel types are irrelevant. The relative differences in radionuclide inventory with respect to burn-up are small. Deviations in inventory and deviating or damaged fuel are not considered in the SR-Can interim reporting but will be handled in the final reporting of SR-Can. The canister consists of an inner container, the insert of cast iron and an outer shell of copper. The cast iron insert provides mechanical stability and the copper shell protects against corrosion in the repository environment. The copper shell is 5 cm thick and

  3. Interim initial state report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pers, Karin

    2004-07-01

    A thorough description of the initial state of the engineered parts of the repository system is one of the main bases for the SR-Can safety assessment. The initial state refers to the state at the time of deposition for the spent fuel and the engineered barriers and the natural, undisturbed state at the time of beginning of excavation for the repository for the geosphere and the biosphere. The repository system is based on the KBS-3 method, where copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. For the purpose of the safety assessment the engineered portion of the repository system has been divided into a number of consecutive barriers or sub-systems. The importance of a particular feature for safety has influenced the resolution into components. In principle, components close to the source term and those that play an important role for safety are treated in more detail than more peripheral components. For the option with 40 years of reactor operation, the quantity of BWR fuel is estimated at 7200 tonnes and the quantity of PWR fuel at 2300 tonnes. The fuel burn-up may vary from 15 MWd/kgU up to 60 MWd/kg. Geometric aspects of the fuel cladding tubes of importance in the safety assessment are, as a rule, handled sufficiently pessimistically in analyses of radionuclide transport that differences between different fuel types are irrelevant. The relative differences in radionuclide inventory with respect to burn-up are small. Deviations in inventory and deviating or damaged fuel are not considered in the SR-Can interim reporting but will be handled in the final reporting of SR-Can. The canister consists of an inner container, the insert of cast iron and an outer shell of copper. The cast iron insert provides mechanical stability and the copper shell protects against corrosion in the repository environment. The copper shell is 5 cm thick and

  4. Cost studies concerning decontamination and dismantling. The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Sjoeoe, Cecilia; Lindskog, Staffan; Cato, Anna

    2006-04-01

    The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik was designed and constructed in 1962-64. It has been used for wet storage of fuel from the Aagesta Nuclear Power Plant as well as the R2 reactor at Studsvik. The interim store comprises three cylindrical pools for fuel storage as well as equipment for handling and decontamination. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology for calculation of future costs for decontamination and dismantling of nuclear research facilities. The analysis is based on information from Studsvik as well as results from information searches. The requirements on precision of cost calculations is high, also at early stages. The reason for this is that the funds are to be collected now but are to be used some time in the future. At the same time they should neither be insufficient nor superfluous. It is apparent from the compilation and analysis that when methodology that has been developed for the purpose of cost calculations for power reactors is applied to research facilities certain drawbacks become apparent, e.g. difficulties to carry out variation analyses. Generally, feedback of data on incurred costs for the purpose of cost calculations can be achieved by using one or more scaling factors together with weighing factors which are established based on e.g. expert judgement. For development and utilisation of such tools it is necessary to have access to estimated costs together with incurred ones. In the report, the following combination of aspects is identified as being of primary significance for achieving a high precision: Calculations with the possibility to calibrate against incurred costs; Radiological surveying tailored to the needs for calculations; Technical planning including selection of techniques to be used; Identification of potential sources for systematic deviations. In the case of the interim store, some of the sources of uncertainty are as follows: Damaged surface layers in the pools; Maintenance status for the

  5. Wayne Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Wayne, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS) (a National Priorities List site) and surrounding area began in 1984. WISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental monitoring program at WISS includes sampling networks for radon and thoron concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Sediment samples were also analyzed for thorium-230, and several nonradiological parameters were measured in groundwater. 16 refs., 12 figs., 23 tabs

  6. FY17 Status Report: Research on Stress Corrosion Cracking of SNF Interim Storage Canisters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Alexander, Christopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This progress report describes work done in FY17 at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. Work in FY17 refined our understanding of the chemical and physical environment on canister surfaces, and evaluated the relationship between chemical and physical environment and the form and extent of corrosion that occurs. The SNL corrosion work focused predominantly on pitting corrosion, a necessary precursor for SCC, and process of pit-to-crack transition; it has been carried out in collaboration with university partners. SNL is collaborating with several university partners to investigate SCC crack growth experimentally, providing guidance for design and interpretation of experiments.

  7. Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. R. Alves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ocean Modeling System ocean model is used to simulate the decadal evolution of the regional waters in offshore Iberia in response to atmospheric fields given by ECMWF ERA-40 (1961–2001 and ERA-Interim (1989–2008 reanalyses. The simulated sea surface temperature (SST fields are verified against satellite AVHRR SST, and they are analysed to characterise the variability and trends of coastal upwelling in the region. Opposing trends in upwelling frequency are found at the northern limit, where upwelling has been decreasing in recent decades, and at its southern edge, where there is some evidence of increased upwelling. These results confirm previous observational studies and, more importantly, indicate that observed SST trends are not only due to changes in radiative or atmospheric heat fluxes alone but also due to changes in upwelling dynamics, suggesting that such a process may be relevant in climate change scenarios.

  8. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste

  9. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  10. 105-C Reactor interim safe storage project technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-C Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Technology Integration Plan involves the decontamination, dismantlement, and interim safe storage of a surplus production reactor. A major goal is to identify and demonstrate new and innovative D and D technologies that will reduce costs, shorten schedules, enhance safety, and have the potential for general use across the RL complex. Innovative technologies are to be demonstrated in the following areas: Characterization; Decontamination; Waste Disposition; Dismantlement, Segmentation, and Demolition; Facility Stabilization; and Health and Safety. The evaluation and ranking of innovative technologies has been completed. Demonstrations will be selected from the ranked technologies according to priority. The contractor team members will review and evaluate the demonstration performances and make final recommendations to DOE

  11. Rehabilitation of failing dentition with interim immediate denture prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in therapy have helped patients with periodontal disease to retain part of their natural dentition for an extended period. These patients can be well served by properly designed removable partial dentures. For the patient facing the loss of all his/her remaining natural teeth, there are three treatment options. One is for the patient to have all remaining teeth extracted and wait for 6–8 weeks for the extraction sites to heal. The conventional complete denture is made following healing, leaving the patient without teeth not only during the healing phase but also during the time required for the fabrication of the conventional complete denture. A second option is to convert an existing removable partial denture into an interim immediate complete denture. A third option is to make a conventional immediate complete denture. The aim of this clinical report was to describe the fabrication of interim immediate denture in a patient with hopeless existing dentition.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  13. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ison, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D and D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  14. Gender Issues and Social Science Education - An Interim Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mechthild Oechsle; Karin Wetterau

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of gender issues for social science education and gives an interim report on developments in the field. We explore the significance of gender differences in political attitudes and preferences for certain topics of instruction, consider differences in the learning needs of male and female students, and analyse the curricular challenges involved in incorporating the gender perspective in the classroom. Deficits in the curricular coverage of gender issues re...

  15. In vitro resistance of reinforced interim fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Peter; Grube, Lars

    2003-02-01

    Comprehensive restorative dental treatment often necessitates the use of interim fixed partial dentures (FPDs) with high stiffness, especially in long-span restorations or areas of heavy occlusal stress. This in vitro study evaluated the fracture load of interim FPDs made with various materials and span lengths. Groups (n = 3) of interim FPDs were fabricated with prosthodontic resin materials on 2 abutments with 3 different pontic widths of 3 units (12 mm), 4 units (19 mm), and 5 units (30 mm). The following materials were tested: (1) a thermoplastic polymer (Promysan Star), (2) Promysan Star with a veneering composite (Vita Zeta), (3) a nonimpregnated polyethylene fiber reinforced resin (Ribbond) with a veneering composite (Sinfony), (4) an impregnated fiber reinforced composite system (Targis/Vectris), and (5) a conventional polymethyl methacrylate, Biodent K+B, (control group). After 5000 thermocycles in 2 water baths at 5 degrees and 55 degrees C, the FPDs were temporarily fixed with a provisional cement on the corresponding abutments and subjected to 3-point bending until fracture by a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis consisted of an analysis of variance (ANOVA, 1-way, 2-way) and Bonferroni-Dunn's multiple comparisons post hoc analysis for test groups (alpha = .05). Fracture resistance (N) differed significantly for 3 (mean: 640 +/- 146 N), 4 (626 +/- 229 N), and 5 unit (658 +/- 98 N) Targis/Vectris FPDs compared with the corresponding Promysan (284 +/- 21 N to 125 +/- 73 N), Biodent K+B (247 +/- 91 N to 218 +/- 85 N), and Promysan/Vita Zeta (95 +/- 15 N to 82 +/- 6 N) groups (P < .05). Significant differences were obtained for the 4 and 5 unit Targis/Vectris FPDs compared with the Sinfony/Ribbond FPDs (281 +/- 25 N - 252 +/- 74 N) for the corresponding pontic spans. Within the limitations of this in vitro study the impregnated fiber reinforcement may considerably enhanced the fracture resistance of interim FPDs of different span lengths.

  16. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  17. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HORNER, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. [CHG 2000a]. Support Drawings are those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings. [CHG 2000a

  18. Interim Stabilization Equipment Essential and Support Drawing Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to list the Interim Stabilization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential or Support drawings. Essential Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment. Support Drawings: Those drawings identified by the facility staff that further describe the design details of structures, systems or components shown on essential drawings

  19. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste

  20. 105-H Reactor Interim Safe Storage Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Ison

    2008-11-08

    The following information documents the decontamination and decommissioning of the 105-H Reactor facility, and placement of the reactor core into interim safe storage. The D&D of the facility included characterization, engineering, removal of hazardous and radiologically contaminated materials, equipment removal, decontamination, demolition of the structure, and restoration of the site. The ISS work also included construction of the safe storage enclosure, which required the installation of a new roofing system, power and lighting, a remote monitoring system, and ventilation components.

  1. Fluoride ion release and solubility of fluoride enriched interim cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinstein, Israel; Block, Jonathan; Melamed, Guy; Dolev, Eran; Matalon, Shlomo; Ormianer, Zeev

    2014-08-01

    Interim and definitive restorations cemented with interim cements for a prolonged interval are susceptible to bacterial infiltration and caries formation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fluoride release and solubility of aged ZnO-based interim cements enriched separately with 0.4% NaF and SnF2. Four different brands of cements (Tempbond, Tempbond NE, Procem, and Freegenol) were tested for fluoride release and solubility. For every test, 6 disk specimens of each cement with NaF and SnF2, and 6 with no fluoride enrichment (control) were fabricated, for a total of 72 specimens. The disks were incubated in deionized water. Fluoride ion release was recorded at 1, 7, 14, 21, 63, 91, and 182 days. Solubility was calculated as weight percent after 90 days of incubation. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test (Pfluorides released fluoride ions for at least 182 days. Cements mixed with NaF released more fluoride ions than those mixed with SnF2 (P.97), indicating a diffusion-controlled fluoride release. Cement and fluoride types were the main affecting factors in fluoride ion release. The addition of fluorides slightly increased the solubility of the cements. Given their long-term sustained and diffusive controlled release, these fluorides, particularly NaF when mixed with ZnO-based interim cements, may be useful for caries prevention under provisionally cemented restorations. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interim dry storage system technologies and innovations VARNA 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, P.; Guenon, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The main concepts of the TN24 Family and NUHOMS System are explained in the paper. It is discussed how the NPPs specific requirements and economics trends contributes to the growing families of interim dry storage systems delivered under COGEMA LOGICTICS license. It is concluded that modular solutions are currently dominating because they are derived from main concepts evolved over time, benefited from both the transport aspects with internationally recognised stringent regulations, and various specific ISFSI requirements and economic trends

  3. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  4. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    An abbreviated fault tree method is used to evaluate and model Browns Ferry systems in the Interim Reliability Evaluation programs, simplifying the recording and displaying of events, yet maintaining the system of identifying faults. The level of investigation is not changed. The analytical thought process inherent in the conventional method is not compromised. But the abbreviated method takes less time, and the fault modes are much more visible

  5. The Interim Financial Reporting in the Spirit of the IAS 34 Norm

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidia Doinea

    2008-01-01

    The role of an interim financial reporting is to allow the information users to acknowledge the activity of an entity on period shorter than financial exercise from the perspective of the available profits and cash flows generated as well as from the point of view of its financial position and liquidity. The interim financial reporting includes a complete or condensed set of financial statements which target to update the last financial reporting, usually the annual report. The interim financ...

  6. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward

  7. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs

  8. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    OpenAIRE

    Gopichander, N.; Halini Kumarai, K.V.; Vasanthakumar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different reinforcements currently available for interim fixed partial denture (FPD) materials do not provide the ideal strength for long-term use. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a more ideal provisional material for long-term use with better mechanical properties. This study evaluated the effectiveness of polyester fiber reinforcement on different interim FPD materials. Methods: Thirty resin-bonded FPDs were constructed from three provisional interim F...

  9. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  10. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  11. Field Studies of the Electrical Properties of Permeable Reactive Barriers for Monitoring Barrier Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, R.; Labrecque, D. J.; Slater, L.

    2006-12-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB) are a promising technology for the remediation of groundwater containing a range of organic and inorganic contaminants. Although there are number of different types of reactive barriers, some of the most important are constructed from granular zero valent iron (ZVI). One challenge in the large- scale, long-term implementation of PRBs is to monitor the change in barrier properties over time. For example, mineral precipitates can reduce the effectiveness of the barrier by either insulating the reaction surfaces of the ZVI particles and/or by filling the pore space in the barrier and thus reducing its hydraulic permeability. Previous research has shown that resistivity and induced polarization (IP) measurements are sensitive to corrosion and precipitation due to redox reactions between ions in solution and the ZVI mineral surface. New field studies, supported by additional laboratory studies appear to confirm this work. Resisitivity and IP surveys were conducted at a total of seven barriers at four different sites: the Denver Federal Center; Monticello, Utah; the Kansas City, Missouri Department of Energy site, and the Asarco Smelter Site in East Helena, Montana. These surveys used combinations of surface and borehole surveys to characterized barriers. The surveys are repeated at approximately six-month intervals to provide information on temporal changes. In addition, surveys at the Kansas City barrier followed up on earlier research by providing several years of historical data and a new barrier at East Helena Montana has been instrumented with an autonomous monitoring system allowing continuous monitoring of the barrier electrical properties. Results show an increase in both real and imaginary conductivity as barriers age. For new barriers, the conductivity of ZVI is typically a few tens of mS/m, only modestly higher than that of the background sediments surrounding the barrier. For heavily altered barriers such as the Monticello

  12. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  13. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...

  14. Acceptance criteria for interim dry storage of aluminum-clad fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Direct repository disposal of foreign and domestic research reactor fuels owned by the United States Department of Energy is an alternative to reprocessing (together with vitrification of the high level waste and storage in an engineered barrier) for ultimate disposition. Neither the storage systems nor the requirements and specifications for acceptable forms for direct repository disposal have been developed; therefore, an interim storage strategy is needed to safely store these fuels. Dry storage (within identified limits) of the fuels received from wet-basin storage would avoid excessive degradation to assure post-storage handleability, a full range of ultimate disposal options, criticality safety, and provide for maintaining confinement by the fuel/clad system. Dry storage requirements and technologies for US commercial fuels, specifically zircaloy-clad fuels under inert cover gas, are well established. Dry storage requirements and technologies for a system with a design life of 40 years for dry storage of aluminum-clad foreign and domestic research reactor fuels are being developed by various groups within programs sponsored by the DOE

  15. Interim test methods and procedures for determining the performance of small photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, P.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; DeBlasio, R.

    1998-07-01

    This document provides test methods and procedures for determining the performance of small stand-alone and utility-grid connected PV systems. The procedures in this document provide a common approach for evaluating whether a given PV system is suitable to perform the function it was designed and manufactured to accomplish and meet the application load. This test document fills a testing void and provides the catalyst and focus for establishing the technical foundation and bridging the institutional barriers needed to reduce uncertainty that a system`s performance will be what its designers and builders claim. The need for this document was recently made more apparent with the initiation of a PV Global Approval Program (PVGAP) at the international level and is in response to concerns that PV systems being fielded must meet performance standards and that these standards include system-level performance type tests. The title of these test procedures is prefaced with the word interim because experience in using the procedures is needed before a consensus standard is developed and accepted by the PV community through its activities with the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21) and International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 82 (IEC TC82) national and international standards-making bodies. Both entities have initiated projects to develop test standards and will need the technical basis and validation of test procedures such as those presented in this document before a consensus is achieved by the PV community.

  16. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian network...... analysis with operational safety management.......Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...

  17. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  18. Comparative study of marginal adaptation and mechanical properties of CAD/CAM versus dual polymerized interim fixed dental prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Eltayeb I Elagra

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: CAD/CAM fabricated interim restorations have better marginal adaptation, wear resistance and fracture resistance than dual polymerized interim restorations hence, might withstand longer duration in the oral cavity.

  19. Environmental survey of two interim dumpsites, Middle Atlantic Bight from 05 November 1973 to 10 November 1973 (NODC Accession 7501280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A second oceanographic survey cruise was made to an interim municipal sludge dumpsite and initially to an interim dumpsite for the disposal of industrial acid waste...

  20. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed

  1. Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

  2. NMSBA Leveraged Project Interim Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Sergei A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-05

    We have investigated the quality of copper particles available on the market today and determined their complete unsuitability to be used for copper inks, since all of them were significantly oxidized: there was only 50% of metallic copper in each batch and the rest was Cu2O and CuO. To date, we have fully identified the challenges and developed the synthesis for large amounts of the copper ink precursor, namely, copper(I) mesityl. Currently, the amounts of tens of grams of the precursor have been obtained. From this precursor, four small batches of copper nanoparticles (50 mg each) have been synthesized to investigate the possibility of decreasing particle sensitivity to oxygen. These particles have been treated with different surface-stabilizing agents (namely, octylamine, oleylamine, pyridine, benzotriazole, and dodecanethiol) in order to investigate their influence on particle oxygen sensitivity. A batch of copper nanoparticles in the amount of 2 grams has also been synthesized in order to start preparation of test ink batches with different solvents, surfactants, and stabilizers.

  3. 42 CFR 93.401 - Interaction with other offices and interim actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interaction with other offices and interim actions. 93.401 Section 93.401 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Human Services General Information § 93.401 Interaction with other offices and interim actions. (a) ORI...

  4. 42 CFR 417.572 - Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports... PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.572 Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports. (a) Annual submittal. The HMO or CMP must submit an annual operating budget...

  5. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  6. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2016-2017 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2016-2017 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2016-2017 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2016.

  7. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2012-2013 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2012-2013 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2012-2013 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2012.

  8. EPA Interim Evaluation of 2014-2015 Milestone Progress in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides the EPA interim evaluations of the 2014-2015 milestones for the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. These interim assessments provide a mid-point check on the progress made on the 2014-2015 milestones, recognizing the achievements made in 2014.

  9. 40 CFR 80.156 - Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interim detergent program controls and prohibitions. 80.156 Section 80.156 Protection of Environment... Detergent Gasoline § 80.156 Liability for violations of the interim detergent program controls and..., carrier, distributor, reseller, retailer, wholesale purchaser-consumer, oxygenate blender, or detergent...

  10. 40 CFR 80.155 - Interim detergent program controls and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim detergent program controls and... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.155 Interim detergent... wholesale purchaser-consumer, and no person shall detergent-additize gasoline, unless such gasoline is...

  11. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  12. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-08-12

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

  13. 32 CFR 643.36 - Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Interim leasing of excess properties to facilitate economic readjustment. 643.36 Section 643.36 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.36 Policy—Interim leasing of excess...

  14. PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONRAD EA

    2008-01-01

    This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel

  15. Interim format and content for a physical security plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The document serves as interim guidance to assist the licensee or applicant in the preparation of a physical security plan. It is to be used in conjunction with interim acceptance criteria for physical security programs, which will be distributed at a later date

  16. International validation study for interim PET in ABVD-treated, advanced-stage hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea; Chauvie, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    At present, there are no standard criteria that have been validated for interim PET reporting in lymphoma. In 2009, an international workshop attended by hematologists and nuclear medicine experts in Deauville, France, proposed to develop simple and reproducible rules for interim PET reporting...

  17. 30 CFR 827.13 - Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Interim performance...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.13 Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards. (a) Persons operating or who have operated coal preparation plants after...

  18. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  19. Miniscrew Supported Interim Tooth Replacement: A Temporary Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkeerat Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of congenitally missing anterior tooth poses special problems in growing patients. Because an adolescent is typically self- conscious about removing an appliance and revealing a large edentulous space, a removable single tooth partial denture or retainer is an undesirable option. The temporary anchorage devices are invasive and the best recommended for malocclusion that cannot be effectively managed with conventional mechanics. The use of orthodontic miniscrews for interim restorations before the completion of skeletal growth has been used successfully unlike osseointegrated implants lacking the compensatory growth mechanisms of the natural dentition. The following case reports show an esthetic alternative to temporary tooth replacement using miniscrews.

  20. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-09-12

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of creep-fatigue damage: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1977-02-01

    In view of the uncertainties involved in designing against creep-fatigue failure and the consequences of such failures in Class 1 nuclear components that operate at elevated temperature, the possibility of intermittent or even continuous non-destructive examination of these components has been considered. In this interim report some preliminary results on magnetic force and ultrasonic evaluation of creep-fatigue damage in an LMFBR steam generator material are presented. These results indicate that the non-destructive evaluation of pure creep damage will be extremely difficult. A set of biaxial creep-fatigue tests that are designed to discriminate between various failure theories is also described

  2. Cost estimation of interim dry storage for Atucha I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Fuenzalida Troyano, Carlos S.

    2007-01-01

    A joint effort between NASA and CNEA has been performed in order to evaluate and fix the strategy of interim spent fuel storage for Atucha I nuclear power plant. In this work the cost estimation on the proposed system was performed in order to fix the parameter and design criteria for the next engineering step. The main results achieved show that both alternatives are all in the same range of costs per unit of mass to be stored, the impact on electricity cost is less than 1 US mills/KWh and the scaling factor achieved is 0.85. (author) [es

  3. Hospital clinicians' iPad use: an interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of hospital libraries are supporting the use of tablet computers such as iPads for access to information resources. To date, this adoption of tablets is not supported by high-quality research evidence. This article provides an interim report on a formal study of clinicians' use of iPads in the hospital setting, currently being conducted at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. Other hospital librarians may wish to consider similar factors when beginning to support the use of tablet computers at their own institutions.

  4. Interim report on the TMI-2 purification filter examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Cook, B.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1983-02-01

    Filters from the purification/makeup system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor were examined after the March 28, 1979, accident to determine the character of the debris transported to the filters. The general condition of the filters is presented. Material was removed from the filters and examined. The elemental and radionuclide makeup of the debris is discussed. Distribution of particle size and shape is presentd for some of the material examined. This is an interim report. When the investigation is completed, another report summarizing all of the data will be issued

  5. The PDF4LHC Working Group Interim Report

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, Sergey; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Blumlein, Johannes; Botje, Michiel; Butterworth, Jon; Cerutti, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; de Roeck, Albert; Del Debbio, Luigi; Feltesse, Joel; Forte, Stefano; Glazov, Alexander; Guffanti, Alberto; Gwenlan, Claire; Huston, Joey; Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Lai, Hung-Liang; Latorre, Jose I.; McNulty, Ronan; Nadolsky, Pavel; Olaf Moch, Sven; Pumplin, Jon; Radescu, Voica; Rojo, Juan; Sjostrand, Torbjorn; Stirling, W.J.; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S.; Ubiali, Maria; Vicini, Alessandro; Watt, Graeme; Yuan, C.-P.

    2011-01-01

    This document is intended as a study of benchmark cross sections at the LHC (at 7 TeV) at NLO using modern parton distribution functions currently available from the 6 PDF fitting groups that have participated in this exercise. It also contains a succinct user guide to the computation of PDFs, uncertainties and correlations using available PDF sets. A companion note, also submitted to the archive, provides an interim summary of the current recommendations of the PDF4LHC working group for the use of parton distribution functions and of PDF uncertainties at the LHC, for cross section and cross section uncertainty calculations.

  6. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  7. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1996-09-16

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single- and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and its performance as early as possible in the project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives.

  8. Fast Flux Test Facility interim examination and maintenance cell: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell was designed to perform interim examination and/or disassembly of experimental core components for final analysis elsewhere, as well as maintenance of sodium-wetted or neutron-activated internal reactor parts and plant support hardware. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell equipment developed and used for the first ten years of operation has been primarily devoted to the disassembly and examination of core component test assemblies. While no major reactor equipment has required remote repair or maintenance, the Interim Examina Examination and Maintenance Cell has served as the remote repair facility for its own in-cell equipment, and several innovative remote repairs have been accomplished. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell's demonstrated versatility has shown its capability to support a challenging future. 12 refs., 9 figs

  9. Interim PET-CT may predict PFS and OS in T-ALL/LBL adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Jing-Hua; Bi, Xi-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yue; Xia, Zhong-Jun

    2017-11-17

    T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL/LBL) is highly aggressive. Although intensive chemotherapies such as ALL-type regimens are commonly used, about half adult patients eventually relapse and die of T-ALL/LBL. Overwhelming evidences have confirmed that interim PET can predict survival outcomes and guide subsequent treatments in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, whether interim PET-CT can predict survival outcomes or not in T-ALL/LBL patients remains unclear. 47 adult patients of T-ALL/LBL were retrospectively reviewed. Interim PET-CT was done after induction therapy and evaluated according to the International Harmonization Project criteria. After induction therapy, interim PET-CT was positive in 19 patients (40.4%). After a median follow up time of 34 months, the 2-year and 3-year progression free survival (PFS) rate were 39% and 30%, respectively, and the 2-year and 3-year overall survival (OS) rate were 54% and 45%, respectively. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, it was found that interim PET-CT positivity correlated with significantly inferior PFS and OS (2-year PFS rate for patients with positive or negative interim PET were 21.1% or 56.0%, respectively, p = 0.002; 2-year OS rate for patients with positive or negative interim PET were 31.6% or 63.7%, respectively, p = 0.010). However, there was no significant relationship between PFS, OS and bone marrow infiltration, lactate dehydrogenase level, and stages ( p > 0.05). Interim PET-CT may predict PFS and OS in adult patients of T-ALL/LBL, which needs to be validated in prospective clinical trials. The optimal criteria for interim PET-CT evaluation and risk-adapted treatment strategy determined by interim PET-CT should be investigated in future clinical practice.

  10. Transforming Education: Overcoming Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jane L.; Goren, Paul D.

    Barriers to progress in educational reform exist inside and outside the education system. Some arise where new practices encounter traditional expectations and boundaries, but others go much deeper than education, such as poverty, racism, local political conflicts, and human resistance to change. The following five categories of barriers are…

  11. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  12. Nuclear waste: Is there a need for federal interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Congress created the Monitored Retrievable Storage Review Commission to provide a report on the need for a Federal monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) as part of the Nation's nuclear waste management system. The Commission concludes that the MRS as presently described in the law, which links the capacity and schedule of operation of the MRS to a permanent geologic repository, cannot be justified. The Commission finds, however, that while no single factor would favor an MRS over the No-MRS option, cumulatively the advantages of an MRS would justify the building of an MRS if: there were no linkages between the MRS and the repository; the MRS could be constructed at an early date; and the opening of the repository were delayed considerably beyond its presently scheduled date of operation. The Commission therefore recommends that the Congress take the following actions: Authorize construction of a Federal Emergency Storage facility with a capacity limit of 2,000 metric tons of uranium; Authorize construction of a User-Funded Interim Storage facility with a capacity limit of 5,000 metric tons of uranium; Reconsider the subject of interim storage by the year 2000

  13. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996

  14. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  15. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, L.S.; Rzyski, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  16. Glass packages in interim storage; Les verres dans les stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO{sub 2}. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ``source term`` models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs.

  17. Safety of Long-term Interim Storage Facilities - Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to discuss and review current national activities, plans and regulatory approaches for the safety of long term interim storage facilities dedicated to spent nuclear fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) and other radioactive materials with prolonged storage regimes. It was also intended to discuss results of experiments and to identify necessary R and D to confirm safety of fuel and cask during the long-term storage. Safety authorities and their Technical Support Organisation (TSO), Fuel Cycle Facilities (FCF) operating organisations and international organisations were invited to share information on their approaches, practices and current developments. The workshop was organised in an opening session, three technical sessions, and a conclusion session. The technical sessions were focused on: - National approaches for long term interim storage facilities; - Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues; - Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. Each session consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided as well as a summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  18. Climate change : we are at risk : interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D.; Wiebe, J.

    2003-06-01

    Between November 2002 and May 2003 the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry travelled across Canada to hear the views of farmer organizations, rural associations, ecotourism groups and environmental organizations regarding concerns about climate change and the impact it may have on the agriculture and forestry sectors and rural communities. The Committee also examined potential adaptation strategies focusing on primary production, practices, technologies, ecosystems and other related areas. Farmers and forest operators are already facing changes in market conditions, domestic regulations, trade policies and technology. This interim report expressed the concerns of farmers and forest operators. It includes a review of the Saguenay flood of 1996, the Red River flood of 1997, the ice storm of 1998, and droughts since 1999. It also includes a discussion on climate change and its biophysical and economic effects on agriculture, forestry, water resources, rural communities, and Aboriginal communities. This interim report also briefly outlines the Kyoto Protocol, the emissions trading system, and the decarbonization of global energy systems. It emphasized the need for integrated research and government policies and programs that encourage adaptation to climate change. The final report will be released in October 2003 and will provide specific recommendations to ensure that Canada responds to the concerns of farmers and forest operators and to ensure continued prosperity in these sectors. refs., figs.

  19. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  20. Expanded Access to Non-VA Care Through the Veterans Choice Program. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) revises its medical regulations that implement section 101 of the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 (hereafter referred to as "the Choice Act"), which requires VA to establish a program to furnish hospital care and medical services through eligible non-VA health care providers to eligible veterans who either cannot be seen within the wait-time goals of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) or who qualify based on their place of residence (hereafter referred to as the "Veterans Choice Program" or the "Program"). These regulatory revisions are required by the most recent amendments to the Choice Act made by the Construction Authorization and Choice Improvement Act of 2014, and by the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015. The Construction Authorization and Choice Improvement Act of 2014 amended the Choice Act to define additional criteria that VA may use to determine that a veteran's travel to a VA medical facility is an "unusual or excessive burden," and the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015 amended the Choice Act to cover all veterans enrolled in the VA health care system, remove the 60-day limit on an episode of care, modify the wait-time and 40-mile distance eligibility criteria, and expand provider eligibility based on criteria as determined by VA. This interim final rule revises VA regulations consistent with the changes made to the Choice Act as described above.

  1. Spent Fuel Test - Climax: technical measurements. Interim report, fiscal year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1983-02-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is located 420 m below surface in the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site. The test is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the technical direction of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized April to May 1980, thus initiating a test with a planned 3- to 5-year fuel storage phase. The SFT-C operational objective of demonstrating the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner has been met. Three exchanges of spent fuel between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility furthered this demonstration. Technical objectives of the test led to development of a technical measurements program, which is the subject of this and two previous interim reports. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data have been recorded on a continuing basis for the first 2-1/2 years of the test on more than 900 channels. Data continue to be acquired from the test. Some data are now available for analysis and are presented here. Highlights of activities this year include analysis of fracture data obtained during site characterization, laboratory studies of radiation effects and drilling damage in Climax granite, improved calculations of near-field heat transfer and thermomechanical response, a ventilation effects study, and further development of the data acquisition and management systems

  2. Immediate loading of trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implants: interim results from an international proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Marcus; van der Schoor, W Peter; van der Schoor, Alexandra R M

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year proof-of-principle study was initiated to evaluate the clinical efficacy of immediately loading titanium dental implants with surfaces enhanced with porous tantalum trabecular metal (PTTM). First-year interim results are presented. Healthy, partially edentulous patients (n = 30) were enrolled and treated per protocol (minimum insertion torque: ≥35 Ncm) with 37 implants placed in one or two premolar or molar locations in either jaw (study group). Implants were immediately provisionalized out of occlusion with single acrylic crowns. After 7 to 14 days of soft tissue healing, implants were definitively restored in occlusion with ceramometal crowns. Because most study group implants (54.1%, n = 20) had less than 1 year of clinical follow-up, this interim analysis was limited to the first 22 consecutively placed implants in 17 subjects (10 women and 7 men) who completed 1 year of clinical follow-up to date (focus group). To date, one implant failed to integrate in the study group (survival = 97.3%, n = 36/37). Focus group implants achieved 100% (n = 22/22) survival with 0.43 ± 0.41 mm of mean marginal bone loss. There were no serious complications. Early clinical findings indicated that immediate loading of PTTM implants was safe and effective under the controlled study conditions. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The interim test effect: testing prior material can facilitate the learning of new material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A; Pyc, Mary A

    2011-12-01

    A wealth of prior research has shown that testing can improve subsequent learning of the initially tested material. In contrast, only one recent study has shown that an interim test over prior material can improve learning of subsequent new material (i.e., an interim-test effect). Five experiments replicated and extended this initial work by exploring the extent to which interim test effects generalize to complex text material. Participants were prompted to recall each section of an expository text before moving on to study the next section, or were only prompted to recall after the final section. In all experiments, recall of the final, target section was greater when prior sections had received interim tests versus no interim tests. Experiment 3 established that the effect was due to interim testing in particular rather than to intervening activity in general. Experiment 4 established that the effect was not due to test expectancy differences. In contrast to prior research, Experiment 4 also provided evidence that the effect is not due to release from proactive interference. We discuss other possible mechanisms underlying interim-test effects with text, including shifting to more effective encoding strategies.

  4. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  5. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  6. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  7. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  8. A conservative method of retaining an interim obturator for a total maxillectomy patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Famila Bettie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim obturators are indicated during the postsurgical phases. It promotes surgical healing and serves as a temporary prosthesis to rehabilitate a patient with intra-oral surgical defect. Retention is gained by wiring, surgical suturing, and other noninvasive methods to enable functional rehabilitation and easy replacement with a permanent obturator. Interim obturators serve as an easy guide for replacing with definitive obturators by indicating prosthesis extensions and the required method of retention. A more conservative and noninvasive method of retaining an interim obturator for a maxillectomy patient is described in this case report.

  9. Project management plan for Reactor 105-C Interim Safe Storage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagge, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Reactor 105-C (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) will be placed into an interim safe storage condition such that (1) interim inspection can be limited to a 5-year frequency; (2) containment ensures that releases to the environmental are not credible under design basis conditions; and (3) final safe storage configuration shall not preclude or significantly increase the cost for any decommissioning alternatives for the reactor assembly.This project management plan establishes plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for managing the execution of Reactor 105-C interim safe storage activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules

  10. Seismic Barrier Protection of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-14

    Seismic Barrier Protection of Critical Infrastructure Robert Haupt, Vladimir Liberman, and Mordechai Rothschild MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244...engineering building structural designs and materials have evolved over many years to minimize the destructive effects of seismic surface waves. However...concept and approach to redirect and attenuate the ground motion amplitudes caused by earthquakes by implementing an engineered subsurface seismic

  11. Optimistic barrier synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Barrier synchronization is fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that it has already processed all the work required of it prior to synchronization. The alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all the necessary pre-synchronization computation, is treated. The problem arises when the number of pre-sychronization messages to be received by a processor is unkown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. We describe an optimistic O(log sup 2 P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  12. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  13. Interim report - geotechnical site assessment methodology. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunbridge, L.W.; Richards, L.R.

    1983-05-01

    An interim report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and initial experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Computer programs to perform statistical analysis of the discontinuity patterns are described. Overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods of determining the in-situ stress are briefly described and the results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring method are reported. (author)

  14. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  15. Waste resources utilization program. Interim report, June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    This is an interim report on the effects of the combined use of heat and ionizing radiation (thermoradiation) as a treatment for ridding sewage sludge of pathogenic organisms as well as its effect on the physical-chemical properties. This activity couples two major environmental problems, disposition of human and of nuclear waste, in an attempt to provide a framework in which both will become useful resources. This combined treatment might be chosen to inactivate both heat labile (but possibly radiation resistant) and radiation labile (but possibly heat resistant) organisms. The cost-effective analyses of such a treatment are being examined. Sludge treated with thermoradiation offers considerable potential for use as a fertilizer in agriculture or a soil conditioner for land reclamation free of the potential health hazards associated with conventional methods of land disposal. Treated sludge may also provide a low-cost substitute for high-nutritional components in ruminant diets

  16. Modernization and refurbishment of the Central Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Interim Storage for radioactive waste in Brinje, being put into operation in 1986, needs refurbishment and modernization in order to meet the up-to-date operational and safety requirements and to ensure the normal and undisturbed acceptance of radioactive waste from small producers in the future. Because of the waste, being already stored in the storage, the lack of reprocessing capacities and the lack of auxiliary room, the refurbishment and modernization is a complex problem, which needs to be addressed with care. The plan of refurbishment and modernization requires an integral approach, covering all different aspects of renewal and reconstruction. The implementation plan, however, must be based on the actual state of the storage and real conditions for the implementations: from technical to financial. In this paper the project for refurbishment and modernization of the storage, and some activities that have already been implemented, are presented.(author)

  17. COCON: Corrosion research programme for long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Mazaudier, F.; Gauvain, D.; Terlain, A.; Feron, D.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 deg. C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1 μm on steels over 100 years at 100 deg. C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, the first developments of a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities are reported. (authors)

  18. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Abbas, A.; Terlain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of some nuclear waste package containers for long term interim storage. The containers are required to remain retrievable for centuries. One factor limiting their performance on this time scale is corrosion. The estimation of the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such long periods requires the construction of reliable models from short-time experimental data. In a first step, models based on simplified oxidation theories have been derived from experimental data on iron and a low-alloy steel oxidation. Their extrapolation to long oxidation periods confirms that the expected damage due to dry oxidation could be small. In order to improve the reliability of these predictions advanced models taking into account the elementary processes involved in the whole oxidation mechanism, are under development. (authors)

  19. Operator licensing examination standards for power reactors. Interim revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    These examination standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the processes associated with initial and requalification examinations. The standards also ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations for all applicants. These standards are for guidance purposes and are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations (i.e., 10 CFR Part 55), and they are subject to revision or other changes in internal operator licensing policy. This interim revision permits facility licensees to prepare their initial operator licensing examinations on a voluntary basis pending an amendment to 10 CFR Part 55 that will require facility participation. The NRC intends to solicit comments on this revision during the rulemaking process and to issue a final Revision 8 in conjunction with the final rule

  20. Corrosion behaviour of metallic containers during long term interim storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, C.; Feron, D.; Mazaudier, F.; Terlain, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two main corrosion phenomena are encountered in long term interim storage conditions: dry oxidation by the air when the temperature of high level nuclear wastes containers is high enough (roughly higher than 100 C) and corrosion phenomena as those encountered in outdoor atmospheric corrosion when the temperature of the container wall is low enough and so condensation is possible on the container walls. Results obtained with dry oxidation in air lead to predict small damages (less than 1μm on steels over 100 years at 100 C) and no drastic changes with pollutants. For atmospheric corrosion, first developments deal with a pragmatic method that gives assessments of the indoor atmospheric corrosivities. (author)