de Souza, Elza Maria
In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.
Souza Elza Maria de
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. RESULTS: The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.
Elza Maria de Souza
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. RESULTS: The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.
Several studies have focused on the association between parental and personal socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, with mixed results depending on the specific health outcome, research methodology and population under study. In the last decades, a growing interest is given to the influence of intergenerational mobility on several health outcomes at young ages. This study addresses the following research question: Is educational intergenerational mobility associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young adulthood? To this end, the Belgian 1991 and 2001 censuses are used, providing characteristics of young persons at two time points (T1 = 01/03/91;T2 = 01/10/01) and follow-up information on mortality and emigration between T2 and 31/12/09 (T3). The study population consists of all official inhabitants of Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region at T2, born between 1972 and 1982 and alive at T2. Parental and personal education are divided into primary (PE), lower secondary (LSE), higher secondary (HSE) and higher education (HE). We analyse mortality between T2 and T3 calculating age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) and using Cox regression (hazard ratios = HR). Personal rather than parental education determines the observed mortality rates, with high all-cause mortality rates among those with PE, irrespective of parental education (e.g., among men ASMRPE-PE = 200.0 [95% CI 158.0–241.9]; ASMRHE-PE = 319.7 [183.2–456.3]) and low all-cause mortality among those in higher education, regardless of parental education (ASMRPE-HE = 41.7 [30.8–52.6]; ASMRHE-HE = 38.0 [33.2–42.8]). There is some variation by gender and according to cause of death. This study shows the strong association between personal education and young-adult mortality. PMID:26657691
Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Ciccarelli, Marina; MacCallum, Judith; Milbourn, Benjamin; Vaz, Sharmila; Joosten, Annette; Buchanan, Angus; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Stancliffe, Roger J
This study reports on the feasibility of an intergenerational mentoring programme for youth with intellectual disability (ID) aimed at developing skills and building networks. Youth with ID were paired with older male mentors who were trained to support the mentees participate in activities and social interactions during weekly sessions. We interviewed the mentees and mentors, and assessed them on a range of outcomes using standardized measures. Interviews highlighted that the programme presented a great "opportunity" for the mentees and mentors. The participants described facilitators and challenges to the acquisition of practical skills by mentees and the development of relationships between mentors and mentees, including communication, transportation and mentor training. The youth with ID had difficulty completing the self-report measures. Mentoring programmes are viable to support youth with ID during the transition to adulthood; however, refinement is required in the rollout out of a pilot intervention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper addresses solidarity between generations. We refer to the ageing of population, which is a matter of intergenerational solidarity. Because the population is getting old, intergenerational solidarity and family are of great significance.
Ball, Jeremy D.
Research on the intergenerational transmission of abuse hypothesis often only examined the "existence" of abuse. The current study utilizes retrospective recalls of incarcerated male defendants (N = 414), using questions formulated from the modified Conflict Tactics Scales. Five logistic regression models are run, representing a different physical…
The intergenerational impacts of engineered nanomaterials in plants are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiology, phenology, yield and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) exposed to nanoceria (nCeO2). Seeds from parental plan...
Lopes, Fábio; Espirito-Santo, Helena; Vicente, Henrique
Introduction The transmission of perceived parental rearing styles through generations has been proved in several studies, mostly in studies with two generations samples. Objectives/aims The main aim of this study is to investigate the intergenerational transmission of the perception of parental rearing styles in families composed by three generations. Methodology A convenience sample of 143 participants was collected, belonging to a female lineage subsystem, divided in three...
Using the 1959-1961 Chinese Great Leap Forward Famine as a natural experiment, this study examines the relationship between mothers' prenatal exposure to acute malnutrition and their children's infant mortality risk. According to the results, the effect of mothers' prenatal famine exposure status on children's infant mortality risk depends on the level of famine severity. In regions of low famine severity, mothers' prenatal famine exposure significantly reduces children's infant mortality, whereas in regions of high famine severity, such prenatal exposure increases children's infant mortality although the effect is not statistically significant. Such a curvilinear relationship between mothers' prenatal malnutrition status and their children's infant mortality risk is more complicated than the linear relationship predicted by the original fetal origins hypothesis but is consistent with the more recent developmental origins of health and disease theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In addition to the National Registry for Radiation Workers the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority conducts its own survey of the mortality experience of its employees. The survey studies the causes of death of all past and present employees with special reference to the effects of radiation exposure on mortality. The auditing of the collection of data and its subsequent analyses is carried out by the Medical Research Council. The population of the study currently comprises over 50,000 individuals. The results of the analyses should be available by the end of 1984
Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena
Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…
AlOtaibi, Saad Aied
In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .
Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Shenk, Dena
Purpose of the study: African Americans often experience early onset of hypertension that can result in generations of adults managing high blood pressure concurrently. Using a model based on the Theory of Interdependence, this study examined whether intergenerational transmission of hypertension knowledge and self-efficacy would affect…
Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
The study explores how parents' occupational field affects gender differences in educational fields. On the one hand, the theory of direct transfer predicts that adolescents enter fields similar to those of their parents because of intergenerational transmission of occupation-specific resources and that adolescents are more likely to draw upon the…
Jeong, B G; Veenstra, G
Although a number of studies have uncovered relationships between parental capital and the manifestation of depression in their children, little is known about the mechanisms that undergird the relationships. This study investigates the intergenerational effects of the cultural and economic capitals of South Korean parents on depressive symptoms in their adult children and the degree to which the capitals of the adult children explain them. We employed nationally representative cross-sectional survey data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study. A sample of 11,576 adults over thirty years of age was used to investigate the intergenerational production of depression in South Korea. We applied binary logistic regression modelling to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Parental education (institutionalized cultural capital) manifested an independent and statistically significant inverse association with depressive symptoms [OR = 1.680 (95% CI: 1.118-2.523) for men; OR = 2.146 (95% CI: 1484-3.102) for women]. Childhood economic circumstances (economic capital) had an independent and statistically significant inverse association with depressive symptoms among adult women only [OR = 2.009 (95% CI: 1.531-2.635)]. The education of the adult children themselves was strongly associated with depressive symptoms in the expected direction [OR = 4.202 (95% CI: 2.856-6.181) for men; OR = 4.058 (95% CI: 2.824-5.830)] and the most of the association between parental capitals and depressive symptoms was explained by the educational attainment of the children. Receipt of monetary inheritance from parents had a weak but statistically significant association with depression among men [OR = 1.248 (95% CI: 1.041-1.496)] but was unrelated to depression among women. A large portion of the association between respondent education and depressive symptoms was explained by household income. Finally, childhood economic circumstances were
Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M. Michèle; Vigod, Simone N.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.
BACKGROUND: A teenage woman’s sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother’s experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters’ data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother’s history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter’s birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter’s risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother’s history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother– daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%–10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%–4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86–2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69–1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91–2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19–2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33–2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. INTERPRETATION: We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced
Full Text Available This paper draws on The Making of Modern Motherhoods study, which explores how a contemporary generation of women are creating motherhood, and how intergenerational dynamics of mother daughter relationships can provide insight into the interplay of historical, biographical and generational processes. The study combines an intergeneration and longtitudinal research design, building 12 case studies from an initial interview sample of 62 expectant first time mothers. The paper begins with a review of the conceptual tools employed within the study in order to make sense of rich empirical data, including memory, generation, co-existence and configuration. These themes are then realised through a detailed case history of the Calder family – tracing the impact of the arrival of a new generation. This thick description enables us to see beyond the individual towards the historically contingent configuration that is a ‘family’. By counter posing the horizontal dimensions of the generation against the vertical dimension of historical process and intergenerational change it is possible to capture a sense of how people live, creating change in order to establish continuity. The paper concludes by exploring the contingency of formations of mothering and their connectedness over time, through reflections on the interplay of historical, generational and biographical temporalities.
Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon
In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.
Campisi, Lisa; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Ledingham, Jane E.
The current investigation examined whether inter-generational transfer of risk could be revealed through mothers' and preschool-aged children's expressive language, and whether continuity of risk persisted in these children's academic abilities, 3 years later. Participating families were drawn from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project, a…
Thrasher, Linda; And Others
It is proposed that the most effective technique for teaching about aging and the aged at the secondary level is through the use of intergenerational activities, providing opportunities for the interaction of young and old. Including older adults in various class activities is suggested. Using these individuals as guest instructors and aides in…
Chevalier, Arnaud; Denny, Kevin; McMahon, Dorren
This paper analyses intergenerational educational mobility using survey data for twenty countries. We find that a number of interesting patterns emerge. Estimating a measure of mobility as movement and an index of mobility as equality of opportunity we find that while these two measures are positively correlated, the correlation is far from perfect. Examining the link with educational inequality we find evidence which suggests an inverse relationship between mobility and inequality consistent...
In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the
Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór
. We develop an overlapping generations model in continuous time which encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for both trend increases in longevity and productivity, we address the issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...
dr. Donald Ropes
This paper lays the groundwork for a research program on the topic of how intergenerational learning can contribute to the effectiveness of organizations by capitalizing on the capacities of the ageing worker. According to innumerable studies published by policy research centers in the EU and other
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rubini, Monica; Branje, Susan J. T.; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim H J
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to disentangle patterns of change and stability in self-concept clarity (SCC) in adolescents and in their parents and (b) to examine processes of intergenerational transmission of SCC in families with adolescents. Participants were 497 Dutch families
Crocetti, E; Rubini, M; Branje, S; Koot, H; Meeus, W.H.J.
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to disentangle patterns of change and stability in self-concept clarity (SCC) in adolescents and in their parents and (b) to examine processes of intergenerational transmission of SCC in families with adolescents. Participants were 497 Dutch families
Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.
The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined
Maas, Ineke; Leeuwen, Marco H.D. van
The relationship between industrialization and intergenerational mobility has been a topic of discussion for over forty years. In this article both total mobility and relative mobility chances are studied in the decades preceding industrialization and the decades during industrialization. A
Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens
This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...... comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. We find that intergenerational earnings mobility is found to be substantially lower when hourly wage rates rather than annual earnings are used, whether the latter are inclusive or exclusive of public transfers. Moreover, when the same specifications...... are applied for Denmark as for other countries, we find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found to be higher than in the United Kingdom...
Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko
The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11years later. High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (β=-0.127, p=0.001). The optimism×maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (β=-0.588, p=0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism × maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background The evidence regarding the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cement is controversial. This study investigated causes of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract among cement workers. Methods The deaths of the Greek Cement Workers Compensation Scheme were analyzed covering the period 1969-1998. All respiratory, lung, laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer proportionate mortality were calculated for cement production, maintenance, and office workers in the cement industry. Mortality from urinary bladder cancer was used as an indirect indicator of the confounding effect of smoking. Results Mortality from all respiratory cancer was significantly increased in cement production workers (PMR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.33). The proportionate mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated (PMR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 2.52). A statistically significant increase in proportionate mortality due to respiratory (PMR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.34). and lung cancer (PMR = 1.67;95% CI = 1.15-2.34) among maintenance workers has been observed. The PMR among the three groups of workers (production, maintenance, office) did differ significantly for lung cancer (p = 0.001), while the PMR for urinary bladder cancer found to be similar among the three groups of cement workers. Conclusion Cement production, and maintenance workers presented increased lung and respiratory cancer proportionate mortality, and this finding probably cannot be explained by the confounding effect of smoking alone. Further research including use of prospective cohort studies is needed in order to establish a causal association between occupational exposure to cement and risk of lung cancer. PMID:22738120
To estimate the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in total and effective fertility among women in a group of 46 contemporary developing countries. Information collected from 93,000 women aged 45-49 for estimation of maternal mortality in the demographic and health surveys (DHS) program is analyzed using Pearson product moment intergenerational fertility correlations. A positive but usually small intergenerational correlation is found for both completed fertility (CFS, total number of children born) and effective fertility (EFS, number of children surviving to age of reproduction). Although the developing countries are mainly located in sub-Saharan Africa, a similar pattern appears to hold for the Asian and Latin American countries included. Women in the second generation with no education have a stronger relationship with their parents' fertility than women with some education. The relationship is also stronger in rural than in urban areas and in countries with lower levels of development. Intergenerational correlations of completed fertility in both generations are marginally stronger than for effective fertility largely because the number of a woman's total sibs is more strongly related to her subsequent childbearing than her number of adult sibs. Values of intergenerational correlations for these countries are similar to published values for a number of Western pretransitional populations, but well below values in contemporary developed societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Albuquerque, Paula C.
The rapid ageing of the population, particularly in the developed world, accentuates the importance of both the family and of private intergenerational transfers, whether this be due to the longer periods of coexistence resulting from longer life expectancy or the threat posed to the very sustainability of the welfare state. While the magnitude of intergenerational transfers is well documented, and the motives underlying them have received broad attention, we focus on a much less studied top...
Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens
This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...
Nicholas L. Holt
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1 How has active free play changed across three generations? (2 What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Methods Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Results Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. Conclusions These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.
Catherine A. Solheim
Full Text Available This study explored how Mexican transnational families maintain intergenerational relationships, using five of the dimensions of the intergenerational solidarity framework. Interview data from 13 adult migrant children who lived in the U.S. and their parents who lived in Mexico were analyzed. Structural solidarity was challenged by great distance between families. Families maintained associational solidarity by making contact frequently, though visiting was often restricted by lack of documentation. Functional solidarity was expressed through financial support to parents. This involved remittances sent to parents. However, it should be noted that it was often migrants’ siblings in Mexico who managed these remittances. Affectual solidarity was expressed through statements of love and concern for one another. Normative solidarity and consensual solidarity reflected the value of familismo through financial support and the desire to live together. Several dimensions of intergenerational solidarity are interconnected. This study provides evidence for the relevance of the intergenerational solidarity framework in transnational families and suggests that geographic context is relevant when studying intergenerational relationships.
Rosebrook, Vicki; Haley, Hollie; Larkin, Elizabeth
As the demand for quality intergenerational care increases, it is imperative that intergenerational care providers exhibit developmentally appropriate practice across the lifespan. This paper defines intergenerational programming and discusses the emergence of intergenerational studies as integrating the fields of early childhood education and…
Full text: Institutions of higher education and universities have been at the forefront of intergenerational knowledge transfer. Their role has gone through evolution and several ideas of the university co-exist. Factors like the squeeze on public funding of higher education across nations, exhortation by governments to value work-based learning as a part of higher education and demand for graduates ready to start working immediately on joining a workplace, are making it necessary to further evolve the classical approach towards intergenerational knowledge transfer. The paper presents a framework that has been evolved in India to meet the requirements of intergenerational knowledge transfer. It essentially integrates a workplace and a university in a single entity similar to the practice in medical education. (author
Better-educated parents generally have children who are themselves better educated, healthier, wealthier, and better off in almost every way than the children of the less educated. But this simple correlation does not prove that the relationship is causal. Neeraj Kaushal sifts through the evidence from economics and public policy and reviews large national and international studies to conclude that, indeed, education has large intergenerational payoffs in many areas of children's lives, and that these payoffs persist over time. Kaushal shows that, if anything, traditional measures of returns to education--which focus on income and productivity--almost certainly underestimate the beneficial effects that parents' education has on their children. She reports causal positive effects not only on children's test scores, health, and behavior, but also on mothers' behaviors that can affect their children's wellbeing, such as teenage childbearing and substance use. Her findings suggest that, as a component of two-generation programs, helping parents extend their education could go a long way toward reducing inequality across generations and promoting children's healthy development. Thus the rationale for two-generation programs that boost parents' education is compelling. However, Kaushal cautions, the U.S. education system reinforces socioeconomic inequality across generations by spending more money on educating richer children than on educating poorer children. By themselves, then, two-generation programs will not necessarily ameliorate the structural factors that perpetuate inequality in this country.
In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in
Intergenerational changes in fertility in Poland are analyzed using data from a 1977 sample survey of 38,600 women. The author notes that total fertility declined from 4.4 to 2.5 within the space of two generations. An analysis of fertility is presented by various characteristics of females, including age group, education, duration of marriage, and economic status.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of intergenerational learning as a way for organizations to deal with an ageing worker population in a positive and constructive way. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a thematic synthesis of qualitative literature and considers all types of sources including quantitative…
dr. Donald Ropes
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of intergenerational learning as a way for organizations to deal with an ageing worker population in a positive and constructive way. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs a thematic synthesis of qualitative literature and
Polat, Soner; Kazak, Ender
The purpose of this study is to determine the views of primary school teachers on intergenerational learning (IGL). The study group consists of eight primary schools in the central district of Düzce during the 2013-2014 academic year and 13 teachers who teach in these schools. Participants were selected among teachers working in Düzce's city…
van de Weijer, S.G.A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Blokland, A.A.J.
The current study examines the intergenerational transmission and concentration of violent offending using conviction data of 3,440 persons from three consecutive generations from the Dutch Transfive study. Violent offending is more concentrated within nuclear families than non-violent offending,
Vieira, Sacha; Sousa, Liliana
The ageing of the European population is creating a new demographic mix, increasing the relevance of intergenerational practice (IGP). To date, however, this field lacks an appropriate conceptual framework. This study aims to contribute to such a framework through an integrative review of peer-reviewed papers reporting on IGPs. Fifteen papers were…
Heijdra, B.J.; Kooiman, J.P.; Ligthart, J.E.
The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects and intergenerational welfare consequences of environmental taxes. To this end, environmental externalities are introduced in a Blanchard-Yaari overlapping generations model of a small open economy. A rise in environmental taxes - taking into account
Ota, Hiroshi; McCann, Robert M.; Honeycutt, James M.
This study compared Japanese and Thai younger adults' intra- and intergenerational communication. Both groups linearly increased communicative respect and avoidance, beliefs about politeness, and deference norms as interlocutors got older (from young to middle-aged to older adult). Cross-culturally, the Thais reported more respectful communication…
Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila
In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.
Andersen, Torben M.; Gestsson, Marias Halldór
develop an overlapping-generations model in continuous time that encompasses different generations with different mortality rates and thus longevity. Allowing for trend increases in both longevity and productivity, we address the normative issue of intergenerational equity under a utilitarian criterion...
Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lovegrove, Peter J
A life-course perspective was used to examine whether a parent's adolescent antisocial behaviour increases the chances of his or her child being involved in antisocial behaviour and, if so, the extent to which different aspects of parenting mediate this relationship. It was hypothesised that there will be significant levels of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behaviour when parents have ongoing contact with the child, and that stress from parenting and ineffective parenting styles will mediate this relationship. Longitudinal data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study were used to test these issues in structural equation models for fathers and for mothers. Parental antisocial behaviour is significantly related to child antisocial behaviour for mothers and for fathers who have frequent contact with the child, but not for fathers with infrequent contact. For mothers, the impact of adolescent antisocial behaviour on the child's antisocial behaviour is primarily mediated through parenting stress and effective parenting. For high-contact fathers there are multiple mediating pathways that help explain the impact of their adolescent antisocial behaviour on their child's behaviour. The roots of antisocial behaviour extend back at least to the parent's adolescence, and parenting interventions need to consider these long-term processes.
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.
We investigated the influence of the child's behavior on the quality of the mutual parent-child attachment relationships across three generations. We did so using a prospective longitudinal study which spanned 20 years from adolescence through adulthood. Study participants completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of…
Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.
Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the
Krishnan, Suneeta; Subbiah, Kalyani; Khanum, Sajida; Chandra, Prabha S; Padian, Nancy S
A growing body of literature has documented the global prevalence of domestic violence against women of reproductive age as well as the association between violence and an array of adverse reproductive, psychosocial, and child health outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research on domestic violence prevention interventions in the peer-reviewed literature to guide program planning and policy-making efforts. In this article, the authors describe the development and assessment of the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an intergenerational women's empowerment-based intervention to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes in low-income urban communities in Southern India.
Pakistan, a late starter in fertility transition, has been experiencing a rapid fertility decline since 1990. Although existing research often presents patriarchal family systems as a major reason for the delay of the onset of this transition, there is no empirical study investigating the transformations in these family systems or intrafamilial power relationships during the ongoing transition. Published research also often fails to reflect the complex nature and processes behi...
Coppock, E.; Dobson, D.; Fair, M.
An epidemiological cohort study of some 300,000 Canadians enrolled in the National Dose Registry (NDR) is being undertaken to determine if there is excess cancer or other causes of mortality among those workers who are occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The results of this study may provide better understanding of the dose-response relationship for low doses of ionizing radiation and aid in the verification of risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality. The Department of National Health and Welfare (DNHW) is responsible for the Registry; this study is being carried out by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices (BRMD) with financial assistance and co-operation of various agencies including Statistics Canada and the Atomic Energy Control Board
Silver, Michelle Pannor; Williams, Sarah A
Some professions foster expectations that individuals cultivate their work identity above all other aspects of life. This can be problematic when individuals are confronted with the expectation that they will readily terminate this identity in later-career stages as institutions seek to cycle in new generations. This study examines the relationship between work identity and retirement by examining multiple generations of academic physicians. This study used a multimethod qualitative design that included document analysis, participant observation, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with academic physicians from one of the oldest departments of medicine in North America. This study illustrates how participants were predisposed and then groomed through institutional efforts to embrace a career trajectory that emphasized work above all else and fostered negative sensibilities about retirement. Participants across multiple generations described a lack of work-life balance and a prioritization of their careers above nonwork commitments. Assertions that less experienced physicians were not as dedicated to medicine and implicit assumptions that later-career physicians should retire emerged as key concerns. Strong work identity and tensions between different generations may confound concerns about retirement in ways that complicate institutional succession planning and that demonstrate how traditional understandings of retirement are out of date. Findings support the need to creatively reconsider the ways we examine relations between work identity, age, and retirement in ways that account for the recent extensions in the working lives of professionals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Weinstein, Philip; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn
Rural, low-income pregnant women and their children are at high risk for poor oral health and have low utilization rates of dental care. The Baby Smiles study was designed to increase low-income pregnant women's utilization of dental care, increase young children's dental care utilization, and improve home oral health care practices. Baby Smiles was a five-year, four-site randomized intervention trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Four hundred participants were randomly assigned to one of four treatment arms in which they received either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or health education (HE) delivered during pregnancy and after the baby was born. In the prenatal study phase, the interventions were designed to encourage dental utilization during pregnancy. After childbirth, the focus was to utilize dental care for the infant by age one. The two primary outcome measures were dental utilization during pregnancy or up to two months postpartum for the mother, and preventive dental utilization by 18 months of age for the child. Medicaid claims data will be used to assess the primary outcomes. Questionnaires were administered at enrollment and 3, 9 and 18 months postpartum (study end) to assess mediating and moderating factors. This trial can help define the most effective way to provide one-on-one counseling to pregnant women and new mothers regarding visits to the dentist during pregnancy and after the child is born. It supports previous work demonstrating the potential of reducing mother-to-child transmission of Streptococcus mutans and the initiation of dental caries prevention in early childhood. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01120041.
Næss, Marit; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Langaas, Mette; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Kvaløy, Kirsti
The main aim of this study was to examine weight associations between parents and offspring at two time points: 1995-97 and 2006-08, taking into account body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The study included 8425 parent-offspring trios who participated in the population based Health Study of Nord Trøndelag (the HUNT Study), Norway, at either the HUNT2 (1995-97) or the HUNT3 (2006-08) survey. We used linear mixed effects models with siblings clustered within mothers to analyze the associations between 1) parental grouped BMI and offspring BMI z-scores and 2) parental grouped waist circumference and offspring waist circumference z-scores. Adolescent and adult overweight and obesity were higher in 2006-08 than in 1995-97, with the greatest increase observed in waist circumference. Both mother's and father's BMI and waist circumference were strongly associated with corresponding measures in offspring. Compared with both parents being normal weight (BMI obese parents (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was associated with a higher offspring BMI z-score of 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.64 (95% CI; 0.48, 0.80) in daughters, and 0.76 (95% CI; 0.65, 0.87) and 0.69 (95% CI; 0.53, 0.80) in sons, in 1995-97 and 2006-08 respectively. Offspring with one parent being overweight/obese had BMI z-scores of approximately half of offspring with two parents categorized as overweight/obese. The results of the waist circumference based analyses did not differ substantially from the BMI based analyses. Parental overweight was strongly positively associated with offspring weight both in 1995-97 and 2006-08 where both parents being overweight/obese gave the largest effect. This seemingly stable association, strongly address the importance of public health initiatives towards preventing obesity in parents of both sexes to decrease further obesity expansion in offspring.
The main objective of this study was to examine the intergenerational learning behaviour within the family between Generation X parents and their Generation Y teenage children. This study was designed to investigate the nature of intergenerational knowledge exchange, to identify the characteristics of learning behaviour and culture in such 'learning families', and to find out the subject areas that parents could learn from their teenage children. The sample of this study was made up of t...
This study contrasts two theoretical perspectives on the relationship between intergenerational class mobility and child-rearing values. According to the dissociative thesis, which describes social mobility as a disruptive experience leading to insecurity, social isolation, stress and frustration,
Visser, Sanne Siete; Hutter, Inge; Haisma, Hinke
The growing rates of (childhood) obesity worldwide are a source concern for health professionals, policy-makers, and researchers. The increasing prevalence of associated diseases-such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and psychological problems-shows the impact of obesity on people's health, already from a young age. In turn, these problems have obvious consequences for the health care system, including higher costs. However, the treatment of obesity has proven to be difficult, which makes prevention an important goal. In this study, we focus on food practices, one of the determinants of obesity. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that interventions designed to encourage healthy eating of children and their families are not having the desired impact, especially among groups with a lower socioeconomic background (SEB). To understand why interventions fail to have an impact, we need to study the embedded social and cultural constructions of families. We argue that we need more than just decision-making theories to understand this cultural embeddedness, and to determine what cultural and social factors influence the decision-making process. By allowing families to explain their cultural background, their capabilities, and their opportunities, we will gain new insights into how families choose what they eat from a complex set of food choices. We have thus chosen to build a framework based on Sen's capability approach and the theory of cultural schemas. This framework, together with a holistic ethnographic research approach, can help us better understand what drives the food choices made in families. The framework is built to serve as a starting point for ethnographic research on food choice in families, and could contribute to the development of interventions that are embedded in the cultural realities of the targeted groups. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Matijasevich, Alicia; Mola, Christian Loret de; Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G
We examined the associations between socioeconomic trajectories from birth to adulthood and gestational age and birth size in the next generation, using linked data from two population-based birth cohorts carried out in a Brazilian city. By comparing socioeconomic trajectories of mothers and fathers, we attempted to identify-specific effects of maternal and paternal socioeconomic trajectory on offspring birth weight, birth length, head circumference and gestational age at birth. 2 population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in 1982 and 2004 in Pelotas (Brazil); 156 mothers and 110 fathers from the earlier cohort had children in 2004. Gestational age and birth length, weight and head circumference were measured. Analyses were carried out separately for mothers and fathers. Mediation analyses assessed the role of birth weight and adult body mass index (BMI). Among mothers, but not for fathers, childhood poverty was strongly associated with smaller size in the next generation (about 400 g in weight and 1.5 cm in height) and shorter gestations (about 2 weeks). Adult poverty did not play a role. For mothers, the associations with gestational age, birth length and weight-but not with head circumference-persisted after adjusting for maternal birth weight and for the height and weight of the grandmother. Maternal birth weight did not mediate the observed associations, but high maternal BMI in adulthood was partly responsible for the association with gestational age. Strong effects of early poverty on gestational age and birth size in the next generation were observed among mothers, but not among fathers. These findings suggest a specific maternal effect of socioeconomic trajectory, and in particular of early poverty on offspring size and duration of pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie
To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Proband periodontal examination [combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26 to 32] and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents' self-reported periodontal disease. Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 1+ sites with 4+mm CAL [relative risk (RR) 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.88], 2+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-2.05), 1+ sites with 5+mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02-2.50), and 1+ sites with 3+mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.01-2.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual's periodontal status, and may help to predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Shearer, Dara M; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie
Objective To determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring. Methods Proband periodontal examination (combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from ages 26–32) and interview data were collected during the age-32 assessments in the Dunedin Study. Parental data were also collected. The sample was divided into two familial-risk groups for periodontal disease (high- and low-risk) based on parents’ self-reported periodontal disease. Results Periodontal risk analysis involved 625 proband-parent(s) groups. After controlling for confounding factors, the high-familial-risk periodontal group was more likely to have 1+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.11–1.88), 2+ sites with 4+mm CAL (RR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03–2.05), 1+ sites with 5+mm CAL (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.02–2.50) and 1+ sites with 3+mm incident CAL (RR 1.64; 95% CI 1.01–2.66) than the low-familial-risk group. Predictive validity was enhanced when information was available from both parents. Conclusions Parents with poor periodontal health tend to have offspring with poor periodontal health. Family/parental history of oral health is a valid representation of the shared genetic and environmental factors that contribute to an individual’s periodontal status, and may help predict patient prognosis and preventive treatment need. PMID:21281332
Ruggera, Lucia; Barone, Carlo
This article assesses how processes of social closure enhance intergenerational immobility in the regulated professions and thus promote persistence at the top of the occupational hierarchy. We compare four European countries (GB, Germany, Denmark and Sweden) that differ considerably in their degree of professional regulation and in their broader institutional arrangements. We run log-linear and logistic regression models on a cumulative dataset based on three large-scale surveys with detailed and highly comparable information at the level of unit occupations. Our analyses indicate that children of licensed professionals are far more likely to inherit the occupation of their parents and that this stronger micro-class immobility translates into higher chances of persistence in the upper class. These results support social closure theory and confirm the relevance of a micro-class approach for the explanation of social fluidity and of its cross-national variations. Moreover, we find that, when children of professionals do not reproduce the micro-class of their parents, they still display disproportionate chances of persistence in professional employment. Hence, on the one hand, processes of social closure erect barriers between professions and fuel micro-class immobility at the top. On the other hand, the cultural proximity of different professional groups drives intense intergenerational exchanges between them. Our analyses indicate that these micro- and meso-class rigidities work as complementary routes to immobility at the top. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.
Age is the only social category identifying subgroups that everyone may eventually join. Despite this, and despite the well-known growth of the older population, age-based prejudice remains an under-studied topic in social psychology. This paper systematically reviews the literature on ageism, highlighting extant research on its consequences and theoretical perspectives on its causes. We then identify a crucial gap in the literature: potential intergenerational tensions, speculating how a growing older population—and society’s efforts to accommodate it—might stoke intergenerational fires, particularly among the younger generation. Presenting both sides of this incipient issue, we review relevant empirical work that introduces reasons for both optimism and pessimism concerning intergenerational relations within an aging society. We conclude by suggesting future avenues for ageism research, emphasizing the importance of understanding forthcoming intergenerational dynamics for the benefit of the field and broader society. PMID:22448913
Mayer, Boris; Schwarz, Beate; Trommsdorff, Gisela
How is adolescents’ willingness for intergenerational support affected by parents’ expectations and parenting behavior? Does youths’ willingness for intergenerational support in turn affect parents’ well-being? The current study addresses these questions from a cross-cultural perspective, using data from connected samples of mother-adolescent dyads (N = 4162) from 14 diverse cultural contexts as part of the “Value of Children and Intergenerational Relations Study” (Trommsdorff & Nauck, 2005)....
This paper specifically examines intergenerational conflict and analyzes an overlapping generations model of public goods provision from the viewpoint of time-consistency. Public goods are financed through labor-income and capital-income taxation, thereby distorting savings and the labor supply. Taxes redistribute income across generations in the form of public goods. Under such a situation, there emerge dual intergenerational conflicts: the first is related to the amount of public goods and ...
Conceição Maria de Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: assess the implementation of child mortality surveillance in Recife/PE. Methods: an analytical evaluative study was conducted on its implementation. It was a single-case study that correlated degree of implementation with the of the result indicators surveillance. A logic model on this strategy and a matrix of indicators and judgments according to model components were drawn up. The degree of implementation was obtained from structure and process indicators and this was then correlated with result indicators, in a deductive approach based on intervention theory. Results: the structure approach presented superior results to the process in all evaluated components. This strategy was considered to have been partially implemented (75. 7%, however, the components of 'identification of deaths' (85.7%, 'epidemiological research' (88.1% and 'referral of proposals for promotion and health care and correction of official statistics' (95.8% were classified implemented. Regarding the relation of the degree of implantation of the surveillance and its results with the logical model, only one of the 17 indicators was considered inconsistent. Conclusions: this strategy was considered to have been partially implemented. The model of child mortality surveillance and its assessment were shown to be adequate for signaling the consistency of the interrelations between the activities proposed and the effects expected, and would be reproducible within other scenarios.
Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro
The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)
Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)
The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)
Kim, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)
Regarding intergenerational equity as prerequisite for sustainability, we derive an optimal investment rule for intergenerational equity from an optimization model allowing for capital accumulation and pollution. This rule provides a condition for intergenerational equity such that an economy maintains constant net value of investment the difference between the physical capital investment value and the environmental resource depletion(pollution) value. This rule is more generalized condition for intergenerational equity than the 'keep capital intact' rule suggested by Hartwick(1977) and Solow(1999), in a sense that this rule includes their condition as a special. Also, we expect this rule to offer an empirical measure of sustainability. In addition, we discuss a variety of recent environmental issues in practice, especially associated with the implications from the rule. (author). 13 refs.
Munk, Martin David
of outcome (PAO) and child age of outcome (CAO), particularly in respect to the latter. Indeed, depending on CAO (conditional on a fixed PAO), estimates for the 1962 cohort range from -0,14 (age 20) to 0,19 (age 50). Findings suggest that income measured at (roughly) age 35 or less reflect transitory income......We study Intergenerational Income Mobility over time. (we do not do earnings mobility, here). The results are very preliminary! Compared to other countries IIM seems to relatively high in Denmark (around 0.2), so IGE is small, but is IIM also stable over time? We show that the (unconditional......) intergenerational elasticity of parent-child income increases between 1962 and 1982, indicating a decrease in social mobility across the period. We have used the cohorts 1962, 1967, 1972, 1977 and 1982 in the analysis in the period 1980-2012. Estimates proved very sensitive to changes in the (average) parental age...
Tighe, Lauren A.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Zarit, Steven H.
Objectives. Studies of intergenerational relationship quality often include one or two generations. This study examined within-family differences and similarities or transmission of positive and negative relationship quality across three generations. Method. Participants included 633 middle-aged individuals (G2; 52% women, ages 40–60 years), 592 of their offspring (G3; 53% daughters; ages 18–41 years), and 337 of their parents (i.e., grandparents; G1; 69% women; ages 59–96 years). Results. Multilevel models revealed differences and similarities in relationship quality across generations. The oldest generation (G1) reported greater positive and less negative quality relationships than the middle (G2) and the younger (G3) generations. There was limited evidence of transmission. Middle-aged respondents who reported more positive and less negative ties with their parents (G1) reported more positive and less negative ties with their own children (G3). Grandmother (G1) reports of more positive relationship quality were associated with G3 reports of more positive relationship quality with G2. Discussion. Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis and only partially consistent with the theory of intergenerational transmission. Overall, this study suggests that there is greater within-family variability than similarities in how family members feel about one another. PMID:22628478
BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...
Sijbrands, E. J.; Westendorp, R. G.; Defesche, J. C.; de Meier, P. H.; Smelt, A. H.; Kastelein, J. J.
To estimate all cause mortality from untreated familial hypercholesterolaemia free from selection for coronary artery disease. Family tree mortality study. Large pedigree in Netherlands traced back to a single pair of ancestors in the 19th century. Subjects: All members of pedigree aged over 20
The objective of this study was to examine intergenerational eating patterns within two sets of families, those with an obese child and those with a normal weight child, and to assess the impact of intergenerational influences on children's eating. A qualitative study design was used, incorporating focus groups and semi-structured interviews.…
DeMichelis, Carey; Ferrari, Michel; Rozin, Tanya; Stern, Bianca
Although the psychological benefits of intergenerational learning environments have been well documented, no study has yet investigated wisdom as an outcome of intergenerational classroom engagement. In this study, Elders between the age 60-89 were recruited to participate in a high-school English classroom. We hypothesized that participating in…
Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A
Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most
Lawson, David M.; Gaushell, Harper
Compared intergenerational relationships of counselor trainees (n=125-232) and nonclinical sample (n=312-525). Counselor trainees reported healthier relationships with their parents and spouses concerning intergenerational triangulation, intergenerational intimidation and spousal fusion and less healthy relationships with spouses and children on…
Serlachius, Anna; Elovainio, Marko; Juonala, Markus; Shea, Steven; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura
Our aims were to assess whether offspring social support moderates the relationship between parental body mass index (BMI) and offspring BMI. A prospective design was used with an analytic sample of 1049 participants from Finland (the offspring) who were 35-50years old in 2012 when adulthood BMI was measured. Parental BMI was self-reported at baseline in 1980. Offspring social support was measured in 2007 when participants were 30-45years old. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine whether there was an interaction between parental BMI and offspring social support when predicting offspring BMI in adulthood. An analysis of simple slopes and multilevel growth curve modeling were used to further examine the interaction. The interaction between maternal BMI and offspring social support was significantly and negatively related to offspring BMI in adulthood (β=-0.068, R(2) change=0.005, p=0.015) in the fully adjusted model which also adjusted for parental occupational status and offspring depressive symptoms. The logistic regression supported these results, with the interaction between maternal overweight (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) and offspring social support negatively associated with offspring overweight in adulthood (odds ratio=0.74, 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.98). The growth curve analysis further demonstrated that high maternal BMI predicts more rapidly rising offspring BMI in those reporting low social support compared to high social support. Our results suggest that social support protects against the intergenerational transmission of obesity and therefore presents an important opportunity for obesity prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This manual is designed for high school teachers and students who plan to participate in intergenerational community service programs. Intergenerational community service is a powerful teaching tool that introduces problem solving and active learning while enhancing self-esteem. Four case studies describe what schools in Pennsylvania are doing to…
Ho, C. Y. Cherri
The purpose of this study is to examine intergenerational learning behaviour within ten Hong Kong families between Generation X parents and their Generation Y children. It tries to investigate intergenerational knowledge exchange, identify the characteristics of learning behaviour and culture in their "learning families". A narrative…
Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits
We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…
Foley, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive
Within the preceptorship model of clinical teaching/learning, the creation of a cohesive relationship between a preceptor and a nursing student highly influences the overall success of the experience. Invariably, preceptors and students tend to be of different generations and as such, there exists within this context the potential for generational misunderstandings and conflict. A phenomenological study guided by van Manen's approach to human science research was conducted. The aim of this study is to explore the phenomenon of preceptorship in the intergenerational context. A purposive sample of seven preceptors and seven nursing students was recruited from an undergraduate nursing program. The collective experience of all participants was illuminated through three key themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. In this article we focus on encountering conflict, a key subtheme of being challenged, and one that emerged from the participants' narratives. The study findings suggest that interpersonal conflict continues to be a reality in our profession, owing to which a collective effort must be made by nurse educators, practicing nurses, and nursing students to effect change and create a more cohesive culture. The findings have the potential to enhance generational understanding and foster a more cohesive culture in clinical practice settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The impact of globalization on contemporary post-modern society in the light of an aging population requires methods and techniques of education that are appropriate for young people and reflect (or accommodate intergenerational learning. The purpose of this paper is to analyse, through empirical research and study of literature, the context of the elderly who are too often marginalized and to show the impact of the knowledge of society based on the use of modern information and communication technologies, on intergenerational learning. The authors analyse some of the consequences of the demographic changes and highlight the role and importance of intergenerational learning and collaboration for sustainability, especially in the Slovenian ageing society. We identify the role and importance of intergenerational learning for coexistence of generations. In the analysis of the empirical data of the conducted research, we conclude that the effectiveness of the knowledge society is influenced by both: the globalization processes and the intergenerational integration, as well as (and in particular the cultural capital of younger generations and, last, but not least, the willingness of all generations to participate in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge.
I present the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 OECD member states. The unit of analysis is countries, and the IJI is a macro-level snapshot linked......) the ecological footprint created by all generations alive today; (2) early-life starting conditions as measured by child poverty levels; and (3) the economic and fiscal burdens on the shoulders of currently young generations as measured by public debt levels per child. The fourth IJI dimension measures policy...
Silverwood, Richard J.; Pierce, Mary; Nitsch, Dorothea; Mishra, Gita D.; Kuh, Diana
Purpose Greater levels of leisure-time or moderate-vigorous physical activity have consistently been found in those with greater socioeconomic position (SEP). Less is known about the effects of intergenerational social mobility. Methods We examined the influence of SEP and social mobility on mid-adulthood physical activity in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Two sub-domains of SEP were used: occupational class and educational attainment. Latent classes for walking, cycling, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were used, plus sedentary behavior at age 36. Associations between types of physical activity and SEP were examined with the use of logistic or multinomial logistic regression. Results Being a manual worker oneself or having a father who was a manual worker was, relative to nonmanual work, associated with lower levels of sedentary behavior and greater walking activity, but also with lower LTPA. Compared with those who remained in a manual occupational class, upward occupational mobility was associated with more sedentary behavior, less walking, and increased LTPA. Associations with downward mobility were in the opposite directions. Similar results were obtained for educational attainment. Conclusions This study found clear evidence of social differences in physical activity. Persistently high SEP and upward social mobility were associated with greater levels of LTPA but also increased sedentary behavior and less walking. PMID:22534178
Martorell, Reynaldo; Zongrone, Amanda
Intergenerational effects on linear growth are well documented. Several generations are necessary in animal models to 'wash out' effects of undernutrition, consistent with the unfolding of the secular trend in height in Europe and North America. Birthweight is correlated across generations and short maternal stature, which reflects intrauterine and infant growth failure, is associated with low birthweight, child stunting, delivery complications and increased child mortality, even after adjusting for socio-economic status. A nutrition intervention in Guatemala reduced childhood stunting; it also improved growth of the next generation, but only in the offspring of girls. Possible mechanisms explaining intergenerational effects on linear growth are not mutually exclusive and include, among others, shared genetic characteristics, epigenetic effects, programming of metabolic changes, and the mechanics of a reduced space for the fetus to grow. There are also socio-cultural factors at play that are important such as the intergenerational transmission of poverty and the fear of birthing a large baby, which leads to 'eating down' during pregnancy. It is not clear whether there is an upper limit for impact on intrauterine and infant linear growth that programmes in developing countries could achieve that is set by early childhood malnutrition in the mother. Substantial improvements in linear growth can be achieved through adoption and migration, and in a few selected countries, following rapid economic and social development. It would seem, despite clear documentation of intergenerational effects, that nearly normal lengths can be achieved in children born to mothers who were malnourished in childhood when profound improvements in health, nutrition and the environment take place before conception. To achieve similar levels of impact through public health programmes alone in poor countries is highly unlikely. The reality in poor countries limits the scope, quality and
This paper will focus on intergenerational digital games between grandparents and their grandchildren, which could enhance not only their physical and social well-being but also social bonding between them. This is a topic which has been neglected in digital game research. Therefore, after having
Nathanson, Paul S.
The case for intergenerational programs based on political and moral imperatives is explored. From a political standpoint, organizations for the aging can benefit by demonstrating commitment to child welfare. From a moral standpoint, the organized aging community should provide leadership and support for general social betterment, advocating…
Leve, Leslie D; Khurana, Atika; Reich, Emily B
Despite the commonly held belief that there is a high degree of intergenerational continuity in maltreatment, studies to date suggest a mixed pattern of findings. One reason for the variance in findings may be related to the measurement approach used, which includes a range of self-report and official indicators of maltreatment and both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This study attempted to shed light on the phenomenon of intergenerational continuity of maltreatment by examining multiple indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adults and multiple risk factors across different levels within an individual's social ecology. The sample included 166 women who had been placed in out-of-home care as adolescents (>85% had a substantiated maltreatment incident) and followed into young adulthood, and included three waves of adolescent data and six waves of young adult data collected across 10 years. The participants were originally recruited during adolescence as part of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of the Treatment Foster Care Oregon intervention. Analyses revealed weak to modest associations among the three indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood, that is, official child welfare records, self-reported child welfare system involvement, and self-reported maltreatment (r = .03-.51). Further, different patterns of prediction emerged as a function of the measurement approach. Adolescent delinquency was a significant predictor of subsequent self-reported child welfare contact, and young adult partner risk was a significant predictor of perpetration of maltreatment as indexed by both official child welfare records and self-reported child welfare contact. In addition, women who were originally assigned to the intervention condition reported perpetrating less maltreatment during young adulthood. Implications for measurement and interventions related to reducing the risk for intergenerational transmission of risk
Greene, Tom; Depner, Thomas A.; Levin, Nathan W.; Chertow, Glenn M.
Summary Background and objectives In the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study, observed small decreases in achieved equilibrated Kt/Vurea were noncausally associated with markedly increased mortality. Here we examine the association of mortality with modeled volume (Vm), the denominator of equilibrated Kt/Vurea. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Parameters derived from modeled urea kinetics (including Vm) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained monthly in 1846 patients. Case mix–adjusted time-dependent Cox regressions were used to relate the relative mortality hazard at each time point to Vm and to the change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. Mixed effects models were used to relate Vm to changes in intradialytic systolic BP and to other factors at each follow-up visit. Results Mortality was associated with Vm and change in Vm over the preceding 6 months. The association between change in Vm and mortality was independent of vascular access complications. In contrast, mortality was inversely associated with V calculated from anthropometric measurements (Vant). In case mix–adjusted analysis using Vm as a time-dependent covariate, the association of mortality with Vm strengthened after statistical adjustment for Vant. After adjustment for Vant, higher Vm was associated with slightly smaller reductions in intradialytic systolic BP and with risk factors for mortality including recent hospitalization and reductions in serum albumin concentration and body weight. Conclusions An increase in Vm is a marker for illness and mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21511841
Bernal, Jeronimo Gonzalez; Anuncibay, Raquel de la Fuente
Intergenerational relationships established between grandparents and grandchildren have aroused great scientific interest in recent years. It is true that, nowadays, different studies have been conducted in which the typology of these relationships has been researched. Studies have used variables such as intra- and interindividual styles in the…
Abraham, Alison G; Gange, Stephen J; Rawleigh, Susan B; Glass, Larry R; Springer, Gayle; Samet, Jonathan M
This cohort study examined the effects of occupational exposure to toner, a particulate material with widespread use in today's society, on mortality. The study included 33,671 employees of a xerographic company employed between 1960 and 1982 as manufacturing workers or customer service engineers. Vital status was tracked through 1999. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the US population for comparison. All-cause SMRs for toner-exposed populations were 0.65 and 0.84 for White men and women, respectively, and 0.37 and 0.74 for non-White men and women, respectively. SMRs for all cancers, lung cancer, respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease in toner-exposed men were lower than 1.0. Results are consistent with general mortality patterns among healthy working populations. There was no evidence that toner exposure increases the risk of all-cause mortality or cause-specific mortality for the 23 categories of death analyzed.
Kuo, Pei-An; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Graumann, Peter L; Tu, Jenn
Phosphate is an essential nutrient for heterotrophic bacteria, affecting bacterioplankton in aquatic ecosystems and bacteria in biofilms. However, the influence of phosphate limitation on bacterial competition and biofilm development in multispecies populations has received limited attention in existing studies. To address this issue, we isolated 13 adhesive bacteria from paper machine aggregates. Intergeneric inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa WW5 by Serratia marcescens WW4 was identified under phosphate-limited conditions, but not in Luria–Bertani medium or M9 minimal medium. The viable numbers of the pure S. marcescens WW4 culture decreased over 3 days in the phosphate-limited medium; however, the mortality of S. marcescens WW4 was significantly reduced when it was co-cultured with P. aeruginosa WW5, which appeared to sustain the S. marcescens WW4 biofilm. In contrast, viable P. aeruginosa WW5 cells immediately declined in the phosphate-limited co-culture. To identify the genetic/inhibitory element(s) involved in this process, we inserted a mini-Tn5 mutant of S. marcescens WW4 that lacked inhibitory effect. The results showed that an endonuclease bacteriocin was involved in this intergeneric inhibition by S. marcescens WW4 under phosphate limitation. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of nutrient limitation in bacterial interactions and provides a strong candidate gene for future functional characterisation. PMID:23398522
Huang, Helai; Yin, Qingyi; Schwebel, David C; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing
Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China's road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China.
ABSTRACT The built environment can be structured to encourage or discourage social interaction and can have effects on children's cognitive, social, and emotional development as well as effects on elder's health and well-being. Knowing the profound influence of the built environment on elders (Garin, et al., 2014) and children (Bradford, 2012), the design of intergenerational spaces therefore has the potential to influence the interaction between elders and children engaged in intergenerat...
Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H
Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.
Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene
Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009-2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore, implementing intervention
Background Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. Methods The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009–2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore
Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia
A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
O'Brien, Helen G.
The research on child developmental outcomes underscores the importance of exploring parenting styles and identifying their multifactorial and intergenerational influences. This descriptive study examined the individual parenting styles of a sample of 82 Irish immigrant mothers and investigated the factors that influenced their individual…
Schneebaum, Alyssa; Rumplmaier, Bernhard; Altzinger, Wilfried
We employ 2011 European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey data for Austria to perform uni- and multivariate econometric analyses to study the role of gender and migration background (MB) in intergenerational educational mobility. We find that there is more persistence in the educational attainment of girls relative to their…
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…
Despite the demonstrated importance of intergenerational ties across the life course, few studies examine relationships between gay men and lesbians and their later life parents and parents-in-law. The present study examines how midlife to later life gay men and lesbians in intimate partnerships conceptualize these intergenerational ties. Qualitative analysis of 50 in-depth interviews collected with midlife to later life gay men and lesbians (ages 40-72) in long-term intimate partnerships. Findings reveal 4 central ways respondents describe supportive parent-child and parent-child in-law relationships: integration, inclusion through language, social support, and affirmations. Findings reveal 3 central ways individuals distinguish strained parent-child and parent-child in-law relationships: rejection in everyday life, traumatic events, and the threat of being usurped. Findings further articulate how intergenerational ambivalence is distinguished through descriptions of a parent as simultaneously supportive (via subthemes of solidarity) and rejecting (via subthemes of strain). Findings from this study provide empirical evidence of how support, strain, and ambivalence in intergenerational ties are identified and experienced by gay men and lesbian women. This study reveals a new lens to view relationships between midlife to later life adults and their aging parents and parents-in-law and further identifies linkages between solidarity-conflict and ambivalence paradigms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Although the influence of the parental home on individual’s fertility is a well-established fact in social sciences, the mechanism behind this influence remains unclear. This study investigated the role of experiencing parental divorce during childhood and current intergenerational family
Daouli, Joan; Demoussis, Michael; Giannakopoulos, Nicholas
This study explores the role of intergenerational mobility in the educational attainments of Greek women. We use data from the most recent Greek Household Budget Survey and the last three Greek censuses (1981, 1991 and 2001). For analytical and estimation purposes we utilize mobility indicators, regression analysis, decomposition techniques and…
Mar 26, 2014 ... To facilitate molecular studies of Streptomyces mobaraensis producing transglutaminase, an effective transformation method was established via intergeneric conjugal transfer using Escherichia coli. ET12567 harboring the ØC31-derived integration vector, pSET152. The highest frequency was attained.
To facilitate molecular studies of Streptomyces mobaraensis producing transglutaminase, an effective transformation method was established via intergeneric conjugal transfer using Escherichia coli ET12567 harboring the ØC31-derived integration vector, pSET152. The highest frequency was attained on ISP4 medium ...
Woods-Jaeger, Briana A; Cho, Bridget; Sexton, Chris C; Slagel, Lauren; Goggin, Kathy
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including trauma exposure, parent mental health problems, and family dysfunction, put children at risk for disrupted brain development and increased risk for later health problems and mortality. These negative effects may be prevented by resilience promoting environments that include protective caregiving relationships. We sought to understand (1) parents' experiences of ACEs, (2) the perceived impact on parenting, (3) protective factors that buffer ACEs potential negative impact, and (4) supports and services that can reduce the number and severity of ACEs and promote resilience among children exposed to early adversity. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 11 low-income, urban parents of young children who had experienced ACEs. Interviews were analyzed for emergent themes and shared with parents from the community to ensure relevance and proper interpretation. Themes from these interviews describe the potential intergenerational cycle of ACEs and key factors that can break that cycle, including parent aspirations to make children's lives better and parent nurturance and support. Parents' suggestions for intervention are also presented. Our findings illuminate protective factors and family strengths that are important to build upon when developing and implementing interventions to promote resilience among parents and children exposed to early adversity. This study benefits from highly ecologically valid data obtained from low-socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minority parents through one-on-one in-depth interviews and interpreted with the aid of community stakeholders through a community-based participatory research approach.
This study investigates whether immigration affects the extent to which children of migrants are likelier to vote if their parents vote (and vice versa). It combines intergenerational transmission theories with migrant political participation theories. Existing studies of migration and
Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fan, Jing; Knutsen, Synnove; Beeson, W Lawrence; Fraser, Gary E
Some evidence suggests vegetarian dietary patterns may be associated with reduced mortality, but the relationship is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality. Prospective cohort study; mortality analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a large North American cohort. A total of 96,469 Seventh-day Adventist men and women recruited between 2002 and 2007, from which an analytic sample of 73,308 participants remained after exclusions. Diet was assessed at baseline by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 5 dietary patterns: nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and vegan. The relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and all-cause and cause-specific mortality; deaths through 2009 were identified from the National Death Index. There were 2570 deaths among 73,308 participants during a mean follow-up time of 5.79 years. The mortality rate was 6.05 (95% CI, 5.82-6.29) deaths per 1000 person-years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97). The adjusted HR for all-cause mortality in vegans was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01); in lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00); in pesco-vegetarians, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94); and in semi-vegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.75-1.13) compared with nonvegetarians. Significant associations with vegetarian diets were detected for cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular noncancer mortality, renal mortality, and endocrine mortality. Associations in men were larger and more often significant than were those in women. Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered
Lushbaugh, C.C.; Fry, S.A.; Shy, C.M.; Frome, E.L.
Epidemiologic studies are being conducted of persons (approx. 600,000) employed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors since 1943 at approx. 80 facilities to determine whether health and mortality are affected by exposure to radiation, uranium, and other metals involved in development of nuclear materials. Historic cohort and nested case-control designs are used to identify excess mortality using the US population for comparison to determine whether certain jobs or environments are associated with increased risk of cancer mortality; and to identify any hazards involved. Procedures include routinized data collection and management and hazards assessment. Routine biostatistical methods have been extended to enable analyses to be made comparing mortality rates among more comparable populations than the US population at large. Such a comparative study has been completed of the mortality mortality experience of approx. 72,000 white male workers employed since 1943 at all four AEC/DOE facilities at Oak Ridge, TN. Results show that: age-specific death rates determined by Poisson-rate analysis follow the Gompertz-Makeham law. Mortality experience was different for each plant or facility and birth year subcohorts. Smoothed estimates of age-specific death rates from the Gompertz-Makeham model for five plant worker populations are presented and compared with US white male vital statistics
Full Text Available In Italy conditions at leaving home are characterized by high age at exit, high proximity with parents and widespread intergenerational support, showing important regional differences. According to the "familistic" approach such conditions spread from strong intergenerational ties. Proximity and support are considered proxies of ties' strength so that different regional proximity and support correspond to different ties' intensities. The study aims at analyzing similarities and differences about parent-child ties, proximity and support in selected Italian regions, Liguria, Umbria, Sicily and Sardinia. Results show important differences among regions with respect to proximity and support, suggesting different intensity of intergenerational ties.
Jan De Mol
Full Text Available Traditional approaches to the study of parent-child relationships view intergenerational transmission as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transfer their values, beliefs, and practices to their children. Furthermore, the focus of these unidirectional approaches regarding children's internalisation processes is on continuity or the transmission of similar values, beliefs, and practices from parents to children. Analogous unidirectional perspectives have also influenced the domain of family therapy. In this paper a cognitive-bidirectional and dialectical model of dynamics in parent-child relationships is discussed in which the focus is on continual creation of novel meanings and not just reproduction of old ones in the bidirectional transmission processes between parents and children. Parents and children are addressed as full and equally agents in their interdependent relationship, while these relational dynamics are embedded within culture. This cultural context complicates bidirectional transmission influences in the parent-child relationship as both parents and children are influenced by many other contexts. Further, current research in the domain of parent-child relationships and current concepts of intergenerational transmission in family therapy are reviewed from a bidirectional cognitive-dialectical perspective.
Gilman, Stephen E; Sucha, Ewa; Kingsbury, Mila; Horton, Nicholas J; Murphy, Jane M; Colman, Ian
Many studies have shown that depression increases mortality risk. We aimed to investigate the duration of time over which depression is associated with increased risk of mortality, secular trends in the association between depression and mortality, and sex differences in the association between depression and mortality. We conducted a cohort study of 3410 adults enrolled in 3 representative samples of a county in Atlantic Canada in 1952 ( n = 1003), 1970 ( n = 1203) or 1992 ( n = 1402) (the Stirling County Study). Depression was measured using a diagnostic algorithm based on the presence of depressed mood and associated symptoms, duration of more than 1 month, and substantial impairment. Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Depression was associated with a heightened risk of mortality among men during the 3 time periods of the study, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69-4.98) between 1952 and 1967, 1.97 (CI 1.34-2.89) between 1968 and 1990, and 1.52 (CI 1.09-2.13) between 1991 and 2011. Elevated risk of mortality was noted among women only between 1990 and 2011 (HR = 1.51; CI = 1.11-2.05). The association between depression and mortality persists over long periods of time and has emerged among women in recent decades, despite contemporaneous improvements in the treatment of depression and reduction of stigma associated with depression. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Ng, Irene Y. H.
International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…
Full Text Available The concept of intergenerational equity concerning intertemporal paths of consumption and capital accumulation is introduced and the analysis of the dynamic processes of capital accumulation and changes in environmental quality that are intergenerationally equitable is developed. The analysis is based upon the dynamic duality principles, as originally developed by Koopmans and Uzawa, and later extended to the case involving environmental quality.
This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing.
Thornberry, Terence P
There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see if a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior.
Thornberry, Terence P.
There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see if a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior. PMID:25308976
Mendes Karina Giane
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with infant mortality and, more specifically, with neonatal mortality. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, Southern Brazil. Characteristics of prenatal care and causes of mortality were assessed for all live births in the 2001-2002 period with a completed live-birth certificate and whose mothers lived in the municipality. Cases were defined as all deaths within the first year of life. As controls, there were selected the two children born immediately after each case in the same hospital, who were of the same sex, and did not die within their first year of life. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a reduction in infant mortality, the greatest reduction was observed in the post-neonatal period. The variables gestational age (<36 weeks, birth weight (<2,500 g, and 5-minute Apgar (<6 remained in the final model of the multivariate analysis, after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal conditions comprise almost the totality of neonatal deaths, and the majority of deaths occur at delivery. The challenge for reducing infant mortality rate in the city is to reduce the mortality by perinatal conditions in the neonatal period.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate mortality among 1247 male asbestos-cement workers employed in an asbestos-cement plant located in Naples. The cohort included 1247 men hired between 1950 and 1986. The follow-up began on January 1st 1965. The vital status and causes of death were ascertained up to December 31 2005. Cause-specific mortality rates of the Campania Region population were used as reference. Relative risks were estimated using Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs, and the confidence intervals were calculated at a 95% level (95% CI. A significant increase in mortality was observed for respiratory disease (81 deaths; SMR = 187; 95% CI = 149-233, particularly for pneumoconiosis (42 deaths; SMR = 13 313; 95% CI = 9595-17 996 of which 41 deaths for asbestosis (SMR = 43 385; 95% CI = 31 134-58 857, for pleural cancer (24 deaths; SMR = 2617; 95% CI = 1677-3893, for lung cancer (84 deaths; SMR=153; 95% CI = 122-189 and for peritoneal cancer (9 deaths; SMR = 1985; 95% CI = 908-3769. Non-significant increases were also observed for rectum cancer (6 deaths; SMR = 157; 95% CI = 58-342. In conclusion, consistently with other mortality studies on asbestos-cement workers performed in different countries, an increased mortality from asbestosis, lung cancer, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma was detected in the present cohort.
Meier, Sandra M.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben B.; Laursen, Thomas M.; Penninx, Brenda W.
Background Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. Aims To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. Method We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. Results In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years. The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20–2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had comorbid diagnoses of depression (MRR = 11.72, 95% CI 10.11–13.51). Conclusions Anxiety disorders significantly increased mortality risk. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders and depression played an important part in the increased mortality. PMID:27388572
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Epidemiological data pertaining to maternal mortality is valuable in each set up to design interventional programs to favourably reduce the ratio. This study was done to evaluate the maternal mortality rate in our hospital, to assess the causes of maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a longitudinal prospective study. Study group: consisting of 50 cases of maternal deaths. Study period: 13 months i.e., from November 2016 to November 2017. This study was carried out at Government general hospital Kakinada attached to Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada. RESULTS In this study, 10% maternal deaths seen in 1st trimester of pregnancy. 10% maternal deaths before delivery. 80% maternal deaths occurred after delivery. Among these, 60% maternal deaths after lower segment caesarean section. 20% maternal deaths after normal vaginal delivery. In this study, direct causes of maternal mortality 66%. Among these: preeclampsia - 15 cases (30%, Haemorrhage - 9 cases (18%, Infections – 4 cases (8%. Indirect causes of maternal mortality 34%. In these Anaemia – 4 cases (8%, Jaundice – 4 cases (8%. 60% maternal deaths are referral cases. CONCLUSION In our hospital, maternal mortality rate is 437 per 100,000 live births. It is very high because, in this center most of the cases. About 60% are referral cases from surrounding area. Unbooked cases are 74%. Most of cases about 70% cases are from rural area. Among these, 80% maternal deaths occurred after delivery. 60% maternal deaths occurred after lower segment caesarean section. 20% maternal deaths occurred after vaginal delivery. In this study 66% maternal deaths occurred because of direct cause. Among these Preeclampsia (15 cases - 30%, Haemorrhage (9 cases - 18%, Infection (4 cases - 8%. In our study indirect causes of maternal deaths 34%. Among these, anaemia (4 cases - 8%, jaundice (4 cases - 8%.
Benedictus, Marije R; Prins, Niels D; Goos, Jeroen D C; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M
Microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with the general elderly population. In addition, microbleeds have been found to predict mortality in AD. To investigate whether microbleeds in AD increase the risk for mortality, stroke (including intracerebral hemorrhage), and cardiovascular events. The MISTRAL (do MIcrobleeds predict STRoke in ALzheimer's disease) Study is a longitudinal cohort study within the memory clinic-based Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. We selected all patients with AD with a baseline visit between January 2, 2002, and December 16, 2009, and microbleeds (n = 111) and matched those (1:2) for age, sex, and magnetic resonance imaging scanner to 222 patients with AD without microbleeds. After a minimal follow-up of 3 years, information on all-cause mortality, stroke-related mortality, and cardiovascular mortality was obtained between November 1, 2012, and May 1, 2014. In addition, we obtained information on the occurrence of incident stroke or transient ischemic attack, cardiovascular events, and nursing home admittance. Stroke-related mortality, incident stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients had a mean (SD) age of 71.2 (7.8) years and 127 (42%) were female. Compared with having no microbleeds, microbleeds in lobar locations were associated with an increased risk for stroke-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 33.9; 95% CI, 2.5-461.7), whereas nonlobar microbleeds were associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR, 12.0; 95% CI, 3.2-44.7). In addition, lobar microbleeds were associated with an increased risk for incident stroke (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1) and nonlobar microbleeds with an increased risk for cardiovascular events (HR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.5-25.0). Even higher risks for incident stroke and cardiovascular events were found in patients using antithrombotic medication. All 5 patients with an intracerebral hemorrhage had lobar microbleeds at baseline; 4 of them used antithrombotics
The US older population is growing in ethnic diversity. Persistent ethnic disparities in service use among seniors are linked to structural barriers to access, and also to family processes such as cultural preferences and intergenerational relations. There is sparse information on the latter issue for immigrant ethnic minority seniors. Information on the Asian group (the fastest growing senior sub-population) is extremely scarce, due to this group's diversity in national, linguistic, and cultural origins. We conducted a qualitative study among community-dwelling Asian Indian families (including at least one member aged 60 years and older) in North Carolina to examine preferences of seniors and the midlife generation regarding elder care, and the role of intergenerational relations in desired care for elders, exploring the theoretical perspective of intergenerational relationship ambivalence. Our results suggest that cultural preferences, ambivalence in intergenerational relations, and regulations on health service eligibility among immigrant/transnational seniors and midlife adults influence preferences for elder care.
Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie
This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania......, that informal institutions of social control, rooted in tribal affiliations, determine both the household's investment in schooling and the probability that it receives remittances from migrants. This is consistent with a framework in which households' expected returns in the form of remittances, which...... is determined partly by the prospects of social control over migrants, influence current investments in schooling....
In this study, I used the growth curve model to examine the association between grandparents' (first generation (G1)) life-course exposure to chronic poverty and grandchildren's (third generation (G3)) body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) growth trajectories. This association was estimated separately for male and female grandchildren. Analyses were based on prospective data from a US longitudinal survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968-2011), and 2 of its supplemental studies: the Child Development Supplement (1997-2011) and the Transition into Adulthood Study (1997-2011). A prospectively enrolled nationally representative cohort of 2,613 G3 youth (1,323 male, 1,290 female) sampled in the 2 supplemental studies was linked to 1,719 grandparents from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics core sample. Chronic exposure to poverty among grandparents was prospectively ascertained annually over a 30-year period prior to the collection of data on grandchildren. Findings suggested that grandparents' chronic poverty exposure was positively associated with the slope of the BMI trajectory among granddaughters (β = 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.17) but not among grandsons (β = 0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.04, 0.08). The association between grandparents' chronic poverty exposure and granddaughters' BMI growth slope remained even after controlling for parental (second generation (G2)) socioeconomic status and BMI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hogerbrugge, Martijn J A; Komter, Aafke E
Research on family relations has extensively used the intergenerational solidarity model proposed by Bengtson and colleagues. Recently, the relevance of this model for explaining changes in family relations has been questioned, and the concept of intergenerational ambivalence has been proposed as a relevant addition to the model, supposedly acting as a catalyst, and thus serving as an explanation for changes in family relations. This study tests both the viability of the intergenerational solidarity model and the hypothesized effect of ambivalence employing longitudinal data. We use data from 2 waves of the Netherlands' Kinship Panel Study on parent-adult child relationships to estimate latent variable structural equation models. Affection, association, and support between family members are core, mutually reinforcing dimensions of solidarity. The hypothesis that ambivalence is a catalyst for change in family relations was not confirmed. Adding conflict separately revealed that it only affects the core solidarity dimensions but is itself, like normative and structural solidarity, not influenced by them. The relevance of the concept of intergenerational ambivalence for studying changes in family relations can be questioned. The viability of the intergenerational solidarity model is, however, confirmed. The concept of intergenerational ambivalence might be further explored in qualitative studies on family change.
Guo, Yuming; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Tobias, Aurelio; Lavigne, Eric; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Pan, Xiaochuan; Kim, Ho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D; Bell, Michelle L; Overcenco, Ala; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Li, Shanshan; Tian, Linwei; Saldiva, Paulo; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu
The evidence and method are limited for the associations between mortality and temperature variability (TV) within or between days. We developed a novel method to calculate TV and investigated TV-mortality associations using a large multicountry data set. We collected daily data for temperature and mortality from 372 locations in 12 countries/regions (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Japan, Moldova, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States). We calculated TV from the standard deviation of the minimum and maximum temperatures during the exposure days. Two-stage analyses were used to assess the relationship between TV and mortality. In the first stage, a Poisson regression model allowing over-dispersion was used to estimate the community-specific TV-mortality relationship, after controlling for potential confounders. In the second stage, a meta-analysis was used to pool the effect estimates within each country. There was a significant association between TV and mortality in all countries, even after controlling for the effects of daily mean temperature. In stratified analyses, TV was still significantly associated with mortality in cold, hot, and moderate seasons. Mortality risks related to TV were higher in hot areas than in cold areas when using short TV exposures (0-1 days), whereas TV-related mortality risks were higher in moderate areas than in cold and hot areas when using longer TV exposures (0-7 days). The results indicate that more attention should be paid to unstable weather conditions in order to protect health. These findings may have implications for developing public health policies to manage health risks of climate change. Guo Y, Gasparrini A, Armstrong BG, Tawatsupa B, Tobias A, Lavigne E, Coelho MS, Pan X, Kim H, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Guo YL, Wu CF, Zanobetti A, Schwartz JD, Bell ML, Overcenco A, Punnasiri K, Li S, Tian L, Saldiva P, Williams G, Tong S. 2016. Temperature variability and mortality: a multi
Andreas, Anna; White, Lars O; Sierau, Susan; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M
Despite the well-established link between parental depressive symptoms and children's internalizing symptoms, studies that divide transmission into gender-specific components remain scarce. Therefore, the present study focused on gender-specific associations between internalizing symptoms of parents and children over the course of early school age, a key stage where gender-specific roles are increasingly adopted. Participants were 272 children (49.6% girls) oversampled for internalizing symptoms. Parents completed questionnaires twice during early school age (mean age time 1 = 7.4 years; SD = 0.24; mean age time 2 = 8.5 years; SD = 0.28). Mothers and fathers separately reported on their own depressive symptoms and their child's internalizing symptoms. Latent multiple group analyses indicated gender-independent stability as well as gender-specific relations between parental and child outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with symptoms of girls and boys, while paternal symptoms were concurrently associated only with symptoms of boys, but not of girls. Moreover, the associations between children and the parent of the same gender became more relevant over time, suggesting a growing identification with the same-gender model, particularly for fathers and boys. In regard to prospective effects, girls' internalizing symptoms at age 7 predicted paternal depressive symptoms 1 year later. In a rigorous longitudinal design, this study underscores the importance of gender specificity in the associations of internalizing symptoms between children and their mothers and fathers after controlling for symptom stability over time. The study also raises the interesting possibility that girls' internalizing symptoms elicit similar symptoms in their fathers.
Harvin, John A; Maxim, Tom; Inaba, Kenji; Martinez-Aguilar, Myriam A; King, David R; Choudhry, Asad J; Zielinski, Martin D; Akinyeye, Sam; Todd, S Rob; Griffin, Russell L; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Bailey, Joanelle A; Livingston, David H; Cunningham, Kyle; Stein, Deborah M; Cattin, Lindsay; Bulger, Eileen M; Wilson, Alison; Undurraga Perl, Vicente J; Schreiber, Martin A; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Alam, Hasan B; Holcomb, John B
Two decades ago, hypotensive trauma patients requiring emergent laparotomy had a 40% mortality. In the interim, multiple interventions to decrease hemorrhage-related mortality have been implemented but few have any documented evidence of change in outcomes for patients requiring emergent laparotomy. The purpose of this study was to determine current mortality rates for patients undergoing emergent trauma laparotomy. A retrospective cohort of all adult, emergent trauma laparotomies performed in 2012 to 2013 at 12 Level I trauma centers was reviewed. Emergent trauma laparotomy was defined as emergency department (ED) admission to surgical start time in 90 minutes or less. Hypotension was defined as arrival ED systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤90 mm Hg. Cause and time to death was also determined. Continuous data are presented as median (interquartile range [IQR]). One thousand seven hundred six patients underwent emergent trauma laparotomy. The cohort was predominately young (31 years; IQR, 24-45), male (84%), sustained blunt trauma (67%), and with moderate injuries (Injury Severity Score, 19; IQR, 10-33). The time in ED was 24 minutes (IQR, 14-39) and time from ED admission to surgical start was 42 minutes (IQR, 30-61). The most common procedures were enterectomy (23%), hepatorrhaphy (20%), enterorrhaphy (16%), and splenectomy (16%). Damage control laparotomy was used in 38% of all patients and 62% of hypotensive patients. The Injury Severity Score for the entire cohort was 19 (IQR, 10-33) and 29 (IQR, 18-41) for the hypotensive group. Mortality for the entire cohort was 21% with 60% of deaths due to hemorrhage. Mortality in the hypotensive group was 46%, with 65% of deaths due to hemorrhage. Overall mortality rate of a trauma laparotomy is substantial (21%) with hemorrhage accounting for 60% of the deaths. The mortality rate for hypotensive patients (46%) appears unchanged over the last two decades and is even more concerning, with almost half of patients presenting
Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A
More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b) whether romantic relationship quality moderated the effect of childrearing history on observed parenting. Support for the first hypothesis emerged across all 3 developmental periods for mothers (only), with no evidence of moderating effects of romantic relationship quality for mothers or fathers. Results are discussed in terms of supportive versus harsh parenting, mother-father differences, and the characteristics of the sample.
Seyedeh Zahra Aemmi
Full Text Available One of the goals of education can be considered the transfer of knowledge, skills, competencies, wisdom, norms and values between generations. Intergenerational learning program provide this goal and opportunities for lifelong learning and sharing knowledge and experience between generations. This review aimed to investigate the benefits of this program for the children and older adult and its application in health care systems. An extensive literature search was conducted in some online databases such as Magiran, SID, Scopus, EMBASE, and Medline via PubMed until July 2016 and Persian and English language publications studied that met inclusion criteria. The review concluded that this program can be provided wonderful resources for the social and emotional growth of the children and older adults and can be used for caring, education and follow-up in health care systems especially by nurses. Also, this review highlighted the need for research about this form of learning in Iran.
Full Text Available Starting from the main criticalities that young and old people meet in contemporary labor markets, this article analyses the principle of solidarity between generations at work, in light of a multidisciplinary (especially sociological literature. This offers different conceptual lenses for understanding complex relationships in workplaces. They provide different ways to understand micro-level interpersonal relations and macro-level structural forces and the interactions between them, arriving to define which kind of solidarity may be realistically proposed in contemporary labor markets. Then, intergenerational relations are briefly collocated in European Union debate aiming to promote a cohesive society. In the second part, four country cases are presented to demonstrate how the matter of intergenerational relations has influenced recent labor reforms. Following van der Veen, Yerkes, and Achterberg, who found differences in the choice of justice principles and in the level of solidarity preferred by social groups living in different welfare regimes, to reduce the complexity of the analysis, countries belonging to the same welfare regime have been chosen. Finally, measures presented are critically discussed in the more general context of European labor market and social welfare crisis.
Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C
Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete
BACKGROUND: Birthweight has, in several studies, been associated with mortality in adult age, even after adjustment for available socioeconomic factors. This association has been explained as a biological result of fetal undernutrition (fetal programming), by genetic predisposition, as a result...... in relative risk of cause-specific mortality, and the heterogeneity in the association between birth dimensions and maternal and paternal mortality, respectively, indicate that several mechanisms (factors related to social position, common genetic factors, and specific organ programming) may account...
Sivertsen, Børge; Pallesen, Ståle; Glozier, Nick; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Salo, Paula; Tell, Grethe S; Ursin, Reidun; Øverland, Simon
Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality. Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40-45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR = 3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR = 4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR = 1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (insomnia in combination with normal/greater sleep duration was not associated with mortality. Insomnia was associated with a three-fold risk of mortality over 13-15 years follow-up. The risk appeared even higher in males or when insomnia was combined with short sleep duration, although such unadjusted subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. Establishing prevention strategies and low-threshold interventions should consequently be a prioritized task
Background Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality. Methods Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40–45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR = 3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR = 4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR = 1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (insomnia in combination with normal/greater sleep duration was not associated with mortality. Conclusions Insomnia was associated with a three-fold risk of mortality over 13-15 years follow-up. The risk appeared even higher in males or when insomnia was combined with short sleep duration, although such unadjusted subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. Establishing prevention strategies and low
Schram, Miranda T; Kostense, Pieter J; Van Dijk, Robert A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Bouter, Lex M; Heine, Robert J; Stehouwer, Coen D
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetic patients have an increased arterial stiffness and a very high risk of cardiovascular death. The present study investigated the relationship between pulse pressure, an indicator of vascular stiffness, and risk of cardiovascular mortality among type 2 diabetic and
Schram, M.T.; Kostense, P.J.; van Dijk, R.A.J.M.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.
Objective: Type 2 diabetic patients have an increased arterial stiffness and a very high risk of cardiovascular death. The present study investigated the relationship between pulse pressure, an indicator of vascular stiffness, and risk of cardiovascular mortality among type 2 diabetic and
Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne
This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…
Mai, Zhi-Ming; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Ching-Man; Wang, Man-Ping; Peto, Richard; Lam, Tai-Hing
The effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age). The LIMOR study sought the certified causes of all deaths in 1998, and interviewed 81% of families at death registries to determine the decedent's smoking history. Cases were deaths from pre-defined diseases of interest (N = 15 356); controls were deaths from pre-defined non-smoking-related diseases (N = 5023). Case vs control odds ratios for ex-smokers vs smokers were calculated by age-, sex- and education-standardized logistic regression. These are described as mortality rate ratios (RRs), with a group-specific confidence interval (CI). For the aggregate of all deaths from any of the diseases of interest at ages 35-69 years, the RRs for current smoking, quitting 0-4, 5-9 or 10+ years ago and never-smoking were, respectively, RR = 1 (95% CI 0.86-1.17), 0.91 (0.73-1.14), 0.71 (0.49-1.02), 0.66 (0.50-0.87) and 0.43 (0.37-0.48). Younger age of quitting (25-44 or 45-64) appeared to be associated with greater protection: RR = 0.58 (0.38-0.88) and 0.71 (0.54-0.93), respectively. These patterns were less clear at older ages, particularly for death from emphysema. Longer durations of smoking cessation are associated with progressively lower mortality rates from the diseases of interest. For sustainable monitoring of tobacco-attributed mortality, approximate years since last smoked should be recorded during death registration. © The Author(s) 2018; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association
Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; García-Martín, Guillermina; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario
Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries. Causes of death were determined using death certificates, forensic autopsies, hospital reports, family practitioners, and care-givers' records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In a total of 15,865 person-years of follow-up, 152 patients died, resulting in an SMR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.79-2.47), which was higher for those aged 14-24. There was also a high rate of death for symptomatic epilepsies, progressive causes (SMR=6.12, CI 3.50-9.94), and remote causes (SMR=2.62, CI 2.12-3.21). High SMRs were found for all kinds of epilepsy and for respiratory and tumoural causes. Patients who died of epilepsy itself were 12.5%. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence was 0.44:1000. Death from status epilepticus incidence was 20:100,000. SMRs for external causes were of no statistical significance. This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens-Peter
An overall finding in comparative mobility studies is that intergenerational mobility is greater in Scandinavia than in liberal welfare-state countries like the United States and United Kingdom. However, in a recent study, Landersø and Heckman (L & H) (2017) argue that intergenerational educational...... mobility in Denmark and the United States is remarkably similar. L & H’s findings run contrary to widespread beliefs and have been echoed in academia and mass media on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In this article, we reanalyze educational mobility in Denmark and the United States using the same data...... sources as L & H. We apply several different methodological approaches from economics and sociology, and we consistently find that educational mobility is higher in Denmark than in the United States....
Masson, Walter; Rossi, Emiliano; Galimberti, María Laura; Krauss, Juan; Navarro Estrada, José; Galimberti, Ricardo; Cagide, Arturo
The immune and inflammatory pathways involved in psoriasis could favor the development of atherosclerosis, consequently increasing mortality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the mortality of a population with psoriasis compared to a control group, and 2) to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. A retrospective cohort was analyzed from a secondary database (electronic medical record). All patients with a diagnosis of psoriasis at 1-01-2010 were included in the study and compared to a control group of the same health system, selected randomly (1:1). Subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were excluded from the study. A survival analysis was performed considering death from any cause as an event. Follow-up was extended until 30-06-2015. We included 1,481 subjects with psoriasis and 1,500 controls. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in the group with psoriasis. The average follow-up time was 4.6±1.7 years. Mortality was higher in psoriasis patients compared to controls (15.1 vs. 9.6 events per 1,000 person-year, PPsoriasis was seen to be significantly associated with increased mortality rates compared to the control group in the univariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.15, P=.004) and after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.3, P=.014). In this population, patients with psoriasis showed a higher prevalence for the onset of cardiovascular risk factors as well as higher mortality rates during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Magda Sofia Roberto
Full Text Available In the context of ageing and the need to focus on intergenerational learning to develop digital literacy, this study applies the Theory of Planned Behaviour to analyse university student’s intentions to help seniors acquire digital skills. We applied a questionnaire to 135 students and the results enphasise the need to promote educacional pro-social strategies to enhance the value of solidarity and designing meaningful activities for both generations.
Foley, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive
Research has shown that while preceptorship offers a reality-oriented learning environment and facilitates competence of students, there are inherent rewards and stressors associated with the experience. Students and preceptors can be from different generations, and as such, they may often come to the learning space with differing values and expectations. The nature of the preceptorship experience in this intergenerational context was explored in a recent phenomenological study with seven pre...
This article analyses exchanges of support between the elderly and adult generations and by gender, based on data from the United Nations household survey in Mexico City (SABE, 2000), and the National Study of Ageing and Health (ENASEM, 2001). Results indicate that in Mexico both generations – elderly parents and adult children – provide support, such as money, services, care or gifts for grandchildren, according to gender roles and the generation’s resources. Men provide monetary support and reproduce their role as family providers, but this role depends on having an income from work and, in later years, a pension, a more common situation among men than among women. Women develop their female domestic role as caregivers. They do not have a formal income, but receive informal economic support and offer services and care to their relatives, reproducing their invisible and unpaid work during their life course. Both types of support are widely exchanged between elderly parents and adult children and children-in-law. PMID:29375143
Kim, Eric S; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Grodstein, Francine; DeMeo, Dawn L; De Vivo, Immaculata; Kubzansky, Laura D
Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. We used prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 70,021). Dispositional optimism was measured in 2004; all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were assessed from 2006 to 2012. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that a higher degree of optimism was associated with a lower mortality risk. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of optimism, women in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.76) for all-cause mortality. Adding health behaviors, health conditions, and depression attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97). Associations were maintained for various causes of death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection. Given that optimism was associated with numerous causes of mortality, it may provide a valuable target for new research on strategies to improve health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Research has shown that while preceptorship offers a reality-oriented learning environment and facilitates competence of students, there are inherent rewards and stressors associated with the experience. Students and preceptors can be from different generations, and as such, they may often come to the learning space with differing values and expectations. The nature of the preceptorship experience in this intergenerational context was explored in a recent phenomenological study with seven preceptors and seven nursing students in an undergraduate nursing program in Eastern Canada. Overall the experience was found to be inclusive of three main themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. In this paper we explore the first of these themes, being affirmed. Highlighting the positive aspects of the preceptorship experience in the intergenerational context is necessary to promote a culture of openness and respect for generational differences within clinical nursing practice settings and to improving the overall quality of the educational experience.
Foley, Vicki; Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive
Research has shown that while preceptorship offers a reality-oriented learning environment and facilitates competence of students, there are inherent rewards and stressors associated with the experience. Students and preceptors can be from different generations, and as such, they may often come to the learning space with differing values and expectations. The nature of the preceptorship experience in this intergenerational context was explored in a recent phenomenological study with seven preceptors and seven nursing students in an undergraduate nursing program in Eastern Canada. Overall the experience was found to be inclusive of three main themes: being affirmed, being challenged, and being on a pedagogical journey. In this paper we explore the first of these themes, being affirmed. Highlighting the positive aspects of the preceptorship experience in the intergenerational context is necessary to promote a culture of openness and respect for generational differences within clinical nursing practice settings and to improving the overall quality of the educational experience.
Sabbagh, Clara; Vanhuysse, Pieter
This article studies perceptions of intergenerational justice among 2,075 undergraduate university students from eight democracies spanning four different models, or 'worlds,' of welfare. We examine two different, though interrelated, aspects of intergenerational justice: (1) whether, and how......, different welfare regimes structure young people's perceptions of the justness of public resources transfers from young to elderly age-groups and (2) the perceived relative contributions and rewards of various age-groups. Thus we inquire about both the perceived support in principle and about the perceived...... justness of actual outcomes of resource transfers between age-groups. We find that support of transfers from the young to the old is higher in social-democratic and conservative welfare regimes than in liberal and radical regimes. Support of resource transfers also correlates positively with a 'welfare...
Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina
The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…
Full Text Available Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing.Using data on 20,033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality during ∼7.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for deaths from all-cause, cancer, CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD, and stroke, in relation to status, duration, and intensity of cigarette/bidi and hookah smoking.Among men, cigarette/bidi smoking was positively associated with all-cause (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 1.86 and cancer mortality (HR 2.91, 1.24 6.80, and there was a dose-response relationship between increasing intensity of cigarette/bidi consumption and increasing mortality. An elevated risk of death from ischemic heart disease (HR 1.87, 1.08 3.24 was associated with current cigarette/bidi smoking. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 1.65 (95% CI 1.16 2.36 for all-cause mortality and 2.69 (95% CI 1.20 6.01 for ischemic heart disease mortality. Similar associations were observed for hookah smoking. There was a trend towards reduced risk for the mortality outcomes with older age at onset of cigarette/bidi smoking and increasing years since quitting cigarette/bibi smoking among men. We estimated that cigarette/bidi smoking accounted for about 25.0% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women.Tobacco smoking was responsible for substantial proportion of premature deaths in the Bangladeshi population, especially among men. Stringent measures of tobacco control and cessation are needed to reduce tobacco-related deaths in Bangladesh.
Gribbin, M.A.; Howe, G.R.; Weeks, J.L.
A study has been underway since 1980 on the mortality of past and present AECL employees. The study population consists of 13,491 persons, 9997 males and 3494 females, for a total of 262,403.5 person-years at risk. During the period 1950-1985, 1299 deaths occurred in this population. The number of female deaths (121) is too few for detailed analysis, but the 1178 deaths in the male population represent a useful basis for this study. The present report examines mortality patterns in the AECL cohort between 1950 and 1985 by comparing the observed mortality with that expected in the general population for three groups of workers: those with no exposure, those with up to 50 mSv, and those with more than 50 mSv. Comparisons among the three groups of employees are discussed. The number of deaths is fewer than would be expected on the basis of general population statistics for both males who were exposed to ionizing radiation and those who were not exposed. The findings were similar for the 'all cancer' and 'all other deaths' groupings. In the group of exposed males, elevated Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) are seen for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and for buccal cavity, rectum and rectosigmoid junction, and prostate cancers. There are elevated SMRs for lymphatic and myeloid leukemias and for large intestine, prostate, brain and biliary system cancers in the 'unexposed' male group. The number of cases identified in all of these cancers is small and the confidence intervals are wide, such that none of the elevated SMRs is statistically significant. The report compares the findings of this study with those of similar studies published in the past decade. (Author) (28 tabs., 33 refs., 2 figs.)
Full Text Available Traditional methods of computing standardized mortality ratios (SMR in mortality studies rely upon a number of conventional statistical propositions to estimate confidence intervals for obtained values. Those propositions include a common but arbitrary choice of the confidence level and the assumption that observed number of deaths in the test sample is a purely random quantity. The latter assumption may not be fully justified for a series of periodic "overlapping" studies. We propose a new approach to evaluating the SMR, along with its confidence interval, based on a simple re-sampling technique. The proposed method is most straightforward and requires neither the use of above assumptions nor any rigorous technique, employed by modern re-sampling theory, for selection of a sample set. Instead, we include all possible samples that correspond to the specified time window of the study in the re-sampling analysis. As a result, directly obtained confidence intervals for repeated overlapping studies may be tighter than those yielded by conventional methods. The proposed method is illustrated by evaluating mortality due to a hypothetical risk factor in a life insurance cohort. With this method used, the SMR values can be forecast more precisely than when using the traditional approach. As a result, the appropriate risk assessment would have smaller uncertainties.
Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.
Naresh M Punjabi
Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Firth, Paul G; Zheng, Hui; Windsor, Jeremy S; Sutherland, Andrew I; Imray, Christopher H; Moore, G W K; Semple, John L; Roach, Robert C; Salisbury, Richard A
To examine patterns of mortality among climbers on Mount Everest over an 86 year period. Descriptive study. Climbing expeditions to Mount Everest, 1921-2006. 14,138 mountaineers; 8030 climbers and 6108 sherpas. Circumstances of deaths. The mortality rate among mountaineers above base camp was 1.3%. Deaths could be classified as involving trauma (objective hazards or falls, n=113), as non-traumatic (high altitude illness, hypothermia, or sudden death, n=52), or as a disappearance (body never found, n=27). During the spring climbing seasons from 1982 to 2006, 82.3% of deaths of climbers occurred during an attempt at reaching the summit. The death rate during all descents via standard routes was higher for climbers than for sherpas (2.7% (43/1585) v 0.4% (5/1231), PMount Everest. Profound fatigue and late times in reaching the summit are early features associated with subsequent death.
Geographic observation of the increased mortality of some cancers at higher latitudes has led to a hypothesis that vitamin D produced after exposure to solar radiation has anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it is unclear whether such association would be observed in countries like Japan, where fish consumption, and therefore dietary vitamin D intake, is high. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between averaged annual solar radiation levels for the period from 1961 through 1990 and cancer mortality in the year 2000 in 47 prefectures in Japan, with adjustments for regional per capita income and dietary factors. A moderate, inverse correlation with solar radiation was observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, and gallbladder and bile ducts in both sexes (correlation coefficient, ranging from -0.6 to -0.3). The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased exposure to solar radiation reduces the risk of cancers of the digestive organs.
Pinto, Teresa Almeida; Marreel, Iris; Hatton-Yeo, Alan
"Guide of Ideas for Planning and Implementing Intergenerational Projects," is for all professionals that are or wish to be enrolled in the development of intergenerational activities. This "Guide" is the main product of the Project MATES--Mainstreaming Intergenerational Solidarity, co-financed by the Lifelong Learning…
Alwyn T Gomez
Full Text Available Background: A high level of comorbidity at dialysis initiation is associated with an increased risk of death. However, contemporary assessments of the validity and prognostic value of comorbidity indices are lacking. Objectives: To assess the validity of two comorbidity indices and to determine if a high degree of comorbidity is associated with mortality among dialysis patients. Design: Cohort study. Setting: QEII Health Sciences Centre (Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Patients: Incident, chronic dialysis patients between 01 Jan 2006 and 01 Jul 2013. Measurements: Exposure : The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI and End-Stage Renal Disease Comorbidity Index (ESRD-CI were used to classify individual comorbid conditions into an overall score. Comorbidities were classified using patient charts and electronic records. Outcome : All-cause mortality. Confounders : Patient demographics, dialysis access, cause of ESRD and baseline laboratory data. Methods: Regression coefficients were estimated on the CCI and ESRD-CI. Discrimination for death was assessed using Harrell's c-index. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative hazards and 95 % confidence intervals for each category of the CCI and ESRD-CI. Results: The cohort consisted of 771 ESRD patients from 01 Jan 2006 to 01 Jul 2013. Most were male (62 % and Caucasian (91 %. The cohort had a high proportion of diabetes (48 %, history of previous myocardial infarction (31 % and heart failure (22 %. Regression coefficients on the CCI and ESRD-CI were 0.55 and 0.52, respectively. The c -index, for the prediction of death, was 0.61 for the CCI and 0.63 for the ESRD-CI. ESRD-CI scores of 4, 5 and ≥6 were associated with a similar mortality risk (adjusted relative hazard of 1.95, 1.89 and 1.99, respectively. There was a small increased mortality risk for CCI scores of 4, 5 and ≥6 (adjusted relative hazard of 1.86, 2.38 and 2.71, respectively. Limitations: Classification of
Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B.
This paper investigates the relationship between intergenerational asset transfers and the choice of the discount rate for use in cost-benefit analysis in a model of a competitive overlapping generations economy constrained by a socially managed exhaustible resource. Provided that there are no distortions in capital markets and that all agents hold perfect foresight, cost-benefit techniques will result in a Pareto efficient resource allocation if the discount rate is set equal to the market rate of interest. But since the path of the interest rate depends on the level of intergenerational transfers, cost-benefit techniques do not ensure a socially desirable distribution of welfare between generations; a social optimum will result only if intergenerational transfers are properly chosen and enforced. Decentralized private altruism may result in intergenerational transfers that both present and future individuals would agree are too small if members of the present generation attach positive weight to the general welfare of future generations, not simply their personal descendants. In a world where intergenerational transfers are non-optimal, second-best policy-making may imply a constrained optimum that is inefficient. Together, these findings suggest that cost-benefit analysis is at best a partial criterion to policy formulation that should be used only in conjunction with ethical principles that define the proper distribution of welfare between present and future generations
Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan
Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Approximately two-thirds of the maternal deaths in Taiwan were unreported in the officially published mortality data. Hence, routine nationwide data linkage is essential to monitor maternal mortality in Taiwan accurately.
Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael
Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Timonen, Virpi; Conlon, Catherine; Scharf, Thomas; Carney, Gemma
The relationship between class and intergenerational solidarities in the public and private spheres calls for further conceptual and theoretical development. This article discusses the findings from the first wave of a qualitative longitudinal study entitled Changing Generations , conducted in Ireland in 2011-2012, comprising 100 in-depth interviews with men and women across the age and socioeconomic spectrums. Constructivist grounded theory analysis of the data gives rise to the following postulates: (1) intergenerational solidarity at the family level is strongly contoured by socioeconomic status (SES); (2) intergenerational solidarity evolves as family generations observe each others' practices and adjust their expectations accordingly; (3) intergenerational solidarity within families is also shaped by the public sphere (the welfare state) that generates varying expectations and levels of solidarity regarding State supports for different age groups, again largely dependent on SES; (4) the liberal welfare state context, especially at a time of economic crisis, enhances the significance of intergenerational solidarity within families. We conclude by calling for research that is attuned to age/generation, gender and class, and how these operate across the family and societal levels.
Steve G.A. van de Weijer
Full Text Available This study first examines the effects of parental divorce and paternal crime on offspring offending. Then, it tests whether parental divorce moderates the intergenerational transmission of crime. Diversity within the offending population is taken into account by examining whether effects are different for fathers who commit crimes at different points of the life-course and by distinguishing between violent and non-violent offending. A sample of 2374 individuals from three consecutive generations from 198 Dutch families was used. The results show that parental divorce increases offspring non-violent offending, but does not increase offspring violence after controlling for parental violence. Moreover, the intergenerational transmission of violence is moderated by parental divorce: empirical evidence for intergenerational transmission of violence is only found for children who did not experience parental divorce during their youth. This moderating effect of parental divorce is even stronger if the father committed violent crimes during the child’s youth. The moderating influence of parental divorce on the intergenerational transmission of non-violent crime is less clear, and the effects are overall stronger for violent crime than for non-violent crime. These results suggest that social learning mechanisms play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of violent crime, although genetic influences cannot be ruled out.
Bowers, Mallory E; Yehuda, Rachel
The hypothesis that offspring are affected by parental trauma or stress exposure, first noted anecdotally, is now supported empirically by data from Holocaust survivor offspring cohorts and other populations. These findings have been extended to less extreme forms of stress, where differential physical, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes are observed in affected offspring. Parental stress-mediated effects in offspring could be explained by genetics or social learning theory. Alternatively, biological variations stemming from stress exposure in parents could more directly have an impact on offspring, a concept we refer to here as ‘intergenerational transmission', via changes to gametes and the gestational uterine environment. We further extend this definition to include the transmission of stress to offspring via early postnatal care, as animal studies demonstrate the importance of early maternal care of pups in affecting offsprings' long-term behavioral changes. Here, we review clinical observations in offspring, noting that offspring of stress- or trauma-exposed parents may be at greater risk for physical, behavioral, and cognitive problems, as well as psychopathology. Furthermore, we review findings concerning offspring biological correlates of parental stress, in particular, offspring neuroendocrine, epigenetic, and neuroanatomical changes, in an attempt to determine the extent of parental stress effects. Although understanding the etiology of effects in offspring is currently impeded by methodological constraints, and limitations in our knowledge, we summarize current information and conclude by presenting hypotheses that have been prompted by recent studies in the field. PMID:26279078
Gilligan, Megan; Suitor, J Jill; Feld, Scott; Pillemer, Karl
Ambivalence has become an important conceptual development in the study of parent-adult child relations, with evidence highlighting that intergenerational relationships are characterized by a mix of positive and negative components. Recent studies have shown that ambivalence has detrimental consequences for both parents' and adult children's psychological well-being. The underlying assumption of this line of research is that psychological distress results from holding simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward a parent or child. The authors question this assumption and explore alternative interpretations by disaggregating the positive and negative dimensions commonly used to create indirect measures of intergenerational ambivalence. Data for the analyses were collected from 254 older mothers and a randomly selected adult child from each of the families. The findings suggest that the negative component is primarily responsible for the association between indirect measures of ambivalence and psychological well-being. Implications of these findings for the study of intergenerational ambivalence are discussed.
Nieto, F. Javier; Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Finn, Laurel; Hla, Khin Mae; Farré, Ramon
Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with total and cardiovascular mortality, but an association with cancer mortality has not been studied. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia promotes cancer tumor growth.
Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.
Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Carvalho e Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza
to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.
Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.; Kooiman, Jan Peter
The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects and intergenerational welfare consequences of environmental taxes. To this end, environmental externalities are introduced in a Blanchard-Yaari overlapping generations model of a small open economy. A rise in environmental taxes - taking into account pre-existing distortionary taxes and endogenous labor supply - is shown to yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough for the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations because agents are heterogeneous in their capital ownership. An accompanying debt policy can be designed - prescribing debt accumulation at impact and debt redemption in the new steady state - to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With lump-sum recycling of environmental tax revenue, aggregate employment is unaffected in the short run, but falls in the long run. Furthermore, it raises environmental quality more in the long run than in the short run. Recycling revenue through a cut in labor taxes, however, is shown to yield a rise in employment in the short run, which disappears during transition. In the new steady state, environmental quality is higher at the expense of a lower level of employment. (author)
Niu, Hua; Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang
The present study examined the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of parenting stress and parent gender in Chinese societies. Utilizing a sample of 634 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' harsh discipline were transmitted across generations and the strength of transmission varied by the severity of harsh discipline and the parent gender. For both mothers and fathers, high parenting stress intensified the intergenerational transmission of psychological aggression and corporal punishment, whereas low parenting stress weakened the transmission of psychological aggression and even disrupted the transmission of corporal punishment. Moreover, the moderating effects of parenting stress on the transmission were stronger for mothers than for fathers. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of considering how the proximal environmental factors (such as parenting stress) may influence the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elza Maria de Souza
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1994 a pilot intergenerational project was started in the city of Taguatinga, Brazil, to promote the well-being of both elderly and adolescent populations using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the project from the participants' viewpoint and to improve the contribution of those age groups in building up social capital. METHODS: From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative study using focus groups technique was conducted. Using a discussion guide, 9 groups of students, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, and 3 groups of elderly aged 60 years and over were interviewed to collect data regarding their interaction before and after an intergenerational program. RESULTS: The main findings suggested a change in attitude of young people toward old age and elderly people. Participating elderly people reported improvement in their health status. For both age groups the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that reminiscence intergenerational activity contributes to building up mutual trust and reciprocity. These results seem to indicate this is an alternative for investing in social capital and improving participants' well-being. However, further work is needed to support these findings.OBJETIVO: Em 1994 foi iniciado um projeto de integração entre gerações em Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, com a finalidade de promover o bem estar dos idosos e adolescentes, usando-se o processo de reminiscências como meio de integração. O objetivo do estudo é avaliar o projeto de acordo com a opinião dos participantes e enfatizar a contribuição desses grupos etários na construção de capital social. MÉTODOS: De novembro de 1999 a abril de 2000 foi conduzida uma pesquisa qualitativa usando-se a técnica dos grupos focais. Seguindo-se um roteiro, nove grupos de estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, e três grupos de idosos, de 60 anos ou
Rodrigo Machado Vilani
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse the present discussion in Brazil about the new legislation for the oil reserves in the pre-salt layer in the light of the historical evolution of environmental and energy regulations in Brazil. Based on the principle of sustainable development, we attempt to show the compatibility between the new model and the aims and actions defined in national policies for energy and environment in the Federal Constitution of 1988. The study upholds the construction of a holistic, participative process for the elaboration of national policies, which necessarily contemplates an intergeneration perspective.
Callenbach, PMC; Westendorp, RGJ; Geerts, AT; Arts, WFM; Peeters, EAJ; van Donselaar, VA; Stroink, H; Brouwer, O.F.
Objective. Long-term follow-up studies of patients with epilepsy have revealed an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Mortality of children who have epilepsy in modern times is as yet unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine mortality of children
Spenner, Kenneth I.
Analysis of correlations in role relationships involving parent occupation and child's career choice and occupational aspiration were made to determine which characteristics of occupations play a part in intergenerational role transmission. Requirements and rewards were found to be the salient features. (Author/SK)
May 5, 2010 ... culture of modernity and the marginalisation experienced by Gen Xers within many established churches. ... The importance of the church's intergenerational calling presents it with the challenge of perpetuating its faith tradition from ... evidence to demonstrate the relative absence of this first postmodern ...
Heuvel, Audrey Vanden
Used longitudinal data on early 20th century cohorts in United States to assess influence of parental age at first birth on adolescents' perceptions of closeness to parents. Found that age at first birth indirectly influenced perceptions of affection from each parent for intergenerational dyads of same sex. (Author/NB)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Intergeneric Hybrids of Saccharum. E K Janaki-Ammal. Classics Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 89-103. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/06/0089-0103. Author Affiliations.
Intergenerational living has become common. Single adults move back into the family home, due to finances or perhaps the need for child care. A 24-hour workforce, from nurses to grocery clerks to military deployment has turned "day"care needs into both "night and day" care crises. Unemployment, lack of health care or home foreclosures, as well as…
Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.
The revolution in communication technology has resulted in more age-segregated conversation among adolescents. In a similar way, older adults have increased online conversations with their peers. This article explores some obstacles that prevent the intergenerational connections needed for mutual understanding and care. Several research emphases…
Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.
We investigate intergenerational risk sharing in two-pillar pension systems with a pay-as-you-go pillar and a funded pillar. We consider shocks in productivity, depreciation of capital and inflation. The funded pension pillar can be either defined contribution or defined benefit, with benefits
Malloy, Liam C.
Existing empirical work looking at the effects of parental income on IQ, schooling, wealth, race, and personality is only able to explain about half of the observed intergenerational income elasticity. This paper provides a possible behavioral explanation for this elasticity in which heterogeneous agents in sequential generations choose their…
Wong, John; Kua, Ee Heok
The study seeks to initiate a newly developed Personal and Parents’ Parenting Style Scale (PaPPS) to explore the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission between parental parenting style and personal parenting style in Asia. A total of 294 Chinese participants (67.4 ± 5.9 years old; 76% women; 7.0 ± 3.5 years of formal schooling) completed the PaPPS and a sociodemograhphic questionnaire. Findings suggest the distinct intergenerational transmission of parenting in an Asian population of im...
Benedictus, M.R.; Prins, N.D.; Goos, J.D.C.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; van der Flier, W.M.
IMPORTANCE Microbleeds are more prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with the general elderly population. In addition, microbleeds have been found to predict mortality in AD. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether microbleeds in AD increase the risk for mortality, stroke (including
Mackenbach, Johan; Karanikolos, Marina; Looman, Caspar
textabstractBackground: We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Methods. Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural, economic and health care indicators using regression analysis. Results: Rising mortality from mental and neurological conditions is seen in most European countries, and is mainly due to rising mortality...
Mackenbach, Johan P; Karanikolos, Marina; Looman, Caspar WN
Background We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Methods Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural, economic and health care indicators using regression analysis. Results Rising mortality from mental and neurological conditions is seen in most European countries, and is mainly due to rising mortality from dementias...
Mohammed Abdalla A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
Fox, George; Salazar, Ronald; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Dubos, Gregory
Estimating the operational lifetime of satellites and spacecraft is a complex process. Operational lifetime can differ from mission design lifetime for a variety of reasons. Unexpected mortality can occur due to human errors in design and fabrication, to human errors in launch and operations, to random anomalies of hardware and software or even satellite function degradation or technology change, leading to unrealized economic or mission return. This study focuses on data collection of public information using, for the first time, a large, publically available dataset, and preliminary analysis of satellite lifetimes, both operational lifetime and design lifetime. The objective of this study is the illustration of the relationship of design life to actual lifetime for some representative classes of satellites and spacecraft. First, a Weibull and Exponential lifetime analysis comparison is performed on the ratio of mission operating lifetime to design life, accounting for terminated and ongoing missions. Next a Kaplan-Meier survivor function, standard practice for clinical trials analysis, is estimated from operating lifetime. Bootstrap resampling is used to provide uncertainty estimates of selected survival probabilities. This study highlights the need for more detailed databases and engineering reliability models of satellite lifetime that include satellite systems and subsystems, operations procedures and environmental characteristics to support the design of complex, multi-generation, long-lived space systems in Earth orbit.
Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; D. Munk, Martin; Bonke, Jens
The article provides various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility based on Danish administrative register information. The aim is to calculate how sensitive the results are to different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components enabling the most accurate cross country comp...... find that intergenerational earnings mobility from father to son in Denmark is on the same level as in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, whereas the intergenerational earnings mobility in all the Nordic countries is found higher than in the UK and USA....
INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...
Lee, Whanhee; Kim, Ho; Hwang, Sunghee; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel D; Chung, Yeonseung
Rich literature has reported that there exists a nonlinear association between temperature and mortality. One important feature in the temperature-mortality association is the minimum mortality temperature (MMT). The commonly used approach for estimating the MMT is to determine the MMT as the temperature at which mortality is minimized in the estimated temperature-mortality association curve. Also, an approximate bootstrap approach was proposed to calculate the standard errors and the confidence interval for the MMT. However, the statistical properties of these methods were not fully studied. Our research assessed the statistical properties of the previously proposed methods in various types of the temperature-mortality association. We also suggested an alternative approach to provide a point and an interval estimates for the MMT, which improve upon the previous approach if some prior knowledge is available on the MMT. We compare the previous and alternative methods through a simulation study and an application. In addition, as the MMT is often used as a reference temperature to calculate the cold- and heat-related relative risk (RR), we examined how the uncertainty in the MMT affects the estimation of the RRs. The previously proposed method of estimating the MMT as a point (indicated as Argmin2) may increase bias or mean squared error in some types of temperature-mortality association. The approximate bootstrap method to calculate the confidence interval (indicated as Empirical1) performs properly achieving near 95% coverage but the length can be unnecessarily extremely large in some types of the association. We showed that an alternative approach (indicated as Empirical2), which can be applied if some prior knowledge is available on the MMT, works better reducing the bias and the mean squared error in point estimation and achieving near 95% coverage while shortening the length of the interval estimates. The Monte Carlo simulation-based approach to estimate the
LI, JUI-CHUNG ALLEN; WU, LAWRENCE L.
Previous studies on trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce have produced mixed findings, with two studies (McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Teachman 2002) reporting no trend in divorce transmission and one study (Wolfinger 1999) finding that divorce transmission has weakened substantially. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model, we analyze data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find no evidence for any trend in divorce transmission. To reconcile apparent differences in results, we note that the General Social Survey data used by Wolfinger lack information on marital duration, permitting analysis only for whether respondents have divorced by interview. As a result, an apparent decline in divorce transmission could be due to inadequate adjustments for the longer exposures to risk by earlier marriage cohorts, yielding a higher probability of divorce by interview for earlier cohorts relative to more recent cohorts even if divorce risks are identical across all marriage cohorts. We confirm this possibility by using a series of discrete-time hazard logistic regressions to investigate the sensitivity of estimates of trends in divorce transmission to different adjustments for exposure to risk. We conclude that there has been no trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce. PMID:19110902
Little, Mark P.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Brenner, Alina V.; Lipshultz, Steven E.
High-dose ionizing radiation is associated with circulatory disease. Risks from lower-dose fractionated exposures, such as from diagnostic radiation procedures, remain unclear. In this study we aimed to ascertain the relationship between fractionated low-to-medium dose radiation exposure and circulatory disease mortality in a cohort of 13,568 tuberculosis patients in Massachusetts, some with fluoroscopy screenings, between 1916 and 1961 and follow-up until the end of 2002. Analysis of mortality was in relation to cumulative thyroid (cerebrovascular) or lung (all other circulatory disease) radiation dose via Poisson regression. Over the full dose range, there was no overall radiation-related excess risk of death from circulatory disease (n = 3221; excess relative risk/Gy −0.023; 95 % CI −0.067, 0.028; p = 0.3574). Risk was somewhat elevated in hypertensive heart disease (n = 89; excess relative risk/Gy 0.357; 95 % CI −0.043, 1.030, p = 0.0907) and slightly decreased in ischemic heart disease (n = 1950; excess relative risk/Gy −0.077; 95 % CI −0.130, −0.012; p = 0.0211). However, under 0.5 Gy, there was a borderline significant increasing trend for all circulatory disease (excess relative risk/Gy 0.345; 95 % CI −0.032, 0.764; p = 0.0743) and for ischemic heart disease (excess relative risk/Gy 0.465; 95 % CI, −0.032, 1.034, p = 0.0682). Pneumolobectomy increased radiation–associated risk (excess relative risk/Gy 0.252; 95 % CI 0.024, 0.579). Fractionation of dose did not modify excess risk. In summary, we found no evidence of radiation-associated excess circulatory death risk overall, but there are indications of excess circulatory death risk at lower doses (<0.5 Gy). Although consistent with other radiation-exposed groups, the indications of higher risk at lower doses are unusual and should be confirmed against other data.
Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.; Vitas, Jennifer M.; Hill, Lauren M.
Using a sample of 335 young adults and their parents, this study investigated the intergenerational transmission of marital attitudes from parents to their children and how parental marital quality moderates that relationship. Results suggested that the marital attitudes of both mothers and fathers are related to the marital attitudes of their…
This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…
Conger, Rand D; Belsky, Jay; Capaldi, Deborah M
The 5 studies in this special section both confirm prior findings regarding the intergenerational transmission of parenting and provide important new evidence regarding the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting and the developmental mediators that seem involved in that transmission. Consistent with earlier research, the findings suggest that harsh parenting in the 1st generation (G1) predicts similar behavior in the 2nd generation (G2) primarily through the exacerbation of G2 conduct problems. In contrast, replicated findings in this set of articles indicate that intergenerational continuities in positive parenting likely stem from the social and academic competencies such parenting engenders in the next generation. In addition, these 5 studies demonstrate that the evidence for intergenerational continuity in parenting is robust across diverse study samples, different types of measurement, different lengths of time, and after the introduction of a variety of control variables. Important next steps in this area of inquiry should include the study of moderator variables that will explain discontinuities as well as continuities in G1 and G2 parenting. Also important will be research on genetic and epigenetic processes that contribute to similarities and dissimilarities in parenting across generations.
Tighe, Lauren A.; Birditt, Kira S.; Antonucci, Toni C.
The parent-child relationship is often characterized by ambivalence, defined as the simultaneous experience of positive and negative relationship quality. This study examines reports of intergenerational ambivalence in 3 developmental periods: adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood, as well as its implications for depressive symptoms…
Aarsand, Pal Andre
In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…
The global agenda for sustainable development has centred lifelong learning on UNESCO's Education 2030 Framework for Action. The study described in this article aimed to examine international and intergenerational variations in literacy skills gaps within the context of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For this purpose, the…
Sharma, Neeru; Sapru, Ruchira; Mahajan, Ruchi
The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational differences in parental beliefs of the Lobana community in the rural district of Jammu in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. The sample comprised 30 mothers and 30 grandmothers, selected from the R.S. Pura tehsil of the Jammu district. Data was collected using a modified parental…
Siyahhan, Sinem; Barab, Sasha A.; Downton, Michael P.
We implemented a five-week family program called "Family Quest" where parents and children ages 9 to 13 played Quest Atlantis, a multiuser 3D educational computer game, at a local after-school club for 90-minute sessions. We used activity theory as a conceptual and an analytical framework to study the nature of intergenerational play, the…
Notten, N.J.W.R.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Konig, R.P.
In this study, the authors scrutinize the intergenerational transmission of book reading and television viewing behaviors. They examine long-term effects of parents’ social status, parental media example, and media guidance activities during one’s childhood on adult media tastes. Data are employed
Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Konig, R.P.
In this study, the authors scrutinize the intergenerational transmission of book reading and television viewing behaviors. They examine long-term effects of parents' social status, parental media example, and media guidance activities during one's childhood on adult media tastes. Data are employed
Van Ham, M.; Hedman, L.; Manley, D.J.; Coulter, R.; Östh, J.
The extent to which socioeconomic (dis)advantage is transmitted between generations is receiving increasing attention from academics and policymakers. However, few studies have investigated whether there is a spatial dimension to this intergenerational transmission of (dis)advantage. Drawing upon
Van Ham, M.; Hedman, L.; Manley, D.; Coulter, R.; Östh, J.
The extent to which socioeconomic (dis)advantage is transmitted between generations is receiving increasing attention from academics and policymakers. However, few studies have investigated whether there is a spatial dimension to this intergenerational transmission of (dis)advantage. Drawing upon
Heydon, Rachel; McKee, Lori; Daly, Bridget
This exploratory case study integrated digital media into an intergenerational art class. Its goals were to generate knowledge of how to bring young children and elders together to expand their opportunities for meaning-making and seeing themselves in affirming ways so as to generate transferable understanding of digitally enhanced multimodal…
Black, David S.; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.
The intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence has been a main theoretical consideration to explain the link between interparental aggression in the family of origin and intimate partner violence (IPV) in subsequent intimate relationships. Studies have examined this theoretical link based on self reports of interparental violence witnessed…
This article reports on the intergenerational transmission of environmental concern and the explanatory power of communication patterns within the family. Using representative data from the Parent-Child Socialization Study in Belgium (PCSS, 2012), this article focuses on the relative influence of the mother and the father, and gender-specific…
Waites, Cheryl E
With the onset of increased longevity, intergenerational relationships are ever more common. These transactions by which persons of different generations interact with one another, are multidimensional and play an important role in family strengths, resilience and solidarity. Using an intergenerational framework this paper explores grandparents' experiences with intergenerational relationships with their grandchildren and discusses strategies for fostering communication and understanding across generations. Feedback from older adults who attend three senior centers provide insight and suggestions for enriching intergenerational communication. doi:10.1300/J045v22n03_10.
Javier J. García Zacarías
Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are among the top three causes of death in Cuba and the world, about 80 % of these patients belong to Ischemic Stroke. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical and developmental profile of patients who died of Ischemic Stroke. A descriptive, prospective research, cross- sectional study was made, the sample included all deaths from ischemic stroke at the University Hospital "Camilo Cienfuegos" Sancti Spiritus, between January 1st, 2001 and December 31, 2010, and persons over 60 years of age with necropsy performed. Atherothrombotic stroke was the most frequent category, the highest mortality rates were observed in persons over 80 years of age and in females, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and transient ischemic attack were the main significant medical history; most patients were admitted in the stroke unit and died in Middle Progressive Care, cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension and hypostatic bronchopne umonia were complications and specific main causes of most frequent death. Value of cerebral edema and hypostatic bronchopneumonia as clinical complications and causes of death in patients investigated is confirmed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal and proximal (individual causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. Methods The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals’ health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. Discussion In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition
Irdam, Darja; King, Lawrence; Gugushvili, Alexi; Azarova, Aytalina; Fazekas, Mihaly; Scheiring, Gabor; Stefler, Denes; Doniec, Katarzyna; Horvat, Pia; Kolesnikova, Irina; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin
Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal) and proximal (individual) causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation) and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals' health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition experiences for individual respondents and their families across
Saxbe, Darby; Del Piero, Larissa Borofsky; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Kaplan, Jonas Todd; Margolin, Gayla
Youth exposed to family aggression may become more aggressive themselves, but the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are understudied. In a longitudinal study, we found that adolescents' reduced neural activation when rating their parents' emotions, assessed via magnetic resonance imaging, mediated the association between parents' past aggression and adolescents' subsequent aggressive behavior toward parents. A subsample of 21 youth, drawn from the larger study, underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning proximate to the second of two assessments of the family environment. At Time 1 (when youth were on average 15.51 years old) we measured parents' aggressive marital and parent-child conflict behaviors, and at Time 2 (≈2 years later), we measured youth aggression directed toward parents. Youth from more aggressive families showed relatively less activation to parent stimuli in brain areas associated with salience and socioemotional processing, including the insula and limbic structures. Activation patterns in these same areas were also associated with youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression. The association between parents' aggression and youths' subsequent parent-directed aggression was statistically mediated by signal change coefficients in the insula, right amygdala, thalamus, and putamen. These signal change coefficients were also positively associated with scores on a mentalizing measure. Hypoarousal of the emotional brain to family stimuli may support the intergenerational transmission of family aggression.
Iveson, Matthew H; Deary, Ian J
Whereas a great deal of literature has been devoted to investigating the link between intergenerational social mobility and health, the few studies that have examined the association between social mobility and life satisfaction have produced conflicting findings. In the present study, we attempt to rectify several shortcomings common to previous work by examining the association between intergenerational social mobility and both life satisfaction and self-rated health as measured in later-life. Our sample consisted of individuals born in Scotland in 1936, who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 and were subsequently followed-up into later-life. Regression analyses demonstrated that satisfaction with life at age 78 was not significantly predicted by childhood or adulthood socioeconomic status, or by the amount of social mobility experienced from parental occupational social class. In contrast, self-rated health at age 78 was significantly predicted by adult socioeconomic status and by education, but not by social mobility from parental occupational social class. These results suggest that efforts to promote upwards social mobility may not result in better subjective wellbeing, despite the apparent benefits for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, R L; Stagnitti, K; Lewis, A J; Pépin, G
There is minimal literature on how parents experiencing intergenerational poverty view their role as parents and the value they place on children's play. The objective of this study was to examine how these parents view their parenting role and their beliefs about children's play. Thirteen mothers of preschool-aged children who experienced intergenerational poverty were recruited to the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Parents described their role as guiding their children to become 'good' people, to teach them skills and provide a routine within the home. There were two disconnections in the data including the view that whilst parenting was hard and lonely, it was also a private matter and participants preferred not to seek support. A second disconnection was in terms of their beliefs about play. Parents believed that whilst play was valuable to their child's development, it was not their role to play with children. However, if parents did play with their child, they noticed positive changes in their child's behaviour. The views of parents who experienced intergenerational poverty were similar to other reported findings in parenting studies. However, the current sample differed on not seeking help for support as well as not seeing their role as playing with their children, even though occasions of joining their child in play were associated with a positive change in their relationship with their child. This has implications for communicating about parenting issues with parents who have experienced intergenerational poverty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The philosophic and practical aspects of intergenerational planning for a 50-100-year time frame are reviewed, with recognition of its speculative quality. Society's near term choice of future physical pathways based on comparative quantitative benefit/cost/risk analyses of alternatives is usually modified by the intervention of a variety of time-dependent, nontechnical value systems. Further, the continuous competition among society's disparate technical systems, capital investment choices, and planning objectives all contribute to the uncertainty of the intergenerational outcome of any plan. Nevertheless, the quantitative planning process provides an essential base. Benefit/cost/risk projections are discussed for both the case with a historical database and the case without such a historical base. The end-objectives and continuous nature of such benefit/cost/risk analyses are described.
Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng
This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality...... of opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is persistent with different health...... measures and various model specifications, and is robust when unobserved household heterogeneity is removed. We also find that the parents’ (especially the mothers’) socio-economic characteristics and environmental / health care choices are strongly correlated with their own and their children’s health...
Eriksson, Tor; Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng
This paper estimates the intergenerational health transmission in China using the 1991–2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) data. Three decades of persistent economic growth in China has been accompanied by high income inequality, which may in turn be caused by the inequality...... of opportunity in education and health. In this paper, we find that there is a strong correlation of health status between parent and their offspring in both the urban and rural sectors, suggesting the existence of intergenerational health inequality in China. The correlation is robust to various model...... specifications, including the control of unobserved household heterogeneity using instrumental variables. We also find that parents' socio-economic characteristics and environmental choices are strongly correlated with their own and their children's health, supporting the “nature–nurture interaction” hypothesis...
I denne artikel undersøger vi generationsforholdet mellem yngre voksne og deres forældre i det danske velfærdssamfund. Vores fokus er på omsorgspraksis og på slægtledsforpligtelser (filial responsibility). Artiklen omfatter dybdeanalyser af omsorgspraksis og intergenerationelle normer (filial nor...... individuel livsorientering ikke udelukker intergenerationel solidaritet i den danske velfærdsstat. Keywords: intergenerational care, individualisation, communality/ interconnectedness, social network analysis, ideals, everyday practices, social psychology....
Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afshin, Ashkan
Background: \\ud \\ud Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exemplars for best practice. To accomplish this, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) estimated age-specific and sex-specific all-cause mortality betwee...
Jarnecke, Amber M; South, Susan C
Previous research suggests that there is an intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction, such that parents' marital satisfaction predicts their adult child's marital satisfaction. The mechanisms that explain this phenomenon remain relatively unknown. In the current study, we examined the role of parent-child attachment orientations and romantic relationship attachment orientations as mediators in the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction. Participants (N = 199) were cohabiting newlywed couples who had been married for 12 months or less. All participants separately completed measures of own marital satisfaction, attachment orientations to romantic partners, attachment orientations to rearing parents, and perceptions of parents' marital satisfaction. Data was analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model in a structural equation modeling framework to account for the nonindependent nature of the data. This allowed for examination of gender differences across husbands and wives and provided overall fit of the hypothesized model. Results supported a partially mediating effect of parent-child attachment and romantic partner attachment on the intergenerational transmission of marital satisfaction, although effects differed by gender. For husbands, the direct effect from parents' marital satisfaction to own satisfaction was partially mediated through anxious attachment styles. There was no direct effect from parents to own marital satisfaction for wives; however, there were significant links from parent's satisfaction to attachment orientations in childhood and adulthood, which in turn impacted wives satisfaction. Findings from this study provide an integrated look at the implications that attachment has on the intergenerational transmission of marital functioning. © 2013 American Psychological Association
Young, Tiffany; Sharpe, Chantelle
Grandparents and the grandchildren they raise may experience stress related to their caregiving relationship that negatively impacts their health. Thus, there is a need to develop intergenerational health promotion interventions for these kinship families. An 8-week intergenerational physical activity intervention for kinship families was developed and implemented. The specific goal was to understand the process of implementing the intervention. Content analysis of observational data provided an in-depth account of the intervention's process (ie, recruitment, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and context). Community and support service organizations referred more participants to the study than individual stakeholders. Most participants attended approximately 10 classes, and the grandparents were more engaged than the grandchildren during the classes. Intervention fidelity was confirmed with the fidelity checklist and observational notes. Health emerged as a barrier to participation, while the intergenerational nature of the intervention was a facilitator. Lastly, the context domain described how the grandparents' complex lives affected their ability to participate, while the dedication of the recreation staff helped the intervention to proceed efficiently. The distinct details gleaned from this study can provide guidance on how to develop and implement future intergenerational interventions.
Murayama, Yoh; Ohba, Hiromi; Yasunaga, Masashi; Nonaka, Kumiko; Takeuchi, Rumi; Nishi, Mariko; Sakuma, Naoko; Uchida, Hayato; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori
The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of an intergenerational program on elderly persons' symptoms of depressive mood and in improving their sense of coherence, which is an element for successful coping with stressors. We evaluated an intervention research project (Research of Productivity by Intergenerational Sympathy [REPRINTS]), in which volunteers >65 years old read picture books to children in a school setting. The intervention group (REPRINTS) was recruited through intensive weekly training seminars for three months. The no-contact control group members were also recreated to participate in health checks and surveys for data collection purposes. Eventually, 26 participants in the intervention group and 54 in the control group were included for data analysis. The age or gender was not significantly different between the intervention and control groups. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA shows a time × group significant interaction effects. Analyses of the simple main effects showed that sense of meaningfulness significantly increased for members of the intervention group at all terms, with no changes in the control group over time. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that participation in the intergenerational program was associated with a sense of manageability which was also significantly related to depressive mood. Intergenerational programs could serve as key health promoters among elderly people by decreasing the risk of social isolation and loneliness due to the greater sense of meaningfulness. However, given our limited sample size, generalizability was restricted and studies with larger cohorts are required to further validate our findings.
Gupta, R B
28 countries with different characteristics have been selected in order to observe the amount of time it takes for these different countries to reach stable age distributions. The individual populations by sex and age were projected for 150 years in 5-year intervals with the present constant mortality and fertility schedules by component method. Observations have been made by considering the following characteristics of population when it has acquired stability: age distribution; the rate of growth, birthrate, and mortality rate; the population change; the intrinsic rate of growth, birthrate and mortality rate; and approximate time taken to stabilize the population. The initial age distribution has a significant part in the amount of time it takes for a population to acquire stability, and its intrinsic rate of growth is mostly dependent upon the existing age distribution of that population. The time taken for a country's population to become stable depends upon the age distribution, fertility and mortality schedules at the beginning. It has been observed that countries having a higher intrinsic rate of growth take comparatively less time in acquiring stability than the countries having a lower intrinsic rate of growth. The mortality and fertility schedules of a country is another important phenomenon. The populations of the different countries at the point of stability were growing according to their rates of growth. No specific trend of population growth could be found among the groups of countries. Time taken for stabilizing the population is completely based upon age distributions, fertility and mortality schedules a particular country was having at the beginning. The range of time taken for different countries to acquire stability generally ranged from 100 to 135 years. Among the different countries the relationship for the time it takes to acquire stability has not been established. This is a hypothetical approach in order to obtain some idea as to how a
Katharina E. Pink
Full Text Available From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.
Pink, Katharina E; Schaman, Anna; Fieder, Martin
From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W) effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters. We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) to model the effect of parental financial investment on the child's income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore, we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI) invest more in their sons' education in terms of completed years of education and financial support during college. In contrast daughters of low SEI fathers completed more years of education and received more financial support than sons of low SEI fathers. However, the pattern in intergenerational income transmission might be better explained as a product of sociological factors and reproductive trade-offs in later life rather than as a consequence of the T-W effect.
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E
Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.
Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn
heritabilities were even lower. The genetic correlation between mortality from d 1 to 14 and d 1 to 180 was estimated to be 0.88, although by definition, these 2 traits share the same observations for many records. No clear genetic trend existed over the last 20yr; however, considerable genetic variation exists...
Narayan, Angela J; Kalstabakken, Amanda W; Labella, Madelyn H; Nerenberg, Laura S; Monn, Amy R; Masten, Ann S
Despite the expanding research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and corpus of studies on intergenerational maltreatment in high-risk families, studies have not examined intergenerational ACEs more broadly, much less in severely disadvantaged families. This study investigated the intergenerational continuity of ACEs in mothers and young children aged 4 to 6 years living in emergency homeless shelters. It also examined whether unpacking ACEs into categories of exposure to maltreatment versus family dysfunction affected intergenerational continuity patterns or child socioemotional problems in school. Negative parenting, in the form of observed inept coercive discipline with children, and cumulative sociodemographic risk were examined as additional predictors of child ACEs and socioemotional problems. Mothers (N = 95; aged 20-45; 64.2% African American, 3.2% African Native, 11.6% Caucasian, 7.4% biracial/multiracial, and 13.6% other) completed questionnaires on parent and child ACEs and cumulative risk factors. They participated in videotaped parent-child interactions rated for observed coercive discipline, and teachers provided reports of children's socioemotional problems. Results indicated that higher parental ACEs predicted higher child ACEs, with higher numbers of parental ACEs in either category (maltreatment or family dysfunction) predicting higher levels of child ACEs in both categories. However, child exposure to maltreatment, but not family dysfunction, significantly predicted elevations in children's socioemotional problems. Findings underscore the role of intergenerational childhood adversity in homeless families and also emphasize that unpacking ACEs in children may illuminate key areas of vulnerability for school adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Bridgett, David J; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops--overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, interparental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) is considered. Finally, evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the self-regulation intergenerational transmission model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social/contextual, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children's self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents' self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for intervention work. (c
Ward, Julia B.; Haan, Mary N.; Garcia, Maria E.; Lee, Anne; To, Tu My
Purpose Low educational attainment has been associated with depression among Latinos. However, few studies have collected intergenerational data to assess mental health effects of educational mobility across generations. Methods Using data from the Niños Lifestyle and Diabetes Study, we assessed the influence of intergenerational education on depressive symptoms among 603 Mexican-origin individuals. Intergenerational educational mobility was classified: stable-low (low parent/low offspring education), upwardly-mobile (low parent/high offspring education), stable-high (high parent/high offspring education), or downwardly-mobile (high parent/low offspring education). High depressive symptoms were defined as scoring ≥10 on the CESD-10. We examined prevalence ratios (PR) for depressive symptoms with levels of educational mobility. We used general estimating equations with log-binomial models to account for within-family clustering, adjusting for age, sex, and offspring and parent nativity. Results Compared to stable-low participants, the lowest prevalence of CESD-10 score ≥10 occurred in upwardly-mobile (PR=0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.39–0.78) and stable-high (PR=0.62; 95%CI=0.44–0.87) participants. Downwardly-mobile participants were also less likely to have a CESD-10 score ≥10 compared to stable-low participants (PR=0.65; 95%CI=0.38–1.11), although the estimate was not statistically significant. Conclusions Sustained stress from low intergenerational education may adversely affect depression. Latinos with stable-low or downwardly-mobile intergenerational educational attainment may need closer monitoring for depressive symptoms. PMID:27346705
Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Edwards, Erin S.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby
This review examines mechanisms contributing to the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. To provide an integrated account of how self-regulation is transmitted across generations, we draw from over 75 years of accumulated evidence, spanning case studies to experimental approaches, in literatures covering developmental, social, and clinical psychology, and criminology, physiology, genetics, and human and animal neuroscience (among others). First, we present a taxonomy of what self-regulation is and then examine how it develops – overviews that guide the main foci of the review. Next, studies supporting an association between parent and child self-regulation are reviewed. Subsequently, literature that considers potential social mechanisms of transmission, specifically parenting behavior, inter-parental (i.e., marital) relationship behaviors, and broader rearing influences (e.g., household chaos) are considered. Finally, literature providing evidence that prenatal programming may be the starting point of the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation is covered, along with key findings from the behavioral and molecular genetics literatures. To integrate these literatures, we introduce the Self-Regulation Intergenerational Transmission Model, a framework that brings together prenatal, social, and neurobiological mechanisms (spanning endocrine, neural, and genetic levels, including gene-environment interplay and epigenetic processes) to explain the intergenerational transmission of self-regulation. This model also incorporates potential transactional processes between generations (e.g., children’s self-regulation and parent-child interaction dynamics that may affect parents’ self-regulation) that further influence intergenerational processes. In pointing the way forward, we note key future directions and ways to address limitations in existing work throughout the review and in closing. We also conclude by noting several implications for
Lyashenko, Maria Sergeyevna; Frolova, Natalja Hidarovna
Intergenerational learning (IGL) is the process of bringing seniors and juniors together in a collaborative space. Universities have been known to create a stimulating context for generations to share and acquire skills. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research in the field of intergenerational learning and skills sharing.…
van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.
Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by
Moral philosophers and economists have evaluated the intergenerational problem of climate change by applying the whole gamut of theories on distributive justice. In this article, however, it is argued that intergenerational justice cannot imply the application of moral ideal theories to future
Wedegaertner, Felix; Geyer, Siegfried; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Sittaro, Nicola-Alexander; te Wildt, Bert
Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with the highest all-cause mortality rates of all mental disorders. The majority of patients with AUDs never receive inpatient treatment for their AUD, and there is lack of data about their mortality risks despite their constituting the majority of those affected. Absenteeism from work (sick leave) due to an AUD likely signals worsening. In this study, we assessed whether AUD-related sick leave was associated with mortality in a cohort of...
Kohler, Iliana V.; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Anglewicz, Philip; Behrman, Jere R.
BACKGROUND Intergenerational transfer patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood, despite the alleged importance of support networks to ameliorate the complex implications of the HIV/AIDS epidemic for families. OBJECTIVE There is a considerable need for research on intergenerational support networks and transfers to better understand the mechanisms through which extended families cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and potentially alleviate some of its consequences in sub-Saharan Africa, and to comprehend how transfers respond—or not—to perceptions about own and other family members' health. METHODS Using the 2008 round of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), we estimate the age patterns and the multiple directions of financial and non-financial transfer flows in rural Malawi—from prime-aged respondents to their elderly parents and adult children age 15 and up. We also estimate the social, demographic and economic correlates of financial and non-financial transfers of financial intergenerational transfers in this context. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Our findings are that: (1) intergenerational financial and non-financial transfers are widespread and a key characteristic of family relationships in rural Malawi; (2) downward and upward transfers are importantly constrained and determined by the availability of transfer partners (parents or adult children); (3) financial net transfers are strongly age-patterned and the middle generations are net-providers of transfers; (4) non-financial transfers are based on mutual assistance rather than reallocation of resources; and (5) intergenerational transfers are generally not related to health status, including HIV positive status. PMID:23606809
Hoffmann, Rasmus; Borsboom, Gerard; Saez, Marc; Mari Dell'Olmo, Marc; Burström, Bo; Corman, Diana; Costa, Claudia; Deboosere, Patrick; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Dzúrová, Dagmar; Gandarillas, Ana; Gotsens, Mercè; Kovács, Katalin; Mackenbach, Johan; Martikainen, Pekka; Maynou, Laia; Morrison, Joana; Palència, Laia; Pérez, Gloria; Pikhart, Hynek; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Santana, Paula; Saurina, Carme; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Borrell, Carme
Health and inequalities in health among inhabitants of European cities are of major importance for European public health and there is great interest in how different health care systems in Europe perform in the reduction of health inequalities. However, evidence on the spatial distribution of cause-specific mortality across neighbourhoods of European cities is scarce. This study presents maps of avoidable mortality in European cities and analyses differences in avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. We determined the level of mortality from 14 avoidable causes of death for each neighbourhood of 15 large cities in different European regions. To address the problems associated with Standardised Mortality Ratios for small areas we smooth them using the Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Ecological regression analysis was used to assess the association between social deprivation and mortality. Mortality from avoidable causes of death is higher in deprived neighbourhoods and mortality rate ratios between areas with different levels of deprivation differ between gender and cities. In most cases rate ratios are lower among women. While Eastern and Southern European cities show higher levels of avoidable mortality, the association of mortality with social deprivation tends to be higher in Northern and lower in Southern Europe. There are marked differences in the level of avoidable mortality between neighbourhoods of European cities and the level of avoidable mortality is associated with social deprivation. There is no systematic difference in the magnitude of this association between European cities or regions. Spatial patterns of avoidable mortality across small city areas can point to possible local problems and specific strategies to reduce health inequality which is important for the development of urban areas and the well-being of their inhabitants.
van Aerde, M.A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Snijder, M.B.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.
Purpose: Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on
Aerde, van M.A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Snijder, M.B.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dekker, J.M.
Purpose Existing data from prospective cohort studies on dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases are inconsistent. Even though the association between total dairy and cardiovascular diseases has been studied before, little is known about the effect of different types of dairy products on
van Doorn, Boris; Kok, Esther T.; Blanker, Marco H.; Westers, Paul; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud
Purpose: Although nocturia seems to be related to increased mortality in older men, it is unclear whether this is an independent association. Therefore, we studied the association of nocturia and mortality in community dwelling older men. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal, population based study
Plug, I.; van der Bom, J. G.; Peters, M.; Mauser-Bunschoten, E. P.; de Goede-Bolder, A.; Heijnen, L.; Smit, C.; Willemse, J.; Rosendaal, F. R.
Clotting factor products have been safe for HIV since 1985, and for hepatitis C since 1992. Few studies have reported on mortality in the total population of hemophilia patients after the period of risk of viral infection transmission. We studied the mortality, causes of death, and life expectancy
Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Burnham, G M
A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources. The respondents also provided basic demographic information about the households of their relatives. We compared mortality rates from migrant households with data from the 1993 census and with data about households of non-migrant relatives. Households that included a recent migrant to China showed increasing mortality: crude death rates rose from 28.9 per 1000 in 1995, to 45.6 per 1000 in 1996, and to 56.0 per 1000 in 1997 (p=0.0001), with a 3-year average rate of 42.8 per 1000. The crude 3-year birth rate was 11.0 per 1000. Average household size declined from 4.0 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.4 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0002). Among 259 households of non-migrant relatives, the crude death rate was 43.2 per 1000 and the crude birth rate was 8.8 per 1000. In these households, the 3-year trend of increasing mortality was significant (p=0.001), as was the decline in average household size from 4.3 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.7 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0001). Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995. This trend raises concern about the state of the general population, at least in the province of North Hamkyong, from where most of the migrants originated.
Full Text Available Lifespan and the proportion of older people in the population are increasing, with far reaching consequences for the social, political and economic landscape. Unless accompanied by an increase in health span, increases in age-related diseases will increase the burden on health care resources. Intervention studies to enhance healthy ageing need appropriate outcome measures, such as blood-borne biomarkers, which are easily obtainable, cost-effective, and widely accepted. To date there have been no systematic reviews of blood-borne biomarkers of mortality.To conduct a systematic review to identify available blood-borne biomarkers of mortality that can be used to predict healthy ageing post-retirement.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science were searched. We included prospective cohort studies with a minimum of two years follow up and data available for participants with a mean age of 50 to 75 years at baseline.From a total of 11,555 studies identified in initial searches, 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one blood borne biomarkers potentially predictive of mortality risk were identified. In total, 20 biomarkers were associated with mortality risk. Meta-analyses of mortality risk showed significant associations with C-reactive protein (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.42, p<0.001; Cancer-mortality 1.62, p<0.009; CVD-mortality 1.31, p = 0.033, N Terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.43, p<0.001; CHD-mortality 1.58, p<0.001; CVD-mortality 1.67, p<0.001 and white blood cell count (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.36, p = 0.001. There was also evidence that brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol fractions, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, granulocytes, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, osteoprotegerin, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide, serum uric acid, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, tissue inhibitor of
Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M
Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.
Shuval, Kerem; Barlow, Carolyn E; Chartier, Karen G; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee
Studies have found that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and light to moderate alcohol intake reduce the risk for premature death. Scant evidence, however, exists assessing the joint effects of both measures on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. This study aims to examine the independent and joint effects of alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality in a large cohort of men. This prospective study included 29,402 men who came to the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX) for a preventive medicine visit from 1973 to 2006. Data were analyzed in 2011. The primary exposure variables were tertiles of cardiorespiratory fitness and four categories of alcohol consumption, and the outcomes were all-cause and CVD mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the association between alcohol intake, cardiorespiratory fitness, and all-cause and CVD mortality, controlling for potential confounders. A total of 1830 (all-cause) and 523 (CVD) deaths occurred in men over an average follow-up period of 17.4 years (SD=9.1). A linear relationship was observed (pfitness and reduced all-cause and CVD mortality. Specifically, moderate and high levels of fitness reduced the risk for all-cause mortality (HR=0.67, 95% CI=0.60, 0.74, and HR=0.57, 95% CI=0.49, 0.67, respectively) and CVD mortality in comparison to the low-fitness reference group (HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.57, 0.85; HR=0.54, 95% CI=0.40, 0.75, respectively), while controlling for alcohol intake and other covariates. A significant curvilinear relationship was found (p=0.01) between alcohol intake and all-cause mortality (but not CVD mortality), while controlling for fitness and other covariates. In a categoric examination of alcohol intake and mortality, adjusting for fitness and other confounders, there was no statistically significant effect of light drinking compared to heavy drinking on all-cause mortality or CVD mortality. An examination
Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).
Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora
Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational
Schofield, Thomas J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Merrick, Melissa T
The present paper summarizes findings of the special issue papers on the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment and through meta-analysis explores the potential moderating effects of safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs). Studies were selected for inclusion in this meta-analysis if they (1) were published in peer-reviewed journals; (2) tested for intergenerational continuity in any form of child maltreatment, using prospective, longitudinal data; and (3) tested for moderating effects of any variable of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The search revealed only one additional study beyond the four reports written for this special issue that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Estimates of intergenerational stability of child maltreatment from the studies included in this special issue are consistent with several other studies, which find that child maltreatment in one generation is positively related to child maltreatment in the next generation. Furthermore, meta-analytic results from the five studies that met the inclusion criteria suggest a protective, moderating effect of SSNRs on intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment. The calculated fail-safe index indicated that 49 unpublished intergenerational studies with an average null effect would be required to render nonsignificant the overall moderation effect of SSNRs on child maltreatment. This special issue expanded the examination of SSNRs beyond the caregiver-child dyad. That is, these studies considered SSNRs in adult relationships as well as parent-child relationships. Results suggest that certain types of SSNRs between parents and other adults (e.g., romantic partner, co-parent, or adult social support resource) may decrease maltreatment continuity. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James
This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classi.cation scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classi.cation schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was .rst collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson...
Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo
Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, both overt and subclinical, are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The association between thyroid hormones and mortality in euthyroid individuals, however, is unclear. To examine the prospective association between thyroid hormones levels within normal ranges and mortality endpoints. A prospective cohort study of 212 456 middle-aged South Korean men and women who had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease at baseline from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2009. Free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), and TSH levels were measured by RIA. Vital status and cause of death ascertainment were based on linkage to the National Death Index death certificate records. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 730 participants died (335 deaths from cancer and 112 cardiovascular-related deaths). FT4 was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.95, comparing the highest vs lowest quartile of FT4; P for linear trend = .01), and FT3 was inversely associated cancer mortality (HR = 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.45-0.85; P for linear trend = .001). TSH was not associated with mortality endpoints. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, FT4 and FT3 levels within the normal range were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, particularly liver cancer mortality.
J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); M. Karanikolos (Marina); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar)
textabstractBackground: We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Methods. Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural,
Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Wattanatchariya, Nisit; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea
This study provides strong evidence from an LMIC that urbanization is associated with mortality from three lifestyle-associated diseases at an ecological level. Furthermore, our data suggest that both average household income and number of doctors per population are important factors to consider in ecological analyses of mortality. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Klop, Corinne; Welsing, Paco M J; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Elders, Petra J M; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Leufkens, Hubert G M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075255049; de Vries, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303546670
BACKGROUND: Data on recent trends in mortality after hip fracture are scarce. Aims were therefore to examine secular trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality post hip fracture and to compare this to the general population from 2000 to 2010. METHODS: Population-based cohort study within the
Klop, C.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Cooper, C.; Harvey, N.C.; Elders, P.J.M.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; de Vries, F.
Background: Data on recent trends in mortality after hip fracture are scarce. Aims were therefore to examine secular trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality post hip fracture and to compare this to the general population from 2000 to 2010. Methods: Population-based cohort study within the
Ilić, Milena; Radoman, Kristina; Konević, Slavica; Ilić, Irena
This paper investigates the correlation between liver cancer mortality and consumption of food-groups in Serbia. We conducted an ecological study. The study comprised the population of the Republic of Serbia (about 7.5 million inhabitants) during the period 1991-2010. This ecological study included the data on food consumption per capita which were obtained by the Household Budget Survey and mortality data for liver cancer made available by the National Statistical Office. Linear trend model was used to assess a trend of age-adjusted liver cancer mortality rates (per 100,000 persons) that were calculated by the method of direct standardization using the World Standard Population. Pearson correlation was performed to examine the association between liver cancer mortality and per capita food consumption quantified with a correlation coefficient (r value). In Serbia, over the past two decades a significantly decreasing trend of liver cancer mortality rates has been observed (pconsumption and mortality from liver cancer (r=0.559, pconsumption and liver cancer mortality rates in women (r=0.851, pconsumption and age-adjusted liver cancer mortality rates was found (r=0.516, p<0.05) only for the eldest men (aged 65 years or older). Correlations between liver cancer and dietary habits were observed and further effort is needed in order to investigate a possible causative association, using epidemiological analytical studies. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
Guo, Yuming; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Tong, Shilu
The association between temperature and mortality has been examined mainly in North America and Europe. However, less evidence is available in developing countries, especially in Thailand. In this study, we examined the relationship between temperature and mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand, during 1999-2008. A time series model was used to examine the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality (non-external, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory) and age-specific non-external mortality ( =85 years), while controlling for relative humidity, air pollution, day of the week, season and long-term trend. We used a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the delayed effects of temperature on mortality up to 21 days. We found non-linear effects of temperature on all mortality types and age groups. Both hot and cold temperatures resulted in immediate increase in all mortality types and age groups. Generally, the hot effects on all mortality types and age groups were short-term, while the cold effects lasted longer. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with cold temperature (19.35°C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 24.7°C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.44) for lags 0-21. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with high temperature (31.7°C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 28°C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24) for lags 0-21. This study indicates that exposure to both hot and cold temperatures were related to increased mortality. Both cold and hot effects occurred immediately but cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to manage the impact of hot and cold temperatures on population health.
Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens Simon; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
on the association with mortality. Hereby, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of health behaviours on the association between living arrangements and mortality. In contrast to many previous studies, we found no significant gender and age differences in the association between living arrangement and mortality...... sample of people born in 1920, 1930 and 1940 with baseline in 1990. Survival time for all individuals were established during the next 8 years until May 1998. Multivariate Cox analysis stratified by age and gender showed that individuals living alone experienced a significantly increased mortality......In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random...
Kelly, Gina Aalgaard; Lazarus, Jennie
This study explored the perceptions of successful aging from intergenerational perspectives. A total of 66 participants were interviewed from three different generations including college students, parents, and grandparents. After qualitative data collection and analyses were used, five conceptual categories emerged from the data that related to perceptions of successful aging. The five concepts include wisdom, health, financial stability, staying active, and well-being. Conceptual categories emerged from the participants of different generations, and some were interconnected across generations. Each category is representative of major thematic patterns. Well-being was the primary concept which emerged because all three generations perceived and explicitly discussed well-being as the most valued aspect of successful aging. Previous successful aging research informed the use of a bio-psycho-social theoretical lens to frame the study findings and discussion. © The Author(s) 2015.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.
Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia
Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete
disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...
Cousins, Gráinne; Boland, Fiona; Courtney, Brenda; Barry, Joseph; Lyons, Suzi; Fahey, Tom
To assess whether risk of death increases during periods of treatment transition, and investigate the impact of supervised methadone consumption on drug-related and all-cause mortality. National Irish cohort study. Primary care. A total of 6983 patients on a national methadone treatment register aged 16-65 years between 2004 and 2010. Drug-related (primary outcome) and all-cause (secondary outcome) mortality rates and rate ratios for periods on and off treatment; and the impact of regular supervised methadone consumption. Crude drug-related mortality rates were 0.24 per 100 person-years on treatment and 0.39 off treatment, adjusted mortality rate ratio 1.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66-4.00]. Crude all-cause mortality rate per 100 person-years was 0.51 on treatment versus 1.57 off treatment, adjusted mortality rate ratio 3.64 (95% CI = 2.11-6.30). All-cause mortality off treatment was 6.36 (95% CI = 2.84-14.22) times higher in the first 2 weeks, 9.12 (95% CI = 3.17-26.28) times higher in weeks 3-4, compared with being 5 weeks or more in treatment. All-cause mortality was lower in those with regular supervision (crude mortality rate 0.60 versus 0.81 per 100 person-years) although, after adjustment, insufficient evidence exists to suggest that regular supervision is protective (mortality rate ratio = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.67-2.27). Among primary care patients undergoing methadone treatment, continuing in methadone treatment is associated with a reduced risk of death. Patients' risk of all-cause mortality increases following treatment cessation, and is highest in the initial 4-week period. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T
We introduce a novel ageism scale, focusing on prescriptive beliefs concerning potential intergenerational tensions: active, envied resource succession, symbolic identity avoidance, and passive, shared-resource consumption (SIC). Four studies (2,010 total participants) were used to develop the scale. Exploratory factor analysis formed an initial 20-item, 3-factor solution (Study 1). The scale converges appropriately with other prejudice measures and diverges from other social control measures (Study 2). It diverges from antiyouth ageism (Study 3). The Study 4 experiment yielded both predictive and divergent validity apropos another ageism measure. Structural equation modeling confirmed model fit across all studies. Per an intergenerational-tension focus, younger people consistently scored the highest. As generational equity issues intensify, the scale provides a contemporary tool for current and future ageism research.
Bozzo, S.R.; Novak, K.M.; Galdos, F.; Hakoopian, R.; Hamilton, L.D.
The interrelationships among different demographic factors, specific causes of death, median family income, and estimated air pollution emissions were examined. Using the Medical Data Base (MEDABA) developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the entire population of the United States was cross-tabulated by income and emission levels of air pollutants. Path analysis was used to examine a number of patterns and relationships for each age, race, and sex group containing a minimum of 10,000 persons. Competitive and complementary effects were observed. These effects were frequently age dependent and occasionaly sex related. This specialized data base, the application of path analysis, and the development of a dynamic population and mortality model, in combination, proved to be a useful tool for investigating the effects of energy related pollutants on the exposed population.
Sager, M; Remmers, C
1. In intensively operated dog breeding kennels bacterial infections are very significant in perinatal mortality. 2. Staph. aureus, Streptococci (type G) and also beta-haemolytic E. coli were transmitted intra-uterine or by the infected genital tract to the puppies. In many cases they are the cause of septicaemic death of the puppies. 3. A second important cause of infection is subclinical mastitis of the bitch, leading to septicaemic death of newborn puppies. 4. Prophylactic hygienic measures make possible a prognosis concerning the risk of perinatal death. This includes examinations of the dog and the bitch ante coitum, bacteriological examination of the genital tract of the bitch, and a bacteriological examination of the milk before the date of birth. 5. Prophylactic hygienic measures in combination with antibiotic treatment of the bitch or the puppies could reduce the losses of puppies to less than 10%.
O'Brien, Rourke L; Robertson, Cassandra L
New data reveal significant variation in economic mobility outcomes across U.S. localities. This suggests that social structures, institutions, and public policies-particularly those that influence critical early-life environments-play an important role in shaping mobility processes. Using new county-level estimates of intergenerational economic mobility for children born between 1980 and 1986, we exploit the uneven expansions of Medicaid eligibility across states to isolate the causal effect of this specific policy change on mobility outcomes. Instrumental-variable regression models reveal that increasing the proportion of low-income pregnant women eligible for Medicaid improved the mobility outcomes of their children in adulthood. We find no evidence that Medicaid coverage in later childhood years influences mobility outcomes. This study has implications for the normative evaluation of this policy intervention as well as our understanding of mobility processes in an era of rising inequality.
Tjepkema, Michael; Wilkins, Russell; Long, Andrea
People with lower levels of education tend to have higher rates of disease and death, compared with people who have higher levels of education. However, because death registrations in Canada do not contain information on the education of the deceased, unlinked vital statistics cannot be used to examine mortality differentials by education. This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by education in a broadly representative sample of Canadians aged 25 or older. The data are from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which included about 2.7 million people and 426,979 deaths. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated by education for different causes of death. Rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were also calculated. All-cause ASMRs were highest among people with less than secondary graduation and lowest for university degree-holders. If all cohort members had the mortality rates of those with a university degree, the overall ASMRs would have been 27% lower for men and 22% lower for women. The causes contributing most to that "excess" mortality were ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, diabetes, injuries (men), and respiratory infections (women). Causes associated with smoking and alcohol abuse had the steepest gradients. A mortality gradient by education was evident for many causes of death.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Month of birth--an indicator for a variety of prenatal and early postnatal exposures--has been associated with life expectancy in adulthood. On the northern hemisphere, people born in the autumn live longer than those born during the spring. Only one study has followed a population longitudinally and no study has investigated the relation between month of birth and mortality risk below 50 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nation-wide Swedish study, we included 6,194,745 subjects, using data from population-based health and administrative registries. The relation between month of birth (January-December and mortality risk was assessed by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models using attained age as the underlying time scale. Analyses were made for ages >30, >30 to 50, >50 to 80 and >80 years. Month of birth was a significant predictor of mortality in the age-spans >30, >50 to 80, and >80 years. In models adjusted for gender and education for ages >30 and >50 to 80 years, the lowest mortality was seen for people born in November and the highest mortality in those born in the spring/summer, peaking in May for mortality >30 years (25‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 16-34 ] and in April for mortality >50 to 80 years (42‰ excess hazard ratio compared to November, [95% confidence interval = 30-55]. In the ages >80 years the pattern was similar but the differences in mortality between birth months were smaller. For mortality within the age-span >30 to 50 years, results were inconclusive. CONCLUSION: Month of birth is associated to risk of mortality in ages above 50 years in Sweden. Further studies should aim at clarifying the mechanisms behind this association.
Romieu, Isabelle; Gouveia, Nelson; Cifuentes, Luis A; de Leon, Antonio Ponce; Junger, Washington; Vera, Jeanette; Strappa, Valentina; Hurtado-Díaz, Magali; Miranda-Soberanis, Victor; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Carbajal-Arroyo, Luz; Tzintzun-Cervantes, Guadalupe
The ESCALA* project (Estudio de Salud y Contaminación del Aire en Latinoamérica) is an HEI-funded study that aims to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in nine Latin American cities, using a common analytic framework to obtain comparable and updated information on the effects of air pollution on several causes of death in different age groups. This report summarizes the work conducted between 2006 and 2009, describes the methodologic issues addressed during project development, and presents city-specific results of meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses. The ESCALA project involved three teams of investigators responsible for collection and analysis of city-specific air pollution and mortality data from three different countries. The teams designed five different protocols to standardize the methods of data collection and analysis that would be used to evaluate the effects of air pollution on mortality (see Appendices B-F). By following the same protocols, the investigators could directly compare the results among cities. The analysis was conducted in two stages. The first stage included analyses of all-natural-cause and cause-specific mortality related to particulate matter or = 65 years), and not for COPD and cerebrovascular-stroke in the all-age and the > or = 65 age groups. The percentage increase in all-natural-cause mortality was 0.16% (-0.02 to 0.33). In the meta-regression analyses, variables that best explained heterogeneity in mortality risks among cities were the mean average of temperature in the warm season, population percentage of infants ( or = 65 years, geographic density of PM10 monitors, annual average concentrations of PM10, and mortality rates for lung cancer. The ESCALA project was undertaken to obtain information for assessing the effects of air pollutants on mortality in Latin America, where large populations are exposed to relatively high levels of ambient air pollution. An important goal
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Background: Findings regarding the association between milk consumption and all-cause mortality reported by studies carried out in Western populations have been inconsistent. However, no studies have been conducted in Japan on this issue. The present study aimed to investigate the association of milk drinking with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in Japan. Methods: The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. A total of 94 980 Japanese adults aged 40...
Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Ohmori, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Higashiguchi, Mizuka; Kakizaki, Masako; Kikuchi, Nobutaka; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro
To investigate the association between the sense of "life worth living (ikigai)" and the cause-specific mortality risk. The psychological factors play important roles in morbidity and mortality risks. However, the association between the negative psychological factors and the risk of mortality is inconclusive. The Ohsaki Study, a prospective cohort study, was initiated on 43,391 Japanese adults. To assess if the subjects found a sense of ikigai, they were asked the question, "Do you have ikigai in your life?" We used Cox regression analysis to calculate the hazard ratio of the all-cause and cause-specific mortality according to the sense of ikigai categories. Over 7 years' follow-up, 3048 of the subjects died. The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher among the subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai as compared with that in the subjects who found a sense of ikigai; the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.5 (1.3-1.7). As for the cause-specific mortality, subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai were significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.6; 1.3-2.0) and external cause mortality (1.9; 1.1-3.3), but not of the cancer mortality (1.3; 1.0-1.6). In this prospective cohort study, subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. The increase in mortality risk was attributable to cardiovascular disease and external causes, but not cancer.
Schmidt, A F; Nielen, M; Withrow, S J; Selmic, L E; Burton, J H; Klungel, O H; Groenwold, R H H; Kirpensteijn, J
Canine osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer, and an important cause of mortality and morbidity, in large purebred dogs. Previously we constructed two multivariable models to predict a dog's 5-month or 1-year mortality risk after surgical treatment for osteosarcoma. According to the 5-month model, dogs with a relatively low risk of 5-month mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy treatment. In the present study, we externally validated these results using an independent cohort study of 794 dogs. External performance of our prediction models showed some disagreement between observed and predicted risk, mean difference: -0.11 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]-0.29; 0.08) for 5-month risk and 0.25 (95%CI 0.10; 0.40) for 1-year mortality risk. After updating the intercept, agreement improved: -0.0004 (95%CI-0.16; 0.16) and -0.002 (95%CI-0.15; 0.15). The chemotherapy by predicted mortality risk interaction (P-value=0.01) showed that the chemotherapy compared to no chemotherapy effectiveness was modified by 5-month mortality risk: dogs with a relatively lower risk of mortality benefited most from additional chemotherapy. Chemotherapy effectiveness on 1-year mortality was not significantly modified by predicted risk (P-value=0.28). In conclusion, this external validation study confirmed that our multivariable risk prediction models can predict a patient's mortality risk and that dogs with a relatively lower risk of 5-month mortality seem to benefit most from chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meyers, Alysha R; Pinkerton, Lynne E; Hein, Misty J
To further evaluate the association between formaldehyde and leukemia, we extended follow-up through 2008 for a cohort mortality study of 11,043 US formaldehyde-exposed garment workers. We computed standardized mortality ratios and standardized rate ratios stratified by year of first exposure, exposure duration, and time since first exposure. Associations between exposure duration and rates of leukemia and myeloid leukemia were further examined using Poisson regression models. Compared to the US population, myeloid leukemia mortality was elevated but overall leukemia mortality was not. In internal analyses, overall leukemia mortality increased with increasing exposure duration and this trend was statistically significant. We continue to see limited evidence of an association between formaldehyde and leukemia. However, the extended follow-up did not strengthen previously observed associations. In addition to continued epidemiologic research, we recommend further research to evaluate the biological plausibility of a causal relation between formaldehyde and leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mackenbach, Johan P; Karanikolos, Marina; Looman, Caspar W N
We studied recent trends in mortality from seven mental and neurological conditions and their determinants in 41 European countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were analysed using standard methods of descriptive epidemiology, and were related to cultural, economic and health care indicators using regression analysis. Rising mortality from mental and neurological conditions is seen in most European countries, and is mainly due to rising mortality from dementias. Mortality from psychoactive substance use and Parkinson's disease has also risen in several countries. Mortality from dementias has risen particularly strongly in Finland, Iceland, Malta, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, and is positively associated with self-expression values, average income, health care expenditure and life expectancy, but only the first has an independent effect. Although trends in mortality from dementias have probably been affected by changes in cause-of-death classification, the high level of mortality from these conditions in a number of vanguard countries suggests that it is now among the most frequent causes of death in high-income countries. Recognition of dementias as a cause of death, and/or refraining from life-saving treatment for patients with dementia, appear to be strongly dependent on cultural values.
Erichsen, R; Horváth-Puhó, E; Iversen, L H; Lash, T L; Sørensen, H T
It is unknown whether comorbidity interacts with colorectal cancer (CRC) to increase the rate of mortality beyond that explained by the independent effects of CRC and comorbid conditions. We conducted a cohort study (1995-2010) of all Danish CRC patients (n=56963), and five times as many persons from the general population (n=271670) matched by age, gender, and specific comorbidities. To analyse comorbidity, we used the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores. We estimated standardised mortality rates per 1000 person-years, and calculated interaction contrasts as a measure of the excess mortality rate not explained by the independent effects of CRC or comorbidities. Among CRC patients with a CCI score=1, the 0-1 year mortality rate was 415 out of 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 401, 430) and the interaction accounted for 9.3% of this rate (interaction contrast=39 out of 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 22, 55). For patients with a CCI score of 4 or more, the interaction accounted for 34% of the mortality (interaction contrast=262 out of 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 215, 310). The interaction between CRC and comorbidities had limited influence on mortality beyond 1 year after diagnosis. Successful treatment of the comorbidity is pivotal and may reduce the mortality attributable to comorbidity itself, and also the mortality attributable to the interaction.
Chung, Joo-Youn; Honda, Yasushi; Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Guo, Yue-Leon; Kim, Ho
Extreme ambient temperature has been associated with increased daily mortality across the world. We describe the ambient temperature-mortality association for four capital cities in East Asia, Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, and identify a threshold temperature for each city and the percent increase in mortality. We adapted generalized linear modeling with natural cubic splines (GLM+NS) to examine the association between daily mean apparent temperature (AT) and total mortality, as well as mortality due to respiratory (RD) and cardiovascular (CVD) causes in a threshold model. We conducted a time-series analysis adjusting for day of the week and long-term time trend. The study period differed by city. The threshold temperature for all seasons was estimated to be 30.1-33.5 degrees C, 31.3-32.3 degrees C, 29.4-30.8 degrees C, and 25.2 degrees -31.5 degrees C for Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, respectively, on the same day. For the mean daily AT increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Tokyo, and Taipei, estimated percentage increases in daily total mortality were 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-3.1), 1.7 (95% CI=1.5-2.0), and 4.3 (95% CI=2.9-5.7), respectively. Beijing provided no total mortality counts. Estimated percentage increases were 2.7-10.5 for RD mortality, 1.1-9.3 for CVD mortality in 4 cities. This study identified increased mortality due to exposure to elevated AT. The importance of effects of AT and city-specific threshold temperatures suggests that analyses of the impact of climate change should take regional differences into consideration.
Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Khoshnia, Masoud; Norouzi, Alireza; Amiriani, Taghi; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharaoh, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza
BACKGROUND Only a few studies in Western countries have investigated the association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and mortality at the general population level and they have shown mixed results. This study investigated the association between GERD symptoms and overall and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. METHODS Baseline data on frequency, onset time, and patient-perceived severity of GERD symptoms were available for 50001 participants in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). We identified 3107 deaths (including 1146 circulatory and 470 cancer-related) with an average follow-up of 6.4 years and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple potential confounders. RESULTS Severe daily symptoms (defined as symptoms interfering with daily work or causing nighttime awakenings on a daily bases, reported by 4.3% of participants) were associated with cancer mortality (HR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05). This increase was too small to noticeably affect overall mortality. Mortality was not associated with onset time or frequency of GERD and was not increased with mild to moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION We have observed an association with GERD and increased cancer mortality in a small group of individuals that had severe symptoms. Most patients with mild to moderate GERD can be re-assured that their symptoms are not associated with increased mortality. PMID:24872865
Knight, Kelly E; Ellis, Colter; Simmons, Sara B
This study examines the intra- and intergenerational links between intimate partner violence (IPV) and animal abuse by analyzing a national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,614 individuals collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study from 1990 to 2004. Using multilevel random-intercept regression modeling, parents' own history of animal abuse is predictive of their later involvement in IPV perpetration and victimization, net of important controls. In turn, parents' IPV violent perpetration (but not violent victimization) is predictive of their children's history of animal abuse-measured 14 years later. Intergenerational continuity of animal abuse, however, is not significant. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study's limitations, and future research directions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Roos, Vera; Sedick, Samiera
This study explored the perceptions of older people in a residential care facility regarding how they are portrayed in the print media and the implications of such portrayal for intergenerational relations. Twenty-one older residents in a residential care facility participated voluntarily in the study (men = 9, women = 12; age range 60 to 85 years). Data were collected using exploratory interviews and focus groups followed by the thematic analysis of the data. The findings suggest that the ol...
Arauz, María José; Ridde, Valéry; Hernández, Libia Milena; Charris, Yaneth; Carabali, Mabel; Villar, Luis Ángel
Dengue fever is a public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical world. Dengue cases have grown dramatically in recent years as well as dengue mortality. Colombia has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks with numerous dengue related-deaths, where the Santander department has been particularly affected. Although social determinants of health (SDH) shape health outcomes, including mortality, it is not yet understood how these affect dengue mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and pre-test a social autopsy (SA) tool for dengue mortality. The tool was developed and pre-tested in three steps. First, dengue fatal cases and 'near misses' (those who recovered from dengue complications) definitions were elaborated. Second, a conceptual framework on determinants of dengue mortality was developed to guide the construction of the tool. Lastly, the tool was designed and pre-tested among three relatives of fatal cases and six near misses in 2013 in the metropolitan zone of Bucaramanga. The tool turned out to be practical in the context of dengue mortality in Colombia after some modifications. The tool aims to study the social, individual, and health systems determinants of dengue mortality. The tool is focused on studying the socioeconomic position and the intermediary SDH rather than the socioeconomic and political context. The SA tool is based on the scientific literature, a validated conceptual framework, researchers' and health professionals' expertise, and a pilot study. It is the first time that a SA tool has been created for the dengue mortality context. Our work furthers the study on SDH and how these are applied to neglected tropical diseases, like dengue. This tool could be integrated in surveillance systems to provide complementary information on the modifiable and avoidable death-related factors and therefore, be able to formulate interventions for dengue mortality reduction.
Arauz, María José; Ridde, Valéry; Hernández, Libia Milena; Charris, Yaneth; Carabali, Mabel; Villar, Luis Ángel
Background Dengue fever is a public health problem in the tropical and sub-tropical world. Dengue cases have grown dramatically in recent years as well as dengue mortality. Colombia has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks with numerous dengue related-deaths, where the Santander department has been particularly affected. Although social determinants of health (SDH) shape health outcomes, including mortality, it is not yet understood how these affect dengue mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and pre-test a social autopsy (SA) tool for dengue mortality. Methods and Findings The tool was developed and pre-tested in three steps. First, dengue fatal cases and ‘near misses’ (those who recovered from dengue complications) definitions were elaborated. Second, a conceptual framework on determinants of dengue mortality was developed to guide the construction of the tool. Lastly, the tool was designed and pre-tested among three relatives of fatal cases and six near misses in 2013 in the metropolitan zone of Bucaramanga. The tool turned out to be practical in the context of dengue mortality in Colombia after some modifications. The tool aims to study the social, individual, and health systems determinants of dengue mortality. The tool is focused on studying the socioeconomic position and the intermediary SDH rather than the socioeconomic and political context. Conclusions The SA tool is based on the scientific literature, a validated conceptual framework, researchers’ and health professionals’ expertise, and a pilot study. It is the first time that a SA tool has been created for the dengue mortality context. Our work furthers the study on SDH and how these are applied to neglected tropical diseases, like dengue. This tool could be integrated in surveillance systems to provide complementary information on the modifiable and avoidable death-related factors and therefore, be able to formulate interventions for dengue mortality reduction. PMID:25658485
Singh, Jatinder; Schupf, Nicole; Boudreau, Robert
data (2006-2009) on 28 traits representing 5 domains (cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, physical, and pulmonary) from 4,472 US and Danish individuals in 574 pedigrees from the Long Life Family Study (United States and Denmark), we constructed endophenotypes and assessed their relationship...... with mortality. The most dominant endophenotype primarily reflected the physical activity and pulmonary domains, was heritable, was significantly associated with mortality, and attenuated the association of age with mortality by 24.1%. Using data (1997-1998) on 1,794 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study...
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo
Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on the association between sleep and mortality rates have addressed only duration, not quality, of sleep. The authors prospectively examined the effects of sleep disturbances on mortality rates and on important risk...... factors for mortality, such as body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes. A total of 16,989 participants in the GAZEL cohort study were asked validated questions on sleep disturbances in 1990 and were followed up until 2009, with...
Vestbo, Jørgen; Anderson, Julie; Brook, Robert D
or at increased risk for CVD.SUMMIT is a multi-center, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 16,000 patients with moderate COPD randomly assigned to once daily treatment with FF/VI (100/25 ;mcg), Fluticasone Furoate (100 ;mcg), Vilanterol (25 ;mcg) or matched placebo; mortality......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexists with other chronic diseases and comorbidities that can markedly influence patients' health status and prognosis. This is particularly true for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there have been no trials assessing the effect of COPD...... medications on CVD in patients with both diseases.The "Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy in COPD" (SUMMIT) aims at determining the impact of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol combination (FF/VI), and the individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD...
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
Background: Although hypothyroidism is associated with increased morbidity, an association with increased mortality is still debated. Our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide level, whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism influences mortality. Methods: In an observational cohort study from January 1, 1978 until December 31, 2008 using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers, 3587 singletons and 682 twins diagnosed with hypothyroidism were identified. Hypothyroid individuals were matched 1:4 with nonhypothyroid controls with respect to age and gender and followed over a mean period of 5.6 years (range 0–30 years). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was calculated using Cox regression analyses. Comorbidity was evaluated using the Charlson score (CS). Results: In singletons with hypothyroidism, the mortality risk was increased (HR 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.41–1.65). Although the effect attenuated, hypothyroidism remained associated with increased mortality when evaluating subjects with a CS = 0 (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05–1.44). In twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid twin had excess mortality compared with the corresponding euthyroid cotwin (HR 1.40; 95% CI 0.95–2.05). However, after stratifying for zygosity, hypothyroidism was associated with excess mortality in dizygotic twin pairs (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.00–2.58), whereas the association attenuated in monozygotic pairs (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.55–2.05). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is associated with an excess mortality of around 50%, which to some degree is explained by comorbidity. In addition, the finding of an association between hypothyroidism and mortality within disease discordant dizygotic but not monozygotic twin pairs indicates that the association between hypothyroidism and mortality is also influenced by genetic confounding. PMID:23365121
Wang, Chaochen; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko
Findings regarding the association between milk consumption and all-cause mortality reported by studies carried out in Western populations have been inconsistent. However, no studies have been conducted in Japan on this issue. The present study aimed to investigate the association of milk drinking with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in Japan. The data were obtained from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) study. A total of 94 980 Japanese adults aged 40-79 years who had no history of cancer, stroke, or chronic cardiovascular diseases were followed between 1988 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortalities were assessed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model and taking the lowest milk consumption group as the reference. During a median of 19 years of follow-up, there were 21 775 deaths (28.8% and 35.3% from cardiovascular diseases and cancer, respectively). Drinking milk 1-2 times a month was associated with lower all-cause mortality in men compared to those who never drank milk (multivariable-adjusted HR 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99). In women, those who drank 3-4 times a week also had a lower mortality risk compared with those who never drank milk (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.98). Inverse associations between drinking milk and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer were found only in men. Drinking milk at least 1-2 times a month was associated with lower all-cause mortality in men compared to never drinking milk. An inverse association was also found between drinking milk and mortality from both cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, lower all-cause mortality in women was found only in those who drank milk 3-4 times/week.
Waldkirch, Andreas; Ng, Serena; Cox, Donald
We investigate familial relationships in consumption patterns using a sample of parents and their children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We find a positive and statistically significant parent-specific effect on children's consumption even after controlling for the effect of parental income. This correlation is found in different…
Zhou, Jing; Mao, Weiyu; Lee, Yura; Chi, Iris
Little longitudinal data exist on grandparent caregivers and few studies have examined their physical health outcomes. This study examined the effect of caring for grandchildren on grandparents' physical health and the role of intergenerational support from adult children. Longitudinal data derived from a survey on the well-being of older adults in China were used to conduct path analysis of previous grandparent caregivers (vs. noncaregivers) and repeated grandparent caregivers (vs. noncaregivers). The final sample was 799 grandparents aged 60 or older living in rural China. Three aspects of intergenerational support were measured: financial, emotional, and instrumental support. Repeated grandparent caregivers had better self-rated health (SRH) and fewer limitations than noncaregivers. Previous grandparent caregivers had better SRH compared to noncaregivers. Emotional support mediated the relationship between caregiving and SRH among repeated caregivers. Findings suggest that any caregiving experience (previous or repeated) provides health benefits to grandparents.
Benton, Richard A; Keister, Lisa A
Recent evidence indicates that inheritances and other intergenerational wealth transfers have only a limited effect on wealth inequality and the intergenerational transmission of financial well-being. In this study, we explore the role that human capital and family formation play in mediating the relationship between receiving a transfer and building wealth. We examine how educational attainment and family formation determine whether or not households are able to convert inheritances into greater assets, facilitating improved wealth accumulation. Using data from the Panel Study for Income Dynamics (PSID), we examine how these factors moderate wealth accumulation trajectories following a bequest or inter vivos gift. Results reveal that educational attainment and marriage each facilitate wealth accumulation following a transfer. Our evidence suggests that cumulative advantage processes produce divergent wealth accumulation trajectories but these are situated in important turning points in the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T
Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Bajraktari, G.; Gjoka, S.; Rexhepaj, N.; Daullxhiu, I.; Thaqi, K.; Pacolli, S.; Sylejmani, X.; Elezi, S.
Randomized trials have demonstrated that primary angioplasty is moreeffective than intravenous thrombolysis in reducing mortality and morbidityin patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study wasto assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with AMI admitted to the onlytertiary care center in Kosovo, where coronary percutaneous interventionprocedures are unavailable. We also assessed the impact of age and gender onin-hospital mortality. Consecutive patients with the diagnosis of AMI,admitted in our institution between 1999 and 2007, were included in thisretrospective study. Of 2848 patients (mean age 61+- 1.3 years, 73.4% males)admitted with AMI, 292 (10.25%) died during in-hospital stay. The overallin-hospital mortality was 12.3% for women and 9.5% for men (P<05). Women weresignificantly older than men (64.2+-11 years vs. 59.7+-11.8 years, P<.05).Mean length of stay was 12.0+-94 for women and 10.7+-7.6 for men. From 1999break was detected by the application of thepatients with Ami but themortality rate remained stable. Compared to developed countries, patientswith AMI in Kososvo present at an early age but have a higher mortality rate.Women with AMI had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate thanmen. The lack of percutaneous coronary intervention procedures in AMIpatients may have contributed to the high in-hospital mortality in ourpopulation. (auhor)
Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena
Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Swed...
Major, Jacqueline M.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Freedman, Neal D.; Park, Yikyung; Lian, Min; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Graubard, Barry I.; Sinha, Rashmi
Purpose Residing in deprived areas may increase risk of mortality beyond that explained by a person's own SES-related factors and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and all-cause, cancer- and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality for men and women after accounting for education and other important person-level risk factors. Methods In the longitudinal NIH-AARP Study, we analyzed data from healthy participants, ...
Weber R; Ruppik M; Rickenbach M; Spoerri A; Furrer H; Battegay M; Cavassini M; Calmy A; Bernasconi E; Schmid P; Flepp M; Kowalska J; Ledergerber B; Ledergerber B
Mortality among HIV infected persons is decreasing and causes of death are changing. Classification of deaths is hampered because of low autopsy rates frequent deaths outside of hospitals and shortcomings of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10) coding. We studied mortality among Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) participants (1988 2010) and causes of death using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol (2005 2009). Furthermore we linke...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about adult health and mortality relationships outside high-income nations, partly because few datasets have contained biomarker data in representative populations. Our objective is to determine the prognostic value of biomarkers with respect to total and cardiovascular mortality in an elderly population of a middle-income country, as well as the extent to which they mediate the effects of age and sex on mortality. Methods This is a prospective population-based study in a nationally representative sample of elderly Costa Ricans. Baseline interviews occurred mostly in 2005 and mortality follow-up went through December 2010. Sample size after excluding observations with missing values: 2,313 individuals and 564 deaths. Main outcome: prospective death rate ratios for 22 baseline biomarkers, which were estimated with hazard regression models. Results Biomarkers significantly predict future death above and beyond demographic and self-reported health conditions. The studied biomarkers account for almost half of the effect of age on mortality. However, the sex gap in mortality became several times wider after controlling for biomarkers. The most powerful predictors were simple physical tests: handgrip strength, pulmonary peak flow, and walking speed. Three blood tests also predicted prospective mortality: C-reactive protein (CRP, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS. Strikingly, high blood pressure (BP and high total cholesterol showed little or no predictive power. Anthropometric measures also failed to show significant mortality effects. Conclusions This study adds to the growing evidence that blood markers for CRP, HbA1c, and DHEAS, along with organ-specific functional reserve indicators (handgrip, walking speed, and pulmonary peak flow, are valuable tools for identifying vulnerable elderly. The results also highlight the need to better understand an anomaly noted previously in
Rajan, Prabhakar; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Nyberg, Tommy; Akre, Olof; Carlsson, Stefan; Egevad, Lars; Steineck, Gunnar; Wiklund, N Peter
Purpose To determine the effect of comorbidity on prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality across treatment types. Patients and Methods These are the results of a population-based observational study in Sweden from 1998 to 2012 of 118,543 men who were diagnosed with PCa with a median follow-up of 8.3 years (interquartile range, 5.2 to 11.5 years) until death from PCa or other causes. Patients were categorized by patient characteristics (marital status, educational level) and tumor characteristics (serum prostate-specific antigen, tumor grade and clinical stage) and by treatment type (radical prostatectomy, radical radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and watchful waiting). Data were stratified by Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3). Mortality from PCa and other causes and after stabilized inverse probability weighting adjustments for clinical patient and tumor characteristics and treatment type was determined. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios. Results In the complete unadjusted data set, we observed an effect of increased comorbidity on PCa-specific and other-cause mortality. After adjustments for patient and tumor characteristics, the effect of comorbidity on PCa-specific mortality was lost but maintained for other-cause mortality. After additional adjustment for treatment type, we again failed to observe an effect for comorbidity on PCa-specific mortality, although it was maintained for other-cause mortality. Conclusion This large observational study suggests that comorbidity affects other cause-mortality but not PCa-specific- mortality after accounting for patient and tumor characteristics and treatment type. Regardless of radical treatment type (radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy), increasing comorbidity does not seem to significantly affect the risk of dying from PCa. Consequently, differences in oncologic outcomes that were observed in population
North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T
Age is the only social category identifying subgroups that everyone may eventually join. Despite this and despite the well-known growth of the older population, age-based prejudice remains an understudied topic in social psychology. This article systematically reviews the literature on ageism, highlighting extant research on its consequences and theoretical perspectives on its causes. We then identify a crucial gap in the literature, potential intergenerational tensions, speculating how a growing-older population-and society's efforts to accommodate it-might stoke intergenerational fires, particularly among the younger generation. Presenting both sides of this incipient issue, we review relevant empirical work that introduces reasons for both optimism and pessimism concerning intergenerational relations within an aging society. We conclude by suggesting future avenues for ageism research, emphasizing the importance of understanding forthcoming intergenerational dynamics for the benefit of the field and broader society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Hawkins, Melissa; Mcguire, Francis A
Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction: Training for Success examines established intergenerational programs and provides the training methods necessary for activity directors or practitioners to start a similar program. This book contains exercises that will help you train colleagues and volunteers for these specific programs and includes criteria for activity evaluations. Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction will help you implement programs that enable older adults to build friendships, pass down their skills and knowledge to adolescents, and provide youths with positive role models. Discussing the factors that often limit the interaction of older adults with youths, this text stresses the importance of conveying information and history to younger generations. You will learn why the exchange between different generations is crucial to society and to the improvement of the community in which you live. Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction provides you ...
Klijs, Bart; Angelini, Viola; Mierau, Jochen O.; Smidt, Nynke
Background: The risk of metabolic syndrome is associated between parents and offspring, but studies are inconsistent on differences by sex of parents and offspring. Our aim is to investigate to what extent metabolic syndrome present in fathers and mothers is associated with risk of metabolic
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate social evolution in Taiwan in recent decades using the changing pattern of care provided by grandparents for their grandchildren as an indicator. Methods Data from the second, fourth and sixth wave surveys of the Study of Health and Living Status of the Middle-Aged and Elderly in Taiwan were used for the analysis. This survey collected individual characteristics, including age, gender, education, ethnicity, dwelling place, living with partners, co-resident with children, employment status, self-reported health status and their provision of care for their grandchildren. Information about the attitudes toward National Health Insurance (NHI was further collected in a questionnaire of 1999 following the implementation of NHI in 1995. By elders, we mean persons 60 or more years old. By grandchildren, we mean persons under 16 years of age. First, changes in individual characteristics were compared during these study periods (chi-square test. Then the logistic regression was performed to determine how significantly elders' grandchild-care behavior was associated with their individual characteristics. Results The percentage of elders providing grandchild care increased from 7.7% in 1993 to 13.6% in 1999, and then to 19.4% in 2007. By analysis, significant association was found between behavior in taking care of grandchildren and individuals of lower age, grandmothers, those living with partners or co-residing with children, those unemployed and those with better self-reported health status. And the effect of year was confirmed in the multivariable analysis. Conclusions This study pointed out the changing pattern of elders' behavior in taking care of their grandchildren as the main indicator and their related individual characteristics. We argue the need for improving social security policies in an ageing society. We suggest that the interaction between population policies and those of social welfare
Steve G.A. van de Weijer; Terence P. Thornberry; Catrien C.J.H. Bijleveld; Arjan A.J. Blokland
This study first examines the effects of parental divorce and paternal crime on offspring offending. Then, it tests whether parental divorce moderates the intergenerational transmission of crime. Diversity within the offending population is taken into account by examining whether effects are different for fathers who commit crimes at different points of the life-course and by distinguishing between violent and non-violent offending. A sample of 2374 individuals from three consecutive generat...
Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J.
Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective datasets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment rel...
Joseph J. Ferrare
Researchers have examined racial and gender patterns of intergenerational education mobility, but less attention has been given to the ways that race and gender interact to further shape these relationships. Based on data from the General Social Survey, this study examined the trajectories of education mobility among Blacks and Whites by gender over the past century. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression models revealed three noteworthy patterns. First, Black men and women have close...
Lüscher, Kurt; Hoff, Andreas; Lamura, Giovanni; Renzi, Marta; Sánchez, Mariano; Viry, Gil; Widmer, Eric; Klimczuk, Andrzej; Salles Oliveira, Paulo de
The members of the International Network for the Analysis of Intergenerational Relations (Generationes) proudly present the most recent issue of the jointly produced compendium “Generations, Intergenerational Relations and Generational Policy”. This new version includes seven languages (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Polish (New) and Portuguese (New)). Its layout is designed for using it to translate the specific concepts and terminology of research into generations and interg...
Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto
We derive general and explicit expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of fermions in parity-nonconserving theories with inter-generation mixing. The mass eigenvalues, the corresponding mass counterterms, and the effect of inter-generation mixing on their determination are discussed. Invoking the Aoki-Hioki-Kawabe-Konuma-Muta renormalization conditions and employing a number of very useful relations from Matrix Algebra, we show explicitly that the renormalized dressed propagators satisfy important physical properties. (orig.)
Enroth, Linda; Raitanen, Jani; Hervonen, Antti; Nosraty, Lily; Jylhä, Marja
socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are well-known in middle-aged and younger old adults, but the situation of the oldest old is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities for all-cause, cardiovascular and dementia mortality among the people aged 90 or older. the data source was a mailed survey in the Vitality 90+ study (n = 1,276) in 2010. The whole cohort of people 90 years or over irrespective of health status or dwelling place in a geographical area was invited to participate. The participation rate was 79%. Socioeconomic status was measured by occupation and education, and health status by functioning and comorbidity. All-cause and cause-specific mortality was followed for 3 years. The Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), was applied. the all-cause and dementia mortality differed by occupational class. Upper non-manuals had lower all-cause mortality than lower non-manuals (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32), skilled manual workers (HR: 1.56 95% CI: 1.09-2.25), unskilled manual workers (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.20-2.94), housewives (HR: 1.77 95% CI: 1.15-2.71) and those with unknown occupation (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41-3.85). Inequalities in all-cause mortality were largely explained by the differences in functioning. The situation was similar according to education, but inequalities were not statistically significant. Socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular mortality were not significant. socioeconomic inequalities persist in mortality for 90+-year-olds, but their magnitude varies depending on the cause of death and the indicator of socioeconomic status. Mainly, mortality differences are explained by differences in functional status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vasak, Blanka; Verhagen, Jessica J; Koenen, Steven V; Koster, Maria P H; de Reu, Paul A O M; Franx, Arie; Nijhuis, Jan G; Bonsel, Gouke J; Visser, Gerard H A
Twin pregnancies are at increased risk for perinatal morbidity and death because of many factors that include a high incidence of preterm delivery. Compared with singleton pregnancies, overall perinatal risk of death is higher in twin pregnancies; however, for the preterm period, the perinatal mortality rate has been reported to be lower in twins. The purpose of this study was to compare perinatal mortality rates in relation to gestational age at birth between singleton and twin pregnancies, taking into account socioeconomic status, fetal sex, and parity. We studied perinatal mortality rates according to gestational age at birth in 1,502,120 singletons pregnancies and 51,658 twin pregnancies without congenital malformations who were delivered between 2002 and 2010 after 28 weeks of gestation. Data were collected from the nationwide Netherlands Perinatal Registry. Overall the perinatal mortality rate in twin pregnancies (6.6/1000 infants) was higher than in singleton pregnancies (4.1/1000 infants). However, in the preterm period, the perinatal mortality rate in twin pregnancies was substantially lower than in singleton pregnancies (10.4 per 1000 infants as compared with 34.5 per 1000 infants, respectively) for infants who were born at <37 weeks of gestation; this held especially for antepartum deaths. After 39 weeks of gestation, the perinatal mortality rate was higher in twin pregnancies. Differences in parity, fetal sex, and socioeconomic status did not explain the observed differences in outcome. Overall the perinatal mortality rate was higher in twin pregnancies than in singleton pregnancies, which is most likely caused by the high preterm birth rate in twins and not by a higher mortality rate for gestation, apart from term pregnancies. During the preterm period, the antepartum mortality rate was much lower in twin pregnancies than in singleton pregnancies. We suggest that this might be partially due to a closer monitoring of twin pregnancies, which indirectly
Burgos, Carmen Mesas; Frenckner, Björn
Improvements in the clinical management of CDH have led to overall improved reported result from single institutions. However, population-based studies have highlighted a hidden mortality. To explore the incidence in Sweden and to address the hidden mortality for CDH during a 27-year period in a population-based setting. This is a population based cohort study that includes all patients diagnosed with CDH that were registered in the National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Congenital Malformations and the Register for Causes of Death between 1987 and 2013. The mortality rates were calculated based on the number deaths divided by the number of live born cases. The hidden mortality was defined as the number of CDH cases that were not born (because of TOP or IUFD), cases of neonatal demise during birth or demise the same day of birth in patients who were in peripheral institutions and who never reached tertiary centers. In total, 861 CDH patients were born in Sweden between 1987 and 2013, which corresponds to an incidence of 3.0 born CDH per 10,000 live births. When adding the cases of TOP and IUFD, the total incidence of CDH in Sweden was 3.5/10,000 live born. The mortality rate between 1987 and 2013 was 36%: 44% during the first time period 1987-1999 and 27% in the later period 2000-2013. The hidden mortality in the second period was 30%, resulting in a total mortality rate of 45%. The incidence of CDH during a 27-year period remained unchanged in the population. However, we observed a decrease in the prevalence because of the increasing numbers of TOP. A significant hidden mortality exists, with overall mortality rate of 45% for CDH in this population. II (cohort). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogers, Mark W.; Barbour, Andrew B; Wilson, Kyle L
Estimates of post-release mortality (PRM) facilitate accounting for unintended deaths from fishery activities and contribute to development of fishery regulations and harvest quotas. The most popular method for estimating PRM employs containers for comparing control and treatment fish, yet guidance for experimental design of PRM studies with containers is lacking. We used simulations to evaluate trade-offs in the number of containers (replicates) employed versus the number of fish-per container when estimating tagging mortality. We also investigated effects of control fish survival and how among container variation in survival affects the ability to detect additive mortality. Simulations revealed that high experimental effort was required when: (1) additive treatment mortality was small, (2) control fish mortality was non-negligible, and (3) among container variability in control fish mortality exceeded 10% of the mean. We provided programming code to allow investigators to compare alternative designs for their individual scenarios and expose trade-offs among experimental design options. Results from our simulations and simulation code will help investigators develop efficient PRM experimental designs for precise mortality assessment.
Getzlaff, Julia; Oschlies, Andreas
In this pilot study we link the yield of industrial fisheries to changes in the zooplankton mortality in an idealized way accounting for different target species (planktivorous fish—decreased zooplankton mortality; large predators—increased zooplankton mortality). This indirect approach is used in a global coupled biogeochemistry circulation model to estimate the range of the potential impact of industrial fisheries on marine biogeochemistry. The simulated globally integrated response on phytoplankton and primary production is in line with expectations—a high (low) zooplankton mortality results in a decrease (increase) of zooplankton and an increase (decrease) of phytoplankton. In contrast, the local response of zooplankton and phytoplankton depends on the region under consideration: In nutrient-limited regions, an increase (decrease) in zooplankton mortality leads to a decrease (increase) in both zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass. In contrast, in nutrient-replete regions, such as upwelling regions, we find an opposing response: an increase (decrease) of the zooplankton mortality leads to an increase (decrease) in both zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass. The results are further evaluated by relating the potential fisheries-induced changes in zooplankton mortality to those driven by CO2 emissions in a business-as-usual 21st century emission scenario. In our idealized case, the potential fisheries-induced impact can be of similar size as warming-induced changes in marine biogeochemistry.
Holwerda, Tjalling J; van Tilburg, Theo G; Deeg, Dorly J H; Schutter, Natasja; Van, Rien; Dekker, Jack; Stek, Max L; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Schoevers, Robert A
Loneliness is highly prevalent among older people, has serious health consequences and is an important predictor of mortality. Loneliness and depression may unfavourably interact with each other over time but data on this topic are scarce. To determine whether loneliness is associated with excess mortality after 19 years of follow-up and whether the joint effect with depression confers further excess mortality. Different aspects of loneliness were measured with the De Jong Gierveld scale and depression with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in a cohort of 2878 people aged 55-85 with 19 years of follow-up. Excess mortality hypotheses were tested with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses controlling for potential confounders. At follow-up loneliness and depression were associated with excess mortality in older men and women in bivariate analysis but not in multivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, severe depression was associated with excess mortality in men who were lonely but not in women. Loneliness and depression are important predictors of early death in older adults. Severe depression has a strong association with excess mortality in older men who were lonely, indicating a lethal combination in this group. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Building on the previously investigated macro-sociological models which analyze the consequences of economic development, income inequality, and international migration on social mobility, this article studies the specific contextual covariates of intergenerational reproduction of occupational status in post-communist societies. It is theorized that social mobility is higher in societies with democratic political regimes and less liberalized economies. The outlined hypotheses are tested by using micro- and macro-level datasets for 21 post-communist societies which are fitted into multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions. The derived findings suggest that factors specific to transition societies, conventional macro-level variables, and the legacy of the Soviet Union explain variation in intergenerational social mobility, but the results vary depending which birth cohorts survey participants belong to and whether or not they stem from advantaged or disadvantaged social origins. These findings are robust to various alternative data, sample, and method specifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ehmann, J L
This article presents an innovative public-education strategy that was created to promote breast health awareness and early breast cancer detection among minority and low-income adolescent females. Given the importance of teaching breast self-examination (BSE), program development focused on creation of the BSE Rap, a lively music-video presentation. Increasing adolescents' knowledge and awareness of BSE is viewed as a springboard for disseminating information to their mothers and grandmothers. Funding was obtained for production of a video and a breast health diary, which are the program's key components. Marketing strategies included contacts with community organizations and healthcare professionals. Program evaluations reveal that the BSE Rap serves as a positive motivator for participants to discuss BSE and mammography with their mothers and grandmothers. The BSE Rap offers oncology nurses the opportunity to save lives using a unique and creative tool that focuses on intergenerational ties.
Evidence shows population ageing to be historically a product of economic development, closely associated with high living standards and national affluence. Nonetheless, fears that an aged population leads to economic stagnation and public bankruptcy are widespread. In justification for cuts to public programs and the transfer of costs and risks from the state to individuals and families, the projections of social expenditures, in particular those based on ageing, are frequently identified as overgenerous and unsustainable in many G20 countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Claims based on intergenerational research methodologies and frameworks, a relatively new and innovative approach to using data projections, have proven to be important in these policy debates. This paper explores the application of these new technologies to understanding the impact of ageing on the economy in the globalised world of the 21st century. © 2014 AJA Inc.
D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James
This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classification scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classification schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was first collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......, measurement error, and simultaneous equation bias. In these models homogeneity tests are also rejected. We conclude from these results that it is the respondent's family background that has a small but significant impact on lifetime chances, whereas the social class of the respondent's parents does not....
Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo
Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Cong, Zhen; Silverstein, Merril
The objective of this analysis was to examine older adults' preferences for economic support in the context of competition between grandparents and grandchildren for the middle generation's financial resources in rural China. Specifically, it examined how relative need, lineage, and gender of grandchildren depicted in a vignette were evaluated and how personal characteristics of the evaluators influenced beliefs for which generation should receive more support. The sample consisted of 989 older adults participating in three waves of a longitudinal study in Anhui Province, China. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to examine how older respondents evaluated the relative priority of grandparents versus grandchildren in their claim for monetary assistance using a hypothetical vignette with randomized conditions. Relatively greater need of either the vignette grandparent or grandchild increased their priority to receive economic support. The vignette granddaughter was most disadvantaged in the competition with her paternal grandparent. Respondents who were single, in worse functional health, and whose children all migrated gave the vignette grandparent greater priority; those who coresided with children gave the vignette grandparent lower priority. Findings support the altruistic perspective on filial support and the corporate group/mutual aid model of family functioning, within the family system that differentiates patrilineal from matrilineal lines of descent. Under budget constraints, selective children are considered to have legitimate claims on the resources of the middle generation, tempering filial piety toward aging parents. Lack of personal resources plays a role in whether self-interest shapes beliefs that favor older over younger generations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Shi, Zumin; Zhen, Shiqi; Zhou, Yonglin; Taylor, Anne W
Anaemia is prevalent in developing countries and is commonly Fe deficiency related. We aimed to assess the association between Fe status, Fe intake and mortality among Chinese adults. We prospectively studied 8291 adults aged 20-98 years with a mean follow-up of 9·9 years. All participants were measured for Hb at baseline in 2002. Food intake, measured by 3-d weighed food record (n 2832), and fasting serum ferritin were measured. We documented 491 deaths (including 192 CVD and 165 cancer deaths) during 81 527 person-years of follow-up. There was a U-shaped association between Hb levels and all-cause mortality. Compared with the second quartile of Hb (121 g/l), the first (105) and fourth quartile (144) had hazard ratios (HR) of 2·29 (95 % CI 1·51, 3·48) and 2·31 (95 % CI 1·46, 3·64) for all-cause mortality in women. In men, compared with third quartile of Hb (143 g/l), first (122) and fourth quartiles (154) had 61 and 65 % increased risk of all-cause mortality. Anaemia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in men but not in women after adjusting for potential confounders. Low and high Fe intake as percentage of Chinese recommended nutrient intake (RNI) were positively associated with all-cause mortality in women but not in men. In women, across quartiles of relative Fe intake, HR for all-cause mortality were 2·55 (95 % CI 0·99, 6·57), 1·00, 3·12 (95 % CI 1·35, 7·18) and 2·78 (95 % CI 1·02, 7·58). Both low and high Hb levels are related to increased risk of all-cause mortality. Both low and high intake of Fe as percentage of RNI was positively associated with mortality in women.
Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji
Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49). High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.
Andersen, Lars Bo; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud
% in the three programmes. Standardized mortality rates (SMR) were calculated in relation to mortality rates in the municipality of Copenhagen and in the whole country in three age groups and the two genders. SMR values in the whole sample including non-participants were similar to rates for Copenhagen...... of Copenhagen. In two of the studies, subjects were randomly selected, using the Danish Central Population Registry, within certain age groups and area-restricted sectors of the Greater Copenhagen. In the third study, men employed in 14 companies participated. Participation rates were between 78% and 87...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, whereas mortality rates in the Glostrup Population Studies were similar to rates for the whole country. The mortality rates among participants were lower than in the whole sample, and differences existed in relation to region and selection criteria of the cohorts. The Copenhagen...
Full Text Available Naeem A Ali1, David Gutteridge2, Sajid Shahul3, William Checkley4, Jonathan Sevransky4, Greg S Martin2 1The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH; 2Emory University, Atlanta, GA; 3Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA; 4Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Individual intensive care unit (ICU characteristics including staffing, expertise, continuity, and team structure, have been associated with patient outcomes. Separately, some aspects of care in ICUs have been implemented through treatment protocols. The United States Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group-Critical Illness Outcomes Study (USCIITG-CIOS was designed to determine whether the extent of protocol use in ICUs is associated with hospital survival in a large number of US ICUs. Here, we describe the study protocol and analysis plan approved by the USCIITG-CIOS steering committee. USCIITG-CIOS is a prospective, observational, ecological, multicentered study of mixed ICUs in the US. The data to be collected include organizational information for the ICU (eg, protocol availability and utilization, multidisciplinary staffing assessment, and patient level information (eg, demographics, acute and chronic medical conditions. The primary outcome is all-cause hospital mortality, with the objective being to determine whether there is an association between protocol number and hospital mortality for ICU patients. USCIITG-CIOS is powered to detect a 3% difference in crude hospital mortality between high-protocol and low-protocol use ICUs, dichotomized according to protocol number at the median. The analysis will utilize multivariable regression approaches to adjust for outcome clustering by ICU, with secondary linear analysis of protocol number and mortality and a variety of a priori planned ancillary studies. We anticipate at least 60 ICUs participating in USCIITG-CIOS to enroll approximately 6000 study subjects. USCIITG-CIOS is a multicenter study
Félix-Redondo, F J; Consuegra-Sánchez, L; Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Lozano, L; Escudero, V; Fernández-Bergés, D
Mortality due to stroke is high in our setting. However, we do not know its magnitude and course in a recent decade. Thus, we have assessed the global inhospital mortality and that at 1 year of stroke in patients seen in a regional hospital as well as its prognostic factors. A one-year follow-up historical cohort study was performed of patients admitted at Don Benito-Villanueva de la Serena Regional Hospital (Badajoz) with diagnosis of ischemic stroke (1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009). Epidemiological, clinical data all cause death information were collected. A total of 2.228 patients (50.8% male), mean age 71 (SD 10) years were recruited. In-hospital mortality rate was 15.3% and mortality rate at 1 year was 16.9%, with no significant changes during the 10-year study period. Risk factors for greater in-hospital mortality were age, previous renal and heart failure and not performing diagnostic tests. Factors associated with 1-year all-cause mortality were age, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and also not performing diagnostic tests. During the study, use of diagnostic tests and treatment with statin, heparin and antihypertensive medication on discharge increased. Patients admitted due to ischemic stroke, in a regional hospital presented a 1 year mortality rate of 29.6%. This tendency did not improve during the 10-year study period. Mortality was associated to greater age, comorbidities and not performing diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Kahn, Rachel E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age=13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age=42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of education has been investigated extensively in social science research. The existing literature shows that none of the studies in India related the process of partner selection and differential fertility with the intergenerational transmission of education. Here, we examined the timing of marriage and childbearing along with the probability of partner selection, according to education of women and how these processes lead to heterogeneity in educational attainment of children. The educational attainment of children was estimated by fitting the estimated marriage probabilities and children ever born in the intergenerational transmission model. The results were replicated in different random samples to examine its validity. The study found that higher educated women marry late, have fewer children, and marry men with higher or equal education. Further, the results indicate that education of women is a more significant predictor than education of husband in reducing average number of children born to couples. The findings confirm that children attain higher education than their parents, and better educated mothers do not discriminate between their children to provide higher education. These findings reinforce the significance of government initiatives to provide incentives to families with higher educated girls to ensure better education of the next generation.
Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Conger, Kathi J
Harsh, abusive, and rejecting behavior by parents toward their children is associated with increased risk for many developmental problems for youth. Children raised by harsh parents are also more likely to treat their own children harshly. The present study addresses conditions that would break this intergenerational cycle of harsh parenting. Data come from a three-generation study of a cohort of 290 adolescents (Generation 2 [G2], 52% female) grown to adulthood and their parents (Generation 1 [G1]). During adolescence, observers rated G1 harsh parenting to G2. Several years later observers rated G2 harsh parenting toward their oldest child (Generation 3 [G3]). Several adaptive systems fundamental to human resilience attenuate intergenerational continuity in harshness. G2 parents were relatively less harsh to G3 children (notwithstanding a history of harshness from G1) when G2's romantic partner (a) communicated positively with G2 and (b) had a good relationship with G3, and (c) when G2 was high on self-control. Interventions that target all of these protective factors may not only break but also reverse the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment.
Full Text Available Markos Minas, Ioanna Verou-Katsarou, Parthena Mystridou, Eleni Apostolidou, Chrisi Hatzoglou, Konstantinos I GourgoulianisRespiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, Larissa, GreeceBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with high rates of underdiagnosis. There are no studies about following up COPD patients in primary health care. The aim of the current study was to estimate two-year mortality for COPD patients in primary care and assess the parameters associated with mortality.Methods: A total of 263 patients with a new COPD diagnosis were followed up for two years. Follow-up included phone contacts every six months for assessment of vital status, and re-examination visits every year after the initial diagnosis. Visits included performance on spirometry, assessment of smoking status, evaluation of adherence with treatment, and assessment of the number of exacerbations during the previous year.Results: One hundred and eighteen patients with COPD completed the study. The overall mortality was 27.9%. Most patients had quit smoking two years after the initial diagnosis, whereas the percentage of patients showing high adherence with treatment was 68%. Parameters associated with two-year mortality were age and coronary heart disease comorbidity.Conclusion: The mortality of patients with COPD in primary care remains significantly high, whereas adherence with treatment remains significant low. Age, smoking status, and a history of depression are major determinants of mortality in primary health care.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mortality, primary health care, depression
This study deals with birth order and its impact on intergenerational transmission of parental attitudes to adolescent sons in Israeli society. The sample included 294 participants (including 98 mothers, 98 fathers, and 98 sons). The attitudes chosen were key issues of concern in Israeli society: gender role attitudes, ethnic stereotypes, and…
de la Hera Conde-Pumpido, T.; Loos, E.F.; Simons, M.; Blom, J.
The main purpose of this paper is to review the beneﬁts and factors to be taken into consideration for the design of intergenerational digital games. We conducted a systematic in Scopus, Web of Science, PsicInfo, Pubmed and Science Direct, ﬁnally including 16 empirical studies written in English.
Opree, S.J.; Kalmijn, M.
In debates about ageing western societies it is often assumed that many middle-aged women struggle to combine paid employment and intergenerational support, and that the subsequent stress leads them to experience an increase in depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional studies have supported this notion,
One of sociology’s long-standing aims is to understand the nature of inequality of occupational opportunity. This doctoral dissertation project contributes to this effort by studying intergenerational occupational class mobility in two historical transitional contexts, during the early modernization
This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native- and foreign-born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return…
Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena
High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. We identified 47,326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6-7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48-1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53-1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance use disorders. Substance use disorders were
Full Text Available Nikolay Pavlov,1 Alan Gary Haynes,2,3 Armin Stucki,4 Peter Jüni,5 Sebastian Robert Ott1 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital (Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2CTU Bern, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Spital Thun, Thun, Switzerland; 5Applied Health Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael’s Hospital, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with a growing and substantial socioeconomic burden. Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT, recommended by current treatment guidelines for COPD patients with severe chronic hypoxemia, has shown to reduce mortality in this population. The aim of our study was to assess the standardized mortality ratios of incident and prevalent LTOT users and to identify predictors of mortality. Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-year follow-up population-based cohort study comprising all COPD patients receiving LTOT in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. Comparing age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratios, we examined associations between all-cause mortality and patient characteristics at baseline. To avoid immortal time bias, data for incident (receiving LTOT <6 months and prevalent users were analyzed separately. Results: At baseline, 475 patients (20% incident users, n=93 were receiving LTOT because of COPD (48/100,000 inhabitants. Mortality of incident and prevalent LTOT users was 41% versus 27%, respectively, p<0.007, and standardized mortality ratios were 8.02 (95% CI: 5.64–11.41 versus 5.90 (95% CI: 4.79–7.25, respectively. Type 2 respiratory failure was associated with higher standardized mortality ratios among incident LTOT users (60.57, 95% CI: 11.82–310.45, p=0
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between temperature and mortality has been examined mainly in North America and Europe. However, less evidence is available in developing countries, especially in Thailand. In this study, we examined the relationship between temperature and mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand, during 1999–2008. Method A time series model was used to examine the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality (non-external, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory and age-specific non-external mortality ( =85 years, while controlling for relative humidity, air pollution, day of the week, season and long-term trend. We used a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the delayed effects of temperature on mortality up to 21 days. Results We found non-linear effects of temperature on all mortality types and age groups. Both hot and cold temperatures resulted in immediate increase in all mortality types and age groups. Generally, the hot effects on all mortality types and age groups were short-term, while the cold effects lasted longer. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with cold temperature (19.35°C, 1st percentile of temperature relative to 24.7°C (25th percentile of temperature was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.16, 1.44 for lags 0–21. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with high temperature (31.7°C, 99th percentile of temperature relative to 28°C (75th percentile of temperature was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24 for lags 0–21. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to both hot and cold temperatures were related to increased mortality. Both cold and hot effects occurred immediately but cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to manage the impact of hot and cold temperatures on population health.
Farvid, Maryam S; Malekshah, Akbar F; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Khoshnia, Masoud; Farvid, Mojtaba; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Willett, Walter C; Malekzadeh, Reza
We investigated the association between dairy product consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study launched in January 2004 in Golestan Province, northeastern Iran. A total of 42,403 men and women participated in the study and completed a diet questionnaire at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We documented 3,291 deaths (1,467 from CVD and 859 from cancer) during 11 years of follow-up (2004-2015). The highest quintile of total dairy product consumption (versus the lowest) was associated with 19% lower all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72, 0.91; Ptrend = 0.006) and 28% lower CVD mortality risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.86; Ptrend = 0.005). High consumption of low-fat dairy food was associated with lower risk of all-cause (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.94; Ptrend = 0.002) and CVD (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89; Ptrend = 0.001) mortality. We noted 11% lower all-cause mortality and 16% lower CVD mortality risk with high yogurt intake. Cheese intake was associated with 16% lower all-cause mortality and 26% lower CVD mortality risk. Higher intake of high-fat dairy food and milk was not associated with all-cause or CVD mortality. Neither intake of individual dairy products nor intake of total dairy products was significantly associated with overall cancer mortality. High consumption of dairy products, especially yogurt and cheese, may reduce the risk of overall and CVD mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available In low income and middle income countries, neonatal mortality remains high despite the gradual reduction in under five mortality. Newborn death contributes for about 38% of all under five deaths. This study has identified the magnitude and independent predictors of neonatal mortality in rural Ethiopia.This population based nested case control study was conducted in rural West Gojam zone, Northern Ethiopia, among a cohort of pregnant women who gave birth between March 2011 and Feb 2012. The cohort was established by Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP project in 2010 by recruiting mothers in their third trimester, as identified by trained community volunteers. Once identified, women stayed in the cohort throughout their pregnancy period receiving Community Maternal and Newborn Health (CMNH training by health extension workers and community volunteers till the end of the first 48 hours postpartum. Cases were 75 mothers who lost their newborns to neonatal death and controls were 150 randomly selected mothers with neonates who survived the neonatal period. Data to identify cause of death were collected using the WHO standard verbal autopsy questionnaire after the culturally appropriate 40 days of bereavement period. Binomial logistic regression model was used to identify independent contributors to neonatal mortality.The neonatal mortality rate was AOR(95%CI = 18.6 (14.8, 23.2 per 1000 live births. Neonatal mortality declined with an increase in family size, neonates who were born among a family of more than two had lesser odds of death in the neonatal period than those who were born in a family of two AOR (95% CI = 0.13 (0.02, 0.71. Mothers who gave birth to 2-4 AOR(95%CI = 0.15 (0.05, 0.48 and 5+ children AOR(95%CI = 0.08 (0.02, 0.26 had lesser odds of losing their newborns to neonatal mortality. Previous history of losing a newborn to neonatal death also increased the odds of neonatal mortality during the last birth AOR
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The geographic proximity of parents and adult children is a key element of intergenerational solidarity. Many studies have identified geographical distance as an important determinant of intergenerational support: living nearby increases the amount of mutual support provided. It can, however, also be regarded as a dimension of intergenerational solidarity: the current degree of proximity is the result of past migration decisions made by both generations, in which present and future care demands potentially played a key role. OBJECTIVE We take this endogenous nature of geographical distance into account by examining theindirect effect of the determinants of the actual level of support through geographical distance. Both upward support (personal care provided to mother and downward support (help with childcare received from mother are considered. METHODS Path analyses are performed on data from the Generations and Gender Survey for France and Bulgaria using a general latent-variable modelling framework in multiple-group models. RESULTS In addition to strongly affecting the level of support provided and received, geographical distance itself is affected by several individual and family-related variables, which in turn have an indirect effect on the level of intergenerational support. The results suggest that proximity can be used as an adaptive strategy: e.g., working adult children in France receive more help with childcare because of their greater proximity to their mothers. Having a greater care need may have triggered this choice of residence. Similarly, single parents with no partner to rely on tend to live closer to their mothers, and therefore receive more help. CONCLUSIONS Geographic proximity can be considered a latent form of solidarity that functions as a mediator between background factors and manifest, functional solidarity.
Backlund, Eric; Rowe, Geoff; Lynch, John; Wolfson, Michael C; Kaplan, George A; Sorlie, Paul D
Some of the most consistent evidence in favour of an association between income inequality and health has been among US states. However, in multilevel studies of mortality, only two out of five studies have reported a positive relationship with income inequality after adjustment for the compositional characteristics of the state's inhabitants. In this study, we attempt to clarify these mixed results by analysing the relationship within age-sex groups and by applying a previously unused analytical method to a database that contains more deaths than any multilevel study to date. The US National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) was used to model the relationship between income inequality in US states and mortality using both a novel and previously used methodologies that fall into the general framework of multilevel regression. We adjust age-sex specific models for nine socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level and percentage black and region at the state level. The preponderance of evidence from this study suggests that 1990 state-level income inequality is associated with a 40% differential in state level mortality rates (95% CI = 26-56%) for men 25-64 years and a 14% (95% CI = 3-27%) differential for women 25-64 years after adjustment for compositional factors. No such relationship was found for men or women over 65. The relationship between income inequality and mortality is only robust to adjustment for compositional factors in men and women under 65. This explains why income inequality is not a major driver of mortality trends in the United States because most deaths occur at ages 65 and over. This analysis does suggest, however, the certain causes of death that occur primarily in the population under 65 may be associated with income inequality. Comparison of analytical techniques also suggests coefficients for income inequality in previous multilevel mortality studies may be biased, but further research is needed to provide a definitive
Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel
To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Longitudinal study. 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015.
Ericha G. Anthony
Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the associations of optimism and pessimism with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD, and cancer mortality in a population-based sample of older men and women followed ≤12 years. Methods. 367 men and 509 women aged ≥50 from the Rancho Bernardo Study attended a 1999–2002 research clinic visit when demographic, behavioral, and medical history were obtained and completed a 1999 mailed survey including the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R. Mortality outcomes were followed through 2012. Results. Average age at baseline was 74.1 years; during follow-up (mean = 8.1 years, 198 participants died, 62 from CVD, 22 from CHD, and 49 from cancer. Total LOT-R, optimism and pessimism scores were calculated. Participants with the highest optimism were younger and reported less alcohol use and smoking and more exercise. Cox proportional hazard models showed that higher total LOT-R and optimism, but not pessimism scores, were associated with reduced odds of CHD mortality after adjusting for age, sex, alcohol, smoking, obesity, physical exercise, and medication (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.99; HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.99, resp.. No associations were found for all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality. Conclusions. Optimism was associated with reduced CHD mortality in older men and women. The association of positive attitudes with mortality merits further study.
Randomized trials have demonstrated that primary angioplasty is more effective than intravenous thrombolysis in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with AMI admitted to the only tertiary care center in Kosovo, where coronary percutaneous intervention procedures are unavailable. We also assessed the impact of age and gender on in-hospital mortality. Patients and Consecutive patients with the diagnosis of AMI, admitted in our institution between 1999 and 2007, were included in this retrospective study. Of 2848 patients (mean age 61±11.3 years, 73.4% males) admitted with AMI, 292 (10.25%) patients died during in-hospital stay. The overall in-hospital mortality was 12.3% for women and 9.5% for men (P<.05). Women were significantly older than men (64.2±11 years vs 59.7±11.8 years, P<.05). Mean length of stay was 12.0±94 for women and 10.7±7.6 for men. From 1999 to 2007 there was an increase in the age of patients with AMI but the mortality rate remained stable.Compared to developed countries, patients with AMI in Kosovo present at an earlier age but have a higher mortality rate. Women with AMI had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate than men. The lack of percutaneous coronary intervention procedures in AMI patients may have contributed to the high in-hospital mortality in our population (Author).
Feodor Nilsson, Sandra; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between homelessness and psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders, on one hand, and cause-specific and all-cause mortality on the other in a high-income country. A historical nationwide register-based cohort study of the Danish population from 15 years of age between 2000 and 2011 was conducted. The association between homelessness, psychiatric disorders, and mortality was analysed by Poisson Regression adjusting for important confounders. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for people with a history of homelessness compared with the general population using direct age-standardisation. During 51,892,324 person-years of observation, 656,448 died. People with at least one homeless shelter contact accounted for 173,592 person-years with 4345 deaths. The excess mortality in the population experiencing homelessness compared with the general population was reduced by 50% after adjusting for psychiatric diagnoses, including substance use disorders (mortality rate ratio (MRR) for men 3.30, 95% CI 3.18-3.41; women 4.41, 95% CI 4.14-4.71). Full adjustment including physical comorbidity and socioeconomic factors in a sub-cohort aged 15-29 years resulted in an MRR of 3.94 (95% CI 3.10-5.02) compared with the general population. The excess mortality associated with homelessness differed according to psychiatric diagnosis, sex, and cause of death. A mental health or a substance use disorder combined with homelessness considerably increases the risk of death. However, homelessness is also independently associated with high mortality. Differences in the association between homelessness and mortality in men and women suggest the need for sex-tailored interventions.
Filipowicz, Rebecca; Greene, Tom H.; Wei, Guo; Beddhu, Srinivasan
Both higher body size (as indicated by body mass index- BMI) and higher muscle mass (as indicated by serum creatinine- (SCr)) are associated with better survival in HD patients (pts) but the relative importance of muscle vs. body size is not established. In the current study, the associations of SCr, BMI and the ratio of Scr to BMI with time to death were examined in Cox proportional hazards models using HEMO study data. Details of HEMO Study have been published elsewhere. In the current stud...
Lynge, E; Jeune, B
Results from two Danish studies on mortality among male unskilled and semi-skilled workers are compared. The first study is based on union data, the second study on census data. Apparently conflicting results are found to be identical after making adjustment for differences in the study populatio...
Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B
To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Prospective cohort study. Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Taylor, Michelle D; Whiteman, Martha C; Fowkes, Gerald R; Lee, Amanda J; Allerhand, Michael; Deary, Ian J
To examine whether personality traits are related to all-cause mortality in a general adult population in Scotland. The Edinburgh Artery Study began in 1987 to 1988 by recruiting 1592 men and women aged 55 to 74 years to be followed-up for atherosclerotic diseases. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was completed by 1035 surviving participants in 1995 to 1996. Deaths from all causes were examined in relation to personality traits and social and physical risk factors for mortality. During follow-up, 242 (37.1%) men and 165 (24.6%) women died. For the whole sample, there was a 28% lower rate of all-cause mortality for each 1 SD increase in NEO-FFI openness (95% CI, 0.61-0.84) and a 18% lower rate of all-cause mortality for each 1 SD increase in NEO-FFI conscientiousness (95% CI, 0.70-0.97). In men, the risk of all-cause mortality was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.5-10.78) for a 1 SD increase in openness and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.91) for a 1 SD increase in conscientiousness. In women, none of the personality domains were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Well fitting structural equation models in men (n = 652) showed that the relationships between conscientiousness and openness and all-cause mortality were not substantially explained by smoking, or other variables in the models. High conscientiousness and openness may be protective against all-cause mortality in men. Further investigations are needed on the mechanisms of these associations, and the influence of personality traits on specific causes of death.
Rathod, Sujit D; Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Chilengi, Roma; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H
To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004-2011. 43,064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123,807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Premature adult mortality. The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Van den Borre, Laura; Deboosere, Patrick
Cleaning work has been associated with a wide range of occupational health hazards. However, little is known about mortality risks in the cleaning industry. This study examines differences in cause-specific mortality between cleaners, manual and non-manual workers. Using exhaustive census-linked mortality data, the total Belgian working population aged 30-60 was selected from the 1991 census. Analyses were based on 202,339 male and 58,592 female deaths between 1 March 1991 and 31 December 2011. Standardized Mortality Ratios were calculated and indirectly adjusted for smoking (SMR). In addition, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to account for age, educational level, part-time employment and marital status. Large mortality differences were observed between cleaners, manual and non-manual workers. In 2001-2011, smoking-adjusted SMRs for all-cause mortality were higher among cleaners than among non-manual workers (Men 1.25 CI 1.22-1.28; women 1.10 CI 1.07-1.13). SMRs also show cleaners had significantly more deaths due to COPD (men 2.13 CI 1.92-2.37; women 2.03 CI 1.77-2.31); lung cancer (men 1.31 CI 1.22-1.39; women 1.21 CI 1.11-1.32); pneumonia (men 1.64 CI 1.35-1.97; women 1.31 CI 1.00-1.68); ischaemic heart diseases (men 1.22 CI 1.13-1.31; women 1.40 CI 1.25-1.57) and cerebrovascular diseases (men 1.19 CI 1.05-1.35; women 1.13 CI 1.00-1.27). Mortality risks among cleaners remained elevated after adjustment for education. Respiratory and cardiovascular mortality is considerably higher for male and female cleaners than for non-manual workers.
Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Chorus, Astrid M J; Galindo Garre, Francisca; Schouten, Leo J; van den Brandt, Piet A
The consumption of dairy products (milk, cheese, and butter) has been positively associated with the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and total mortality because of the saturated fat content of these products; and protective effects against these outcomes have been attributed to the calcium content and low-fat choices of dairy products. However, robust evidence on the net effect of dairy product consumption on mortality is limited. The objective was to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of death (from all causes, IHD, and stroke) in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). The NLCS was initiated in 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 y at baseline in 1986. After 10 y of follow-up, 16,136 subjects with complete dietary information had died. Twenty-nine percent (men) and 22% (women) of these deaths were due to IHD or stroke. The validated 150-item food-frequency questionnaire provided detailed information on dairy products. Multivariate survival analyses following a case-cohort approach showed only a few statistically significant, but mostly weak, associations. A slightly increased risk of all-cause and IHD mortality was found for both butter and dairy fat intake (per 10 g/d; rate ratio(mortality): 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) only in women. Fermented full-fat milk was inversely associated with all-cause and nonsignificantly with stroke mortality in both sexes. The role of dairy product consumption in mortality generally appeared to be neutral in men. In women, dairy fat intake was associated with slightly increased all-cause and IHD mortality. More research is warranted on a possible protective effect of fermented milk on stroke mortality.
Emily C. O'Brien
Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.
Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care
Armstrong, Anderson da Costa; Ladeia, Ana Marice Teixeira; Marques, Juracy; Armstrong, Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Marconi Leandro da; Morais Junior, Jeová Cordeiro de; Barral, Aldina; Correia, Luis Claudio Lemos; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Lima, João A C
The cardiovascular risk burden among diverse indigenous populations is not totally known and may be influenced by lifestyle changes related to the urbanization process. To investigate the cardiovascular (CV) mortality profile of indigenous populations during a rapid urbanization process largely influenced by governmental infrastructure interventions in Northeast Brazil. We assessed the mortality of indigenous populations (≥ 30 y/o) from 2007 to 2011 in Northeast Brazil (Bahia and Pernambuco states). Cardiovascular mortality was considered if the cause of death was in the ICD-10 CV disease group or if registered as sudden death. The indigenous populations were then divided into two groups according to the degree of urbanization based on anthropological criteria:9,10 Group 1 - less urbanized tribes (Funi-ô, Pankararu, Kiriri, and Pankararé); and Group 2 - more urbanized tribes (Tuxá, Truká, and Tumbalalá). Mortality rates of highly urbanized cities (Petrolina and Juazeiro) in the proximity of indigenous areas were also evaluated. The analysis explored trends in the percentage of CV mortality for each studied population. Statistical significance was established for p value Urbanization appears to influence increases in CV mortality of indigenous peoples living in traditional tribes. Lifestyle and environmental changes due to urbanization added to suboptimal health care may increase CV risk in this population.
Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184
Burke, Leona; Suswardany, Dwi Linna; Michener, Keryl; Mazurki, Setiawaty; Adair, Timothy; Elmiyati, Catur; Rao, Chalapati
Perinatal mortality is an important indicator of obstetric and newborn care services. Although the vast majority of global perinatal mortality is estimated to occur in developing countries, there is a critical paucity of reliable data at the local level to inform health policy, plan health care services, and monitor their impact. This paper explores the utility of information from village health registers to measure perinatal mortality at the sub district level in a rural area of Indonesia. A retrospective pregnancy cohort for 2007 was constructed by triangulating data from antenatal care, birth, and newborn care registers in a sample of villages in three rural sub districts in Central Java, Indonesia. For each pregnancy, birth outcome and first week survival were traced and recorded from the different registers, as available. Additional local death records were consulted to verify perinatal mortality, or identify deaths not recorded in the health registers. Analyses were performed to assess data quality from registers, and measure perinatal mortality rates. Qualitative research was conducted to explore knowledge and practices of village midwives in register maintenance and reporting of perinatal mortality. Field activities were conducted in 23 villages, covering a total of 1759 deliveries that occurred in 2007. Perinatal mortality outcomes were 23 stillbirths and 15 early neonatal deaths, resulting in a perinatal mortality rate of 21.6 per 1000 live births in 2007. Stillbirth rates for the study population were about four times the rates reported in the routine Maternal and Child Health program information system. Inadequate awareness and supervision, and alternate workload were cited by local midwives as factors resulting in inconsistent data reporting. Local maternal and child health registers are a useful source of information on perinatal mortality in rural Indonesia. Suitable training, supervision, and quality control, in conjunction with computerisation to
This article draws attention to the constitutive requirements of intergenerational justice and exposes the limitations of regulative arguments based on international human rights law. Intergenerational justice demands constraining the regulative freedom of the international community, and it is
dr. Donald Ropes
Purpose – To illustrate the possibilities of implementing intergenerational learning as a strategy for promoting older worker learning and development. Design/methodology/approach – Review of literature. Findings – Intergenerational learning is theoretically a natural and effective way for
M. Meskoub (Mahmood)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state,
Cho, Sung Kweon; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Inah; Ryu, Seungho
In addition to the controversy regarding the association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, few studies have examined the impact of low uric acid level on mortality. The present study evaluated the relationship of both low and high uric acid level with the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large sample of Korean adults over a full range of uric acid levels. A cohort study was performed for 375,163 South Korean men and women who underwent a health checkup from 2002 to 2012. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained from the national death records. Hazard ratios for mortality outcomes were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards regression analysis. During a total of 2,060,721.9 person-years of follow-up, 2,020 participants died, with 287 CVD deaths and 963 cancer deaths. Low and high uric acid levels were associated with increased all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. The multivariable adjusted HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in the lowest uric acid categories (uric acid categories (>9.5 mg/dl for men and >8.5 mg/dl for women) were 2.39 (1.57-3.66) and 3.77 (1.17-12.17), respectively. In this large cohort study of men and women, both low and high uric acid levels were predictive of increased mortality, supporting a U-shaped association between serum uric acid and adverse health outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tasevska, Natasha; Park, Yikyung; Jiao, Li; Hollenbeck, Albert; Subar, Amy F; Potischman, Nancy
Background: Although previous studies have linked intake of sugars with incidence of cancer and other chronic diseases, its association with mortality remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the association of total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, added fructose, sucrose, and added sucrose with the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other-cause mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Design: The participants (n = 353,751), aged 50–71 y, were followed for up to 13 y. Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item NIH Diet History Questionnaire. Results: In fully adjusted models (fifth quartile compared with first quartile), all-cause mortality was positively associated with the intake of total sugars [HR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P-trend sugars (P-trend = 0.04), sucrose (P-trend = 0.03), and added sucrose (P-trend = 0.006). Investigation of consumption of sugars by source showed that the positive association with mortality risk was confined only to sugars from beverages, whereas the inverse association was confined to sugars from solid foods. Conclusions: In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:24552754
Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharavi, Samad; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul DP; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin
Background Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. Methods We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. Results During the follow-up period 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 95% CI; 3.13 (2.42-4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61-5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. never use (Ptrendopium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18-3.25) and 3.71 (2.76-4.96), respectively. Conclusion Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases. PMID:27885167
Lee, Whanhee; Bell, Michelle L; Gasparrini, Antonio; Armstrong, Ben G; Sera, Francesco; Hwang, Sunghee; Lavigne, Eric; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Osorio, Samuel; Tobias, Aurelio; Zeka, Ariana; Goodman, Patrick G; Forsberg, Bertil; Rocklöv, Joacim; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Seposo, Xerxes; Van Dung, Do; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Tong, Shilu; Guo, Yuming; Kim, Ho
Although diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a key index of climate change, few studies have reported the health burden of DTR and its temporal changes at a multi-country scale. Therefore, we assessed the attributable risk fraction of DTR on mortality and its temporal variations in a multi-country data set. We collected time-series data covering mortality and weather variables from 308 cities in 10 countries from 1972 to 2013. The temporal change in DTR-related mortality was estimated for each city with a time-varying distributed lag model. Estimates for each city were pooled using a multivariate meta-analysis. The results showed that the attributable fraction of total mortality to DTR was 2.5% (95% eCI: 2.3-2.7%) over the entire study period. In all countries, the attributable fraction increased from 2.4% (2.1-2.7%) to 2.7% (2.4-2.9%) between the first and last study years. This study found that DTR has significantly contributed to mortality in all the countries studied, and this attributable fraction has significantly increased over time in the USA, the UK, Spain, and South Korea. Therefore, because the health burden of DTR is not likely to reduce in the near future, countermeasures are needed to alleviate its impact on human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pearse, Rupert M.; Moreno, Rui P.; Bauer, Peter; Pelosi, Paolo; Metnitz, Philipp; Spies, Claudia; Vallet, Benoit; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Hoeft, Andreas; Rhodes, Andrew; Moreno, Rui; Pearse, Rupert; Damster, Sandrine; Golder, Kim; Hewson, Russell; Januszewska, Marta; Leva, Brigitte; Ramos, Vasco; Hoste, Eric; Huyghens, Luc; Jacobs, Rita; van Mossevelde, Veerle; Opdenacker, Godelieve; Poelaert, Jan; Spapen, Herbert; Leleu, Kris; Rijckaert, Dirk; de Decker, Koen; Foubert, Luc; de Neve, Nikolaas; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael; Collin, Vincent; Blauwen, Nadia den; Clauwaert, Charlotte; de Crop, Luc; Verbeke, An; Roeselare, Heilige Hartziekenhuis; Derumeaux, Pieter; Gardin, Christophe; Kindt, Sebastiaan; Louage, Sofie; Verhamme, Bruno; Druwé, Patrick; Lahaye, Ingrid; Rosseel, Francis; Rutsaert, Robert; Vanlinthout, Luc; de Kock, Marc; Forget, Patrice; Georges, Pascal; Grosu, Irina; Kahn, David; Lois, Fernande; Momeni, Mona; Pospiech, Audrey; Yemnga, Bernadette; Jadoul, Jean-Luc; Malbrain, Manu; Bosinceanu, Dana; Collard, Edith; Jorens, Philippe; Reyntiens, Dirk; Smitz, Carine; Vercauteren, Marcel; Fagnoul, David; van Obbergh, Luc; Goranović, Tatjana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Toplice, Krapinske; Oremuš, Krešimir; Bešlić, Gabrijela; Duzel, Viktor; Hauptman, Ada; Peremin, Sanja; Šribar, Andrej; Župčić, Miroslav; Brod, Slavonski; Mirković, Ivan; Bauer, Zlata Šarić; Belavić, Matija; Blažanin, Božidar; Katušin, Mirjana Lončarić; Krijan, Antonija Brozović; Mišković, Petar; Šimić-Korać, Nataša; Topić, Jasna; Žilić, Antonio; Žuni, Josip; Acan, Ivana; Adanić, Mirta; Ivanov, Nikola; Šarić, Jadranka Pavičić; Tomulić, Katarina; Visković, Nataša; Bošnjak, Silvana; Drenjančevic, Ivana Haršanji; Kristek, Gordana; Kvolik, Slavica; Markić, Stela; Rakipovic, Andreja Stojanovic; Tot, Ozana Katarina; Venzera- Azenic, Darija; Fabris, Lada Kalagac; Bačak-Kocman, Iva; Balenović, Igor; Bandić, Daniela; Deutsch, Patricia Adrianne Judith; Divjak, Loredana; Filipović, Ina Grčić; Gužvinec, Zvonka; Krznarić, Zrinka; Lončarić, Yvonne; Magaš, Jelena Vadlja; Mitrović, Marek; Okić, Marija; Pavlek, Mario; Ramov, Elza; Rezek, Karolina; Sekulić, Ante; Tomasevic, Boris; Mirić, Mirjana; Tomašević, Anita; Mahečić, Tina Tomić; Vrbanović, Vilena; Bobinac, Mirna; Božić, Alfred; Debelic, Danijela; Frkovic, Vedran; Batinica, Inga Mladić; Baranović, Senka; Gavranović, Željka; Kikec, Mirna; Maldini, Branka; Marić, Stela; Agnić, Ivan; Delić, Nikola; Dropulić, Nataša; Gašpić, Toni Kljaković; Ilić, Darko; Ivančev, Božena; Karanović, Nenad; Kuščević, Dorjan; Marović, Zlatko; Milić, Matija; Nevešćanin, Ana; Petković, Tatjana; Smoje, Mario; Brozović, Gordana; Jelisavac, Milana; Matolić, Martina; Oberhofer, Dagmar; Pavičić, Ana Marija; Šakić, Kata; Bozovic, Margarita Delija; Krecek, Zvjezdana Kotorac; Krobot, Renata; Andabaka, Tatjana; Bratanić, Mislav; Dzepina, Orjana; Kraljev, Martina; Šeric, Julija; Šimurina, Tatjana; Grujić, Rosa; Nacevski-Bulaja, Biljana; Barižon, Mirna; Danira, Vrančić; Dražen, Bulaja; Dušanka, Kimer; Halužan, Marijana Bašić; Joško, Žaja; Katica, Roca; Labor, Magda; Marinković, Tea Grgurević; Mihovilčević, Danči; Marija, Bego; Srečko, Marinković; Vranković, Srđan; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Neophytou, Kyriakos; Cerny, Vladimir; Cvachovec, Karel; Belikova, Barbora; Drab, Michal; Hudacek, Kamil; Krikava, Ivo; Stourac, Petr; Zadrazilova, Katarina; Bicek, Vladimír; Brabcová, Milena; Klozová, Radka; Vajter, Jaromír; Vymazal, Tomáš; Toft, Palle; Blichfeldt, Louise; Hansen, Bo Dilling; Moller, Kirsten; Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; Frederiksen, Joachim; Andersen, Johnny Dohn; Kühne, Jan Peter; Leivdal, Siv; Stendell, Line; Simonsen, Martin; Zoltowski, Marcin Konrad; Ali, Zahida Salman; Freundlich, Morten; Pilypaite, Jurgita; Clausen, Nicola Groes; Thorup, Line; Hansen, Frank; Bestle, Morten; Hansen, Christian Steen; Afshari, Arash; Bille, Anders Bastholm; Lefort, Michele; Secher, Erik L.; Liboriussen, Lisbeth; Herodes, Veiko; Härma, Eve; Marvet, Kadri; Pool, Kristiina; Kallas, Pille; Mägi, Triinu-Kreete; Sütt, Jaan; Vijar, Kerli; Visk, Evelin; Vinnal, Mare; Ellermaa, Jaanus; Liibusk, Liia; Tikkerberi, Artur; Falk, Ilme; Mällo, Esta; Talving, Jaak; Pettilä, Ville; Hovilehto, Seppo; Kirsi, Anne; Mustola, Seppo; Tiainen, Pekka; Toivonen, Juhani; Dabnell, Sandra; Kaminski, Tadeusz; Sysimetsa, Anu; Kaukonen, Maija; Silvasti, Päivi; Vainio, Kaisa; Lund, Vesa; Sjövall, Sari; Saarinen, Kari; Viitanen, Matti; Ahonen, Tommi; Alaspää, Ari; Zittling, Ritva; Saarinen, Aarne; Moisander, Annette; Wagner, Bodo; Laru-Sompa, Raili; Elomaa, Esa; Lavonen, Leena; Nevantaus, Juha; Geier, Klaus; Kavasmaa, Tomi; Koorits, Ursula; Kubjas, Mare; Lauritsalo, Seppo; Ottelin, Lauri; Palve, Markki; Pynnönen, Jari; Rääbis, Inga; Saarelainen, Minna; Heikkilä, Tapani; Kontula, Timo; Lehtimäki, Markku; Liimatainen, Jari; Moilanen-Oikarinen, Mari; Pakarinen, Marika; Palanne, Riku; Seppänen, Hanna; Pulkkinen, Anni; Vääräniemi, Heikki; Paananen, Sami; Koskenkari, Juha; Sälkiö, Sinikka; Vakkala, Merja; Koskue, Talvikki; Loisa, Pekka; Laitio, Ruut; Hautamäki, Raku; Koivisto, Simo-Pekka; Futier, Emmanuel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Leon, Alain; Bonnet, Francis; Marret, Emmanuel; Spielvogel, Catherine; Papageorgiou, Chryssa; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Tounou-Akue, Felix; Aubrun, Frederic; Bonnet, Aurélie; Gazon, Mathieu; Guiraud, Michel; Laurent, Virginie; Béclère, Antoine; Tachon, Guillaume; Demars, Nadège; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Mercier, Frederic; Landais, Alain; Mentec, Herve; Bazin, Marie; Gonnu, Sophie; Petit, Antoine; Albaladejo, Pierre; Almeras, Luc; Bataillard, Amélie; Rossi-Blancher, Marine; Lefrant, Jean Yves; Barthel, Florian; Hallel, Dan; Sbai, Hicham; Khalifeh, Pamela; Lidzborski, Lionel; Jully, Marion; Platon, Ecaterina; Pottecher, Julien; Baumgarten, Romain; Schultz, Christel; ElMiloudi, Fayçal; Lefebvre, Julie; Waton, Karen; Sprunck, Adrien; Steib, Annick; Thibaud, Adrien; Thuet, Vincent; Kieffer, Vianney; Dubois-Vallaud, Delphine; Jacob, Laurent; Becanne, Xavier; Cherfaoui, Salim; Gauzit, Remy; Godier, Anne; Lakhdari, Mourad; Samma, Charles; Bigeon, Jean-Yves; Burtin, Philippe; Halchini, Constantin; Lacroix, Magali; Pinna, Frederic; Barbes, Aurélie; Just, Bernard; Mateu, Philippe; Benayoun, Laurent; Berger, Philippe; Granier, Nathalie; Perrigault, Pierre Francois; Libert, Nicolas; de Rudnicki, Stephan; Merat, Stéphane; Bourdet, Benoit; Ferré, Fabrice; Minville, Vincent; Piriou, Vincent; Rague, Philippe; Wallet, Florent; Lebuffe, Gilles; Desbordes, Jacques; Robin, Emmanuel; Ichai, Carole; Orban, Jean-Christophe; Marx, Gernot; Sander, Michael; Gottschalk, André; Piontek, André; Unterberg, Matthias; Hilpert, Justus; Kees, Martin; Triltsch, Andreas; Wiegand-Löhnert, Carola; Glöckner, Christiane; Hohn, Andreas; Rose, Elmar; Schröder, Stefan; Wiese, Oliver; Awlakpui, Eli; Scheidemann, Mona; Wittmann, Maria; Ramminger, Axel; Dresden, Carus; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Heller, Axel; Marx, Christine; Neidel, Julia; Goldmann, Anton; von Heymann, Christian; Laetsch, Beatrix; Maahs, Esther; Scholz, Lars; Frenzel, Dirk; Massarat, Kyros; Lenhart, Franz-Peter; Reichle, Florian; Rudlof, Kristina; Borchers, Friedrich; Buettner, Christoph; Schmutzler, Martin; Burgard, Gerald; Lucht, Alexander; Wagner, Jan; Pilge, Stefanie; Schneider, Gerhard; Untergehrer, Gisela; Bis, Beata; Krassler, Jens; Dittmann, Jan; Haberkorn, Jörg; Eberitsch, Jürgen; Eberitsch, Karola; Nippraschk, Thomas; Wepler, Ulrich; Engelen, Wolf-Christian; Nau, Carla; Scholler, Axel; Schüttler, Jürgen; Wintzheimer, Simone; Bloos, Frank; Braune, Anke; Fergen, Daniela; Ludewig, Katrin; Paxian, Markus; Reinhart, Konrad; Graf, Nikolaus; Schwarzkopf, Konrad; Berger, Katharina; Habicher, Marit; Kasperiunaite, Ruta; Savelsberg, Sabine; Krep, Henning; Reindl, Michael; Weber, Matthias; Bauer, Wolfgang; Bingold, Florian; Christ, Saskia; Friederich, Patrick; Kaviani, Reza; Auer, Patrick; Bonnländer, Georg; Drescher, Jürgen; Braun, Roland; Eichenauer, Tim; Kerner, John; Bierbaum, Kathrin; Brünner, Horst; Grond, Stefan; Perez-Platz, Ursula; Andresen, Bent; Linstedt, Ulf; Stegmann, Nils; Erkens, Uwe; Kopcke, Jens; Meyer, Andreas; Brestrich, Hartmut; Ernst, Sandra; Merkel, Stella; Krieger, Lena; Luers, Frank; Weyland, Andreas; Noeldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Menckie, Thomas; Wasmund, Christina; Bredtmann, Ralph-Dieter; Erler, Ines; Raufhake, Carsten; Haumann, Christine; Möllemann, Angela; Oehmichen, Uwe; Sergejewa, Olga; Lehning, Brigitte; Czeslick, Elke; Geyer, Michaela; Malcharek, Michael; Sablotzki, Armin; Stier, Marina; Feld, Florian; Rossaint, Rolf; Simon, Verena; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Koulenti, Despoina; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Nanas, Serafim; Papastylianou, Androula; Psevdi, Aikaterini; Stathopoulos, Anastasios; Voulas, Asklepieion; Kanna, Efthymia; Koutsikou, Anastasia; Moustaka, Alexandra; Chovas, Achilleas; Komnos, Apostolos; Zafiridis, Tilemachos; Franses, Josef; Lavrentieva, Athena; Koraki, Eleni; Katsenos, Chrysostomos; Kasianidou, Maria Flora; Nasopoulou, Pantelia; Spyropoulou, Eleni; Gousia, Chrysoula; Katsanoulas, Constantine; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Kyriazopoulos, George; Sfyras, Dimitrios; Tsirogianni, Athanasia; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Lignos, Mihail; Matsota, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Christos; Mouratidou, Alexandra; Vrettou, Efstratia; Boufidis, Spyros; Moka, Eleni; Arnaoutoglou, Eleni; Koulouras, Vasileios; Nakos, George; Papathanakos, Georgios; Anthopoulos, Georgios; Choutas, Georgios; Karapanos, Dimitrios; Tzani, Vaso; Gkiokas, Georgios; Nastos, Konstantinos; Nikolakopoulos, Fotios; Dragoumanis, Christos; Nikitidis, Nikos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Theodorou, Vassiliki; Zacharouli, Danai; Kandi, Stella; Tasopoulos, Konstantinos; Arvaniti, Kostoula; Matamis, Dimitrios; Mplougoura, Eva; Petropoulou, Polixeni; Soumpasis, Ioannis; Amaniti, Ekaterini; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria; Gkeka, Eleni; Soultati, Ioanna; Kokinou, Maria; Papatheodorou, Lambrini; Stafylaraki, Maria; Giasnetsova, Tatiana; Gritsi-Gerogianni, Nikoleta; Kydona, Christina; Kiskira, Olga; Koulentis, Ioannis; Apsokardos, Alexandros; Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Soldatou, Ourania; Nathanail, Christodoulos; Papazotos, Alexios; Tsakas, Pirros; Clouva-Molyvdas, Phyllis-Maria; Kolotoura, Athina; Sartzi, Monika; Papanikolaou, Spiros; Polakis, Pavlos; Karatzas, Stylianos; Kyparissi, Aikaterini; Papavasilopoulou, Theonymfi; Koukoubani, Triantafillia; Mastora, Evangelia; Spyropoulou-Pagdatoglou, Kyriaki; Nyktari, Vasileia; Malliotakis, Polychronis; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Bekos, Vasileios; Maragkou, Elisavet; Spring, Anna; Evagelatos, Stavros; Ioakeimidou, Aikaterini; Noulas, Nikos; Molnár, Zsolt; Csüllög, Emese; Elekes, Enikő; Molnár, Tamás; Katona, Zsuzsana; Kremer, Ildiko; Miko, Angela; Csomos, Akos; Galambos, Zsuzsanna; Szucs, Akos; Nyikos, Gyorgy; Szekeres, Gabor; Szabo, Ervin; Kranitz, Katalin; Simon, Melinda; Szigeti, Janos; Gaál, Emánuel; Havas, Attila; Ille, Alexandru; Bráz, Krisztina; Nagy, Geza; Sigurdsson, Gisli; Sigurbjörnsson, Fridrik T.; Sigurdsson, Gisli H.; Kárason, Sigurbergur; Sigurdardottir, Elin Edda; Blöndal, Ásbjörn; Gunnarsson, Björn; Westbrook, Andrew; Broderick, Alan; Hafeez, Parvaiz; Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Brohan, Janette; O'Chroinin, Donal; Bailey, Kevin; Ramamoorthy, Karthik; Doyle, Yvonne; Freir, Noelle; O'Rourke, James; Jonson, Philip; Saeed, Sabir; Hayes, Ivan; Loughrey, John; Frohlich, Stephen; McCauley, Nuala; Ryan, Donal; Fitzpatrick, Gerry; Kevin, Leo; Thomas, Jubil; Warde, Barry; Woolhead, Alan; Duggan, Michelle; Egan, Cara; Crowley, Seamus; Lebese, Soloman; Bergin, Anne; Page, Rory; Collins, Daniel; McKenny, Michael; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Grasso, Salvatore; Bresciani, Anna; Carmino, Livio; Ghelfi, Silvia; Lorenzelli, Laura; Novelli, Maria Teresa; Pescarmona, Chiara; Roasio, Agostino; Gatta, Alessandro; Nastasi, Mauro; Sanseverino, Manlio; Tinti, Carla; Bianchin, Andrea; Tormena, Maria; Franco, Antonio; Marini, Federica; Di Mauro, Piero; Rapido, Francesca; Tommasino, Concezione; Bellotti, Ferdinando; Boninsegna, Daniele; Castellani, Gianluca; Sances, Daniele; Spano, Gianluca; Tredici, Stefano; Vezzoli, Dario; Fucecchio, Igneo; Bacci, Alessandro; Coppini, Roberta; Dell'unto, Sandro; Mori, Emanuele; Stanzani, Maria Rosa; Tosi, Monica; Collareta, Michele; Forfori, Francesco; Franchi, Matteo; Mancino, Giuseppe; Battistella, Massimo; Baricocchi, Elisa; Bona, Francesco; Debernardi, Felicino; Giacoletto, Gianmarco; Iacobellis, Antonio; Massucco, Paolo; Moselli, Nora; Muratore, Andrea; Palomba, Graziella; Sardo, Elena; de Simone, Michele; Suita, Luisa; Zocca, Edoardo; Bucci, Barbara; Della Corte, Francesco; Piciucco, Tiziana; Viarengo, Valeria; Bettelli, Gabriella; Cantarini, Eugenia; Giampieri, Marina; Tanfani, Alessandra; Recchia, Eugenio; Milano, S. Raffaele; Bignami, Elena; Bruno, Giovanna; Costagliola, Roberto; Gandolfi, Azzurra; Greco, Massimiliano; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Nicelli, Elisa; Pasculli, Nicola; Turi, Stefano; Baroselli, Antonio; Brazzoni, Marcella; Buttazzoni, Mattia; Buttera, Stefania; Centonze, Carlo; Serena, Giovanni; Spagnesi, Lorenzo; Toretti, Ilaria; Vilardi, Anna; Zearo, Ester; Arpino, Ines; Baraldi, Sara; Guarnerio, Chiara; Molene, Vincenzo; Monea, Maria Concetta; Vaccarisi, Enrico; Vicari, Luigi; Albante, Alida; Aversano, Marco; Loiacono, Cinzia; Marandola, Maurizio; Fusari, Maurizio; Petrucci, Nicola; Galla, Amerigo; Mascia, Antonio; Primieri, Paolo; Di Noto, Anna; Gratarola, Angelo; Molin, Alessandro; Spagnolo, Luigi; Spena, Claudio; Calligaro, Plinio; Marchiotto, Simonetta; Merlini, Alberto; Pedrazzoli, Eleonora; Perina, Giulia; Visentin, Renea; Fumagalli, Roberto; Garbagnati, Andrea; Manetti, Bruna; Snaier, Chiara; Somaini, Marta; Farnia, Antonio; Nani, Roberto; Pierantonio, Novello; de Michele, Michele; Gazzanelli, Sergio; Pugliese, Francesco; Ruberto, Franco; Anna, Universitaria S.; Bergamini, Elena; Tassinati, Tania; Capuzzo, Maurizia; Cirillo, Vera; Tufano, Rosalba; Oggioni, Roberto; Parrini, Vieri; Brunori, Emanuela; Capone, Micaela; Carbone, Luigi; Corradetti, Francesco; Elisei, Daniele; Fiorentino, Stefano; Francesconi, Maurizio; Gattari, Diego; Gorgoglione, Maria; Lacobone, Emanuele; Minnucci, Francesco; Montironi, Claudio; Riccioni, Gianrenato; Tappata, Giuseppe; Zompanti, Valeria; Verdenelli, Paola; Cerutti, Elisabetta; Ranieri, Vito Marco; Golubovska, Iveta; Grigorjevs, Sergejs; Rikmane, Maija; Rozkalne, Daina; Stepanovs, Jevgenijs; Suba, Olegs; Kazune, Sigita; Miscuk, Aleksej; Nemme, Janis; Oss, Peteris; Sipylaite, Jurate; Macas, Andrius; Ragaisis, Vytautas; Kontrimaviciute, Egle; Tomkute, Gabija; Boerma, Christiaan; Kramer, Irene Fleur; Poeze, Martijn; Ziekenhuis, Antonius; Maria, John; Pelzer, Gerardus; Winsser, Lex; Nijsten, Maarten; Schoorl, Michiel; Spanjersberg, Rob; Buhre, Wolfgang; Dieleman, Stefan; van Klei, Wilton; Bouw, Martijn; Pickkers, Peter; van der A, Marieke; Schreiner, Frodo; Zandvliet, Ria; van den Berg, Roy; de Wit, Esther; Keijzer, Christaan; Hollmann, Markus; Preckel, Benedikt; van Acker, Gijs; Dennesen, Paul; Veld, Bas; Kuijpers-Visser, Agnes; Inan, T.; Koopman-van Gemert, A.; Ponssen, Huibert; Brouwer, Tammo; Koopmans, Matty; van Bommel, Jasper; van Duijn, Ditty; van der Hoven, Ben; Ormskerk, Patricia; Beck, Oliver; Schiere, Sjouke; Reidinga, Auke; Venema, Allart; Hoogendoorn, Marga; Olthof, Kees; Flaatten, Hans; Jammer, Ib; Dokka, Vegard; Monsen, Svein Arne; Ytrebo, Lars Marius; Noursadeghi, Mostafa; Shahzad, Ahmed; Boksasp, Ola Dagfinn; Roiss, Christoph; Strietzel, Hans Frank; Gina, Anne; Berntsen, Schie; Haugland, Helge; Vingsnes, Svein Ove; Axelsson, Patric; Olsen, Thomas; Katre, Sanjay; Aakeroey, Kristin; Mikstacki, Adam; Tamowicz, Barbara; Bożiłow, Dominika; Goch, Robert; Grabowski, Piotr; Kupisiak, Jacek; Małłek, Małgorzata; Szyca, Robert; Kostyrka, Włodzimierz; Choma, Robert; Jankowski, Grzegorz; Kościelniak, Władysław; Pietraszek, Paweł; Szarowar, Bartosz; Matos, Ricardo; França, Carlos; Lacerda, António Pais; Ormonde, Lucindo; Rosa, Rosário; Pereira, Inês; Vitor, Paula; Bento, Henrique Completo; Lopes, Maria Raquel; Carvalho, Marques; Faria, Manuela; de Sousa, Ana Cláudia; de Freitas, Pereira; Almeida, Eduardo; Mealha, Rui; Vicente, Rachel; Monte, Raquel; Rua, Fernando; Barros, Nelson; Esteves, Francisco; Gouveia Pinheiro, Célia Maria; Real, Vila; Oliveira, Vítor Miguel; Oliveira, Maria Fátima; Martins, Isabel; Saraiva, José Pedro; Assunção, José Pedro; Bártolo, Anabela; Carvalho, Anabela; Correia, Carlos; Martins, Salomé; Milheiro, Ruth; Diaz, Alejandro; Gonçalves, Maria Imelda; Ribeiro, Rosa; Estilita, Joana; Glória, Carlos; de Almeida, José; Barros, Filipa; Ramos, Armindo; Camara, Margarida; Maul, Edward Richard; Nobrega, Julio; Langner, Anuscka; Maia, Dionísio; Afonso, Ofélia; Faria, Filomena; Serra, Sofia; Botelho, Maria Manuela; Ferreira, Pedro; Mourão, Luís; Oliveira, Ana Vintém; Resende, Margarida; Aleman, Miguel; Fonseca, Jorge; Isidoro, Marta; de Meneses, Helena; Pêgas, António; Pereira, José; Pereira, Luis; Ramos, Bárbara; Matos, Francisco; Castro, Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves; Martins, Ana; Ramos, Cristina; de Sousa, Manuel; Bento, Luís; Botas, Conceição; Lopes, Vitor; Mendes, Rosa; Grigoras, Ioana; Blaj, Mihaela; Damian, Mihaela; Lupusoru, Andreea; Ristescu, Irina; Codreanu, Monica; Diaconescu, Ciresica; Nistor, Alina; Stelian, Dorin Stanescu; Streanga, Livia; Berneanu, Maria; Bordeianu, Cristina; Florenta, Calarasu; Iacob, Alina; Lupu, Mary Nicoleta; Mocanu, Iulian; Moraru, Coca; Meran, Carleta; Nicolae, Bacalbasa; Sandu, Madalina; Turcanu, Roxana; Epure, Florina; Grigore, Monica; Hotaranu, Cristina; Popescu, Nicoleta; Baban, Oleg; Baciu, Manuela; Ciobanu, Aurica; Denciu, Catalin Ioan; Gurau, Vitalie; Maftei, Ion; Moldovan, Ion; Ungureanu, Liviu; Bogdan, Prodan; Corneci, Dan; Dinu, Melania; Madalina, Dutu; Rely, Manolescu; Silvius, Negoita; Tomescu, Dana; Gabriela, Droc; Dinescu, Stelian Adrian; Calin, Mitre; Ionescu, Daniela; Margarit, Simona; Vasian, Horatiu; Albu, Corina; Balasa, Carmen; Cadrigati, Alina; Dragulescu, Dorian; Gavra, Loredana; Hentia, Ciprian; Macarie, Claudiu; Manescu, Mihaela; Nediglea, Ioan; Ocica, Dana; Ovidiu, Bedreag; Papurica, Marius; Plavat, Cosmin; Popa, Claudia; Ramneantu, Mihaela; Sandesc, Dorel; Sandici, Zoran; Sarandan, Mihaela; Belciu, Ioana; Tincu, Eugen; Ursu, Irina; Aignatoaie, Mariana; Huzuneanu, Mariana; Cocu, Simona; Hagau, Natalia; Ciubotaru, Roxana; Copotoiu, Sanda-Maria; Copotoiu, Ruxandra; Ioana, Ghitescu; Kovacs, Judit; Leonard, Azamfirei; Szederjesi, Ianos; Genoveva, Vanvu; Mosnegutu, Simona; Surbatovic, Maja; Djordjevic, Dragan; Djordjevic, Biljana; Grujic, Krasimirka; Jovanovic, Dusko; Krstic-Lecic, Ivana; Obradovic, Jovana; Zeba, Snjezana; Jevdjic, Jasna; Miletic, Milos; Zunic, Filip; Bulasevic, Aleksandra; Brko, Radoslava; Gazibegovic, Narcisa; Kendrisic, Mirjana; Vojinovic, Radisa; Firment, Jozef; Zahorec, Roman; Capková, Judita; Grochova, Monika; Trenkler, Stefan; Griger, Martin; Bakosova, Erika; Kvasnica, Martin; Saniova, Beata; Sulaj, Miroslav; Zacharovska, Andrea; Simkova, Alexandra; Číková, Andrea; Gebhardtova, Andrea; Hanuljaková, Slávka; Koutun, Juraj; Martonová, Andrea; Žilinčárová, Veronika; Galkova, Katarína; Krbila, Stefan; Sobona, Viliam; Ocenasova, Marieta; Novak-Jankovic, Vesna; Stecher, Adela; Stivan, Feri; Grynyuk, Andriy; Damjanovska, Marija; Kostadinov, Ivan; Knezevic, Mile; Malivojevic, Marko; Borovsak, Zvonko; Kamenik, Mirt; Mekiš, Dušan; Osojnik, Irena; Kosec, Lučka; Kapš, Silva Ostojič; Aleksic, Dragoslav; Gerjevič, Božena; Kalan, Katja; Ursic, Tomaz; Aldecoa, Cesar; González, Juan Montejo; Artigas, Anna; Garcia, Andres; Lisi, Alberto; Perez, Isabel; Perez, Gisela; Poch, Nuria; Vaquer, Sergi; Balciscueta, Goiatz; Barrasa, Helena; Cabanes, Sara; Maynar, Javier; Poveda, Yolanda; Rodero, Amaia Quintano; Vallejo, Ana; Duque, Patricia; Garcia-Bunger, Beatriz; Elvira, Maria Adoracion; Lajara, Ana María; Palencia, María; Ramos, Rafael; Fernandez, Ana Saez; León, Juan Tirapu; López, Jaione Iza; Murillo, Francisco Yoldi; Ramirez, Eva Turumbay; Rico, Patricia Unzué; Patricia, Marta; Vizcaíno, Martín; Bernat Álvarez, Maria José; Real, Kenneth Planas; Serra, Arantxa Mas; Aracil, Norma; Bodega, Begoña Menendez; García, Raquel Fernández; García, Marivi Álvarez; Gordon, Borja de la Quintana; Jodrá, Alicia Gutiérrez; López, Angela De Santos; Ros, Juan José Llavador; Soto, Rocío Ayala; Sepúlveda, Isabel; Díez, Esperanza Pascual; Fernández, Luisa Fernández; Gulina, Carlos Soria; Arviza, Laura Pérez; Fernandez, Lorena Mouriz; Gómez, Antía Río; Martínez, Concepción Alonso; Rodríguez, Ana Belén Rodríguez; Soto, Carmen Lopez; Garcia, Clara; Lorenzo, Mario; Pinilla, Elena; Rico, Jesus; Ruperez, Irene; Alonso, Eduardo; Leira, Fernando; Maseda, David Pestaña Emilio; Royo, Concepcion; Villagran, Jose; Candi, Giralt Murillo; Esteva, Garcia Eduardo; Folgado, Raquel Mansilla; Fornaguera, Nadal Joan; Montse, Pijoan Calonge; Prat, Anna Sape; Sintes, Dolores; Arteta, Donaldo Arteta; Delgado, Horacio García; López-Cuervo, Juan Fajardo; López, Mikel Celaya; Ramírez, Alejandro; Saldaña, Francisco José; Aliste, Pilar; Anchuelo, Ana Hermira; Campos, Ascensión García; Catalán, Mercedes; Gómez, Mónica García; Gonzalaez, Olga Gonzalez; López, Eloísa López; Navacerrada, Isabel Real; de Quevedo, Sara Arlanzón; Serrano, Matilde Gonzalez; Silvestre, Francisco Perez-Cerdá; Torrente, Francisco Martinez; Arocas, Blanca; Martinez, Ernesto Pastor; Soro, Marina; Maroto, Fernando; Algarra, Ruth Robledo; Aleixandre, Inés Silla; Argente, Gemma Rodriguez; Lleó, Ana Broseta; Rubio, Antonio Vela; Sánchez, José Luis Vicente; Valcárcel, Irene Enríquez; Balust, Clara; Balust, Jaume; Borrat, Xavier; Carretero, Maria Jose; Gracia, Isabel; Matute, Purificacion; Mercadal, Jordi; Pujol, Roger; Tena, Beatriz; Ubre, Marta; Albalad, Dolores Dorda; Alcaide, Concepción Muñoz; Caballero, Jesus; Cervantes, Angels Camps; Clanchet, Miriam de Nadal; Estruch, Nuria Montferrer; Ferrer, Mercè Ballvé; Fornells, Albert Lacasta; Galera, Eduard Terrer; Martinez, Irene Garcia; Muñoz, Susana Manrique; Pelavski, Andres; Perez, Pilar Tormos; Posada, Miguel Angel Gonzalez; de Prat, Ivette Chocron; Rello, Jordi; Serrano, Llum García; Sieiro, José Manuel Naya; Silva, Lorena; Sole, Maria Jose Colomina; Suñé, Alfons Biarnes; Villach, Isabel Rochera; Herreras, José Ignacio Gómez; Poves, Rodrigo; Rafael, Beatriz Martinez; Almeida, Icier Martinez; Collates, Angel Fernandez; Bartolomé, Maria Jose; Cimadevilla, Bonifacio; González, Antonio Manuel González; Llevot, Jose Manuel Rabanal; Mira, Juan Carlos Diaz de Terán; Molina, Begoña González; Pardo, Sara; Sánchez, Carlos López; Williams, Monica; Zaldibar, Estibaliz; Corsini, Lourdes Muñoz; Fraile, José Ramón Rodríguez; de la Lastra, Maria; Sacramento, Monir Kabiri; Saña, Francisco Javier López; Ålvarez, Josep Trenado; Bulnes, Maria Luisa Cantón; Carrasco, Violeta Gándara; Crespo, María del Rocío Míguez; Cubillos, Diana Narváez; Laza, Enrique Laza; Pérez, María del Pino Heredia; Seisdedos, Ángel Arenzana; Torres, Bartolomé Fernández; Ampuero, Marian Santos; Llano, Marta Chicot; Mata, Esperanza; Munoz, Manuel; Orts, Mar; Planas, Antonio; Ramasco, Fernando; Roman, Carlos; Durán, Marina Varela; Fernandez, Sabela del Río; Otero, Yolanda Sanduende; Pineiro, Susana Lopez; Pardal, Cristina Barreiro; Alcantud, Jesús Fernández; Antolinos, Mercedes Ayuso; Barrios, Francisco; Casanova, Ana Collantes; Castro, Manuel Ruiz; Crespo, Beatriz Infantes; Felipe, Uzuri Lancha; Fuster, Marta Liceras; García, Máximo Sanz; Garrote, Begoña Herrero; Gonzalez, Ricardo Moreno; Granero, Maria José Montes; de la Guía, Carlos Lloreda; López, Raquel Chaves; López, Santiago de Frutos; Martinez, Jose Javier Marco; Mostaza, Angel Garcia; Moreno, Antonio Jiménez; Osado, Irene Riquelme; Pastor, Ana Bardina; Peña, Rosa; Pérez, Mónica Rustarazo; Piña, María Aliaño; Romero, Carlos Aranda; Rodríguez, Elena Rodríguez; Sáez, Vicente Pedroviejo; Safatle, Fernando; Salvan, Javier Hernández; Sampedro, Mar Galán; de la Torre, Patricia Alfaro; Toro, Jonatan Pérez; Unzúe, Crsitina Lasa; Vargas, Maria José; Bernal, David Garcia; Echevarria, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alejandro Ubeda; Loza, Ana; Morillo, Araceli Rodriguez; Serrano, Pedro Diaz; Sevilla, Fernando Caba Barrientos; Cacho, Elena; Calderón, Ricardo; Dufur, Mercedes; Marginet, Carolina; Monedero, Pablo; Yepes, Maria José; Alvarez, Luzdivina Rellán; Carballal, Francisca Fernández; Castiñeiras, Alberto Pensado; García, Paula Dieguez; López, Lorena Ramos; Maceiras, Pablo Rama; Puente, María Socorro Martínez; Rilo, Maria Teresa Rey; Alonso, Ana Esther Trujillo; Fernández, Sonia Rodríguez; García, Rafael Omaña; García, Aníbal Pérez; Puentes, Rafael Bello; Aguado, Domingo Nunez; Carballo, Carlos Lopez; Fernandez, Ricardo Fernandez; Presedo, Amadeo Toledo; de Rabago, Ricardo Bermejo Diaz; Velasco, Ana Rodriguez; Capel, Yolanda Jiménez; Cortés, Ana Fernández; García, Esther Martínez; Gimeno, Laura Martinez; Klamburg, Jordi; Omedas, Rosa Castillo; Núñez, Miriam González; Maristany, Clara Llubià; Ruiz, Enrique Moret; Artigas, Xavier; Castrillón, Sebastian; Espinosa, Nieves; Gomez-Caro, Ana María; Illa, Susana; India, Inmaculada; Martín-Huerta, Beatriz; Moral, Victoria; Moreno, Marisa; Fernández, Cristina Iglesias; García, Violeta Fernández; Hernández, Pedro Picatto; Checa, Angel Alberto Honrubia; Diaz, David Salvatierra; Noguera, Manuel Linero; Varela, Ignacio Pujol; Gallego, Miguel González; García, Oscar Martínez; Irujo, José Javier Ariño; Perrino, Carlos González; Picazo, Julio Rey; Timoneda, Francisco López; Arroyo, María Manzanero; Blanco, Isabel Albalá; Borja, Marcos Martínez; Burcio, Sara Martín; Castro, Nilda Martinez; Cerdeiriña, Aránzazu Puente; Concostrina, Marta de la Torre; Cristina, Medrano Viñas; Díaz, Trinidad Dorado; Esteruelas, Juan Avellanosa; Ingelmo, Ildefonso Ingelmo; Insuga, Paco Duran; Llamas, Elisabeth Claros; Lopez, Jose Juan Martín; Martín, María Beltran; Martín, Elena Elías; Mesa, Eva Ureta; Monterde, Manuela Loren; Montoiro, Paloma Alonso; Móstoles, Maria Luisa Gonzalez; Olarte, Eva Velasco; Pérez, Adolfo Martínez; Perez, Fernando Domínguez; Romero, Ana Serrano; Rous, Diego Parise; Ruiz, Nuria Mané; Ruiz, Jose Angel Palomo; Saiz, Alvaro Ruigomez; Terol, Alvaro de la Vega; Toha, Angel Candela; Utrera, Fernando Alvarez; Alberdi, Fermín; Elósegui, Itxaso; García, Javier; Garde, Pilar Marco; Mintegui, Escudero Itziar; Sáez, Iker García; Salas, Estibaliz; Zabarte, Mercedes; Diaz-Boladeras, Rosa-Maria; Mora-Guevara, Emilio; Zamora, Julia Ferreras; Bonet, Alfons; Salo, Lidia; Salinas, Unai; Zaballos, Juan; Alvarez, Ana Abella; Garrido, Carlos Jimenez; Roa, Juan Ramón Hita; Vidal, Federico Gordo; Garcia-Egea, Jorge; Elson, Monica Zamora; Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Asensio, Miguel Angel Mendiola; Simeón, Rosa Gastaldo; Alameda, Luis Enrique Muñoz; Angulo, Guillermo Oeding; Aranzubia, Monserrat; Arcas, Jose Juan; Arevalo, Julian; Belvert, Belén Quesada; Calvo, César Pérez; Cremades, Marta; Crespo, Pascual; Cuarental, Ana; del Olmo, Mercedes; Fernández, Pablo Turrión; Vega, José Luis Franqueza García Isabel Garcia; Herrera, Elena II; Llorente, Miguel Angel Alcala; Rabes, Cecilia Martin; de Maeyer, Ana Gamo; Marquez, Manuel Pérez; Mendoza, Diego López; Muñoz, José María Milicua; Martínez, Natividad Arias; Oviedo, Arnoldo Santos; Garrigues, Pau Benavent; Íñigo, José Alonso; Ferrandiz, Sergi Tormo; Sanchez-Morcillo, Silvia; Sánchez, Matilde Lafuente; Parra, Asunción Marqués; Vidal, Sonia Gomar; Allué, Raquel Montoiro; Etayo, Begoña Zalba; Rodriguez, Raquel Bustamante; Villen, Luis Martin; Jimenez, Cristina Molla; de Zayas, Ricardo Salas; Moreno, Cristina Dolera; Pacheco, Fernando SanJose; Pascual, Jose Luis Anton; Gude, Fernando Tejera; Riestra, Eva Manteiga; Delgado, Francisco Cota; Prados, Maria Victoria de la Torre; Barrios, Javier; Cervera-Montes, Manuel; García-Sanz, Mercedes; García, Vicente; Sanmiguel, Guillermo; Álvaro, Julian López; Barrachima, Beatriz Bornay; Bermejo, Francisco Jose Romero; Pilar, Alberto Garcia Fernandez; Garcia, Martinez; Ramírez, Carolina Navarro; Ramos, Jorge Gómez; Samaniego, Luis Angel; Belenguer-Muncharaz, Alberto; Ferrándiz-Selles, Amparo; Mateu-Campos, Maria-Lidon; Domínguez, David; Espinosa, Elena; León, Teresa; Betancor, Nazario Ojeda; Cortes, Javier Garcia; Díaz, Juan José Díaz; Canalechevarria, Ana Manzano; Novales, Beatriz Fores; Peña, Jose Manuel Garcia; Delgado, Tomas Rodriguez; Roquerio, Beatriz Santamaria; Sainz, Juan Jose Gomez; Soto, Teresa Tebar; Chew, Michelle; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne; Dahm, Peter; Hergès, Helena Odenstedt; Lundborg, Christoffer; Söndergaard, Sören; Rylander, Christian; Sari, Ferenc; Tibblin, Anna Oscarsson; Adolfsson, Anne; Klarin, Bengt; Schrey, Susann; Merisson, Edyta; Rydén, Jörgen; Divander, Mona Britt; Hedin, Annika; Hedlund, Daniel; Lindkvist, Mikael Axelsson; Jawad, Monir; Layous, Lona; Wernerman, Jan; Björne, Håkan; Brattström, Olof; Olheden, Staffan; Oldner, Anders; Sellden, Eva; Walder, Bernhard; Wickboldt, Nadine; Rossi, Ariane; Steiner, Luzius; Djurdjevic, Mirjana; Lussmann, Roger; Geisen, Martin; Hofer, Christoph; Turina, Matthias; Grocott, Mike; Goldhill, David; Everett, Lynn; Harris, Katy; Wright, Maggie; Adams, David; Alderson, Lorraine; Baker, Julie; Christie, Iain; Ferguson, Colin; Hill, Matthew; Holmes, Kate; Hutton, Andrew; Minto, Gary; Moor, Paul; Porter, Andrew; Struthers, Richard; Akotia, Niven; Belhaj, Alaa; Chang, Serene; Collantes, Enrique; Eigener, Katrin; Husband, Michael; Khan, Ahsun; Kong, Ming-Li; McAlees, Eleanor Jane; MacDonald, Neil; Niebrzegowska, Edyta; Parnell, Wendy; Smith, Amanda; Chhatwal, Ally; Jhingan, Smriti; Muswell, Richard; Poon, Yoyo; Singh, Nidhita; Stephens, Robert; Vasan, Robin; Waife, Nicola; Weda, Tahmina; Clarke, Adrian; Szakmany, Tamas; Fletcher, Simon; Rosbergen, Melissa; Blunt, Mark; Prince, Liz; Wong, Kate; Kumar, Ram; Stilwell, Sarah; Couper, Keith; Crooks, Neil; Gao-Smith, Fang; Melody, Teresa; Snaith, Catherine; Patel, Jaimin; Parekh, Dhruv; Yeung, Joyce; Loughnan, Bernadette; Moosajee, Vas; Rope, Tamsin; Edger, Lliam; Dawson, Julie; Hadfield, Daniel; Hopkins, Phil; McDonald, Lisa; Willars, Chris; Campbell, Gillian; Craig, Jayne; Smith, Andrew; Ladipo, Karleen; Lockwood, Geoff; Moreno, Juan; Ballington, Ruth; Hamandishe, Sibongilele; Rogerson, David; Cowman, Sarah; Hayden, Paul; Pinto, Nuno; Sandhar, Taj; Arawwawala, Dilshan; Brotherston, Lauren; Mitchell-Inwang, Christine; Walsh, Helena; Alagarsamy, Famila; Goon, Serena; Karcheva, Sylvia; Krepska, Amy; McKinney, Brian; Patil, Vishal; Batchelor, Nicholas; Day, Christopher; Finch, Louise; Gibson, Charlie; Grayling, Matthew; Hubble, Sheena; Key, William; Knight, Thomas; Loosley, Alexander; Margetts, Paul; Stewart, Hannah; Bewley, Jeremy; Hurley, Katrina; Murphy, Ruth; Philpott, Catherine; Pollock, Kathryn; Sweet, Katie; Thomas, Matthew; Tucker, Katy; Windsor, David; Conway, Daniel; Gold, Steve; Quraishi, Tanviha; Cupitt, Jason; Baddeley, Sally; Brown, John David; Foo, Irwin; Mantle, Damien; Carvalho, Peter; Huddart, Sam; Kirk-Bayley, Justin; Smith, Rebecca; Milligan, Lisa; Poulose, Sonia; Sarkar, Som; Nolan, Jerry; Pedley, Emma; Padkin, Andrew; Pesian, Siamak; Rajamanickam, Satish; Ramkumar, Konnur; Thomas, Jerry; Crayford, Alison; Turner, Angus; Bottrill, Fiona; Webb, Stephen; Jhanji, Shaman; MacCallum, Niall; Wessels, Kate; Wigmore, Tim; Meikle, Alistair; Wilson, Stephen; White, Stuart; Bonnett, Andrew; Rushton, Andrew; Williams, Colin; Zuzan, Oliver; Hall, Andrew; Montgomery, Jane; Piggot, Ailie; Read, Richard; Stocker, Mary; Tamm, Tiina; Agarwal, Banwari; Ward, Stephen; Brown, Lucy; Joy, Manju; Venkatesh, Suresh; Hughes, Thomas; Zsisku, Lajos; Roy, Alistair; Hooper, Victoria; Mouland, Johanna; Nightingale, Jeremy; Rose, Steve; Chiam, Patrick; Chohan, Harnita; Dickson, Chris; Gibb, Sarah; Higham, Charley; Harvey, Caroline; Janarthanan, Chandra; Jones, Laura; Kapoor, Avinash; Moll, Mark; Roberts, Louise; Saunders, David; Arnold, Glenn; Gibbs, Claire; Jhurgursing, Mhairi; Pierro, Dena; Pritchard, Frances; Doyle, Patrick; Templeton, Maie; Wilson, Robert; Zantua, Kim; Collyer, Thomas; Featherstone, James; Worton, Rachael; Bruce, Jane; McGuigan, Kate; Price, Grant; Moreton, Sarah; Pulletz, Mark; Anderson, Helen; Baxter, Ian; Beckingsale, Alex; Callaghan, Mark; Datta, Ansu; Dawson, Jo; Gollogly, Jackit; Izod, Chris; Lobaz, Steve; MacFie, Caroline; Patel, Manju; Payne, Heather; Singh, Raj; Timms, Gemma; McLeod, Shaun; O'Brian, Peter; Horner, Elspeth; Joshi, Vivekananda; Stuart-Smith, Karen; Seale, Tania; Bolger, Clare; Collins, Hannah; Ekins, Emma; Hawkins, Lesley; Jonas, Max; Linford, Karen; Wadams, Beverley; Beach, Madeleine; Vizcaychipi, Marcela; Jewsbury, William; Davies, Simon; Balaji, Packianathaswamy; Kangaraj, Muthuraj; Pissay, Nagesh; Smith, Neil; Gopalakrishnan, Senthilkumar; MacKinnon, John; Strandvik, Gustav; Francis, Ruth; Jennings, Adrian; Keating, Matthew; Kumar, Sajith; Leese, Sarah; Magee, Cliona; Pilsbury, Jane; Ralph, James; Riddington, David; Sachdeva, Rajneesh; Snelson, Catherine; Vasanth, Suresh; Wilde, Judith; Lavender, Beth; Lyons, Rachel; Watters, Malcolm; Adams, Tim; Dyer, Simon; Tindall, Lucy; Claxton, Andrew; Netke, Meenu; Akouds, Esam; Bates, Debrah; Gallagher, Heather; Hatton, Jonathan; Holroyd, William; Mitra, Atideb; Nurse, Trudy; Reed, Deborah; Desikan, Somi; Barber, Russell; Childs, Sophie; O'Carroll-Kuehn, Britta; Wyldbore, Mark; Al-Abdaly, Ayad; Amatya, Suman; Bhaskaran, Sherly; Chandan, Garud; Chaudhry, Suman; Chikungwa, Moses; Earnshaw, Greg; Grewal, Moni; Haque, Shamimul; Hawkins, John; Javaid, Ahmed; Jackson, Clare; Kamel, Miriam; Marla, Ruchira; Mculloch, Dori-Ann; Parker, Tom; Salib, Yussof; Saravanmuthu, Ramesh; Secker, Chris; Sockalingam, Siva; Taylor, Anne; Austine, Pauline; Kanade, Vrushali; Paal, Dora; Mok, May Un Sam; Burtenshaw, Andrew; Davis, Laura; Ellahee, Parvez; Freeman, David; Pierson, Richard; Wollaston, Julie; Karmarkar, Amara; Ball, Clare; Calton, Emily; Maxwell, Louise; Walker, Rachel; Bland, Martin; Bullock, Lynne; Harrison-Briggs, Donna; Hodge, Paul; Krige, Anton; Dempsey, Ged; Hammell, Claire; Loveridge, Robert; Parker, Robert; Snell, Jane; Wright, Carl; Baker, Andy; Barr, Katharine; Belcher, Alex; Bonnington, Sam; Bougeard, Anne-Marie; Fitzgerald, Emma; Ford, Rachael; Gillard, Chantal; Griffiths, Liz; Greenberg, Lizzie; Huber, Jonathan; Mathieu, Steve; Richardson, Neil; Tompsett, Laura; White, Nigel; Patel, Santosh; Corner, Victoria; Thomas, Richard; Trodd, Dawn; Wilson, Jennifer; Copley, Ed; Flutter, Laura; Hulme, Jonathan; Susarla, Jay; Thwaites, Alison; Jayasundera, Suraj; McAfee, Sean; Chantler, Jonathan; McKechnie, Stuart; Neely, Julia; Mouton, Ronelle; Scarth, Edward; Soar, Jasmeet; Buss, Joanne; Currie, Vicki; Sange, Mansoor; Kuttler, Anja; Power, Fiona; Alexander, David; Dunne, Kevin; Shinner, Guy; Black, Euan; Haldane, Grant; Kerr, Jennie; Saran, Taj; Ward, Geraldine; Jefferies, Fiona; Alexander, Peter; Royle, Alison; Nahla, Farid; Bowles, Tim; Gregory, Maggie; Ahern, Rebecca; Cartlidge, David; Craker, Lloyd; Thompson, Christopher; Bidd, Heena; Giles, Julian; Manser, Amanda; Parry, Gareth; Chan, Peter; Das, Dinesh; Fahmy, Nisreen; Higgins, David; Khader, Ahmed; Stone, Alex; Leonardi, Silvia; Rose, Oliver; Bright, Elizabeth; Ercole, Ari; Rafi, Muhammed Amir; Ramasamy, Radhika; Sheshgiri, Bengeri; Merrill, Colin; Page, Valerie; Walker, Elaine; Harris, Stephen; Hughes, Sarah; Morrison, Alan; Razouk, Khaled; Ayman, Mustafa; al-Subaie, Nawaf; Arif, Fuhazia; Cashman, Jeremy; Cecconi, Maurizio; Edsell, Mark; Fossati, Nicoletta; Hammond, Sarah Jane; Hamilton, Mark; Lonsdale, Dagan; Moran, Carl; Siegmueller, Claas; Velzeboer, Freya; Wong, Patrick; Jakeman, Alicia; Mowatt, Chris
Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international
Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-tabar; Zaroudi, Marsa; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Pourshams, Akram; Sani, Akbar Feiz; Jafari, Elham; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul D; Berennan, Paul J; Boffetta, Paolo; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Reza
Background Most studies that have assessed the association between combined lifestyle factors and mortality outcomes have been conducted in populations of developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between combined lifestyle scores and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for the first time among Iranian adults. Methods The study population included 50,045 Iranians, 40–75 years of age, who were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, between 2004 and 2008. The lifestyle risk factors used in this study included cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The lifestyle score ranged from zero (non-healthy) to 3 (most healthy) points. From the study baseline up to analysis, a total of 4691 mortality cases were recorded. Participants with chronic diseases at baseline, outlier reports of calorie intake, missing data, and body mass index of less than 18.5 were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression models were fitted to establish the association between combined lifestyle scores and mortality outcomes. Results After implementing the exclusion criteria, data from 40,708 participants were included in analyses. During 8.08 years of follow-up, 3,039 cases of death due to all causes were recorded. The adjusted hazard ratio of healthy life style score, compared with non-healthy lifestyle score, was 0.68(95% CI: 0.54, 0.86) for all-cause mortality, 0.53(95% CI: 0.37, 0.77) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.82(95% CI: 0.53; 1.26) for mortality due to cancer. When we excluded the first two years of follow up from the analysis, the protective association between healthy lifestyle score and cardiovascular death did not change much 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.84), but the inverse association with all-cause mortality became weaker 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.94), and the association with cancer mortality was non-significant 0.92 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.48). In the gender-stratified analysis, we found an inverse
Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya
In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding. PMID:28163589
Lee, Ji Yun; Ellingwood, Bruce R.
Public awareness of civil infrastructure performance has increased considerably in recent years as a result of repeated natural disasters. Risks from natural hazards may increase dramatically in the future, given current patterns of urbanization and population growth in hazard-prone areas. Risk assessments for infrastructure with expected service periods of a century or more are highly uncertain, and there is compelling evidence that climatology will evolve over such intervals. Thus, current natural hazard and risk assessment models, which are based on a presumption of stationarity in hazard occurrence and intensity, may not be adequate to assess the potential risks from hazards occurring in the distant future. This paper addresses two significant intergenerational elements – the potential impact of non-stationarity in hazard due to climate change and intergenerational discounting practices – that are essential to provide an improved decision support framework that accommodates the needs and values of future generations. The framework so developed is tested through two benchmark problems involving buildings exposed to hurricanes. - Highlights: • Difficulties of conventional life-cycle engineering decision-making over multiple generations are clearly elaborated. • Two intergenerational elements are proposed to reflect equitable allocations of risk between generations. • A data-based approach to forecast future hurricanes is provided to bridge the gap between models at large and local scales. • The feasibility and practicability of a refined framework are examined through two lifecycle cost assessment examples. • The two intergenerational elements suggested in this study have a wide range of applicability.
Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Cornejo, Maria Luisa Redondo; Agudo, Antonio; Pérez, María José Sánchez; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline WJ; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio
Background How coffee consumption relates to mortality in diverse European populations, with variable coffee preparation methods and customs, is unclear. Objectives To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in men and women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Ten European countries. Participants A total of 521,330 men and women enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Main outcome measure Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals(CIs) estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers sub-cohort (n=14,800). Results During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41,693 deaths occurred. Compared with non-consumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption experienced statistically significant lower all-cause mortality (Men: HR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.82–0.95; P-trendcoffee and circulatory disease mortality, (HR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.68–0.90; P-trendcoffee and ovarian cancer mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.23 P-trend 0.001). In the EPIC-biomarkers sub-cohort, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and C-reactive protein. Limitation Reverse causality may have led to spurious findings; however, results did not differ following exclusion of participants who died within 8-years of baseline. The study is also limited by a single assessment of coffee drinking habits at baseline. Conclusions These results confirm prior findings on the reduced risk of mortality associated with coffee drinking but additionally show that this relationship does not vary by country where coffee preparation and drinking habits may differ. The study also reports novel inverse relationships between coffee drinking and digestive disease
In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered
Fischer, Paul H; Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A H; Houthuijs, Danny
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between
Wang, Dan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Yu, Ruby; Wong, Samuel Y S; Kwok, Timothy T Y; Woo, Jean
Green space has been shown to be beneficial for human wellness through multiple pathways. This study aimed to explore the contributions of neighbouring green space to cause-specific mortality. Data from 3544 Chinese men and women (aged ≥65 years at baseline) in a community-based cohort study were analysed. Outcome measures, identified from the death registry, were death from all-cause, respiratory system disease, circulatory system disease. The quantity of green space (%) within a 300 m radius buffer was calculated for each subject from a map created based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomics, lifestyle, health conditions and housing type were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs. During a mean of 10.3 years of follow-up, 795 deaths were identified. Our findings showed that a 10% increase in coverage of green space was significantly associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality (HR 0.963, 95% CI 0.930 to 0.998), circulatory system-caused mortality (HR 0.887, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.963) and stroke-caused mortality (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.524 to 0.835), independent of age, sex, marital status, years lived in Hong Kong, education level, socioeconomic ladder, smoking, alcohol intake, diet quality, self-rated health and housing type. The inverse associations between coverage of green space with all-cause mortality (HR 0.964, 95% CI 0.931 to 0.999) and circulatory system disease-caused mortality (HR 0.888, 95% CI 0.817 to 0.964) were attenuated when the models were further adjusted for physical activity and cognitive function. The effects of green space on all-cause and circulatory system-caused mortality tended to be stronger in females than in males. Higher coverage of green space was associated with reduced risks of all-cause mortality, circulatory system-caused mortality and stroke-caused mortality in Chinese older people living in a highly urbanised city. © Article author(s) (or their
Hull, Melissa A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Gutierrez, Ivan M; Jones, Brian A; Kang, Kuang Horng; Kenny, Michael; Zurakowski, David; Modi, Biren P; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of death in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. The overall mortality of NEC is well documented. However, those requiring surgery appear to have increased mortality compared with those managed medically. The objective of this study was to establish national birth-weight-based benchmarks for the mortality of surgical NEC and describe the use and mortality of laparotomy vs peritoneal drainage. There were 655 US centers that prospectively evaluated 188,703 VLBW neonates (401 to 1,500 g) between 2006 and 2010. Survival was defined as living in-hospital at 1-year or hospital discharge. There were 17,159 (9%) patients who had NEC, with mortality of 28%; 8,224 patients did not receive operations (medical NEC, mortality 21%) and 8,935 were operated on (mortality 35%). On multivariable regression, lower birth weight, laparotomy, and peritoneal drainage were independent predictors of mortality (p 750 g; medical NEC mortality fell consistently with increasing birth weight. For example, in neonates weighing 1,251 to 1,500 g, mortality was 27% in surgical vs 6% in medical NEC (odds ratio [OR] 6.10, 95% CI 4.58 to 8.12). Of those treated surgically, 6,131 (69%) underwent laparotomy only (mortality 31%), 1,283 received peritoneal drainage and a laparotomy (mortality 34%), and 1,521 had peritoneal drainage alone (mortality 50%). Fifty-two percent of VLBW neonates with NEC underwent surgery, which was accompanied by a substantial increase in mortality. Regardless of birth weight, surgical NEC showed a plateau in mortality at approximately 30%. Laparotomy was the more frequent method of treatment (69%) and of those managed by drainage, 46% also had a laparotomy. The laparotomy alone and drainage with laparotomy groups had similar mortalities, while the drainage alone treatment cohort was associated with the highest mortality. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kamei, Keita; Konta, Tsuneo; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Sato, Hiroko; Suzuki, Natsuko; Kabasawa, Asami; Suzuki, Kazuko; Hirayama, Atsushi; Shibata, Yoko; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kato, Takeo; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao
Serum uric acid level is regulated by gender, dietary habit, genetic predisposition, and renal function, and is associated with the development of renal and cardiovascular diseases. This study prospectively investigated the association between serum uric acid levels and mortality in a community-based population. Three thousand four hundred and eighty-seven subjects regardless of the antihyperuricemic medication (45 % male; mean age 62 years old) from the Takahata town in Japan participated in this study and were followed up for 8 years (median 7.5 years). We examined the association between serum uric acid levels at baseline and the all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, in this population. One hundred seventy-nine subjects died during the follow-up period, with 49 deaths attributed to cardiovascular causes. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the all-cause mortality was significantly higher along with the increase in serum uric acid levels at baseline among female (Log-rank P uric acid ≥7.0 mg/dL) was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively, in female [hazard ratio (HR) 5.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.10-14.6 for all-cause mortality, and HR 10.7, 95 % CI 1.76-50.2 for cardiovascular mortality], but not male subjects. Hyperuricemia was an independent risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in female, but not among the male subjects in a community-based population.
Goh, George Boon-Bee; Pan, An; Chow, Wan-Cheng; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay
Diabetes mellitus has been linked to cirrhosis-related mortality in Western populations, but less is known about this relationship in Asian populations. We studied the impact of diabetes on the risk of cirrhosis mortality in a population-based cohort among Chinese in Singapore. We used data collected and analysed from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective community-based cohort of 63 275 subjects aged 45-74 years during enrolment between 1993 and 1998. Information on diet, lifestyle and medical history was collected via structured questionnaire. Mortality cases from cirrhosis in the cohort were identified via linkage with nationwide death registry up to 31 December 2014. Cox proportional regression models were used to estimate the associations with adjustment for risk factors of cirrhosis. After a mean follow-up of 16.9 years, there were 133 deaths from cirrhosis. Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.04-3.83), and for both viral (HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.18-4.11) and non-viral hepatitis-related cirrhosis mortality (HR: 3.06; 95% CI: 2.13-4.41). The association between diabetes and non-viral hepatitis-related cirrhosis mortality was stronger among participants of body mass index (BMI) less than 23 kg/m 2 (HR: 7.11; 95% CI: 3.42-14.79) compared to heavier individuals (HR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.20-4.35) (P interaction =0.02). Diabetes is a risk factor for cirrhosis mortality, especially for non-viral hepatitis-related cirrhosis in population with BMI considered low or normal in Asia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Murphy, Rachel A.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K.; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Patel, Kushang V.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Fried, Linda F.
Background and objectives Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70–79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into metabolic acidosis, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46) for respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. Conclusions In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis also associated with higher mortality. PMID:26769766
Loft, Anne; Andersen, T F; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
The main objective of this cohort study was to analyse the early postoperative mortality after 'simple' hysterectomy for benign indications and to compare it with that of a randomly selected reference group of women matched for age. Registry data covering the entire Danish female population were...... used. Included in the study were all patients operated in the period 1977-1981. Patients were only included if no cancer was diagnosed and if no major co-surgery was performed (29,192 patients). Cancer patients were also excluded in the reference group (16,182 women). Mortality was studied according...... to characteristics of patients, their residential area, the surgical approach and operating hospital. Overall 47 patients died within 30 days of admission for hysterectomy (overall mortality 16.1 per 10,000). Only seven deaths were expected on the basis of the population sample, and adjusted for age, the relative...
Lund, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens
In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random.......25(0.93-1.69), adjusted for the same covariates. Inclusion of the health behaviour variables--smoking, diet and physical activity--one by one to a model with functional ability, self-rated health and one of the three determinants (cohabitation status, living with/without partner, marital status) showed no effect....... We suggest that in future studies of social relations and mortality, cohabitation status is considered to replace marital status as this variable may account for more of the variation in mortality....
Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven
and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality......Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods...... by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data on characteristics of patients undergoing open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy are limited. In this register study we examined characteristics and mortality of patients who underwent cholecystectomy during hospital stay in Sweden 2000 – 2003. Methods Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for all patients undergoing cholecystectomy in Sweden from January 1st 2000 through December 31st 2003. Mortality risk was calculated as standardised mortality ratio (SMR i.e. observed over expected deaths considering age and gender of the background population. Results During the four years of the study 43072 patients underwent cholecystectomy for benign biliary disease, 31144 (72% using a laparoscopic technique and 11928 patients (28% an open procedure (including conversion from laparoscopy. Patients with open cholecystectomy were older than patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (59 vs 49 years, p Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed on patients having a lower mortality risk than the general Swedish population. Patients with open cholecystectomy are more sick than patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and they have a mortality risk within 90 days of admission for cholecystectomy, which is four times that of the general population. Further efforts to reduce surgical trauma in open biliary surgery are motivated.
Luo, Ye; Hawkley, Louise C.; Waite, Linda J.; Cacioppo, John T.
This study examined the relationship between loneliness, health, and mortality using a U.S. nationally representative sample of 2,101 adults aged 50 years and over from the 2002 to 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. We estimated the effect of loneliness at one point on mortality over the subsequent six years, and investigated social relationships, health behaviors, and health outcomes as potential mechanisms through which loneliness affects mortality risk among older Americans. We operationalized health outcomes as depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and functional limitations, and we conceptualized the relationships between loneliness and each health outcome as reciprocal and dynamic. We found that feelings of loneliness were associated with increased mortality risk over a 6-year period, and that this effect was not explained by social relationships or health behaviors but was modestly explained by health outcomes. In cross-lagged panel models that tested the reciprocal prospective effects of loneliness and health, loneliness both affected and was affected by depressive symptoms and functional limitations over time, and had marginal effects on later self-rated health. These population-based data contribute to a growing literature indicating that loneliness is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality and point to potential mechanisms through which this process works. PMID:22326307
Morrison, David S
Homelessness is associated with increased risks of mortality but it has not previously been possible to distinguish whether this is typical of other socio-economically deprived populations, the result of a higher prevalence of morbidity or an independent risk of homelessness itself. The aim of this study was to describe mortality among a cohort of homeless adults and adjust for the effects of morbidity and socio-economic deprivation. Retrospective 5-year study of two fixed cohorts, homeless adults and an age- and sex-matched random sample of the local non-homeless population in Greater Glasgow National Health Service Board area for comparison. Over 5 years of observation, 1.7% (209/12 451) of the general population and 7.2% (457/6323) of the homeless cohort died. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality in homeless compared with non-homeless cohorts was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.8-5.2). After adjustment for age, sex and previous hospitalization, homelessness was associated with an all-cause mortality hazard ratio of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9). Homelessness had differential effects on cause-specific mortality. Among patients who had been hospitalized for drug-related conditions, the homeless cohort experienced a 7-fold increase in risk of death from drugs compared with the general population. Homelessness is an independent risk factor for deaths from specific causes. Preventive programmes might be most effectively targeted at the homeless with these conditions.
Adolph, Margaux; Darnaud, Christelle; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Batty, G David; Bouchard, Philippe
We evaluated the association between oral health and mortality. The study population comprised 76,188 subjects aged 16-89 years at recruitment. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 ± 2.4 years. Subjects with a personal medical history of cancer or cardiovascular disease and death by casualty were excluded from the analysis. A full-mouth clinical examination was performed in order to assess dental plaque, dental calculus and gingival inflammation. The number of teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth (HR = 2.31, [95% CI: 1.40-3.82]) and functional masticatory units <5 (HR = 2.40 [95% CI 1.55-3.73]). Moreover, when ≥3 oral diseases were cumulated in the model, the risk increased for all-cause mortality (HR = 3.39, [95% CI: 2.51-5.42]), all-cancer mortality (HR = 3.59, [95% CI: 1.23-10.05]) and non-cardiovascular and non-cancer mortality (HR = 4.71, [95% CI: 1.74-12.7]). The present study indicates a postive linear association between oral health and mortality.
Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Seyed Davood; Ghadirzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed
The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. A cross-sectional study. The information regarding all cases of psychotropic positive was collected from Legal Medicine Organization, occurred on Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Demographic and epidemiological data were extracted from recorded documents. Data were then analyzed in Stata software. Overall, 2306 died cases from opioid or psychotropic abuse were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 36.07±12.61 yr, they were mostly single male, and 88.64% of them had Iranian nationality. The mortality rate from opiate and psychotropic abuse in the whole country was 38.22 per 1000000 population. The most common location of death was at home or in another private residence. History of overdose, suicide, hospitalization in psychiatric hospital, staying in prison and substance abuse in the family observed in some people who died from drug abuse. Mortality rate from substance abuse is more among unmarried young men aged 30-39 yr with low education level also in self-employed. We suggest policies to prevent this person accessing and using drug.
Maddox, P.; Doran, C.; Williams, I.D.; Kus, M.
Highlights: → Children can be effective advocates in changing their parents' lifestyles. → We investigated the role of intergenerational influence in waste education programmes. → Waste Watch's Take Home Action on Waste project worked with 6705 children in 39 schools. → The results showed increased participation in recycling and declines in residual waste. → The study shows that recycling behaviour is positively impacted by intergenerational influence. - Abstract: Whilst the education of young people is often seen as a part of the solution to current environmental problems seeking urgent attention, it is often forgotten that their parents and other household members can also be educated/influenced via home-based educational activities. This paper explores the theory of intergenerational influence in relation to school based waste education. Waste Watch, a UK-based environmental charity ( (www.wastewatch.org.uk)), has pioneered a model that uses practical activities and whole school involvement to promote school based action on waste. This methodology has been adopted nationally. This paper outlines and evaluates how effective school based waste education is in promoting action at a household level. The paper outlines Waste Watch's 'Taking Home Action on Waste (THAW)' project carried out for two and half years in Rotherham, a town in South Yorkshire, England. The project worked with 6705 primary age children in 39 schools (44% of primary schools in the project area) to enable them to take the 'reduce, reuse and recycle message' home to their families and to engage these (i.e. families) in sustainable waste management practices. As well as substantial increases in students' knowledge and understanding of waste reduction, measurement of the impact of the project in areas around 12 carefully chosen sample schools showed evidence of increased participation in recycling and recycling tonnages as well as declining levels of residual waste. Following delivery of
Rebecca J. Mitchell
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved understanding of long-term mortality attributable to injury is needed to accurately inform injury burden studies. This study aims to quantify and describe mortality attributable to injury 12 months after an injury-related hospitalisation in Australia. Method A population-based matched cohort study using linked hospital and mortality data from three Australian states during 2008–2010 was conducted. The injured cohort included individuals ≥18 years who had an injury-related hospital admission in 2009. A comparison cohort of non-injured people was obtain by randomly selecting from the electoral roll. This comparison group was matched 1:1 on age, gender and postcode of residence. Pre-index injury health service use and 12-month mortality were examined. Adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRR and attributable risk were calculated. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to examine the effect of risk factors on survival. Results Injured individuals were almost 3 times more likely to die within 12 months following an injury (MRR 2.90; 95% CI: 2.76–3.04. Individuals with a traumatic brain injury (MRR 7.58; 95% CI: 5.92–9.70 or injury to internal organs (MRR 7.38; 95% CI: 5.90–9.22 were 7 times more likely to die than the non-injured group. Injury was likely to be a contributory factor in 92% of mortality within 30 days and 66% of mortality at 12 months following the index injury hospital admission. Adjusted mortality rate ratios varied by type of cause-specific death, with MRR highest for injury-related deaths. Conclusions There are likely chronic consequences of sustaining a traumatic injury. Longer follow-up post-discharge is needed to consider deaths likely to be attributable to the injury. Better enumeration of long-term injury-related mortality will have the potential to improve estimates of injury burden.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an important health issue with high mortality. Various complications of physiological and cognitive impairment may result in disability or death after TBI. Grouping of these complications could be treated as integrated post-TBI syndromes. To improve risk estimation, grouping TBI complications should be investigated, to better predict TBI mortality. This study aimed to estimate mortality risk based on grouping of complications among TBI patients. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study. TBI was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes: 801-804 and 850-854. The association rule data mining method was used to analyze coexisting complications after TBI. The mortality risk of post-TBI complication sets with the potential risk factors was estimated using Cox regression. A total 139,254 TBI patients were enrolled in this study. Intracerebral hemorrhage was the most common complication among TBI patients. After frequent item set mining, the most common post-TBI grouping of complications comprised pneumonia caused by acute respiratory failure (ARF and urinary tract infection, with mortality risk 1.55 (95% C.I.: 1.51-1.60, compared with those without the selected combinations. TBI patients with the combined combinations have high mortality risk, especially those aged <20 years with septicemia, pneumonia, and ARF (HR: 4.95, 95% C.I.: 3.55-6.88. We used post-TBI complication sets to estimate mortality risk among TBI patients. According to the combinations determined by mining, especially the combination of septicemia with pneumonia and ARF, TBI patients have a 1.73-fold increased mortality risk, after controlling for potential demographic and clinical confounders. TBI patients aged<20 years with each combination of complications also have increased mortality risk. These results could provide physicians and caregivers with
Min Ji Jeon
Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.
Full Text Available To achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as determinants of perinatal mortality in Eastern Uganda.A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2008. A total of 835 pregnant women were followed up for pregnancy outcome and survival of their children until 7 days after delivery. Mother's residence, age, parity, bed net use and whether delivery took place at home were included in multivariable regression analyses to identify risk factors for perinatal death.The stillbirth risk was 19 per 1,000 pregnancies and the early neonatal death risk 22 per 1,000 live births. Overall, the perinatal mortality risk was 41 [95%CI: 27, 54] per 1,000 pregnancies. Of the deaths, 47% followed complicated deliveries and 24% preterm births. Perinatal mortality was 63/1,000 pregnancies among teenage mothers, 76/1,000 pregnancies among nulliparous women and 61/1,000 pregnancies among women delivering at home who, after controlling for potential confounders, had a 3.7 (95%CI: 1.8, 7.4 times higher perinatal mortality than women who gave birth in a health facility. This association was considerably stronger among nulliparous women [RR 8.0 (95%CI: 2.9, 21.6] than among women with a previous live birth [RR 1.8 (95%CI: 0.7, 4.5]. All perinatal deaths occurred among women who did not sleep under a mosquito net. Women living in urban slums had a higher risk of losing their babies than those in rural areas [RR: 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4, 5.3].Our findings strengthen arguments for ensuring that pregnant women have access to and use adequate delivery facilities and bed nets.
Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nankunda, Jolly; Sommerfelt, Halvor
To achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as determinants of perinatal mortality in Eastern Uganda. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2008. A total of 835 pregnant women were followed up for pregnancy outcome and survival of their children until 7 days after delivery. Mother's residence, age, parity, bed net use and whether delivery took place at home were included in multivariable regression analyses to identify risk factors for perinatal death. The stillbirth risk was 19 per 1,000 pregnancies and the early neonatal death risk 22 per 1,000 live births. Overall, the perinatal mortality risk was 41 [95%CI: 27, 54] per 1,000 pregnancies. Of the deaths, 47% followed complicated deliveries and 24% preterm births. Perinatal mortality was 63/1,000 pregnancies among teenage mothers, 76/1,000 pregnancies among nulliparous women and 61/1,000 pregnancies among women delivering at home who, after controlling for potential confounders, had a 3.7 (95%CI: 1.8, 7.4) times higher perinatal mortality than women who gave birth in a health facility. This association was considerably stronger among nulliparous women [RR 8.0 (95%CI: 2.9, 21.6)] than among women with a previous live birth [RR 1.8 (95%CI: 0.7, 4.5)]. All perinatal deaths occurred among women who did not sleep under a mosquito net. Women living in urban slums had a higher risk of losing their babies than those in rural areas [RR: 2.7 (95%CI: 1.4, 5.3)]. Our findings strengthen arguments for ensuring that pregnant women have access to and use adequate delivery facilities and bed nets.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.
Qian, X J; Shen, Y P; He, T F; Xu, G Z; Gu, S H
To explore the short-term effect of particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 μg (PM10) and aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μg (PM2.5) on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city. Daily cardio-cerebrovascular mortality data from 2011 to 2014 in Ningbo city were collected and the time series study using a semi-parametric generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of cardio-cerebrovascular disease and particulate matters after adjustment for the long-term trend of death,weather conditions, "days of the week" and other confounding factors. In single-pollutant model, the short-term effects of particulate matter on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality was strongest in lagged 2 days in Ningbo city, and an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in moving average concentrations (lagged 2-3 days and lagged 2-4 days) of PM2.5 and PM10 could increase the cardio-cerebrovascular mortality by 0.55% (0.23%-0.87%) and 0.53% (0.28%-0.78%), respectively. In multi-pollutant models, PM10 did remain robust after being adjusted for PM2.5 with 0.58% (0.09%-1.07%) increase in cardio-cerebrovascular mortality. The effect of PM2.5 had no statistical significantce after being adjusted for other co-pollutants. These findings suggested that the concentrations of ambient particulate matters were associated with an increased risk of daily cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city.
Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Li, Yi; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian
We investigated the effect of financial hardship on mortality risk in a community-dwelling sample of adults 50 years of age and olderin the United States. The 1996 Health and Retirement Study cohorts were followed prospectively to 2004 (N = 8,377). Gender-stratified grouped Cox models were used to estimate the difference in the relative risk (RR) of mortality between a specific number of financial hardships (one, two, or three or more) and no hardships; and the predictive utility of each individual financial hardship for mortality during the follow-up period. Gender-stratified models adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and functional limitations in 1996 showed that women reporting one (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.92) or three or more (HR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.05-2.46) and men reporting two (HR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.21-2.69) financial hardships had a substantially higher probability of mortality compared to those reporting no financial hardships. Individual financial hardships that predicted mortality in fully adjusted models for women included receiving Medicaid (HR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.68-2.98) and for men receiving Medicaid (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.57-2.84) and receiving food stamps (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.09-2.33). These findings suggest that over and above the influence of traditional measures of socioeconomic status, financial hardship exerts an influence on the risk of mortality among older adults and that the number and type of hardships important in predicting mortality may differ for men and women.
Geerlings, M. I.; Deeg, D. J.; Schmand, B.; Lindeboom, J.; Jonker, C.
The objective of this study was to replicate findings from an earlier study by Stern et al. of an increased risk of mortality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with higher levels of education and to compare this risk with the risk of death in the elderly population. As part of a community-based
Ensing, Sabine; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.
The objective of the present study is to investigate trends in birth asphyxia and perinatal mortality in the Netherlands over the last decade. A nationwide cohort study among women with a term singleton pregnancy. We assessed trends in birth asphyxia in relation to obstetric interventions for fetal
Lund, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Modvig, Jens
In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a rando...
Knorr, Sine; Stochholm, Kirstine; Vlachová, Zuzana
admissions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing mortality, hospital admissions, and use of medication in offspring (n = 1,326) of women with pregestational type 1 diabetes (index children) with matched control subjects (n = 131......OBJECTIVE: This study examined the long-term consequences for offspring born to mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes regarding mortality, hospital admissions, and medication. We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and mortality and incidence of hospital...... associated with maternal HbA1c before pregnancy and in the first trimester. In addition, the overall use of medication was increased in index children (IRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19, P Type 1 diabetes during pregnancy has long-term implications on the health of offspring, with increased...
Cooper, I; Cormier, B M
The majority of reported incest cases involve sexual relations between one generation and another, the most common being father-daughter incest. The increased availability of clinical data on incest has revealed an aspect of the problem that has received little attention in clinical literature. Incest can involve three generations in a family rather than two. It is possible for incest to be "transmitted" from one generation to the next through several patterns. In some cases, the mother in a family of father-daughter incest has herself been a victim of incest with her own father. With a history of unresolved incest with their own fathers, these women are unable to prevent an incest relationship between their husbands and daughters. Another pattern involves situations where the father in the father-daughter incest relationship has been the victim of father-son incest in his youth. The psychodynamics of these patterns of intergenerational transmission of incest are described, with clinical examples from the authors' work, as well as from the literature.
Martínez-González, Miguel A; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon
Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78-1.34), 1.30 (0.97-1.75) and 1.55 (1.06-2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88-1.59), 1.02 (0.74-1.41) and 1.57 (1.19-2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639.
Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon
Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial
Miguel A Martínez-González
Full Text Available Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality.We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI and height with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years and 57% were women (60 to 80 years. All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009.After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 were 1.02 (0.78-1.34, 1.30 (0.97-1.75 and 1.55 (1.06-2.26. When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm, the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs for mortality were 1.18 (0.88-1.59, 1.02 (0.74-1.41 and 1.57 (1.19-2.08. In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial.Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639.
Demakakos, Panayotes; Pillas, Demetris; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew
Parenting style is associated with offspring health, but whether it is associated with offspring mortality at older ages remains unknown. We examined whether childhood experiences of suboptimal parenting style are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. Longitudinal cohort study of 1964 community-dwelling adults aged 65-79 years. The association between parenting style and mortality was inverse and graded. Participants in the poorest parenting style score quartile had increased risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.20-2.48) compared with those in the optimal parenting style score quartile after adjustment for age and gender. Full adjustment for covariates partially explained this association (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.18). Parenting style was inversely associated with cancer and other mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were individually associated with mortality. Experiences of suboptimal parenting in childhood are associated with increased risk of death at older ages. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Nazari, Ss Hashemi; Mahmoodi, M; Mansournia, Ma; Naieni, K Holakouie
There is a great amount of literature concerning the effect of racial segregation on health outcomes but few papers have discussed the effect of segregation on the basis of social, demographic and economic characteristics on health. We estimated the independent effect of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Iranian population. For measuring segregation, we used generalized dissimilarity index for two group and multi group nominal variables and ordinal information theory index for ordinal variables. Sample data was obtained from Iranian latest national census and multilevel modeling with individual variables at level one and segregation indices measured at province level for socioeconomic status variables at level two were used to assess the effect of segregation on infant mortality. Among individual factors, mother activity was a risk factor for infant mortality. Segregated provinces in regard to size of the house, ownership of a house and motorcycle, number of literate individual in the family and use of natural gas for cooking and heating had higher infant mortality. Segregation indices measured for education level, migration history, activity, marital status and existence of bathroom were negatively associated with infant mortality. Segregation of different contextual characteristics of neighborhood had different effects on health outcomes. Studying segregation of social, economic, and demographic factors, especially in communities, which are racially homogenous, might reveal new insights into dissimilarities in health.
Li, Yan-Ling; Mo, Jun-Rong; Cheng, Nga-Man; Chan, Stewart S W; Lin, Pei-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Graham, Colin A; Rainer, Timothy H
The diagnosis of shock in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is often challenging. We aimed to compare the accuracy of experienced emergency physician gestalt against Li's pragmatic shock (LiPS) tool for predicting the likelihood of shock in the emergency department, using 30-day mortality as an objective standard. In a prospective observational study conducted in an urban, academic ED in Hong Kong, adult patients aged 18years or older admitted to the resuscitation room or high dependency unit were recruited. Eligible patients had a standard ED workup for shock. The emergency physician treating the patient was asked whether he or she considered shock to be probable, and this was compared with LiPS. The proxy 'gold' or reference standard was 30-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) was used to predict prognosis. The primary outcome measure was 30-day mortality. A total of 220 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The AUROC for LiPS (0.722; sensitivity=0.733, specificity=0.711, Pgestalt (0.620, sensitivity=0.467, specificity=0.774, P=0.0137) for diagnosing shock using 30-day mortality as a proxy (difference P=0.0229). LiPS shock patients were 6.750 times (95%CI=2.834-16.076, Pgestalt for shock when compared against an outcome of 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi
Psychological factors may have an influence on disease processes and therefore they were investigated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Overall there were very few consistent associations with cancer death. Persons with 'ikigai', defined as 'that which most makes one's life seem worth living', demonstrated decreased risk of mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD).There was no consistent link with being quick to judge, although those answering no to quick judgement were at increased risk of all cause, IHD and CVD mortality. psychological stress was related to a slightly elevated risk of all cause death, IHD in men and CVD in women. However, a sense of hurry was linked to a slightly reduced risk for mortality from all causes and CVD. Persons who were likely to be angry had an increased risk for mortality from all causes. In women not likely to be angry there were also positive links to death from cancers like breast. Joyfulness was associated with decreased mortality, especially from CVD. A feeling of being trusted was also protective, again particularly for CVD.
Puustinen, Pekka Johannes; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno
To examine whether persons with psychological distress have a greater risk of all-cause mortality in the Scandinavian population; whether this association is gender-specific; and what is the influence of socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and health behaviour in this association. A total of 923 (414 male and 509 female) people, aged 36 to 56 years, participated in a population-based study from 1997-98 in Pieksämäki, Finland. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The GHQ-12 points were summed to a global score ranging from 0-12. Mortality data until 31 December 2009 were drawn from the national mortality register. There were 44 death events (27 men, 17 women) during the mean observation time of 11 years. The hazard ratio (HR) increased by 16% for every GHQ-12 point (gender and age adjusted HR 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07-1.25, p GHQ-12 score ≥ 4) participants was 84% (95% CI: 73- 91) and for non-distressed (GHQ-12 score 0-3) participants it was 96% (95% CI: 93-97), HR = 3.38 (95% CI: 1.55-7.39, p = 0.002). Among women, no significant association was found. Psychological distress measured by the GHQ-12 is associated with all-cause mortality risk during an 11-year observation time. This is mainly due to excess mortality among distressed men.
Degrave, Etienne; Autier, Philippe; Grivegnee, Andre-Robert; Zizi, Martin
Background: It has been suggested that exposure to radiofrequency/microwaves radiations could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. Methods: The all-cause mortality of 27,671 Belgian militaries who served from 1963 until 1994 in battalions equipped with radars for anti-aircraft defence was studied over the period 1968-2003. End of the seventies, technical modifications brought to the shielding of the micro-wave generators resulted in a reduction in irradiations. A control group was formed by 16,128 militaries who served during the same period in the same military area but who were never exposed to radars. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in the radar battalions was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.95-1.16) in professional militaries, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.75-0.85) in conscripts. In professional militaries no difference in mortality was found according to duration (less than, or five years or more) or to period of service (before 1978 or after 1977). Conclusions: During a 40-year period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in Belgian militaries who were in close contact with radar equipments of anti-aircraft defence battalions
Nazari, SS Hashemi; Mahmoodi, M; Mansournia, MA; Naieni, K Holakouie
Background There is a great amount of literature concerning the effect of racial segregation on health outcomes but few papers have discussed the effect of segregation on the basis of social, demographic and economic characteristics on health. We estimated the independent effect of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Iranian population. Methods: For measuring segregation, we used generalized dissimilarity index for two group and multi group nominal variables and ordinal information theory index for ordinal variables. Sample data was obtained from Iranian latest national census and multilevel modeling with individual variables at level one and segregation indices measured at province level for socioeconomic status variables at level two were used to assess the effect of segregation on infant mortality. Results: Among individual factors, mother activity was a risk factor for infant mortality. Segregated provinces in regard to size of the house, ownership of a house and motorcycle, number of literate individual in the family and use of natural gas for cooking and heating had higher infant mortality. Segregation indices measured for education level, migration history, activity, marital status and existence of bathroom were negatively associated with infant mortality. Conclusion: Segregation of different contextual characteristics of neighborhood had different effects on health outcomes. Studying segregation of social, economic, and demographic factors, especially in communities, which are racially homogenous, might reveal new insights into dissimilarities in health. PMID:23113167
Nietert, Paul J; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Silver, Richard M; Wolf, Bethany J; Egan, Brent M; Hunt, Kelly J; Smith, Edwin A
Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is a temporary vasoconstrictive condition that often manifests itself in the fingers in response to cold or stress. It often co-occurs with certain chronic diseases that impact mortality. Our objective was to determine whether RP has any independent association with survival. From 1987-1989, a total of 830 participants of the Charleston Heart Study cohort completed an in-person RP screening questionnaire. Two definitions of RP were used: a broad definition that included both blanching (pallor) and cyanotic color changes and a narrow definition that included only blanching. All-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality were compared between subjects with and without RP using race-specific survival models that adjusted for age, sex, baseline CVD, and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease. Using the narrow RP definition, we identified a significant interaction between older age and the presence of RP on all-cause mortality. In the broad RP definition model, the presence of RP was not associated with CVD mortality among blacks; however, among whites, the presence of RP was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in the hazard associated with CVD-related death (hazard ratio: 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.20, P=0.013). RP was independently associated with mortality among older adults in our cohort. Among whites, RP was associated with increased CVD-related death. It is possible that RP may be a sign of undiagnosed vascular disease.
Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.
Choi, Min Hyeok; Cheong, Kyu Seok; Cho, Byung Mann; Hwang, In Kyung; Kim, Chang Hun; Kim, Myoung Hee; Hwang, Seung Sik; Lim, Jeong Hun; Yoon, Tae Ho
Busan is reported to have the highest mortality rate among 16 provinces in Korea, as well as considerable health inequality across its districts. This study sought to examine overall and cause-specific mortality and deprivation at the town level in Busan, thereby identifying towns and causes of deaths to be targeted for improving overall health and alleviating health inequality. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and four specific leading causes of death were calculated at the town level in Busan for the years 2005 through 2008. To construct a deprivation index, principal components and factor analysis were adopted, using 10% sample data from the 2005 census. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping techniques were applied to compare spatial distributions between the deprivation index and SMRs. We fitted the Gaussian conditional autoregressive model (CAR) to estimate the relative risks of mortality by deprivation level, controlling for both the heterogeneity effect and spatial autocorrelation. The SMRs of towns in Busan averaged 100.3, ranging from 70.7 to 139.8. In old inner cities and towns reclaimed for replaced households, the deprivation index and SMRs were relatively high. CAR modeling showed that gaps in SMRs for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and physical injury were particularly high. Our findings indicate that more deprived towns are likely to have higher mortality, in particular from cardiovascular disease and physical injury. To improve overall health status and address health inequality, such deprived towns should be targeted.
van Bergen, Elsje; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.
Which children go on to develop dyslexia? Since dyslexia has a multifactorial etiology, this question can be restated as: what are the factors that put children at high risk for developing dyslexia? It is argued that a useful theoretical framework to address this question is Pennington’s (2006) multiple deficit model (MDM). This model replaces models that attribute dyslexia to a single underlying cause. Subsequently, the generalist genes hypothesis for learning (dis)abilities (Plomin and Kovas, 2005) is described and integrated with the MDM. Next, findings are presented from a longitudinal study with children at family risk for dyslexia. Such studies can contribute to testing and specifying the MDM. In this study, risk factors at both the child and family level were investigated. This led to the proposed intergenerational MDM, in which both parents confer liability via intertwined genetic and environmental pathways. Future scientific directions are discussed to investigate parent-offspring resemblance and transmission patterns, which will shed new light on disorder etiology. PMID:24920944
van Bergen, Elsje; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F
Which children go on to develop dyslexia? Since dyslexia has a multifactorial etiology, this question can be restated as: what are the factors that put children at high risk for developing dyslexia? It is argued that a useful theoretical framework to address this question is Pennington's (2006) multiple deficit model (MDM). This model replaces models that attribute dyslexia to a single underlying cause. Subsequently, the generalist genes hypothesis for learning (dis)abilities (Plomin and Kovas, 2005) is described and integrated with the MDM. Next, findings are presented from a longitudinal study with children at family risk for dyslexia. Such studies can contribute to testing and specifying the MDM. In this study, risk factors at both the child and family level were investigated. This led to the proposed intergenerational MDM, in which both parents confer liability via intertwined genetic and environmental pathways. Future scientific directions are discussed to investigate parent-offspring resemblance and transmission patterns, which will shed new light on disorder etiology.
Elsje evan Bergen
Full Text Available Which children go on to develop dyslexia? Since dyslexia has a multifactorial aetiology, this question can be restated as: What are the factors that put children at high risk for developing dyslexia? It is argued that a useful theoretical framework to address this question is Pennington’s (2006 multiple deficit model (MDM. This model replaces models that attribute dyslexia to a single underlying cause. Subsequently, the generalist genes hypothesis for learning (disabilities (Plomin & Kovas, 2005 is described and integrated with the MDM. Finally, findings are presented from a longitudinal study with children at family risk for dyslexia. Such studies can contribute to testing and specifying the MDM. In this study, risk factors at both the child and family level were investigated. This led to the proposed intergenerational MDM, in which both parents confer liability via intertwined genetic and environmental pathways. Future scientific directions are discussed to investigate parent-offspring resemblance and transmission patterns, which will shed new light on disorder aetiology.
Katz, Shaina J; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A
Previous research has demonstrated that the offspring of depressed mothers are at greater risk for negative psychopathological and psychosocial outcomes than children of nondepressed mothers. This study specifically examines offspring's romantic relationship quality during the transition to adulthood as a function of maternal depression and 3 putative mechanisms for this association: youth depression history, mother-child relationship discord, and maternal romantic relationship difficulties. The study further explores the role of these factors in the risk for depressive symptoms during the transition to adulthood. Hypotheses were examined longitudinally in a community sample of 182 Australian youth who were followed from birth to age 20 and were in committed romantic relationships at age 20 with romantic partners willing to provide data regarding romantic relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling analyses found support for a direct effect of maternal depression on youth romantic relationship quality with significant mediation by mother-child relationship discord, as well as an association between mother-child relationship discord and later depressive symptoms that is mediated by youth romantic relationship quality. Findings also lend support for an indirect effect of maternal depression on youth depressive symptoms via mother-child relationship discord and youth romantic relationship quality. This study provides further evidence for the negative psychosocial and psychopathological outcomes of children of depressed mothers and the intergenerational transmission of relational difficulties. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Cummings, Jenna R; Mason, Ashley E; Puterman, Eli; Tomiyama, A Janet
Comfort eating is a prevalent behavior. Prior research shows that comfort eating is associated with reduced stress responses and increased metabolic risk across adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood. The purpose of the current research was to test if comfort eating prospectively predicted all-cause mortality in older adulthood. The US Health and Retirement Study is an ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal study of older adults. The final sample for the present study (N = 1445) included participants randomly selected to report how often they comfort ate. Comfort eating data were collected in 2008 and all-cause mortality data were collected in 2014. Participants also reported how often they consumed high-fat/sugar food as well as their height and weight in 2008. For each 1-unit increase in comfort eating, the expected odds of all-cause mortality (n = 255 deceased) decreased by 14%, OR = 0.86, p = 0.048, 95% CI [0.74, 0.99]. This analysis statistically accounted for other predictors of mortality in the sample including age, biological sex, race, highest educational degree attained, moderate and vigorous exercise, smoking, and cumulative illness. High-fat/sugar intake did not mediate (or diminish) the association but body mass index did. Comfort eating-irrespective of consuming high-fat/sugar food-may be associated with reduced mortality in older adults because it may promote greater body mass, and greater body mass is associated with lower risk of mortality in nationally representative samples. Interventionists might consider both beneficial and detrimental aspects of comfort eating across the lifespan.
Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L
Although numerous studies have shown increased risk of mortality from elevated temperatures for adults, limited studies have examined temperature's effect on mortality for infants. Our study investigated the city-specific and overall effects of ambient temperature on infant mortality in seven major cities in Korea, 2004-2007. Birth cohort using a linked birth and death records included 777,570 births with 557 all-cause deaths. We estimated city-specific hazard ratios for each city using an extended Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates. Then we combined city-specific hazard ratios to generate overall hazard ratio across the seven cities using a Bayesian hierarchical model. Stratified analyses were conducted by cause of death (total and SIDS), exposure period (whole gestation, each trimester, lifetime, 1 month before death, and 2 weeks before death), sex, and maternal characteristics. Overall across the cities, we found significantly positive associations between ambient temperature during 1 month before death or 2 weeks before death and infant mortality from total or SIDS. The overall hazard ratio of infant mortality from total deaths and SIDS for a 1°C increase during 1 month before death was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.46-1.57) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.35-1.66), respectively. We also found suggestive evidence that some factors such as mother's age may modify the association. Our findings have implications for establishment of policy to reduce the risk of infant mortality from high ambient temperature under climate change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.
Full Text Available The intergenerational learning within various types of social environment and in relation to different target groups has long covered a wide range of uses. The professional literature mostly describes its benefits for children and young people, however, the intergenerational education also contributes to the development of personality and the saturation of the educational and psycho-social needs of both adults and seniors. The paper represents the authors’ output of the VEGA research project No. 1/0176/15 and it is structured into three chapters. In the first chapter, the author deals with the opportunities of the foreign language education for (not only disabled seniors. The second chapter focuses on the intergenerational programmes that can be used in the language education of (not only disabled seniors who are clients of social residential facilities. In the third chapter, the author elaborates the psychological aspects of the foreign language education of seniors.
Li, Jiong; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Mortensen, Preben Bo
a child who had died (exposed cohort), and 293745 controls--ie, parents whose children were alive, and whose family structure matched that of the exposed cohort. Natural deaths were defined with ICD8 codes 0000-7969 and ICD10 codes A00-R99, and unnatural deaths with codes 8000-9999 and V01-Y98. We used......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of parental bereavement on physical health. We investigated whether the death of a child increased mortality in parents. METHODS: We undertook a follow-up study based on national registers. From 1980 to 1996, we enrolled 21062 parents in Denmark who had...... Cox's proportional-hazards regression models to assess the mortality rate of parents up to 18 years after bereavement. FINDINGS: We observed an increased overall mortality rate in mothers whose child had died (hazards ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.24-1.64; p
Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone
The purpose of this study is three-fold: 1) to analyze the relations between parents' hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), and ambivalent sexism (AS) and that of their sons-daughters; 2) to study the relation between the mothers' and the fathers' sexism; and 3) to appraise whether the family socio-economic level-cultural is related to sexism. The sample included 2,867 participants, 1,455 adolescents (768 girls, 687 boys) and their parents (764 mothers, 648 fathers). The results revealed positive correlations between the mothers' sexism (HS-BS-AS) and the BS of their sons, and with the HS, BS, and AS of their daughters. Positive correlations were found between the fathers' sexism (BS-AS) and their sons' sexism (HS-BS-AS-Neosexism); however, no relation was found with their daughters' sexism. The intergenerational connection of sexism in the family was confirmed: from mothers to sons and daughters and from fathers to sons. The mother emerged as a very influential figure, although a higher connection was confirmed between the mothers' and the daughters' sexism and between the fathers' and the sons' sexism. Positive correlations were also found between both parents' sexism, and negative correlations between the socio-economic-cultural level of the family and sexism in the parents and in the adolescents.
Sipsma, Heather; Biello, Katie Brooks; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Kershaw, Trace
Strong evidence exists to support an intergenerational cycle of adolescent fatherhood, yet such a cycle has not been studied. We examined whether paternal adolescent fatherhood (i.e., father of study participant was age 19 years or younger when his first child was born) and other factors derived from the ecological systems theory predicted participant adolescent fatherhood. Data included 1496 young males who were interviewed annually from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Cox regression survival analysis was used to determine the effect of paternal adolescent fatherhood on participant adolescent fatherhood. Sons of adolescent fathers were 1.8 times more likely to become adolescent fathers than were sons of older fathers, after other risk factors were accounted for. Additionally, factors from each ecological domain-individual (delinquency), family (maternal education), peer (early adolescent dating), and environment (race/ethnicity, physical risk environment)-were independent predictors of adolescent fatherhood. These findings support the need for pregnancy prevention interventions specifically designed for young males who may be at high risk for continuing this cycle. Interventions that address multiple levels of risk will likely be most successful at reducing pregnancies among partners of young men.
Josephson, Colin B; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Arturo; Denaxas, Spiros; Fitzpatrick, Natalie K; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Engbers, Jordan D T; Patten, Scott; Jette, Nathalie; Wiebe, Samuel
Preliminary evidence suggests that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) use may increase postictal respiratory drive and prevent death. We sought to determine whether SRIs are associated with improved all-cause and possible seizure-specific mortality in patients with epilepsy. Patients with epilepsy and a random 10:1 sample without epilepsy were extracted from The ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) resource. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause and possible seizure-specific mortality, treating SRI use as a time-varying covariate, was determined using the date of a second SRI prescription as exposure and in discrete 6-month periods over the entire duration of follow-up. We used Cox regression and competing risk models with Firth correction to calculate the HR. We controlled for age, sex, depression, comorbidity, (Charlson comorbidity index) and socioeconomic status (Index of Multiple Deprivation). We identified 2,718,952 eligible patients in CALIBER, of whom 16,379 (0.60%) had epilepsy. Median age and follow-up were 44 (interquartile range [IQR] 29-61]) and 6.4 years (IQR 2.4-10.4 years), respectively, and 53% were female. A total of 2,178 patients (13%) had at least two SRI prescriptions. Hazard of all-cause mortality was significantly elevated following a second prescription for an SRI (HR 1.64 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.44-1.86; p mortality or seizure-specific mortality. Rather, SRI use was associated with increased mortality, irrespective of epilepsy, which is probably due to various factors associated with the use of antidepressants. Larger studies with systematically collected clinical data are needed to shed further light on these findings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Rocha, Adrian; Calvin, Katherine V.; Holmes, Bruce; Wang, Chuankuan; Goulden, Michael L.
How will regional growth and mortality change with even relatively small climate shifts, even independent of catastrophic disturbances? This question is particularly acute for the North American boreal forest, which is carbon-dense and subject The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death have changed at one highly studied site (Northern Old Black Spruce, NOBS) in the central Canadian boreal forest. Over the 1999-2012 inventory period, mean DBH increased even as stand density and basal area declined significantly from 41.3 to 37.5 m2 ha-1. Tree mortality averaged 1.4±0.6% yr-1, with most mortality occurring in medium-sized trees. A combined tree ring chronology constructed from 2001, 2004, and 2012 sampling showed several periods of extreme growth depression, with increased mortality lagging depressed growth by ~5 years. Minimum and maximum air temperatures exerted a negative influence on tree growth, while precipitation and climate moisture index had a positive effect; both current- and previous-year data exerted significant effects. Models based on these variables explained 23-44% of the ring-width variability. There have been at least one, and probably two, significant recruitment episodes since stand initiation, and we infer that past climate extremes led to significant NOBS mortality still visible in the current forest structure. These results imply that a combination of successional and demographic processes, along with mortality driven by abiotic factors, continue to affect the stand, with significant implications for our understanding of previous work at NOBS and the sustainable management of regional forests.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.
Alfonso Silguero, Sergio A; Martínez-Reig, Marta; Gómez Arnedo, Llanos; Juncos Martínez, Gema; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro
The objective of this study was to analyse the relationships between the major chronic diseases and multiple morbidity, with mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living, and loss of mobility in the elderly. A total of 943 participants were selected from the FRADEA Study, using available baseline data of chronic diseases, and at the follow-up visit of mortality, incident disability, and loss of mobility. The analysis was made of the unadjusted and adjusted association between the number of chronic diseases, the number of 14 pre-selected diseases, and the presence of two or more chronic diseases (multiple morbidity) with adverse health events recorded. Participants with a higher number of diseases (OR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.02-1.22), and 14 pre-selected diseases (OR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) had a higher adjusted mortality risk, but not a higher incident disease or mobility loss risk. Subjects with multiple morbidity had a higher non-significant mortality risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 0.87-2.43), than those without multiple morbidity. Disability-free mean time in participants with and without multiple morbidity was 846±34 and 731±17 days, respectively (Log-rank χ(2) 7.45. P=.006), and with our without mobility loss was 818±32 and 696±13 days, respectively (Log rank χ(2) 10.99. P=.001). Multiple morbidity was not associated with mortality, incident disability in ADL, or mobility loss in adults older than 70 years, although if mortality is taken into account, the number of chronic diseases is linear. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Sengoelge, M; Hasselberg, M; Ormandy, D; Laflamme, L
Child poverty rates are compared throughout Europe to monitor how countries are caring for their children. Child poverty reduction measures need to consider the importance of safe living environments for all children. In this study we investigate how European country-level economic disparity and housing conditions relate to one another, and whether they differentially correlate with child injury mortality. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design of 26 European countries of which 20 high-income and 6 upper-middle-income. Compositional characteristics of the home and its surroundings were extracted from the 2006 European Union Income Social Inclusion and Living Conditions Database (n = 203,000). Mortality data of children aged 1-14 years were derived from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. The main outcome measure was age standardized cause-specific injury mortality rates analysed by income inequality and housing and neighbourhood conditions. Nine measures of housing and neighbourhood conditions highly differentiating European households at country level were clustered into three dimensions, labelled respectively housing, neighbourhood and economic household strain. Income inequality significantly and positively correlated with housing strain (r = 0.62, P = 0.001) and household economic strain (r = 0.42, P = 0.009) but not significantly with neighbourhood strain (r = 0.34, P = 0.087). Child injury mortality rates correlated strongly with both country-level income inequality and housing strain, with very small age-specific differences. In the European context housing, neighbourhood and household economic strains worsened with increasing levels of income inequality. Child injury mortality rates are strongly and positively associated with both income inequality and housing strain, suggesting that housing material conditions could play a role in the association between income inequality and child health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin
Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.
Burroughs Pena, Melissa S; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Sánchez, Juan F; Quispe, Renato; Pillay, Timesh D; Málaga, Germán; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime
To compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality among 3 distinct groups: within-country, rural-to-urban migrants, and rural and urban dwellers in a longitudinal cohort in Peru. The PERU MIGRANT Study, a longitudinal cohort study, used an age-stratified and sex-stratified random sample of urban dwellers in a shanty town community in the capital city of Peru, rural dwellers in the Andes, and migrants from the Andes to the shanty town community. Participants underwent a questionnaire and anthropomorphic measurements at a baseline evaluation in 2007-2008 and at a follow-up visit in 2012-2013. Mortality was determined by death certificate or family interview. Of the 989 participants evaluated at baseline, 928 (94%) were evaluated at follow-up (mean age 48 years; 53% female). The mean follow-up time was 5.1 years, totalling 4732.8 person-years. In a multivariable survival model, and relative to urban dwellers, migrant participants had lower all cause mortality (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.12-0.78), and both the migrant (HR=0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.41) and rural (HR=0.06; 95% CI 0.01-0.62) groups had lower cardiovascular mortality. Cardiovascular mortality of migrants remains similar to that of the rural group, suggesting that rural-to-urban migrants do not appear to catch up with urban mortality in spite of having a more urban cardiovascular risk factor profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ngari, Moses M; Fegan, Greg; Mwangome, Martha K; Ngama, Mwanajuma J; Mturi, Neema; Scott, John Anthony Gerard; Bauni, Evasius; Nokes, David James; Berkley, James A
Although pneumonia is a leading cause of inpatient mortality, deaths may also occur after discharge from hospital. However, prior studies have been small, in selected groups or did not fully evaluate risk factors, particularly malnutrition and HIV. We determined 1-year post-discharge mortality and risk factors among children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. A cohort study of children aged 1-59 months admitted to Kilifi County Hospital with severe pneumonia (2007-12). The primary outcome was death pneumonia, 1041 (25%) had severe acute malnutrition (SAM), 267 (6.4%) had a positive HIV antibody test, and 364 (8.7%) died in hospital. After discharge, 2279 KHDSS-resident children were followed up; 70 (3.1%) died during 2163 child-years: 32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 26, 41) deaths per 1000 child years. Post-discharge mortality was greater after admission for severe pneumonia than for other diagnoses, hazard ratio 2.5 (95% CI 1.2, 5.3). Malnutrition, HIV status, age and prolonged hospitalisation, but not signs of pneumonia severity, were associated with post-discharge mortality. Fifty-two per cent (95% CI 37%, 63%) of post-discharge deaths were attributable to low mid-upper arm circumference and 11% (95% CI 3.3%, 18%) to a positive HIV test. Admission with severe pneumonia is an important marker of vulnerability. Risk stratification and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying post-discharge mortality, especially for undernourished children, are needed to reduce mortality after treatment for pneumonia. © 2017 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Slockers, Marcel T; Nusselder, Wilma J; Looman, Caspar W N; Slockers, Colette J T; Krol, Luuk; van Beeck, Ed F
Homeless people have a 3-5-fold increased risk of mortality compared with general populations. After 2005, policy actions being implemented in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, have improved the living conditions of this group. This study examines the effect of policies aimed at improving living conditions on mortality risks of the homeless. Register-based 10-year follow-up study of homeless in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The participants are homeless adults (aged 18+ years) who visited one or more services for homeless people in Rotterdam in 2001. The intervention of local policies after 2005 was to get homeless people into housing, increase their participation in employment and other regular daytime activities, and controlling drug and alcohol addictions. The main outcome measure is mortality rate ratios calculated using Poisson regression. Differences in mortality between the periods 2001-05 vs. 2006-10 were assessed. The cohort of homeless adults in 2001 consisted of 1870 men and 260 women, with a mean age of 40.3 years. During the 10 years of follow-up, 265 persons (232 male and 33 female) died. Adjusted for age and sex, no significant difference in mortality was observed between the periods 2001-05 and 2006-10 (P = 0.9683). A different splitting in periods did not change the results. Five years of local policy efforts improved their living conditions, but left the mortality rate of a homeless cohort unchanged. Incomplete reach of the program and long previous histories of homelessness ask for additional policies beyond the provision of housing and other services. Attention to the prevention of homelessness seems needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Connors, Michael H; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Xu, Jing; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry
Both cognitive ability and cognitive decline have been shown to predict mortality in older people. As dementia, a major form of cognitive decline, has an established association with shorter survival, it is unclear the extent to which cognitive ability and cognitive decline predict mortality in the absence of dementia. To determine whether cognitive ability and decline in cognitive ability predict mortality in older individuals without dementia. The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study is an observational population-based cohort study. Participants completed detailed neuropsychological assessments and medical examinations to assess for risk factors such as depression, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and physical activity. Participants were regularly assessed at 2-year intervals over 8 years. A community sample in Sydney, Australia. One thousand and thirty-seven elderly people without dementia. Overall, 236 (22.8%) participants died within 8 years. Both cognitive ability at baseline and decline in cognitive ability over 2 years predicted mortality. Decline in cognitive ability, but not baseline cognitive ability, was a significant predictor of mortality when depression and other medical risk factors were controlled for. These relationships also held when excluding incident cases of dementia. The findings indicate that decline in cognition is a robust predictor of mortality in older people without dementia at a population level. This relationship is not accounted for by co-morbid depression or other established biomedical risk factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Almerie, Yara; Almerie, Muhammad Q; Matar, Hosam E; Shahrour, Yasser; Al Chamat, Ahmad Abo; Abdulsalam, Asmaa
Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss) is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005) including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR), maternal near miss ratio (MNMR), mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. There were 28,025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100,000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52%) and haemorrhage (34%) were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60%) while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%). Most cases (93%) were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%), primary (5%) and secondary (10%) healthcare unites and private practices (11%). 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to prevent/manage post-partum haemorrhage and training health
Kinge, Jonas Minet; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen
The aim of this study was to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality in Norway over the period 1994-2011. We undertook a register-based population study of Norwegian residents aged 18-65 years between 1994 and 2011, using data from the Norwegian Income Register and the Cause of Death Registry. Concentration indices were used to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality for each year. We compared the trend in income-related inequality in avoidable mortality with the trend in income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient for income. Avoidable, amenable and preventable deaths in Norway have declined over time. There were persistent pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality, and the degree of inequality was larger in preventable mortality than in amenable mortality throughout the period. The income-avoidable mortality association was positively correlated with income inequalities in avoidable mortality over time. There was little or no relationship between variations in the Gini coefficient due to tax reforms and socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality. Income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality have remained relatively constant between 1994 and 2011 in Norway. They were mainly correlated with the relationship between income and avoidable mortality rather than with variations in the Gini coefficient of income inequality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ling, Carolina H.Y.; Taekema, Diana; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Maier, Andrea B.
Background: Poor muscular strength has been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality in diverse samples of middle-aged and elderly people. However, the oldest old population (i.e., over 85 years) is underrepresented in such studies. Our objective was to assess the association
Pickkers, Peter; de Keizer, Nicolette; Dusseljee, Joost; Weerheijm, Daan; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Peek, Niels
Objective: Obesity is associated with a variety of diseases, which results in a decreased overall life expectancy. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that being overweight may reduce hospital mortality of certain patient groups, referred to as obesity paradox. Conflicting results for critically ill
Pickkers, P.; Keizer, N. de; Dusseljee, J.; Weerheijm, D.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Peek, N.
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a variety of diseases, which results in a decreased overall life expectancy. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that being overweight may reduce hospital mortality of certain patient groups, referred to as obesity paradox. Conflicting results for critically ill
C. Karimkhani (Chante); R.P. Dellavalle (Robert P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); C. Flohr (Carsten); R.J. Hay (Roderick J.); S.M. Langan (Sinéad M.); E.O. Nsoesie (Elaine O.); A. Ferrari (Andrea); H. Erskine (Holly); J. Silverberg; T. Vos (Theo); M. Naghavi (Morteza)
markdownabstractIMPORTANCE Disability secondary to skin conditions is substantial worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 includes estimates of global morbidity and mortality due to skin diseases. OBJECTIVE To measure the burden of skin diseases worldwide. DATA SOURCES For nonfatal
M.C. de Bruyne (Martine); A.W. Hoes (Arno); J.A. Kors (Jan); J.H. van Bemmel (Jan); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractAIMS: To examine the association between heart-rate corrected QT prolongation and cardiac and all-cause mortality in the population-based Rotterdam Study among men and women aged 55 years or older and to compare the prognostic value of the QT interval, using
Bassetti, Matteo; Righi, Elda; Ansaldi, Filippo; Merelli, Maria; Trucchi, Cecilia; Cecilia, Trucchi; De Pascale, Gennaro; Diaz-Martin, Ana; Luzzati, Roberto; Rosin, Chiara; Lagunes, Leonel; Trecarichi, Enrico Maria; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella; Garnacho-Montero, Jose; Sartor, Assunta; Rello, Jordi; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Antonelli, Massimo; Tumbarello, Mario
Candida is the most common cause of severe yeast infections worldwide, especially in critically ill patients. In this setting, septic shock attributable to Candida is characterized by high mortality rates. The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the determinants of outcome in critically ill patients with septic shock due to candidemia. This was a retrospective study in which patients with septic shock attributable to Candida who were treated during the 3-year study period at one or more of the five participating teaching hospitals in Italy and Spain were eligible for enrolment. Patient characteristics, infection-related variables, and therapy-related features were reviewed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors significantly associated with 30-day mortality. A total of 216 patients (mean age 63.4 ± 18.5 years; 58.3 % males) were included in the study. Of these, 163 (75 %) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Overall 30-day mortality was 54 %. Significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores, dysfunctional organs, and inadequate antifungal therapy were compared in nonsurvivors and survivors. No differences in survivors versus nonsurvivors were found in terms of the time from positive blood culture to initiation of adequate antifungal therapy. Multivariate logistic regression identified inadequate source control, inadequate antifungal therapy, and 1-point increments in the APACHE II score as independent variables associated with a higher 30-day mortality rate.
van Hecke, M.V.; Dekker, J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Polak, B.C.P.; Fuller, J.H.; Sjolie, A.K.; Kofinis, A.; Rottiers, R.; Porta, M.; Chaturvedi, N.
OBJECTIVE - To study the relationship of nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in type 1 diabetic patients and, additionally, the role of cardiovascular risk factors in these associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This
In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…
Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare
Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...
Jackson, W A
The author reexamines the relationships among demographic aging, the dependency burden, and intergenerational conflict from a post-Keynesian perspective, in which unemployment and excess capacity are normal to the functioning of capitalist economies, and resources are not generally fully utilized. He "argues that the Keynesian process of national income determination precludes any immediate relationship between population ageing and the 'burden' imposed on income recipients. Below full employment, a rising dependency ratio is not guaranteed to reduce the expenditure share of income recipients or raise their tax rates. An exclusive emphasis on intergenerational conflict can give a misleading impression of the consequences of population ageing." The focus is on developed countries. excerpt
with the Bertelsmann Stiftung in order to compare intergenerational justice in practice across 29 societies (Vanhuysse 2013). Three of the IJI dimensions measure policy outcomes that leave legacy burdens towards younger and future generations (ecological footprint, child poverty, and public debt levels per child......This article reviews the state of the art in comparative politics and political sociology on the interplay between population aging and public policies in OECD democracies. It discusses findings from the Intergenerational Justice Index (IJI) - a simple four-dimensional indicator developed...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature death from suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, the pattern and risk factors for suicide and other external cause injuries are not well understood. This study investigates mortality from suicide and other injuries and associated risk factors in China. Methods A prospective cohort study of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older was conducted. Mortality due to suicide or other external cause injuries was recorded. Results Mortality from all external causes was 58.7/100,000 (72.3 in men and 44.4 in women: 14.1/100,000 (14.2 in men and 14.2 in women for suicide and 44.6/100,000 (58.1 in men and 30.2 in women for other external cause injuries. Transport accidents (17.2/100,000 overall, 23.4 in men and 10.8 in women, accidental poisoning (7.5/100,000 overall, 10.2 in men and 4.8 in women, and accidental falls (5.7/100,000 overall, 6.5 in men and 5.0 in women were the three leading causes of death from other external cause injuries in China. In the multivariable analysis, male sex (relative risk [RR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.38, age 70 years and older (2.27, 1.29-3.98, living in north China (1.68, 1.20-2.36 and rural residence (2.82, 1.76-4.51 were associated with increased mortality from suicide. Male sex (RR 2.50, 95% CI 1.95-3.20, age 60-69 years (1.93, 1.45-2.58 and 70 years and older (3.58, 2.58-4.97, rural residence (2.29, 1.77-2.96, and having no education (1.56, 1.00-2.43 were associated with increased mortality from other external cause injuries, while overweight (0.60, 0.43-0.83 was associated with decreased risk of mortality from other external cause injuries. Conclusions External cause mortality has become a major public health problem in China. Developing an integrated national program for the prevention of mortality due to external cause injuries in China is warranted.
Full Text Available Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood.This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n = 2,789,807 and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,380,301, and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,131,905. A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR. Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.43-1.58. The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-2.00 than parental natural death (MRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41. The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment.Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Iimuro, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Takashi; Araki, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Iijima, Katsuya; Ito, Hideki
To assess the effect of dietary patterns on all deaths and diabetes-related deaths in the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial (J-EDIT). We investigated relationships between that of overall mortality and dietary pattern, and diabetes-related deaths and dietary pattern as observed among 912 registered cases of the J-EDIT study, which is a prospective follow-up study of elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Factor analysis with the factor number 3 led to deriving three dietary patterns (healthy type, snack type and greasy type). The relationship between these patterns and overall mortality or diabetes-related death was investigated. Although not statistically significant, there was a lower tendency of overall mortality and diabetes-related deaths for the healthy type dietary pattern. When the tendencies of overall mortality were analyzed for "young-old," who are younger than 75 years-of age, and "old-old" of over 75 years-of-age, the mortality rate for the greasy type and healthy type dietary patterns were nearly the same and higher than the snack type dietary pattern in young-old. In contrast, in old-old, a higher mortality rate was reported for the greasy type dietary pattern and a lower mortality rate was reported for the healthy type dietary pattern. The hazard ratio by Cox regression analysis for greasy type to healthy type in old-old was 3.03 (P = 0.04, CI 1.07-8.57). Furthermore, in old-old, as vegetable consumption increased, the lower the tendency foroverall mortality, and the more fish that was consumed, the overall mortality significantly decreased (P = 0.020) in the tertile. The greasy type dietary pattern with an increased amount of sugar, fat and meat led to poor life prognosis for elderly Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. The healthy type dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fish, which is similar to the Mediterranean diet and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet, was suggested to improve life prognosis. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics
Einiö, Elina; Nisén, Jessica; Martikainen, Pekka
Previous studies have shown that young fatherhood is associated with higher later-life mortality. It is unclear whether the association is credible, in the sense that mortality and young fatherhood appear to be associated because both are determined by family-related environmental, socioeconomic and genetic characteristics. We used a household-based 10% sample drawn from the 1950 Finnish census to estimate all-cause mortality of fathers born during 1940-1950. The fathers were followed from age 45 until death, or the end of age 54. We used a standard Cox model and a sibling fixed-effects Cox model to examine whether the effect of young fatherhood was independent of observed adulthood characteristics and unobserved early-life characteristics shared by brothers. Men who had their first child before the age of 22 or at ages 22-24 had higher mortality as compared with their brothers who had their first child at the median or mean age of 25-26. Men who had their first child later at ages 30-44 had lower mortality than their brothers who had a first child before the age of 25. The pattern of results from a standard model was similar to that obtained from a fixed-effects sibling model. The findings suggest a causal effect of young fatherhood on mortality and highlight the need to support young fathers in their family life to improve health behaviours and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Rowan, Courtney M; Gertz, Shira J; McArthur, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Nitu, Mara E; Loomis, Ashley; Hsing, Deyin D; Duncan, Christine N; Mahadeo, Kris M; Smith, Lincoln S; Moffet, Jerelyn; Hall, Mark W; Pinos, Emily L; Cheifetz, Ira M; Tamburro, Robert F
To establish the current respiratory practice patterns in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and investigate their associations with mortality across multiple centers. Retrospective cohort between 2009 and 2014. Twelve children's hospitals in the United States. Two hundred twenty-two pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure using invasive mechanical ventilation. None. PICU mortality of our cohort was 60.4%. Mortality at 180 days post PICU discharge was 74%. Length of PICU stay prior to initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in survivors, and the odds of mortality increased for longer length of PICU stay prior to intubation. A total of 91 patients (41%) received noninvasive ventilation at some point during their PICU stay prior to intubation. Noninvasive ventilation use preintubation was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6; p = 0.010). Patients ventilated longer than 15 days had higher odds of death (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2; p = 0.004). Almost 40% of patients (n = 85) were placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a mortality of 76.5% (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.5; p = 0.0004). Of the 20 patients who survived high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, 18 were placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation no later than the third day of invasive mechanical ventilation. In this subset of 85 patients, transition to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation within 2 days of the start of invasive mechanical ventilation resulted in a 76% decrease in the odds of death compared with those who transitioned to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation later in the invasive mechanical ventilation course. This study suggests that perhaps earlier more aggressive critical care interventions in the pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation may
Manrique-Garcia, Edison; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Dalman, Christina; Andréasson, Sven; Allebeck, Peter
The authors assessed 1) the overall risk of death among cannabis users compared with nonusers and the extent to which psychosis affects excess mortality; 2) mortality among persons with psychotic disorders and the extent to which cannabis use affects excess mortality; and 3) the interaction effect of cannabis use and diagnosis of psychotic disorders on mortality. This was a longitudinal study of 50,373 Swedish male military conscripts (ages 18-19) who were followed in the National Cause of Death Register up to around age 60. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess risk of death in relation to baseline cannabis use and diagnosis of psychotic disorders. Subjects with a baseline history of heavy cannabis use had a significantly higher risk of death (hazard ratio=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.8) than those without such a history. The authors found an excess mortality among subjects with psychotic disorders, but the level did not differ between those with a history of cannabis use (ever users: hazard ratio=3.8, 95% CI=2.8, 5.0; heavy users: hazard ratio=3.8, 95% CI=2.6, 6.2) and those without such a history (hazard ratio=3.7, 95% CI=3.1, 44). No interaction was observed between cannabis use and diagnosis of psychotic disorders with regard to mortality. The results suggest that individuals with an early history of heavy use of cannabis are at a higher risk of death than those with a history of no use of cannabis. Although the authors adjusted for several confounders at baseline, the results should be interpreted with caution because of a lack of information on confounders in the period after conscription.
O'Neill, Stephen; Brady, Richard R; Kerssens, Jan J; Parks, Rowan W
Elderly trauma is increasing in incidence and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of the study was to identify factors associated with survival or mortality in the elderly following trauma. The secondary objective was to compare the epidemiology of trauma in the elderly with younger patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of data that was obtained from a prospectively collected multi-centre trauma database maintained by The Scottish Trauma Audit Group (STAG) containing details of 52,887 trauma patients admitted to 25 participating Scottish Hospitals over an 11-year period. Elderly trauma patients (aged >80 years) were separately analyzed and compared to younger trauma patients (aged 13-80). Of 52,887 trauma patients identified, 4791 were elderly (9.1%). Elderly patients had a higher absolute mortality rate following traumatic injury (9.9% versus 4%, pelderly was higher in males, following a high fall, with lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), in those with higher Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)/Injury Severity Score (ISS), in those with concomitant injuries, hemodynamic compromise and following delayed presentation. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed an independent relationship between mortality and low GCS, male gender, higher ISS, higher AIS of spinal injury, hemodynamic compromise and concomitant minor leg/arm injury(ies) in the elderly. In conclusion, trauma in elderly patients is associated with significantly higher mortality. Low GCS, male gender, higher ISS, higher AIS of spinal injury, hemodynamic compromise and concomitant minor leg/arm injury(ies) have the strongest independent relationships with mortality after trauma in the elderly population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research on aging has consistently demonstrated an increased chance of survival for older adults who are integrated into rich networks of social relationships. Theoretical explanations state that personal networks offer indirect psychosocial and direct physiological pathways. We investigate whether effects on and pathways to mortality risk differ between functional and structural characteristics of the personal network. The objective is to inquire which personal network characteristics are the best predictors of mortality risk after adjustment for mental, cognitive and physical health.Empirical tests were carried out by combining official register information on mortality with data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. The sample included 2,911 Dutch respondents aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Four functional characteristics (emotional and social loneliness, emotional and instrumental support and four structural characteristics (living arrangement, contact frequency, number of contacts, number of social roles of the personal network as well as mental, cognitive and physical health were assessed at all LASA follow-ups. Statistical analyses comprised of Cox proportional hazard regression models. Findings suggest differential effects of personal network characteristics on survival, with only small gender differences. Mortality risk was initially reduced by functional characteristics, but disappeared after full adjustment for the various health variables. Mortality risk was lowest for older adults embedded in large (HR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.979-0.994 and diverse networks (HR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.917-0.981, and this effect continued to show in the fully adjusted models.Functional characteristics (i.e. emotional and social loneliness are indirectly associated with a reduction in mortality risk, while structural characteristics (i.e. number of contacts and number of social roles have
Yin, Peng; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Lijun; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng; Kan, Haidong
Few large multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to address the acute health effects of atmospheric ozone pollution. We explored the associations between ozone and daily cause-specific mortality in China. We performed a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 representative Chinese cities between 2013 and 2015. We used distributed lag models and over-dispersed generalized linear models to estimate the cumulative effects of ozone (lagged over 0-3 d) on mortality in each city, and we used hierarchical Bayesian models to combine the city-specific estimates. Regional, seasonal, and demographic heterogeneity were evaluated by meta-regression. At the national-average level, a 10-μg/m 3 increase in 8-h maximum ozone concentration was associated with 0.24% [95% posterior interval (PI): 0.13%, 0.35%], 0.27% (95% PI: 0.10%, 0.44%), 0.60% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.11%), 0.24% (95% PI: 0.02%, 0.46%), and 0.29% (95% PI: 0.07%, 0.50%) higher daily mortality from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, coronary diseases, and stroke, respectively. Associations between ozone and daily mortality due to respiratory and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease specifically were positive but imprecise and nonsignificant. There were no statistically significant differences in associations between ozone and nonaccidental mortality according to region, season, age, sex, or educational attainment. Our findings provide robust evidence of higher nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in association with short-term exposure to ambient ozone in China. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1849.
Bezault, Etienne; Rognon, Xavier; Clota, Frederic; Gharbi, Karim; Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Chevassus, Bernard
Tilapia species exhibit a large ecological diversity and an important propensity to interspecific hybridisation. This has been shown in the wild and used in aquaculture. However, despite its important evolutionary implications, few studies have focused on the analysis of hybrid genomes and their meiotic segregation. Intergeneric hybrids between Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon melanotheron, two species highly differentiated genetically, ecologically, and behaviourally, were produced experimentally. The meiotic segregation of these hybrids was analysed in reciprocal second generation hybrid (F2) and backcross families and compared to the meiosis of both parental species, using a panel of 30 microsatellite markers. Hybrid meioses showed segregation in accordance to Mendelian expectations, independent from sex and the direction of crosses. In addition, we observed a conservation of linkage associations between markers, which suggests a relatively similar genome structure between the two parental species and the apparent lack of postzygotic incompatibility, despite their important divergence. These results provide genomics insights into the relative ease of hybridisation within cichlid species when prezygotic barriers are disrupted. Overall our results support the hypothesis that hybridisation may have played an important role in the evolution and diversification of cichlids.
Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul
A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.
Wu, Wei; Zhou, Renchao; Huang, Yelin; Boufford, David E; Shi, Suhua
Since its establishment, a hybrid origin for Semiliquidambar has been proposed based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with Altingia and Liquidambar. This hypothesis, however, has lacked convincing molecular evidence. In this study, two nuclear genes, pin2 and cab4, and a chloroplast gene, matK, from Semiliquidambar cathayensis and its putative parental species Liquidambar and Altingia in Jianfengling, Hainan, and Heishiding and Nanling, Guangdong, China, were sequenced to test this hypothesis. Our results showed that L. formosana and L. acalycina were closely related and constituted an inseparable clade in the phylogenetic trees of both pin2 and cab4 genes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two types of sequences for S. cathayensis, which were clustered with its putative parents, L. formosana-L. acalycina and A. obovata in Jianfengling, and with L. formosana-L. acalycina and A. chinensis in Heishiding and Nanling. The partial chloroplast matK gene sequences showed four nucleotide substitutions between L. formosana and A. obovata in Jianfengling; the sequences of the two individuals of S. cathayensis were identical with those of A. obovata. No diagnostic chloroplast markers including matK and three other chloroplast genes were found to distinguish L. formosana and A. chinensis in Heishiding and Nanling. Molecular data clearly demonstrated that S. cathayensis is of intergeneric hybrid origin between L. formosana-L. acalycina and A. obovata or A. chinensis and that A. obovata functions as the maternal parent in the hybridization event in Jianfengling, Hainan.
Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R
In the study reported here, we investigated intergenerational transmission of life stories in two groups of young adults: a conflict group and a nonconflict group. Only participants in the conflict group had parents who lived through violent political upheaval. All participants recalled and dated 10 important events from one of their parents' lives. There were three main findings. First, both groups produced sets of events that displayed a reminiscence bump related to the parent's estimated age at the time of the event. Second, the majority of the events in both groups were transitions that were perceived to have exerted a significant psychological and material impact on a parent's life. Third, in the conflict group, 25% of recalled events were conflict related. This finding indicates that historical conflict knowledge is passed from one generation to the next and that it is understood to have had a personally relevant, life-altering effect. Moreover, the findings suggest that transitional impact and perceived importance help determine which events children will remember from a parent's life.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Daughters of teenage mothers have increased risk for teenage childbearing, perpetuating intergenerational cycles. Using Ecological Systems Theory, this study prospectively examined risk factors for teenage childbearing among a national sample of adolescent girls. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Participants (N = 1,430) were recruited in early adolescence and interviewed yearly for 6 years. Survival analysis was used to examine the rate of childbirth across the teenage years by maternal age at first birth. Hierarchical Cox regression was used to identify multivariate predictors of teenage childbearing and to test whether risk factors differed between daughters of teenage versus older mothers. Age at first childbirth was based on cumulative information collected at yearly interviews. Daughters of teenage mothers were 66% more likely to become teenage mothers, after accounting for other risks. Individual (school performance), family (maternal education, marital status, number of children), peer (dating history), and environmental (race, enrichment) factors predicted teenage childbearing. Risks unique to daughters of teenage mothers were deviant peer norms, low parental monitoring, Hispanic race, and poverty. Results support multidimensional approaches to pregnancy prevention, and targeted interventions addressing unique risk factors among daughters of teenage mothers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Transfers in the form of bequests have important implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality. Demographic change has relevant consequences for the timing and size of bequests. For example, longer life implies that people receive bequests when they are older. Conversely, increasing generational length reduces the average age at which people are given bequests. Objective: We analyze the consequences of demographic change in the United States on timing over the life course when individuals receive an inheritance and on the size of bequests. Methods: We evaluate trends in life expectancy at the mean age at childbearing as a proxy for timing at receipt of bequests. We complement formal demographic analysis with empirical estimates from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID inheritance data for 1987-2010. Results: We find that the long-term trend of increasing age at receipt of bequests might have stalled, mainly because of changes in the timing of fertility. In the long term the upward trend in age at which people receive bequests may resume, as the expected linear gains in life expectancy will more than counteract recent increases in the mean age at childbearing. Conclusions: We showed that demographic change affects the size of bequests and the timing over the life course when people receive them. As the need for economic resources varies over the life cycle, changes in the timing at receipt of bequests may have a differential impact on wealth inequality and affect patterns of multigenerational transfers of resources.
Bradford, Daniel W; Goulet, Joseph; Hunt, Marcia; Cunningham, Natasha C; Hoff, Rani
Individuals with serious mental illness have increased mortality relative to those without these illnesses. Although cancer is a leading cause of death, few studies have evaluated potential disparities relative to mortality for individuals with serious mental illness who are diagnosed with cancer. In this study, we evaluated mortality after diagnosis of a common malignancy (lung cancer) in a prototypical serious mental illness (schizophrenia). Using administrative data in the Veterans Affairs system, we identified 34,664 individuals who were diagnosed with lung cancer between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2005. We conducted a survival analysis comparing individuals with and without ICD-9-CM schizophrenia using data through September 30, 2010. Controlling variables were age, gender, smoking status, marital status, service connection, homelessness status, and presence of a substance use disorder. Our results demonstrated significantly poorer survival after lung cancer diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia compared to those without schizophrenia. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality associated with schizophrenia was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.22-1.44). Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of death after diagnosis of lung cancer than those without schizophrenia. Future studies should further characterize cause of death, quality of cancer care received, and barriers to care. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Shenavandeh, Saeedeh; Naseri, Razieh
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an uncommon non-hereditary sporadic disease that increases the risk of premature death, especially in diffuse type. We determined the prevalence of SSc in the last 13 years in our rheumatologic hospitals as a referral center for southern Iranian patients, the causes of hospitalization, the average length of stay (LOS), the mortality rate, and the reason for their mortality. A cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The studied population included all patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. We calculated the hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality rates, and mean LOS. There were 446 admissions by 181 patients with SSc. The female to male ratio was about 10.7 : 1. The overall mean LOS was 5.95 days. Digital ulcer and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were the most common causes of hospitalizations among the SSc-related events. For those with a non-SSc-related condition, infection was the most prevalent event. Most of the deaths were due to ILD and pulmonary artery hypertension(PAH), and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 16.5%. Women with SSc had higher rates of hospitalization but lower in-hospital mortality than men.There were some differences between our study and other similar studies in the causes of hospitalization and in-hospital death among SSc patients, especially the lower age of death. The patients with digital ulcers and those with intestinal lung disease or pulmonary hipertension were most commonly admitted to the hospital in our study group. Probably, increasing the skin care of these patients and asking other specialty groups to cooperate will decrease the high rate of hospitalizations in our population.
Objective Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an uncommon non-hereditary sporadic disease that increases the risk of premature death, especially in diffuse type. We determined the prevalence of SSc in the last 13 years in our rheumatologic hospitals as a referral center for southern Iranian patients, the causes of hospitalization, the average length of stay (LOS), the mortality rate, and the reason for their mortality. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The studied population included all patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. We calculated the hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality rates, and mean LOS. Results There were 446 admissions by 181 patients with SSc. The female to male ratio was about 10.7 : 1. The overall mean LOS was 5.95 days. Digital ulcer and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were the most common causes of hospitalizations among the SSc-related events. For those with a non-SSc-related condition, infection was the most prevalent event. Most of the deaths were due to ILD and pulmonary artery hypertension(PAH), and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 16.5%. Conclusions Women with SSc had higher rates of hospitalization but lower in-hospital mortality than men.There were some differences between our study and other similar studies in the causes of hospitalization and in-hospital death among SSc patients, especially the lower age of death. The patients with digital ulcers and those with intestinal lung disease or pulmonary hipertension were most commonly admitted to the hospital in our study group. Probably, increasing the skin care of these patients and asking other specialty groups to cooperate will decrease the high rate of hospitalizations in our population. PMID:29056770
Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin
Greater intake of dietary fiber has been associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases. Some observational studies have examined the association between dietary fiber intake and total mortality, but the results were inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess the association. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases for all articles published through November 30, 2013, and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to calculate a pooled relative risk and 95% confidence interval using a random-effects model. Seven prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and total mortality, including 62,314 deaths among 908,135 participants, were identified. The pooled adjusted relative risk of total mortality for the highest category of dietary fiber intake versus the lowest was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.80). In a dose-response meta-analysis, the pooled adjusted relative risk for a 10-g/day increment of dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0 92). By source of fiber, cereal and, to a lesser extent, vegetable fiber were significantly associated with lower total mortality, while fruit fiber showed no association. In conclusion, high dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of total mortality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rahmati, Atieh; Shakeri, Ramin; Khademi, Hooman; Poutschi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Gharravi, Abdolsamad; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin
Recent studies have suggested that opium use may increase mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, no comprehensive study of opium use and mortality from respiratory diseases has been published. We aimed to study the association between opium use and mortality from respiratory disease using prospectively collected data. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50 045 adults were enrolled from 2004 to 2008, and followed annually until June 2015, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. During the follow-up period, 331 deaths from respiratory disease were reported (85 due to respiratory malignancies and 246 due to non-malignant aetiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any respiratory disease (adjusted HR 95% CI 3.13 (2.42 to 4.04)). The association was dose-dependent with a HR of 3.84 (2.61 to 5.67) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use versus never use (P trend opium use and malignant and non-malignant causes of respiratory mortality were 1.96 (1.18 to 3.25) and 3.71 (2.76 to 4.96), respectively. Long-term opium use is associated with increased mortality from both malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Objective: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an uncommon non-hereditary sporadic disease that increases the risk of premature death, especially in diffuse type. We determined the prevalence of SSc in the last 13 years in our rheumatologic hospitals as a referral center for southern Iranian patients, the causes of hospitalization, the average length of stay (LOS, the mortality rate, and the reason for their mortality. Material and methods : A cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The studied population included all patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. We calculated the hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality rates, and mean LOS. Results: There were 446 admissions by 181 patients with SSc. The female to male ratio was about 10.7 : 1. The overall mean LOS was 5.95 days. Digital ulcer and interstitial lung disease (ILD were the most common causes of hospitalizations among the SSc-related events. For those with a non-SSc-related condition, infection was the most prevalent event. Most of the deaths were due to ILD and pulmonary artery hypertension(PAH, and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 16.5%. Conclusions : Women with SSc had higher rates of hospitalization but lower in-hospital mortality than men.There were some differences between our study and other similar studies in the causes of hospitalization and in-hospital death among SSc patients, especially the lower age of death. The patients with digital ulcers and those with intestinal lung disease or pulmonary hipertension were most commonly admitted to the hospital in our study group. Probably, increasing the skin care of these patients and asking other specialty groups to cooperate will decrease the high rate of hospitalizations in our population.
Das-Munshi, Jayati; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Dutta, Rina; Morgan, Craig; Nazroo, James; Stewart, Robert; Prince, Martin J
Excess mortality in severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders) is well described, but little is known about this inequality in ethnic minorities. We aimed to estimate excess mortality for people with severe mental illness for five ethnic groups (white British, black Caribbean, black African, south Asian, and Irish) and to assess the association of ethnicity with mortality risk. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, from the case registry of the South London and Maudsley Trust (London, UK). We linked mortality data from the UK Office for National Statistics for the general population in England and Wales to our cohort, and determined all-cause and cause-specific mortality by ethnicity, standardised by age and sex to this population in 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios and a modified Cox regression, taking into account competing risks to derive sub-hazard ratios, for the association of ethnicity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We identified 18 201 individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness (median follow-up 6·36 years, IQR 3·26-9·92), of whom 1767 died. Compared with the general population, age-and-sex-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in people with severe mental illness were increased for a range of causes, including suicides (7·65, 95% CI 6·43-9·04), non-suicide unnatural causes (4·01, 3·34-4·78), respiratory disease (3·38, 3·04-3·74), cardiovascular disease (2·65, 2·45-2·86), and cancers (1·45, 1·32-1·60). SMRs were broadly similar in different ethnic groups with severe mental illness, although the south Asian group had a reduced SMR for cancer mortality (0·49, 0·21-0·96). Within the cohort with severe mental illness, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and sub-hazard ratios for natural
Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Kuzniewicz, Michael W; Cason, Brian A; Lane, Rondall K; Dean, Mitzi L; Clay, Ted; Rennie, Deborah J; Dudley, R Adams
Existing intensive care unit (ICU) mortality measurement systems address in-hospital mortality only. However, early postdischarge mortality contributes significantly to overall 30-day mortality. Factors associated with early postdischarge mortality are unknown. We performed a retrospective study of 8484 ICU patients. Our primary outcome was early postdischarge mortality: death after hospital discharge and 30 days or less from ICU admission. Cox regression models assessed the association between patient, hospital, and utilization factors and the primary outcome. In multivariate analyses, the hazard for early postdischarge mortality increased with rising severity of illness and decreased with full-code status (hazard ratio [HR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.49). Compared with discharges home, early postdischarge mortality was highest for acute care transfers (HR, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.45-4.12). Finally, patients with very short ICU length of stay (<1 day) had greater early postdischarge mortality (HR, 1.86; 95% CI; 1.32-2.61) than those with longest stays (≥7 days). Early postdischarge mortality is associated with patient preferences (full-code status) and decisions regarding timing and location of discharge. These findings have important implications for anyone attempting to measure or improve ICU performance and who rely on in-hospital mortality measures to do so. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bruce P Lanphear, ProfMD
Full Text Available Summary: Background: Lead exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease mortality, but the number of deaths in the USA attributable to lead exposure is poorly defined. We aimed to quantify the relative contribution of environmental lead exposure to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and ischaemic heart disease mortality. Methods: Our study population comprised a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III between 1988 and 1994 and followed up to Dec 31, 2011. Participants had completed a medical examination and home interview and had results for concentrations of lead in blood, cadmium in urine, and other relevant covariates. Individuals were linked with the National Death Index. This study presents extended follow-up of an earlier analysis. Findings: We included 14 289 adults in our study. The geometric mean concentration of lead in blood was 2·71 μg/dL (geometric SE 1·31. 3632 (20% participants had a concentration of lead in blood of at least 5 μg/dL (≥0·24 μmol/L. During median follow-up of 19·3 years (IQR 17·6–21·0, 4422 people died, 1801 (38% from cardiovascular disease and 988 (22% from ischaemic heart disease. An increase in the concentration of lead in blood from 1·0 μg/dL to 6·7 μg/dL (0·048 μmol/L to 0·324 μmol/L, which represents the tenth to 90th percentiles, was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1·37, 95% CI 1·17–1·60, cardiovascular disease mortality (1·70, 1·30–2·22, and ischaemic heart disease mortality (2·08, 1·52–2·85. The population attributable fraction of the concentration of lead in blood for all-cause mortality was 18·0% (95% CI 10·9–26·1, which is equivalent to 412 000 deaths annually. Respective fractions were 28·7% (15·5–39·5 for cardiovascular disease mortality and 37·4% (23·4–48·6 for ischaemic heart disease
Kovacheva, Vesela P; Aglio, Linda S; Boland, Torrey A; Mendu, Mallika L; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious postoperative complication. To determine whether AKI in patients after craniotomy is associated with heightened 30-day mortality. We performed a 2-center, retrospective cohort study of 1656 craniotomy patients who received critical care between 1998 and 2011. The exposure of interest was AKI defined as meeting RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of Kidney Function, and End-stage Kidney Disease) class risk, injury, and failure criteria, and the primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models with inclusion of covariate terms thought to plausibly interact with both AKI and mortality. Additionally, mortality in craniotomy patients with AKI was analyzed with a risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model and propensity score matching as a sensitivity analysis. The incidences of RIFLE class risk, injury, and failure were 5.7%, 2.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The odds of 30-day mortality in patients with RIFLE class risk, injury, or failure fully adjusted were 2.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-4.42), 7.65 (95% CI, 4.16-14.07), and 14.41 (95% CI, 5.51-37.64), respectively. Patients with AKI experienced a significantly higher risk of death during follow-up; hazard ratio, 1.82 (95% CI, 1.34-2.46), 3.37 (95% CI, 2.36-4.81), and 5.06 (95% CI, 2.99-8.58), respectively, fully adjusted. In a cohort of propensity score-matched patients, RIFLE class remained a significant predictor of 30-day mortality. Craniotomy patients who suffer postoperative AKI are among a high-risk group for mortality. The severity of AKI after craniotomy is predictive of 30-day mortality. AKI, acute kidney injuryAPACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IICI, confidence intervalCPT, Current Procedural TerminologyICD-9-CM, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical ModificationRIFLE, risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end
Wedegaertner, Felix; Geyer, Siegfried; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Sittaro, Nicola-Alexander; te Wildt, Bert
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with the highest all-cause mortality rates of all mental disorders. The majority of patients with AUDs never receive inpatient treatment for their AUD, and there is lack of data about their mortality risks despite their constituting the majority of those affected. Absenteeism from work (sick leave) due to an AUD likely signals worsening. In this study, we assessed whether AUD-related sick leave was associated with mortality in a cohort of workers in Germany. 128,001 workers with health insurance were followed for a mean of 6.4 years. We examined the associations between 1) AUD-related sick leave managed on an outpatient basis and 2) AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment, and mortality using survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard regression models (separately by sex) adjusted for age, education, and job code classification. We also stratified analyses by sick leave related to three groups of alcohol-related conditions (all determined by International Classification of Diseases 9th ed. (ICD-9) codes): alcohol abuse and dependence; alcohol-induced mental disorder; and alcohol-induced medical conditions. Outpatient-managed AUD-related sick leave was significantly associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.90 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 2.24-3.75) for men, HR 5.83 (CI 2.90-11.75) for women). The magnitude of the association was similar for receipt of AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment (HR 3.2 (CI 2.76-3.78) for men, HR 6.5 (CI 4.41-9.47) for women). Compared to those without the conditions, higher mortality was observed consistently for outpatients and inpatients across the three groups of alcohol-related conditions. Those with alcohol-related medical conditions who had AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment appeared to have the highest mortality. Alcohol use disorder-related sick leave as documented in health insurance records is associated with higher mortality. Such sick leave does