WorldWideScience

Sample records for intergalactic space

  1. Probing the Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium at z = 5–6 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Ben

    2017-01-01

    We test the galactic outflow model by probing associated galaxies of four strong intergalactic C iv absorbers at z = 5–6 using the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) ramp narrowband filters. The four strong C iv absorbers reside at z = 5.74, 5.52, 4.95, and 4.87, with column densities ranging from N Civ = 10 13.8 to 10 14.8 cm −2 . At z = 5.74, we detect an i-dropout Ly α emitter (LAE) candidate with a projected impact parameter of 42 physical kpc from the C iv absorber. This LAE candidate has a Ly α -based star formation rate (SFR Lyα ) of 2 M ⊙ yr −1 and a UV-based SFR of 4 M ⊙ yr −1 . Although we cannot completely rule out that this i-dropout emitter may be an [O ii] interloper, its measured properties are consistent with the C iv powered galaxy at z = 5.74. For C iv absorbers at z = 4.95 and z = 4.87, although we detect two LAE candidates with impact parameters of 160 and 200 kpc, such distances are larger than that predicted from the simulations. Therefore, we treat them as nondetections. For the system at z = 5.52, we do not detect LAE candidates, placing a 3 σ upper limit of SFR Lyα ≈ 1.5 M ⊙ yr −1 . In summary, in these four cases, we only detect one plausible C iv source at z = 5.74. Combining the modest SFR of the one detection and the three nondetections, our HST observations strongly support that smaller galaxies (SFR Lyα ≲ 2 M ⊙ yr −1 ) are main sources of intergalactic C iv absorbers, and such small galaxies play a major role in the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at z ≳ 5.

  2. Probing the Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium at z = 5-6 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, Ben

    2017-11-01

    We test the galactic outflow model by probing associated galaxies of four strong intergalactic C IV absorbers at z = 5-6 using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) ramp narrowband filters. The four strong C IV absorbers reside at z = 5.74, 5.52, 4.95, and 4.87, with column densities ranging from N C IV = 1013.8 to 1014.8 cm-2. At z = 5.74, we detect an I-dropout Lyα emitter (LAE) candidate with a projected impact parameter of 42 physical kpc from the C IV absorber. This LAE candidate has a Lyα-based star formation rate (SFRLyα ) of 2 M ⊙ yr-1 and a UV-based SFR of 4 M ⊙ yr-1. Although we cannot completely rule out that this I-dropout emitter may be an [O II] interloper, its measured properties are consistent with the C IV powered galaxy at z = 5.74. For C IV absorbers at z = 4.95 and z = 4.87, although we detect two LAE candidates with impact parameters of 160 and 200 kpc, such distances are larger than that predicted from the simulations. Therefore, we treat them as nondetections. For the system at z = 5.52, we do not detect LAE candidates, placing a 3σ upper limit of SFRLyα ≈ 1.5 M ⊙ yr-1. In summary, in these four cases, we only detect one plausible C IV source at z = 5.74. Combining the modest SFR of the one detection and the three nondetections, our HST observations strongly support that smaller galaxies (SFRLyα ≲ 2 M ⊙ yr-1) are main sources of intergalactic C IV absorbers, and such small galaxies play a major role in the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at z ≳ 5.

  3. Probing the Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium at z = 5–6 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dave, Romeel [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finlator, Kristian [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Oppenheimer, Ben, E-mail: zcai@ucolick.org [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We test the galactic outflow model by probing associated galaxies of four strong intergalactic C iv absorbers at z = 5–6 using the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) ramp narrowband filters. The four strong C iv absorbers reside at z = 5.74, 5.52, 4.95, and 4.87, with column densities ranging from N {sub Civ} = 10{sup 13.8} to 10{sup 14.8} cm{sup −2}. At z = 5.74, we detect an i-dropout Ly α emitter (LAE) candidate with a projected impact parameter of 42 physical kpc from the C iv absorber. This LAE candidate has a Ly α -based star formation rate (SFR{sub Lyα} ) of 2 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and a UV-based SFR of 4 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Although we cannot completely rule out that this i-dropout emitter may be an [O ii] interloper, its measured properties are consistent with the C iv powered galaxy at z = 5.74. For C iv absorbers at z = 4.95 and z = 4.87, although we detect two LAE candidates with impact parameters of 160 and 200 kpc, such distances are larger than that predicted from the simulations. Therefore, we treat them as nondetections. For the system at z = 5.52, we do not detect LAE candidates, placing a 3 σ upper limit of SFR{sub Lyα} ≈ 1.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. In summary, in these four cases, we only detect one plausible C iv source at z = 5.74. Combining the modest SFR of the one detection and the three nondetections, our HST observations strongly support that smaller galaxies (SFR{sub Lyα} ≲ 2 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) are main sources of intergalactic C iv absorbers, and such small galaxies play a major role in the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at z ≳ 5.

  4. Intergalactic dust and quasar distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1979-01-01

    Non-homogeneous intergalactic extinction may considerably affect the quasar distribution. Especially samples of quasars isolated on the basis of B-V colours are subject to this phenomenon. Apparent grouping and close pairs of quasars reported in the literature may be a result of intergalactic dust. Using surface distribution of faint blue objects selected by Hawkins and Reddish it is estimated that intergalactic extinction in B should reach approximately 1 mag out to the redshift of approximately 1. This is slightly larger than predicted by theory and comparable to the mean dust density derived from observations. (Author)

  5. Intergalactic extinction and the deceleration parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, R.

    1981-01-01

    The deceleration parameter q 0 is calculated from the relation between apparent magnitudes m of the brightest galaxies in clusters and their redshifts z considering an intergalactic extinction. The calculation is valid for a Friedman universe, homogeneously filled with dust grains, assuming the extinction to be 0.5 mag at z = 1 and aΛ -1 -law of extinction (according to Oleak and Schmidt 1976). Using the m,z-values of Kristian, Sandage, and Westphal (1978) a formal value of q 0 approximately 2.1 is obtained instead of q 0 approximately 1.6 without consideration of intergalactic extinction. (author)

  6. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Ferrara, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f_abs~0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM;

  7. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Ferrara, A.

    2007-01-01

    We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f(abs) similar to 0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM;

  8. Early Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium by Pregalactic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Ferrara, Andrea; Rees, Martin J.

    2001-07-01

    We assess supernova-driven pregalactic outflows as a mechanism for distributing the product of stellar nucleosynthesis over large cosmological volumes prior to the reionization epoch. Supernova (SN) ejecta will escape the grasp of halos with virial temperatures Tvir>~104.3 K (corresponding to masses M>~108 h-1 Msolar at redshift z=9 when they collapse from 2 σ fluctuations) if rapid cooling can take place, and a significant fraction of their baryonic mass is converted into stars over a dynamical timescale. We study the evolution of SN-driven bubbles as they blow out from subgalactic halos and propagate into the intergalactic medium (IGM), and we show that to lift the halo gas out of the potential well, the energy injection must continue at least until blowaway occurs. If the fraction of ionizing photons that escape the dense sites of star formation into intergalactic space is greater than a few percent, pregalactic outflows will propagate into an IGM that has been prephotoionized by the same massive stars that later explode as SNe, and the expansion of the metal-enriched bubbles will be halted by the combined action of external pressure, gravity, and radiative losses. The collective explosive output of about 10,000 SNe per M>~108 h-1 Msolar halo at these early epochs could pollute vast regions of intergalactic space to a mean metallicity =ΩZ/Ωb>~0.003 (comparable to the levels observed in the Lyα forest at z~3) without hydrodynamically perturbing the IGM much, i.e., producing large variations of the baryons relative to the dark matter. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities between the dense shell that contains pristine swept-up material and the hot, metal-enriched, low-density bubble may contribute to the mixing and diffusion of heavy elements. The volume filling factor of the ejecta is higher than 20% if the star formation efficiency is on the order of 10%. Larger filling factors (not required by current observations) may be obtained for larger efficiencies

  9. Gamma ray bursts, supernovae and metallicity in the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, S; De Rújula, Alvaro; Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2007-01-01

    The mean iron abundance observed in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters is consistent with the mean amount of iron injected in the universe per unit volume by standard supernova (SN) explosions with a rate proportional to the cosmic star-formation rate. But very little is known about field SNe at high red-shifts. Such SNe could have occurred primarily in highly obscured environments, avoiding detection. Supporting evidence for field SNe is provided by SNe associated with gamma ray bursts (GRBs) without a host galaxy and by the ratio of well localized GRBs with and without a host galaxy. A direct test of the field-SN origin of iron in the intergalactic medium would require the measurement of their rate per comoving unit volume as function of red-shift. This is feasible with IR telescopes, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  10. Interactions between intergalactic medium and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Saar, E.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of galaxies with the environmental gas both in clusters and in small groups of galaxies is investigated. Interaction between galaxies and the ambient medium can be considered simply as final touches in the process of galaxy formation. Large relative velocities of galaxies in their clusters and of the intercluster gas result in a loss of the intergalactic gas, that in its turn affects the morphology of cluster galaxies. Interaction between the coronal clouds and the gas in the disk of spiral galaxies may result in regular patterns of star formation and in the bending of planes of galaxies

  11. Supergalactic studies. II. Supergalactic distribution of the nearest intergalactic gas clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; Corwin, H.G. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The report by Mathewson, Cleary, and Murray that the nearby ''high velocity'' H i clouds, and in particular the Magellanic Stream, are strongly concentrated toward the supergalactic plane is confirmed. The observed concentration within +-30degree from the supergalactic equator of 21 out of 25 clouds in the north galactic hemisphere and 27 out of 31 clouds in the south galactic hemisphere could occur by chance in less than 7 and 3 percent of random samples from a population having a statistically isotropic Poisson distribution. Since the two galactic hemispheres are substantially independent samples, the combined probability of the chance hypothesis is P -3 . It is found that actually the high-velocity clouds are not so much concentrated toward the supergalactic equator (SGE) as toward the equator of the ''Local Cloud'' of galaxies inclined 14degree to the main supergalactic plane. Both galaxies and H i clouds define the same small circle of maximum concentration and exhibit the same standard deviation (15degree) from it, demonstrating closely related space distributions. It is concluded that, with the possible exception of a few of the largest and probably nearest cloud complexes (MS, AC, C), most of the high-velocity clouds are truly intergalactic and associated with the Local Group and nearer groups of galaxies. Half the population in a total sample of 115 nearby galaxies and intergalactic gas coulds is within 11degree from the Local equator, indicating a half-thickness of approx.0.75 Mpc for the Local Cloud. Intergalactic gas clouds have already been identified near 10 of the nearest galaxies (including our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds), most within approx.3 Mpc. The estimated space density of intergalactic gas clouds is Napprox. =20--25 Mpc -3 , in approximate agreement with the densities required by the collision theory of ring galaxies

  12. The physical state of the intergalactic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcons, X.; Fabian, A.C.; Rees, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Because the process of galaxy formation is most unlikely to be perfectly efficient, there is a strong possibility that some baryonic gas remains outside collapsed structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. What fraction of the baryonic content of the Universe resides in this intergalactic medium (IGM) and what physical state it is in are open questions. Here we use observational limits on the density of neutral hydrogen in the IGM, on the lack of deviations from a black-body spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (MBR), and on the extragalactic component of the soft X-ray background (XRB) to constrain the state of the IGM. From the lack of MBR fluctuations, any energetic IGM (containing as much energy as the binding energy in galaxies) is inferred to be smoothly distributed on scales greater than galactic. This rules out hot IGM models for the origin of the hard X-ray background, as well as the hypothesis that cosmic explosions may have given rise to cosmological structure on scales larger than galaxies. (author)

  13. DIOS: the diffuse intergalactic oxygen surveyor: status and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Kawahara, H.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Ishida, M.; Tawara, Y.; Sakurai, I.; Furuzawa, A.; Suto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kawai, N.; Fujimoto, R.; Tsuru, T. G.; Matsushita, K.; Kitayama, T.

    2010-07-01

    DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) is a small scientific satellite with a main aim for the search of warm-hot intergalactic medium using redshifted OVII and OVIII lines. The instrument will consist of a 4-stage X-ray telescope and an array of TES microcalorimeters with 256 pixels, cooled with mechanical coolers. Hardware development of DIOS and the expected results are described. Survey observations over about 5° x 5° area will reveal new filamentary structures. DIOS will be proposed to the 3rd mission in JAXA's small satellite series in 2011, aiming for launch around 2016 if it will be selected.

  14. The effect of UV stars on the intergalactic medium. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnanstine, A.E.; Hills, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation from the UV stars (hot prewhite dwarfs) on the intergalactic medium (IGM) has been investigated. If the UV stars are powered only by gravitational contraction they radiate most of their energy at a typical surface temperature of 1.5 x 10 5 K which produces a very highly ionized IGM in which the elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are left with only one or two electrons. This result in these elements being very inefficient coolants. The gas is cooled principally by free-free emission and the collisional ionization of hydrogen and helium. For a typical UV star temperature of T=1.5 x 10 5 K, the temperature of the ionized gas in the IGM is Tsub(g)=1.2 x 10 5 K for a Hubble constant H 0 =75 kms -1 Mpc -1 and a hydrogen density nsub(H)=10 -6 cm -3 . Heating by cosmic rays and X-rays is insignificant in the IGM except perhaps in the H I clouds because when a hydrogen atom recombines in the IGM it is far more likely to be re-ionized by a UV-star photon than by either of the other two types of particles due to the greater space density of UV-star photons and their appreciably larger ionization cross sections. If the UV stars radiate a substantial fraction of their energy in a helium-burning stage in which they have surface temperatures of about 5 x 10 4 K, the temperature of the IGM could be lowered to about 5 x 10 4 K. (Auth.)

  15. Determination of the Mean HI Absorption of the Intergalactic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In recent years, the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra has been used, together with N-body simulations, to determine the underly- ing matter distribution in the intergalactic medium (IGM). One of the key parameters to be known in order to compare observations and numerical simulations is the mean HI absorption in ...

  16. Studying the Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium in Emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Yoh; Ursino, E.; Branchini, E.; Ohashi, T.; Kawahara, H.; Mitsuda, K.; Piro, L.; Corsi, A.; Amati, L.; den Herder, J.W.A.; Galeazzi, M.; Kaastra, J.S.; Moscardini, L.; Nicastro, F.; Paerels, F.; Roncarelli, M.; Viel, M.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the possibility of detecting the warm-hot intergalactic medium in emission and characterizing its physical conditions and spatial distribution through spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy, in the framework of the recently proposed DIOS, EDGE, Xenia, and ORIGIN missions, all of which are

  17. Heating of the intergalactic medium by primordial miniquasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, Saleem; Thomas, Rajat M.; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Silk, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A simple analytical model is used to calculate the X-ray heating of the intergalactic medium (IGM) for a range of black hole masses. This process is efficient enough to decouple the spin temperature of the IGM from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and produce a differential

  18. Status of the Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.

    2012-09-01

    DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) is a small scientific satellite with the main aim of searching warm-hot intergalactic medium using redshifted OVII and OVIII lines. The wide-field spectroscopic capability of DIOS will also bring rich science about the dynamics of cosmic hot plasmas in all spatial scales. The instrument will consist of a 4-stage X-ray telescope and an array of TES microcalorimeters with up to 400 pixels, cooled with mechanical coolers. Hardware development of DIOS and outstanding issues about the payload are described. DIOS will be further developed with international collaboration and will be proposed to the earliest call of JAXA’s small scientific satellite series.

  19. Current Status of the DIOS (diffuse intergalactic oxygen surveyor) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Takaya

    The Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) mission will conduct a high-sensitivity soft X-ray survey over a wide solid angle of the sky to search warm hot intergalactic medium using redshifted OVII and OVIII lines. Together with very high spectroscopic capability, DIOS will bring rich science about the dynamics of cosmic hot plasmas in all spatial scales. Key instruments of the DIOS are a 4-stage X-ray telescope (FXT) and an array of TES micro-calorimeter (XSA), cooled with mechanical coolers. FXT uses the conical approximation of the Wolter I optic extended to four-fold reflection, which can provide very short focal length to be suited to small detector of XSA to cover wide field of view. In this paper, hardware development of DIOS and outstanding issues about the payload are described. DIOS will be further developed with international collaboration and will be proposed to the call of JAXA’s scientific satellite.

  20. DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor): the Dark Baryon Exploring Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Ohashi, Takaya; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2015-08-01

    More than half of the baryons are unidentified in the local Universe, and majority of them are thought to reside along the large-scale structure in the form of Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The 3-dimensional structure of WHIM will be probed by observing redshifted oxygen emission lines with high resolution X-ray spectrometers. DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) has been developed aiming for a launch by JAXA’s Epsilon Launch Vehicle around 2020. The payload consists of a 4-reflection X-ray telescope and a TES calorimeter array cooled by mechanical coolers. With a large grasp (area times f.o.v.) over 100 cm2 deg2, DIOS will identify 30-40% of dark baryons and will show us gas dynamics of cosmic plasmas from Earth’s megnetosphere to cluster outskirts. We describe the design and outstanding issues of DIOS.

  1. Cosmological Halos: A Search for the Ionized Intergalactic Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Robert M.; Sault, Robert J.; Antonucci, Robert; Killeen, Neil E. B.; Ekers, Ron; Desai, Ketan

    1998-01-01

    Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predicts the average baryon density of the Universe to be a few percent of the critical density. Only about one tenth of the predicted baryons have been seen. A plausible respository for the missing baryons is in a diffuse ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). In an attempt to measure the IGM we searched for Thomson-scattered halos around strong high redshift radio sources. Observations of the radio source 1935-692 were made with the Australia Telescope Compact...

  2. Future Japanese X-ray TES Calorimeter Satellite: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Nakamichi, R.; Bandai, A.; Yuasa, T.; Ota, N.

    2016-08-01

    We present the latest update and progress on the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS). DIOS is proposed to JAXA as a small satellite mission, and would be launched with an Epsilon rocket. DIOS would carry on the legacy of ASTRO-H, which carries semiconductor-based microcalorimeters and is scheduled to be launched in 2016, in high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. A 400-pixel array of transition-edge sensors (TESs) would be employed, so DIOS would also provide valuable lessons for the next ESA X-ray mission ATHENA on TES operation and cryogen-free cooling in space. We have been sophisticating the entire design of the satellite to meet the requirement for the Epsilon payload for the next call. The primary goal of the mission is to search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy by detecting redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The results would have significant impacts on our understanding of the nature of "dark baryons," their total amount and spatial distribution, as well as their evolution over cosmological timescales.

  3. Metal Absorption Lines as Probes of the Intergalactic Medium Prior to the Reionization Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Loeb, Abraham

    2003-05-01

    Winds from star-forming galaxies provide the most promising explanation for the enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements. Theoretical and observational arguments indicate that the pollution may have occurred at z>~6 however, direct observational tests of such a scenario are needed. We model starburst winds in the high-redshift universe and find that the fraction of space filled by enriched material varies strongly with the assumed star formation efficiency f* and the fraction of supernova energy powering each wind fesc. We show that metals carried by these winds can be seen in absorption against bright background sources, such as quasars or gamma-ray bursts, in narrow lines with characteristic equivalent widths ~0.5Åcoolant in the early universe and to study the initial mass function of stars at high redshifts.

  4. An optical search for the intergalactic HI cloud in Leo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibblewhite, E.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    An optical search has been made for the large intergalactic HI cloud discovered from Arecibo by previous authors. A very deep red UKSTU plate of the area has been scanned by the APM machine and deep CCD frames of a small area near a peak in the HI emission have been acquired. No extended emission is found at the limiting surface brightness of the photographic material and no excess of stars above that expected from the Galaxy is found in the CCD data. However, due to the extreme size of the HI cloud, the upper limit on the total luminosity is that of a dwarf galaxy, Msub(B) >approx.-18. As its hydrogen and total masses would not be unusual for a galaxy, a highly extended very low surface brightness galaxy can not be ruled out, at present. (author)

  5. Microquasars as heating sources of the intergalactic medium during reionization of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douna, Vanesa M.; Pellizza, Leonardo J.; Laurent, Philippe; Mirabel, I. Félix

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the primeval sources of radiation and particles on the thermodynamical state of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization is still unclear. In this work, we explore the contribution of electrons accelerated in the jets of high-redshift microquasars to heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium. We develop Monte Carlo simulations of the propagation and energy deposition of these electrons as they travel away from their sources. We find that microquasars contribute significantly to heating the intergalactic medium and are effective ionizers only near the galaxies. Their effect on heating is of the same order of magnitude as that of cosmic rays from supernovae.

  6. MEASURING THE SOURCES OF THE INTERGALACTIC IONIZING FLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Trouille, L.

    2009-01-01

    We use a wide-field (0.9 deg 2 ) X-ray sample with optical and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet observations to measure the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the ionizing flux as a function of redshift. Our analysis shows that the AGN contribution to the metagalactic ionizing background peaks at around z = 2. The measured values of the ionizing background from the AGNs are lower than previous estimates and confirm that ionization from AGNs is insufficient to maintain the observed ionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z > 3. We show that only X-ray sources with broad lines in their optical spectra have detectable ionizing flux and that the ionizing flux seen in an AGN is not correlated with its X-ray color. We also use the GALEX observations of the GOODS-N region to place a 2σ upper limit of 0.008 on the average ionization fraction f ν (700 A)/f ν (1500 A) for 626 UV selected galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.9-1.4. We then use this limit to estimate an upper bound to the galaxy contribution in the redshift range z = 0-5. If the z ∼ 1.15 ionization fraction is appropriate for higher-redshift galaxies, then contributions from the galaxy population are also too low to account for the IGM ionization at the highest redshifts (z > 4).

  7. Are there really intergalactic hydrogen clouds in the Sculptor group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.P.; Roberts, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    High-sensitivity 21 cm observations of the region of the Sculptor group of galaxies reveal at least 30 H I clouds distributed over only the southern sector of the group. These new data add two striking complications to the picture of the clouds as H I companions of Sculptor galaxies: first, a much wider spatial distribution of clouds in marked contrast with the clustering of clouds around NGC 55 and NGC 300 previously reported by Mathewson, Cleary, and Murray; and second, a cloud velocity distribution which does not match that of the galaxies.We cannot reconcile the spatial and velocity distributions of the H I clouds with those of the group or of any subgroup. We conclude that there are no intergalactic H I clouds of > or =10 8 M/sub sun/ and galactic dimensions within the Sculptor group. Of a number of explanations alternative to group membership, we favor the identification of the clouds as a component of the Magellanic Stream which is seen in projection. Observations reported here of other nearby groups, combined with those of Sculptor, rule out the existence of a significant population of discrete H I clouds having the above properties

  8. Atomic Data Revisions for Improving Absorption Line Studies of the Interstellar, Circumgalactic, and Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Frances; Kulkarni, Varsha; Kisielius, Romas; Ferland, Gary; Bogdanovich, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Surveying and studying galaxies at different epochs is essential to understanding how galaxies evolve. Atomic spectroscopy is used to study the gas in and around galaxies by means of the absorption features in the spectra of background quasars. Element abundances derived from the measurement of observed lines in these quasar absorption systems rely on accurate atomic data such as the oscillator strength of electric dipole transitions. We have produced a compilation of recommended oscillator strengths for 576 key transitions for wavelengths longward of 911.753 Angstroms (the H I Lyman limit). This compilation focuses on the recent findings from numerous theoretical and experimental physicists for ions of astrophysical interest that have been observed in the interstellar medium (ISM), the circumgalactic medium (CGM), and the intergalactic medium (IGM), for selected elements ranging from C to Pb. Differences between the former and the newly recommended values are greater than 25% for approximately 22% of lines with updated oscillator strength values. We encourage future absorption line studies of the ISM, CGM, and IGM medium to use this compilation.This work was supported in part by NSF-AST/1108830, NASA/STScI support for HST GO-12536, and a NASA/SC Space Grant graduate fellowship.

  9. Multifrequency survey of the intergalactic cloud in the M96 group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.E.; Skrutskie, M.F.; Hacking, P.B.; Young, J.S.; Dickman, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The intergalactic cloud of neutral hydrogen in the M96 group are examined for signs of emission over a wide range of frequencies, from radio waves to X rays. Past or present stellar activity in the gas might have been expected to produce detectable visual infrared, CO, OH, or radio recombination-line emission. None was detected. The limits are used to study physical conditions in the intergalactic gas. In particular, B and V band limits on starlight and IRAS limits on the presence of dust strongly constrain the presence of stars or stellar by-products. However, given the uncertainties about physical conditions in the intergalactic environment, it is difficult to rule out entirely the presence of stellar-processed materials. Results of neutral hydrogen mapping from a large-scale survey of the intergalactic cloud and surrounding region are also presented. These observations confirm that the gas is confined to a large ringlike structure. The simplest interpretation remains that the intergalactic gas in Leo is primordial. 36 references

  10. Prospects for detecting the 21 cm forest from the diffuse intergalactic medium with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardi, B.; Labropoulos, P.; Maselli, A.; Thomas, R.; Zaroubi, S.; Graziani, L.; Bolton, J. S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Harker, G. J. A.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Martinez, O.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Mellema, G.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of the detection of the 21 cm forest in the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) with the radio telescope LOFAR. The optical depth to the 21 cm line has been derived using simulations of reionization which include detailed radiative transfer of ionizing photons. We find that

  11. Counts of galaxies in the region of the 'intergalactic dark cloud' near iota Microscopii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinunger, I.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of the total numbers of galaxies down to about 18th magnitude on 84 squares is largely in agreement with the structure of the hypothetic intergalactic absorbing cloud near iota Microscopii found by C. Hoffmeister. The counts of galaxies were performed on the Whiteoak prints covering that region. (author)

  12. Radiation from early black holes - I. Effects on the neutral intergalactic medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the pre-reionization Universe, the regions of the intergalactic medium (IGM) which are far from luminous sources are the last to undergo reionization. Until then, they should be scarcely affected by stellar radiation; instead, the X-ray emission from an early black hole (BH) population can have

  13. Simulating the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Robert Peter Coalter

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, it has become evident that the vast amount of space that exists between galaxies contains trace amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals' in astronomical terms). This is surprising since the baryonic universe is expected to initially be composed of solely hydrogen,

  14. Intergalactic Hydrogen Clouds at Low Redshift: Connections to Voids and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Penton, Steve

    1996-01-01

    We provide new post-COSTAR data on one sightline (Mrk 421) and updated data from another (I Zw 1) from our Hubble Space Telescope (HST) survey of intergalactic Ly(alpha) clouds located along sightlines to four bright quasars passing through well-mapped galaxy voids (16000 km/s pathlength) and superclusters (18000 km/s). We report two more definite detections of low-redshift Ly(alpha) clouds in voids: one at 3047 km/s (heliocentric) toward Mrk 421 and a second just beyond the Local Supercluster at 2861 km/s toward I Zw 1, confirming our earlier discovery of Ly(alpha) absorption clouds in voids (Stocke et al., ApJ, 451, 24). We have now identified ten definite and one probable low-redshift neutral hydrogen absorption clouds toward four targets, a frequency of approximately one absorber every 3400 km/s above 10(exp 12.7/sq cm column density. Of these ten absorption systems, three lie within voids; the probable absorber also lies in a void. Thus, the tendency of Ly(alpha) absorbers to 'avoid the voids' is not as clear as we found previously. If the Ly(alpha) clouds are approximated as homogeneous spheres of 100 kpc radius, their masses are approximately 10(exp 9)solar mass (about 0.01 times that of bright L* galaxies) and they are 40 times more numerous, comparable to the density of dwarf galaxies and of low-mass halos in numerical CDM simulations. The Ly(alpha) clouds contribute a fraction Omega(sub cl)approximately equals 0.003/h(sub 75) to the closure density of the universe, comparable to that of luminous matter. These clouds probably require a substantial amount of nonbaryonic dark matter for gravitational binding. They may represent extended haloes of low-mass protogalaxies which have not experienced significant star formation or low-mass dwarf galaxies whose star formation ceased long ago, but blew out significant gaseous material.

  15. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Scully, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  16. Intergalactic Leadership: Practical Tips for Leading Where No One Has Gone Before

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peg A Lonnquist

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the transformational, inclusive, partnership leadership literature, while brilliant and inspirational, does not provide day-to-day ideas for practitioners. Drawing on several key leadership theories and theorists (Kouzes and Posner’s five core behaviors of successful leaders, the Athena Model based on research on women leaders, Centered Leadership from the McKinsey Project, the Research-Productivity and Engagement Model, Burn’s and Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory, Riane Eisler’s partnership leadership, multicultural leadership theorist Juana Bordas, and feminist leadership theorists, the author describes how she has translated and implemented day-to-day leadership practices which she calls Intergalactic Leadership.

  17. THE APOSTOLES OF INTERGALACTIC RELIGIOCITY. MOTIF OF SPACE CONTACT IN NEW HOLLYWOOD CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Jakub Konefal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American science fiction cinema of the 1970s began To employ eclectically presented references to eclectic views on religious topics. Films directed by artists such as Steven Spielberg and George Lucas offered viewers the stories influenced by the Christian and Buddhist symbolism as well as selected theses of the New Age Movements. The authors wanted to create in their productions new religiousness patterns, derived from the writings of some leading figures of the counterculture, such as Herbert Marcuse, Charles Reich, and Theodore Roszak. For this purpose they processed some storylines from science fiction novels and mass culture. This strategy was continued in the 1980s and first half of the 1990s, however the productions from this period showed a radicalization of the educational-ideological context which was associated with the conservative policy of the USA during this period. The end of the 1990s and the first decade of the twenty-first century is a period of erosion the New Age optimism of science fiction cinema. The growing popularity of plots with catastrophic and dystopian visions of the future indicates that religious topic in contemporary cinema fulfills different functions.

  18. Does Light from Steady Sources Bear Any Observable Imprint of the Dispersive Intergalactic Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard; Duan, Lingze

    2018-02-01

    There has recently been some interest in the prospect of detecting ionized intergalactic baryons by examining the properties of incoherent light from background cosmological sources, namely quasars. Although the paper by Lieu et al. proposed a way forward, it was refuted by the later theoretical work of Hirata & McQuinn and the observational study of Hales et al. In this paper we investigate in detail the manner in which incoherent radiation passes through a dispersive medium both from the frameworks of classical and quantum electrodynamics, leading us to conclude that the premise of Lieu et al. would only work if the pulses involved are genuinely classical ones containing many photons per pulse; unfortunately, each photon must not be treated as a pulse that is susceptible to dispersive broadening. We are nevertheless able to change the tone of the paper at this juncture by pointing out that because current technology allows one to measure the phase of individual modes of radio waves from a distant source, the most reliable way of obtaining irrefutable evidence of dispersion, namely via the detection of its unique signature of a quadratic spectral phase, may well be already accessible. We demonstrate how this technique is only applied to measure the column density of the ionized intergalactic medium.

  19. On modeling and measuring the temperature of the z ∼ 5 intergalactic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Lyα) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z ≳ 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Lyα forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Lyα forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z ≳ 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ∼ 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ∼ 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.

  20. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  1. The impact of feedback on the low-redshift intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornatore, L.; Borgani, S.; Viel, M.; Springel, V.

    2010-03-01

    We analyse the evolution of the properties of the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) using high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations that include a detailed chemical evolution model. We focus on the effects that two different forms of energy feedback, strong galactic winds driven by supernova explosion and active galactic nuclei powered by gas accretion on to super-massive black holes (BHs), have on the thermo- and chemodynamical properties of the low-redshift IGM. We find that feedback associated with winds (W) and BHs leaves distinct signatures in both the chemical and thermal history of the baryons, especially at redshift z temperature in the range of 105-107K, the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), larger than that produced by the wind feedback. At z = 0, the fraction of baryons in the WHIM is about 50 per cent in the runs with BH feedback and about 40 per cent in the runs with wind feedback. The number of warm baryons (104 temperature. Finally, we compute the evolution of the relative abundances between different heavy elements, namely oxygen, carbon and iron. While both C/O and O/Fe evolve differently at high redshifts for different feedback models, their values are similar at z = 0. We also find that changing the stellar initial mass function has a smaller effect on the evolution of the above relative abundances than changing the feedback model. The sensitivity of WHIM properties on the implemented feedback scheme could be important both for discriminating between different feedback physics and for detecting the WHIM with future far-UV and X-ray telescopes.

  2. Correlation Between X-ray And Microwave (sz) Signals From The Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gupta, A.; Huffenberger, K.; Ursino, E.

    2010-05-01

    A large fraction of the low redshift baryons is believed to reside in a warm-hot filamentary gas in the intergalactic medium (WHIM). In the past we have successfully used XMM-Newton data to identify and characterize the WHIM angular signature using the autocorrelation function [Galeazzi 2009, 695, 1127]. Using the output of large scale hydrodynamic simulations we have also investigated the correlation between low energy X-ray emission and SZ effect from WHIM filaments. The largest of the current SZ surveys (with the South Pole Telescope [Ruhl 2004, Proc. SPIE, 5498, 11] and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope [Kosowsky 2004, NAR 47, 939; 2006, NAR 50, 969]) are mapping hundreds of square degrees at arcminute resolution at bands in 100-300 GHz, and have started identifying clusters detected by their SZ signature alone [e.g. Staniszewski 2009, ApJ, 701,32; Hincks 2009, arXiv:0907.0461]. Although the bulk of the total luminosity in the SZ effect is associated with collapsed structures like clusters, our work indicates that a significant fraction comes from unbound objects, mostly from overdense regions, like the WHIM. Due to the unique emission mechanism, the X-ray and SZ correlation provides additional constraints on the structure of the intergalactic gas. Adopting an adiabatic, polytropic model the SZ signal goes as ne1.2, compared with the x-ray emission that goes roughly as ne2 (slightly modified by the cooling function). In this paper we will discuss the result of our investigation on the correlation between X-ray emission and SZ signals and the implications for current X-ray and SZ observatories. We will also present our preliminary applications using actual data.

  3. Diagnosing the reionization of the universe - The absorption spectrum of the intergalactic medium and Lyman alpha clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium composed of H and He and undergoing reionization is studied. The diagnosis of the metagalactic ionizing radiation background at z of about three using metal line ratios for Lyman limit quasar absorption line systems is addressed. The use of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect to diagnose the reionization source and/or nature of the Hy-alpha forest clouds is considered.

  4. A new measurement of the intergalactic temperature at z ˜ 2.55-2.95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorai, Alberto; Carswell, Robert F.; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Becker, George D.; Bolton, James S.; Murphy, Michael T.

    2018-03-01

    We present two measurements of the temperature-density relationship (TDR) of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the redshift range 2.55 law parameters T0 and γ describing the TDR. This approach yields T0/103 K = 15.6 ± 4.4 and γ = 1.45 ± 0.17 independent of the assumed pressure smoothing of the small-scale density field. In order to explore the information contained in the overall b-N_{H I} distribution rather than only the lower cut-off, we obtain a second measurement based on a similar Bayesian analysis of the median Doppler parameter for separate column-density ranges of the absorbers. In this case, we obtain T0/103 K = 14.6 ± 3.7 and γ = 1.37 ± 0.17 in good agreement with the first measurement. Our Bayesian analysis reveals strong anticorrelations between the inferred T0 and γ for both methods as well as an anticorrelation of the inferred T0 and the pressure smoothing length for the second method, suggesting that the measurement accuracy can in the latter case be substantially increased if independent constraints on the smoothing are obtained. Our results are in good agreement with other recent measurements of the thermal state of the IGM probing similar (over-)density ranges.

  5. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with Ly α and 21 cm Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneka, Caroline [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We study 21 cm and Ly α fluctuations, as well as H α , while distinguishing between Ly α emission of galactic, diffuse, and scattered intergalactic medium (IGM) origin. Cross-correlation information about the state of the IGM is obtained, testing neutral versus ionized medium cases with different tracers in a seminumerical simulation setup. In order to pave the way toward constraints on reionization history and modeling beyond power spectrum information, we explore parameter dependencies of the cross-power signal between 21 cm and Ly α , which displays a characteristic morphology and a turnover from negative to positive correlation at scales of a couple Mpc{sup −1}. In a proof of concept for the extraction of further information on the state of the IGM using different tracers, we demonstrate the use of the 21 cm and H α cross-correlation signal to determine the relative strength of galactic and IGM emission in Ly α . We conclude by showing the detectability of the 21 cm and Ly α cross-correlation signal over more than one decade in scale at high signal-to-noise ratio for upcoming probes like SKA and the proposed all-sky intensity mapping satellites SPHEREx and CDIM, while also including the Ly α damping tail and 21 cm foreground avoidance in the modeling.

  6. Atomic Data Revisions for Transitions Relevant to Observations of Interstellar, Circumgalactic, and Intergalactic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, Frances H.; Kulkarni, Varsha P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kisielius, Romas; Bogdanovich, Pavel [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio al. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ferland, Gary J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Measurements of element abundances in galaxies from astrophysical spectroscopy depend sensitively on the atomic data used. With the goal of making the latest atomic data accessible to the community, we present a compilation of selected atomic data for resonant absorption lines at wavelengths longward of 911.753 Å (the H i Lyman limit), for key heavy elements (heavier than atomic number 5) of astrophysical interest. In particular, we focus on the transitions of those ions that have been observed in the Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM), the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the Milky Way and/or other galaxies, and the intergalactic medium (IGM). We provide wavelengths, oscillator strengths, associated accuracy grades, and references to the oscillator strength determinations. We also attempt to compare and assess the recent oscillator strength determinations. For about 22% of the lines that have updated oscillator strength values, the differences between the former values and the updated ones are ≳0.1 dex. Our compilation will be a useful resource for absorption line studies of the ISM, as well as studies of the CGM and IGM traced by sight lines to quasars and gamma-ray bursts. Studies (including those enabled by future generations of extremely large telescopes) of absorption by galaxies against the light of background galaxies will also benefit from our compilation.

  7. Absorption in the Cosmic Web: Characterizing the Intergalactic Medium in Cosmological Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejos, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    We propose to observe and characterize the IGM associated with cosmological filaments in a statistical manner up to redshift ~0.4. For this purpose, we have used a published cluster catalog (Hao et al. 2010) to identify massive nodes in the cosmic web. We used cluster-pairs separated by 10 to ensure a full characterization of HI and OVI lines at column densities N~10^13 cm^-2. This setup will allow us to detect broad and shallow HI and OVI lines (if any) at the redshifts of these filaments, believed to trace portions of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Combining these new observations with those from our pilot study carried out in cycle 20 (ID 12958, PI Tejos), we aim to provide a firm detection of the WHIM in cosmological filaments, at the 95% confidence level. Our findings will test our understanding of galaxy formation and the role of AGN/supernova feedback by comparing them with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations. We will also test the the hypothesis which states that the majority of OVI absorbers at low-z are confined within <300 kpc from galaxies (i.e. circumgalactic medium) thus not related to the WHIM (Prochaska et al. 2011; Tumlinson et al. 2011).

  8. An intergalactic absorbing cloud in the neighbourhood of the North galactic pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the possibility that the lack of galaxies in the area between the Virgo and Coma clusters, to which OKROY (1965) drew attention, is due to an intergalactic cloud. Using Zwicky's Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, it is shown that there is a shortage of galaxies in the suspected area for all magnitude classes. The absorption of the cloud is calculated to be 0.45+-05 mag. A quantity called the areal colour index (ACI) is introduced and defined as ACI=a sub(b) b sub(b)/(a sub(r) b sub(r)) where a and b are the lengths of the major and minor axes of a galaxy, respectively, and the subscripts b and r respectively refer to measurements on the blue and red prints of the Palomar survey, given in the Uppsala Catalogue of Galaxies. The average ACI is found to be 1.25 for the control area, and 1.04 for the area covered by Okroy's alleged obscuring cloud. On the basis of this colour data an approximate map showing the shape of the cloud is given. The effect of the alleged cloud on the shape frequency of types of galaxies is discussed. It is found that the cloud significantly increases the ratio of elliptical and dwarf galaxies to SO's. The determination of the distance to the cloud and its density is discussed. (author)

  9. Distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, D.; Vishniac, E.T.; Chiang, W.H.

    1988-11-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code

  10. STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK AND METAL-ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue; Chisari, Nora Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Using the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of the standard cold dark matter model with star formation feedback strength normalized to match the observed star formation history of the universe at z= 0-6, we compute the metal-enrichment history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Overall we show that galactic superwind (GSW) feedback from star formation can transport metals to the IGM and that the properties of simulated metal absorbers match current observations. The distance of influence of GSW from galaxies is typically limited to about ≤0.5 Mpc and within regions of overdensity δ ≥ 10. Most C IV and O VI absorbers are located within shocked regions of elevated temperature (T ≥ 2 x 10 4 K), overdensity (δ ≥ 10), and metallicity ([Z/Z sun ] = [ - 2.5, - 0.5]), enclosed by double shocks propagating outward. O VI absorbers have typically higher metallicity, lower density, and higher temperature than C IV absorbers. For O VI absorbers, collisional ionization dominates over the entire redshift range z= 0-6, whereas for C IV absorbers the transition occurs at moderate redshift z ∼ 3 from collisionally dominated to photoionization dominated. We find that the observed column density distributions for C IV and O VI in the range log N cm 2 =12-15 are reasonably reproduced by the simulations. The evolution of mass densities contained in C IV and O VI lines, Ω CIV and Ω OVI , is also in good agreement with observations, which shows a near constancy at low redshifts and an exponential drop beyond redshift z= 3-4. For both C IV and O VI, most absorbers are transient and the amount of metals probed by C IV and O VI lines of column log N cm 2 =12-15 is only ∼2% of total metal density at any epoch. While gravitational shocks from large-scale structure formation dominate the energy budget (80%-90%) for turning about 50% of the IGM to the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) by z = 0, GSW feedback shocks are energetically dominant over

  11. Efficient adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of the high-redshift intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Srianand, Raghunathan; Khaire, Vikram

    2018-02-01

    We present a post-processing tool for GADGET-2 adiabatic simulations to model various observed properties of the Ly α forest at 2.5 ≤ z ≤ 4 that enables an efficient parameter estimation. In particular, we model the thermal and ionization histories that are not computed self-consistently by default in GADGET-2. We capture the effect of pressure smoothing by running GADGET-2 at an elevated temperature floor and using an appropriate smoothing kernel. We validate our procedure by comparing different statistics derived from our method with those derived using self-consistent simulations with GADGET-3. These statistics are: line-of-sight density field power spectrum, flux probability distribution function, flux power spectrum, wavelet statistics, curvature statistics, H I column density (N_{H I}) distribution function, linewidth (b) distribution and b versus log N_{H I} scatter. For the temperature floor of 104 K and typical signal-to-noise ratio of 25, the results agree well within 20 per cent of the self-consistent GADGET-3 simulation. However, this difference is smaller than the expected 1σ sample variance for an absorption path length of ˜5.35 at z = 3. Moreover for a given cosmology, we gain a factor of ˜N in computing time for modelling the intergalactic medium under N ≫ 1 different thermal histories. In addition, our method allows us to simulate the non-equilibrium evolution of thermal and ionization state of the gas and include heating due to non-standard sources like cosmic rays and high-energy γ-rays from Blazars.

  12. Probing the nature of Dark Matter through the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Jonas; Dayal, Pratika; Ryan-Weber, Emma V.

    2018-03-01

    We focus on exploring the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in Cold and Warm (1.5 and 3 keV) Dark Matter (DM) cosmologies, and the constraints this yields on the DM particle mass, using a semi-analytic model, Delphi, that jointly tracks the Dark Matter and baryonic assembly of galaxies at z ≃ 4 - 20 including both Supernova and (a range of) reionization feedback (models). We find that while M_{UV} {≳} {-15} galaxies contribute half of all IGM metals in the Cold Dark Matter model by z ≃ 4.5, given the suppression of low-mass halos, larger halos with M_{UV} {≲} {-15} provide about 80% of the IGM metal budget in 1.5 keV Warm Dark Matter models using two different models for the metallicity of the interstellar medium. Our results also show that the only models compatible with two different high-redshift data sets, provided by the evolving Ultra-Violet luminosity function at z ≃ 6 - 10 and IGM metal density (e.g. Simcoe et al. 2011), are standard Cold Dark Matter and 3 keV Warm DM that do not include any reionization feedback; a combination of the UV LF and the Díaz et al. (2016) points provides a weaker constraint, allowing Cold and 3 keV and 1.5 keV Warm DM models with SN feedback only, as well as CDM with complete gas suppression of all halos with v_{circ} {≲ 30} {km s^{-1}}. Tightening the error bars on the IGM metal enrichment, future observations, at z {≳} 5.5, could therefore represent an alternative way of shedding light on the nature of Dark Matter.

  13. Studying the History of the Intergalactic Medium with the SCI-HI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Tabitha Christine

    The Cosmic Dawn (z ˜ 15 -- 35) is the period in the history of our universe when stars first began to form in small Dark Matter minihalos. Light from these first stars is too dim for telescopes to see, which means that the Cosmic Dawn has never been directly measured. However, the first stars impacted the gas, or intergalactic medium (IGM), around them. The impact of the first stars was heating and eventual ionization of the IGM. The process of heating and ionization creates a spectrum that varies over redshift, namely the spatially averaged brightness temperature spectrum of 21-cm light from the IGM. Measurement of this spectrum will give us a first glimpse of the Cosmic Dawn. The "Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro" (SCIHI) experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico and was designed to make this measurement. The SCI-HI experiment is a small-scale system which travels with the team to remote locations for deployments. These remote locations are necessary to avoid radio frequency interference and other environmental impacts on the system. This thesis describes the development and deployment of the SCI-HI experiment. It starts with the original design and covers development of the system over time. Deployment location selection is then discussed, including the results of site evaluations. In addition, the thesis outlines the data analysis process used for the system and shows results from data collected during the June 2013 deployment of the experiment. Finally, the thesis describes plans for the future of the SCI-HI experiment, including deployment to South Africa in 2015.

  14. Agnostic stacking of intergalactic doublet absorption: measuring the Ne VIII population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephan; Pieri, Matthew M.; Mathur, Smita; Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2018-05-01

    We present a blind search for doublet intergalactic metal absorption with a method dubbed `agnostic stacking'. Using a forward-modelling framework, we combine this with direct detections in the literature to measure the overall metal population. We apply this novel approach to the search for Ne VIII absorption in a set of 26 high-quality COS spectra. We probe to an unprecedented low limit of log N>12.3 at 0.47≤z ≤1.34 over a path-length Δz = 7.36. This method selects apparent absorption without requiring knowledge of its source. Stacking this mixed population dilutes doublet features in composite spectra in a deterministic manner, allowing us to measure the proportion corresponding to Ne VIII absorption. We stack potential Ne VIII absorption in two regimes: absorption too weak to be significant in direct line studies (12.3 13.7). We do not detect Ne VIII absorption in either regime. Combining our measurements with direct detections, we find that the Ne VIII population is reproduced with a power-law column density distribution function with slope β = -1.86 ^{+0.18 }_{ -0.26} and normalization log f_{13.7} = -13.99 ^{+0.20 }_{ -0.23}, leading to an incidence rate of strong Ne VIII absorbers dn/dz =1.38 ^{+0.97 }_{ -0.82}. We infer a cosmic mass density for Ne VIII gas with 12.3 < log N < 15.0 of Ω _{{{Ne {VIII}}}} = 2.2 ^{+1.6 }_{ _-1.2} × 10^{-8}, a value significantly lower that than predicted by recent simulations. We translate this density into an estimate of the baryon density Ωb ≈ 1.8 × 10-3, constituting 4 per cent of the total baryonic mass.

  15. Agnostic Stacking of Intergalactic Doublet Absorption: Measuring the Ne VIII Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stephan; Pieri, Matthew M.; Mathur, Smita; Danforth, Charles W.; Michael Shull, J.

    2018-02-01

    We present a blind search for doublet intergalactic metal absorption with a method dubbed `agnostic stacking'. Using a forward-modelling framework we combine this with direct detections in the literature to measure the overall metal population. We apply this novel approach to the search for Ne VIII absorption in a set of 26 high-quality COS spectra. We probe to an unprecedented low limit of log N>12.3 at 0.47≤z ≤1.34 over a pathlength Δz = 7.36. This method selects apparent absorption without requiring knowledge of its source. Stacking this mixed population dilutes doublet features in composite spectra in a deterministic manner, allowing us to measure the proportion corresponding to Ne VIII absorption. We stack potential Ne VIII absorption in two regimes: absorption too weak to be significant in direct line studies (12.3 13.7). We do not detect Ne VIII absorption in either regime. Combining our measurements with direct detections, we find that the Ne VIII population is reproduced with a power law column density distribution function with slope β = -1.86+0.18-0.26 and normalisation log f_{13.7} = -13.99+0.20-0.23, leading to an incidence rate of strong Ne VIII absorbers dn/dz =1.38+0.97-0.82. We infer a cosmic mass density for Ne VIII gas with 12.3 < log N < 15.0 of Ω _{Ne VIII} = 2.2+1.6-1.2 × 10^{-8}, a value significantly lower that than predicted by recent simulations. We translate this density into an estimate of the baryon density Ωb ≈ 1.8 × 10-3, constituting 4% of the total baryonic mass.

  16. Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the intergalactic medium with primordial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Teppei; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2017-12-01

    The presence of ubiquitous magnetic fields in the universe is suggested from observations of radiation and cosmic ray from galaxies or the intergalactic medium (IGM). One possible origin of cosmic magnetic fields is the magnetogenesis in the primordial universe. Such magnetic fields are called primordial magnetic fields (PMFs), and are considered to affect the evolution of matter density fluctuations and the thermal history of the IGM gas. Hence the information of PMFs is expected to be imprinted on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect in the IGM. In this study, given an initial power spectrum of PMFs as P (k )∝B1Mpc 2knB , we calculate dynamical and thermal evolutions of the IGM under the influence of PMFs, and compute the resultant angular power spectrum of the Compton y -parameter on the sky. As a result, we find that two physical processes driven by PMFs dominantly determine the power spectrum of the Compton y -parameter; (i) the heating due to the ambipolar diffusion effectively works to increase the temperature and the ionization fraction, and (ii) the Lorentz force drastically enhances the density contrast on small scale just after the recombination epoch. These facts result in making the anisotropies of the CMB temperature on small scales, and we find that the signal goes up to 10 μ K2 around ℓ˜106 with B1 Mpc=0.1 nG and nB=0.0 . Therefore, CMB measurements on such small scales may provide a hint for the existence of the PMFs.

  17. Galactic wind X-ray heating of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Kohn, Saul

    2017-11-01

    The diffuse soft X-ray emissivity from galactic winds is computed during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We consider two analytic models, a pressure-driven wind and a superbubble model, and a 3D cosmological simulation including gas dynamics from the First Billion Years (FiBY) project. The analytic models are normalized to match the diffuse X-ray emissivity of star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. The cosmological simulation uses physically motivated star formation and wind prescriptions, and includes radiative transfer corrections. The models and the simulation all are found to produce sufficient heating of the intergalactic medium to be detectable by current and planned radio facilities through 21 cm measurements during the EoR. While the analytic models predict a 21 cm emission signal relative to the cosmic microwave backgroundsets in by ztrans ≃ 8-10, the predicted signal in the FiBY simulation remains in absorption until reionization completes. The 21 cm absorption differential brightness temperature reaches a minimum of ΔT ≃ -130 to -200 mK, depending on model. Allowing for additional heat from high-mass X-ray binaries pushes the transition to emission to ztrans ≃ 10-12, with shallower absorption signatures having a minimum of ΔT ≃ -110 to -140 mK. The 21 cm signal may be a means of distinguishing between the wind models, with the superbubble model favouring earlier reheating. While an early transition to emission may indicate X-ray binaries dominate the reheating, a transition to emission as early as ztrans > 12 would suggest the presence of additional heat sources.

  18. Velocity Fluctuations Driven by the Damped, Aperiodic Mode in the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, U.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-08-01

    On account of its finite temperature, the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is subject to thermal fluctuations. Due to the fundamental coupling between particles and fields in a plasma, the field fluctuations generate current densities by means of the Lorentz force and thereby affect both the density and the velocity fluctuations of the particles. Recently, a new damped, aperiodic mode was discovered that dominates field fluctuations in the IGM. Apart from its impact on the transport properties of the IGM that determine the propagation of cosmic rays, previous research has shown that this mode provides turbulent magnetic seed fields of 6× {10}-18 {{G}} that are an essential ingredient in the generation of cosmic magnetic fields. The current investigation addresses the influence of the mode on the particle motion. In order to describe the corresponding state of the turbulence, both the spectrum and the integrated total value of the mode-driven proton velocity fluctuations are computed. It is found that the latter amounts to 1.16× {10}8{ T}47/2{n}-7-1/2 {cm} {{{s}}}-1 assuming a temperature of {T}e={T}p={10}4{T}4 {{K}} and a density of {n}e={n}p={10}-7{n}-7 {{cm}}-3. This value is two orders of magnitude larger than the thermal velocity. If the IGM neutrals adopt the same velocities as the protons by mutual charge exchange and elastic collisions (ambipolar diffusion), atomic lines propagating through the IGM are expected to display spectral broadening, enhanced by a factor of 90 beyond the thermal level in the case of hydrogen. This opens the window to a first direct observation of the damped aperiodic mode. Other observational techniques such as dispersion measure, rotation measure, and scintillation data are not applicable in this case because the mode is a transverse one, and, as such, it does not induce the required density fluctuations, as is shown here.

  19. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2

  20. The distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code.

  1. Dynamics of the sweeping of interstellar clouds from a rotating galaxy as it moves in the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsuk, A. G.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamical interaction of interstellar clouds in a disk-shaped galaxy with the intergalactic medium is studied for arbitrary orientation of the rotation axis of the galaxy relative to the direction of motion of the disk. It is shown that the clouds are swept out in a time less than about the acceleration time. In the same time scale the equilibrium of the inner regions of the gas layer, which are stable against the dynamic pressure, must be appreciably disturbed. The efficiency of the sweeping process decreases with increasing degree of concentration of mass toward the center of the galaxy. The angle of inclination of the rotation axis of the disk to the direction of its motion at which the process is most effective depends on the degree of concentration of the mass toward the plane of the disk and, in the general case, is nonzero. It is concluded that the sweeping of dense molecular clouds from massive galaxies has a low probability.

  2. On the deuterium abundance and the importance of stellar mass loss in the interstellar and intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Quataert, Eliot; Faucher-Giguére, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Chan, T. K.; Feldmann, Robert; Hafen, Zachary

    2018-03-01

    We quantify the gas-phase abundance of deuterium and fractional contribution of stellar mass loss to the gas in cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. At low metallicity, our simulations confirm that the deuterium abundance is very close to the primordial value. The chemical evolution of the deuterium abundance that we derive here agrees quantitatively with analytical chemical evolution models. We furthermore find that the relation between the deuterium and oxygen abundance exhibits very little scatter. We compare our simulations to existing high-redshift observations in order to determine a primordial deuterium fraction of (2.549 ± 0.033) × 10-5 and stress that future observations at higher metallicity can also be used to constrain this value. At fixed metallicity, the deuterium fraction decreases slightly with decreasing redshift, due to the increased importance of mass loss from intermediate-mass stars. We find that the evolution of the average deuterium fraction in a galaxy correlates with its star formation history. Our simulations are consistent with observations of the Milky Way's interstellar medium: the deuterium fraction at the solar circle is 85 - 92 per cent of the primordial deuterium fraction. We use our simulations to make predictions for future observations. In particular, the deuterium abundance is lower at smaller galactocentric radii and in higher mass galaxies, showing that stellar mass loss is more important for fuelling star formation in these regimes (and can even dominate). Gas accreting onto galaxies has a deuterium fraction above that of the galaxies' interstellar medium, but below the primordial fraction, because it is a mix of gas accreting from the intergalactic medium and gas previously ejected or stripped from galaxies.

  3. Filling the Void: A Comprehensive Survey of the Intergalactic Medium at z 1 Using STIS/COS Archival Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Vikram

    2017-08-01

    There exists a large void in our understanding of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z=0.5-1.5, spanning a significant cosmic time of 4 Gyr. This hole resulted from a paucity of near-UV QSO spectra, which were historically very expensive to obtain. However, with the advent of COS and the HST UV initiative, sufficient STIS/COS NUV spectra have finally become available, enabling the first statistical analyses. We propose a comprehensive study of the z 1 IGM using the Ly-alpha forest of 26 archival QSO spectra. This analysis will: (1) measure the distribution of HI absorbers to several percent precision down to log NHI background (UVB) at that epoch; (2) measure the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum to 12%, providing another precision test of LCDM and our theory of the IGM; (3) measure the thermal state of the IGM, which reflects the balance of heating (photoheating, HI/HeII reionization) and cooling (Hubble expansion) of cosmic baryons, and directly verify the predicted cooldown of IGM gas after reionization for the first time; (4) generate high-quality reductions, coadds, and continuum fits that will be released to the public to enable other science cases. These results, along with our state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations, and theoretical models of the UVB, will fill the 4 Gyr hole in our understanding of the IGM. When combined with existing HST and ground-based data from lower and higher z, they will lead to a complete, empirical description of the IGM from HI reionization to the present, spanning more than 10 Gyr of cosmic history, adding substantially to Hubble's legacy of discovery on the IGM.

  4. The concerted impact of galaxies and QSOs on the ionization and thermal state of the intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Meiksin, Avery; Compostella, Michele; Eide, Marius B.; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2017-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the ionization and thermal structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around a high-redshift (z = 10) QSO, using a large suite of cosmological, multifrequency radiative transfer simulations, exploring the contribution from galaxies as well as the QSO, and the effect of X-rays and secondary ionization. We show that in high-z QSO environments both the central QSO and the surrounding galaxies concertedly control the reionization morphology of hydrogen and helium and have a non-linear impact on the thermal structure of the IGM. A QSO imprints a distinctive morphology on H II regions if its total ionizing photon budget exceeds that of the surrounding galaxies since the onset of hydrogen reionization; otherwise, the morphology shows little difference from that of H II regions produced only by galaxies. In addition, the spectral shape of the collective radiation field from galaxies and QSOs controls the thickness of the I-fronts. While a UV-obscured QSO can broaden the I-front, the contribution from other UV sources, either galaxies or unobscured QSOs, is sufficient to maintain a sharp I-front. X-ray photons from the QSO are responsible for a prominent extended tail of partial ionization ahead of the I-front. QSOs leave a unique imprint on the morphology of He II/He III regions. We suggest that, while the physical state of the IGM is modified by QSOs, the most direct test to understand the role of galaxies and QSOs during reionization is to perform galaxy surveys in a region of sky imaged by 21 cm tomography.

  5. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc) 3 . We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10 4 K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  6. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  7. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  8. Contribution to the study of the intergalactic medium physical properties through infrared, sub-millimetric and millimetric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointecouteau, Etienne

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns the largest self-gravitating structures of the Universe, clusters of galaxies. Due to its thermodynamical conditions, their intracluster atmosphere is completely ionised. This gas is observed at X-ray wavelengths through its free-free emission, and at submillimeter-millimeter wavelengths through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. This effect is due to the inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background photons by the hot intracluster electrons. First, taking into account the weakly relativistic behaviour of the electrons, we performed exact calculations of the SZ spectrum. The resulting spectra show the strong dependency of the SZ effect spectral shape with respect to the gas temperature. Making use of this work, we analysed the millimeter data from the DiaBolo spectrophotometer in the direction of a massive and distant cluster, RXJ1347-1145. With a high angular resolution, we have mapped the centre and the extended emission of this cluster, leading to the detection of the strongest SZ effect measured to date. The comparison with the X-ray data shows some very exciting and puzzling differences. In the third part, we present for the first time the spectrum of a galaxy cluster, A2163, from far infrared (90 μm) to millimeter (2.1 mm) wavelengths. The constraints set by the FIR measurements on the residual dust emission, allowed us put strong constraints on the SZ parameters. Finally, we propose a new method which allows to extract the intracluster gas temperature from a set of SZ data. We have quantified the reliability of this method in case of observations obtained from the Planck surveyor and the Herschel space missions. (author) [fr

  9. New limits on 21 cm epoch of reionization from paper-32 consistent with an x-ray heated intergalactic medium at z = 7.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Aaron R.; Liu, Adrian; Ali, Zaki S.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Pat; Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2014-01-01

    We present new constraints on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization (EoR) power spectrum derived from three months of observing with a 32 antenna, dual-polarization deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of the delay-spectrum approach to avoiding foregrounds, achieving over eight orders of magnitude of foreground suppression (in mK 2 ). Combining this approach with a procedure for removing off-diagonal covariances arising from instrumental systematics, we achieve a best 2σ upper limit of (41 mK) 2 for k = 0.27 h Mpc –1 at z = 7.7. This limit falls within an order of magnitude of the brighter predictions of the expected 21 cm EoR signal level. Using the upper limits set by these measurements, we generate new constraints on the brightness temperature of 21 cm emission in neutral regions for various reionization models. We show that for several ionization scenarios, our measurements are inconsistent with cold reionization. That is, heating of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) is necessary to remain consistent with the constraints we report. Hence, we have suggestive evidence that by z = 7.7, the H I has been warmed from its cold primordial state, probably by X-rays from high-mass X-ray binaries or miniquasars. The strength of this evidence depends on the ionization state of the IGM, which we are not yet able to constrain. This result is consistent with standard predictions for how reionization might have proceeded.

  10. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible.In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later c

  11. An Empirical Determination of the Intergalactic Background Light Using Near-Infrared Deep Galaxy Survey Data Out to 5 Micrometers and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 micrometers. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) terraelectron volts. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  12. Servicing Mission 4 and the Extraordinary Science of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Just two years ago, NASA astronauts performed a challenging and flawless final Space Shuttle servicing mission to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. With science instruments repaired on board and two new ones installed, the observatory. is more powerful now than ever before. I will show the dramatic highlights of the servicing mission and present some of the early scientific results from the refurbished telescope. Its high sensitivity and multi-wavelength capabilities are revealing the highest redshift galaxies ever seen, as well as details of the cosmic web of intergalactic medium, large scale structure formation, solar system bodies, and stellar evolution. Enlightening studies of dark matter, dark energy, and exoplanet atmospheres add to the profound contributions to astrophysics that are being made with Hubble, setting a critical stage for future observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, N. F. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm

  14. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  15. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  16. FIREBall-2: Trailblazing observations of the space UV circumgalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the circumgalactic medium of low redshift galaxies (0.3team with two successful flights (2007 Engineering, 2009 Science). FB-1 provided the strongest constrains on intergalactic and circumgalactic (IGM, CGM) emission available from any instrument at the time. FIREBall-2 has been significantly upgraded compared to FB-1, and is in the final stages of integration for a September 2016 flight from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The spectrograph has been redesigned with a wider field of view and greater efficiency. An upgraded detector system including a groundbreaking high QE, low-noise, UV optimized CCD detector is under final dark current and noise testing and will improve instrument performance by more than an order of magnitude. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and gondola flight support team, with construction of all components complete and final alignment and testing ongoing. We propose three additional years of funding to support the FIREBall-2 team in one additional flight in 2018 to fully utilize the upgraded spectrograph. This second flight, along with the funded 2016 flight, will conduct an initial blind CGM survey of dense fields at z 0.7, conduct a targeted search of circumquasar (CQM) media for selected targets, and conduct follow up on likely tar-gets selected via GALEX and a pilot survey conducted by our group. We will also conduct a statistical search for the faint IGM via statistical stacking of our data. The FIREBall-2 team includes two female graduate students in key roles (both of whom are finishing their PhDs in 2016) and is overseen by a female Postdoctoral scholar (supported by NSF AAPF and Caltech Millikan Fellowships, in addition to a recent Roman Technology Fellowship award). Additional funding is necessary to keep this highly qualified balloon team together for a second flight. FIREBall-2 will test key technologies

  17. Russian space

    Science.gov (United States)

    As well as authorizing NASA's funding for FY 1998 and 1999, the Civilian Space Authorization Act (H.R. 1275) would affect U.S.-Russia interactions in space. Regarding the International Space Station, the bill: prohibits transferring funds to Russia to pay for work on elements that are Russia's responsibility;

  18. Space administration

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  19. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative......Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  20. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  1. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Origins Space Telescope

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  2. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  3. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  4. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  5. Performative Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneklink, Annette

    2009-01-01

    that can be related to traditional architectural concepts in terms of dealing with space, body, time and movement. The paper considers this performativity and dual spatiality as being a processual architecture, constantly reconfiguring new hybrids between space, image and user. This dual spatiality raises...

  6. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  7. Dust in the planetary system: Dust interactions in space plasmas of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Czechowski, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic dust particles are small solid objects observed in the solar planetary system and in many astronomical objects like the surrounding of stars, the interstellar and even the intergalactic medium. In the solar system the dust is best observed and most often found within the region of the orbits of terrestrial planets where the dust interactions and dynamics are observed directly from spacecraft. Dust is observed in space near Earth and also enters the atmosphere of the Earth where it takes part in physical and chemical processes. Hence space offers a laboratory to study dust-plasma interactions and dust dynamics. A recent example is the observation of nanodust of sizes smaller than 10 nm. We outline the theoretical considerations on which our knowledge of dust electric charges in space plasmas are founded. We discuss the dynamics of the dust particles and show how the small charged particles are accelerated by the solar wind that carries a magnetic field. Finally, as examples for the space observation of cosmic dust interactions, we describe the first detection of fast nanodust in the solar wind near Earth orbit and the first bi-static observations of PMSE, the radar echoes that are observed in the Earth ionosphere in the presence of charged dust.

  8. Space Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this second of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space robotics with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space infrastructure development. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and the concepts in this paper are developed from fundamental manipulator robotics. This second paper considers the application of space manipulators to on-orbit servicing (OOS, an application which has considerable commercial application. I provide some background to the notion of robotic on-orbit servicing and explore how manipulator control algorithms may be modified to accommodate space manipulators which operate in the micro-gravity of space.

  9. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  10. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  11. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  12. Riesz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, A C

    1983-01-01

    While Volume I (by W.A.J. Luxemburg and A.C. Zaanen, NHML Volume 1, 1971) is devoted to the algebraic aspects of the theory, this volume emphasizes the analytical theory of Riesz spaces and operators between these spaces. Though the numbering of chapters continues on from the first volume, this does not imply that everything covered in Volume I is required for this volume, however the two volumes are to some extent complementary.

  13. Space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi

    1988-01-01

    Japan will take part in the LML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory 1) program that is scheduled to be carried out with space shuttles to be launched in 1991. The program will be followed by the LS-J (Space Laboratory-Japan) and IML-2 programs. A reliable dosimetry system is currently required to be established to evaluate the radiations in space. The present article reviews major features of different types of space radiations and requirements of dosimeters for these radiations. The radiations in the space environment consist of: 1) electrons and protons that have been trapped by the terrestrial magnetism, 2) corpuscular, gamma-and X-rays released from the sun, and 3) galactic cosmic rays (corpuscular, gamma-and X-rays). The effects of the trapped radiations will be low if a spacecraft can get through the zone of such radiations in a short period of time. The effects of galactic cosmic rays are much smaller than those of the trapped radiations. A solar flare can give significant contributions to the total radiations received by a spacecraft. An extremely large flare can release a fatal amount of radiations to the crew of a spacecraft. Prediction of such a large flare is of great important for a long trip through the space. Significant improvements should be made on existing dosimeters. (Nogami, K.)

  14. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  15. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  16. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  17. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  18. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  19. Einstein spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Aleksej Z

    1969-01-01

    Einstein Spaces presents the mathematical basis of the theory of gravitation and discusses the various spaces that form the basis of the theory of relativity. This book examines the contemporary development of the theory of relativity, leading to the study of such problems as gravitational radiation, the interaction of fields, and the behavior of elementary particles in a gravitational field. Organized into nine chapters, this book starts with an overview of the principles of the special theory of relativity, with emphasis on the mathematical aspects. This text then discusses the need for a ge

  20. Entering Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  1. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  2. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  3. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  4. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  5. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  6. Hilbert space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Keck

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a class of abstract functional integro-differential stochastic evolution equations in a real separable Hilbert space. Global existence results concerning mild and periodic solutions are formulated under various growth and compactness conditions. Also, related convergence results are established and an example arising in the mathematical modeling of heat conduction is discussed to illustrate the abstract theory.

  7. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  8. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    State-space reduction techniques, used primarily in model-checkers, all rely on the idea that some actions are independent, hence could be taken in any (respective) order while put in parallel, without changing the semantics. It is thus not necessary to consider all execution paths...

  9. Soft Connected Spaces and Soft Paracompact Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fucai Lin

    2013-01-01

    Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft closed mapping, soft open mappings, soft connected spaces and soft paracompact spaces. We also redefine the concept of soft points such that it is reasonable in soft topological spaces. Mo...

  10. Phenotype spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Frédéric; Seal, Gavin J

    2010-02-01

    The topological viewpoint on spaces of phenotypes presented in Stadler et al. (J Theor Biol 213:241-274, 2001) is revisited, and a quantified version is proposed. While necessary probabilistic information can be encoded in a topological- like fashion, it turns out that it is not reflected adequately by the concept of continuity. We propose alternative models, but the behavior of maps make these models non-topological in fundamental ways.

  11. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  12. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  13. Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    attack Laser attack Jamming Indications and warning Cyber attack Environmental monitoring System status     Re-entry Detect and track Cataloging...vulnerable to interference or attack. Space segments are vulnerable to attacks or interference such as direct-ascent anti- satellite interceptors, laser ...blinding, and dazzling . Additionally, ground-to-satellite link segments are susceptible to jamming and other forms of interference, and ground

  14. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  15. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  16. FIREBall-2: Trailblazing observations of the space UV circumgalactic medium (Columbia University, Co-I Proposal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiminovich, David

    Columbia University is a Co-I institution in a collaborative research program with Caltech, the Lead Institution (PI: Christopher Martin). The Faint Intergalactic-medium Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall-2) is designed to discover and map faint emission from the circumgalactic medium of low redshift galaxies (0.3team with two successful flights (2007 Engineering, 2009 Science). FB-1 provided the strongest constrains on intergalactic and circumgalactic (IGM, CGM) emission available from any instrument at the time. FIREBall-2 has been significantly upgraded compared to FB-1, and is in the final stages of integration for a September 2016 flight from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The spectrograph has been redesigned with a wider field of view and greater efficiency. An upgraded detector system including a groundbreaking high QE, low-noise, UV optimized CCD detector is under final dark current and noise testing and will improve instrument performance by more than an order of magnitude. CNES is providing the spectrograph, gondola, and gondola flight support team, with construction of all components complete and final alignment and testing ongoing. We propose three additional years of funding to support the FIREBall-2 team in one additional flight in 2018 to fully utilize the upgraded spectrograph. This second flight, along with the funded 2016 flight, will conduct an initial blind CGM survey of dense fields at z 0.7, conduct a targeted search of circumquasar (CQM) media for selected targets, and conduct follow up on likely tar-gets selected via GALEX and a pilot survey conducted by our group. We will also conduct a statistical search for the faint IGM via statistical stacking of our data. The FIREBall-2 team includes two female graduate students in key roles (both of whom are finishing their PhDs in 2016) and is overseen by a female Postdoctoral scholar (supported by NSF AAPF and Caltech Millikan Fellowships, in addition to a recent Roman Technology Fellowship award

  17. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  18. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  19. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  20. Unliveable Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    The thesis is concerned with spatial practices of resistance employed in Palestinian struggles against Israel’s violent dispossession of Palestinian land through half a century of occupation. In the political configuration of the built space of the West Bank, architecture appears as a tactically...... deployed weapon of territorial control and a dialectical resistance to displacement. Standing in the position of being both a means to achieve an objective and the objective in itself, the elementary gestures of architecture —to control and inhabit a place —are employed in a conflict that concerns......, fundamentally, who has the right to a future in this land. By viewing architecture in its dual dimension of praxis and object, built structures are investigated as agents that induce and manifest territorial struggles. The spatial instrumentalisation of architecture is effected by Israel through commonplace...

  1. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  2. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  3. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  4. Soft mappings space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established.

  5. Starbursts at space ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Delgado, Rosa M.

    2006-06-01

    Starbursts are systems with very high star formation rate per unit area. They are the preferred place where massive stars form; the main source of thermal and mechanical heating in the interstellar medium, and the factory where the heavy elements form. Thus, starbursts play an important role in the origin and evolution of galaxies. The similarities between the physical properties of local starbursts and high-z star-forming galaxies, highlight the cosmological relevance of starbursts. On the other hand, nearby starbursts are laboratories where to study violent star formation processes and their interaction with the interstellar and intergalactic media, in detail and deeply. Starbursts are bright at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, as they are in the far-infrared, due to the ‘picket-fence’ interstellar dust distribution. After the pioneering IUE program, high spatial and spectral resolution UV observations of local starburst galaxies, mainly taken with HST and FUSE, have made relevant contributions to the following issues: The determination of the initial mass function (IMF) in violent star forming systems in low and high metallicity environments, and in dense (e.g. in stellar clusters) and diffuse environments: A Salpeter IMF with high-mass stars constrains well the UV properties. The modes of star formation: Starburst clusters are an important mode of star formation. Super-stellar clusters have properties similar to globular clusters. The role of starbursts in AGN: Nuclear starbursts can dominate the UV light in Seyfert 2 galaxies, having bolometric luminosities similar to the estimated bolometric luminosities of the obscured AGN. The interaction between massive stars and the interstellar and intergalactic media: Outflows in cold, warm and coronal phases leave their imprints on the UV interstellar lines. Outflows of a few hundred km s-1 are ubiquitous phenomena in starbursts. These metal-rich outflows and the ionizing radiation can travel to the halo of galaxies

  6. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  7. Space Storms and Space Weather Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daglis, I. A

    2001-01-01

    ... were: to provide a systematic overview and rigorous introduction to the physics of space storms; to review recent spacecraft measurements that have provided new insight into the dynamics and effects of space storms...

  8. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  9. Spaces on sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with spaces B s pq and F s pq of positive smoothness s>0, based on L p -spaces with 0< p≤∞ and reproducing formulae for smooth functions. These spaces are compared with other B-spaces and F-spaces obtained by different means

  10. Continuum of haptic space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of haptic space has first received serious attention in 1937 by Blumenfeld. Haptic space, as used in this chapter and indeed also by Blumenfeld, involves the space around us which we can reach by touch from a fixed position. How this space is related to the space through which we

  11. Deep Space Atomic Clock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) project will develop a small, low mass atomic clock based on mercury-ion trap technology and demonstrate it in space providing the...

  12. Optical Space Telescope Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  13. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  14. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  15. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  16. Minimal sequential Hausdorff spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhamini M. P. Nayar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A sequential space (X,T is called minimal sequential if no sequential topology on X is strictly weaker than T. This paper begins the study of minimal sequential Hausdorff spaces. Characterizations of minimal sequential Hausdorff spaces are obtained using filter bases, sequences, and functions satisfying certain graph conditions. Relationships between this class of spaces and other classes of spaces, for example, minimal Hausdorff spaces, countably compact spaces, H-closed spaces, SQ-closed spaces, and subspaces of minimal sequential spaces, are investigated. While the property of being sequential is not (in general preserved by products, some information is provided on the question of when the product of minimal sequential spaces is minimal sequential.

  17. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  18. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  19. Open space and imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Scott Place; Bruce Hronek

    2001-01-01

    Open space is a necessary tool in our park system for fostering creativity and allowing for relaxation. In addition, open space areas allow people to exercise, find self-worth, and to use their imagination. This manuscript addresses the issue of what is happening in open space provided in several park settings. Do residents use open space as a place where they can play...

  20. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  1. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  2. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  3. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  4. A Space-based Observational Strategy for Characterizing the First Stars and Galaxies Using the Redshifted 21 cm Global Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bradley, Richard; Tauscher, Keith; Furlanetto, Steven; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul; Rapetti, David; Purcell, William; Newell, David; Draper, David; MacDowall, Robert; Bowman, Judd; Nhan, Bang; Wollack, Edward J.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Jones, Dayton; Kasper, Justin C.; Loeb, Abraham; Datta, Abhirup; Pritchard, Jonathan; Switzer, Eric; Bicay, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The redshifted 21 cm monopole is expected to be a powerful probe of the epoch of the first stars and galaxies (10global 21 cm signal is sensitive to the thermal and ionization state of hydrogen gas and thus provides a tracer of sources of energetic photons—primarily hot stars and accreting black holes—which ionize and heat the high redshift intergalactic medium (IGM). This paper presents a strategy for observations of the global spectrum with a realizable instrument placed in a low-altitude lunar orbit, performing night-time 40-120 MHz spectral observations, while on the farside to avoid terrestrial radio frequency interference, ionospheric corruption, and solar radio emissions. The frequency structure, uniformity over large scales, and unpolarized state of the redshifted 21 cm spectrum are distinct from the spectrally featureless, spatially varying, and polarized emission from the bright foregrounds. This allows a clean separation between the primordial signal and foregrounds. For signal extraction, we model the foreground, instrument, and 21 cm spectrum with eigenmodes calculated via Singular Value Decomposition analyses. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to explore the parameter space defined by the coefficients associated with these modes, we illustrate how the spectrum can be measured and how astrophysical parameters (e.g., IGM properties, first star characteristics) can be constrained in the presence of foregrounds using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE).

  5. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  6. Function valued metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Mirzavaziri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of an ℱ-metric, as a function valued distance mapping, on a set X and we investigate the theory of ℱ-metrics paces. We show that every metric space may be viewed as an F-metric space and every ℱ-metric space (X,δ can be regarded as a topological space (X,τδ. In addition, we prove that the category of the so-called extended F-metric spaces properly contains the category of metric spaces. We also introduce the concept of an `ℱ-metric space as a completion of an ℱ-metric space and, as an application to topology, we prove that each normal topological space is `ℱ-metrizable.

  7. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. dissertation takes its offset in the migration of technology and computing power into our physical environment. The consequence of this movement, termed ubiquitous computing (Wieser, 1991), is a new relationship between humans, technology and spaces. In this new context, I seek...... to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...... and a Phenomenological experienced place. In this perspective, place is created by humans as they appropriate space in investing it with emotions and memories and hereby making it meaningful. Space consists of formable physical and digital space, whereas place is made up by four dimensions relating to personal, physical...

  8. Snyder space revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Lei, E-mail: llv1@crimson.ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Stern, A., E-mail: astern@bama.ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2012-01-21

    We examine basis functions on momentum space for the three-dimensional Euclidean Snyder algebra. We argue that the momentum space is isomorphic to the SO(3) group manifold, and that the basis functions span either one of two Hilbert spaces. This implies the existence of two distinct lattice structures of space. Continuous rotations and translations are unitarily implementable on these lattices. - Highlights: {yields} Basis functions for the three-dimensional Snyder algebra span either one of two distinct Hilbert spaces. {yields} They imply the existence of two different lattice structures of space. {yields} Continuous translations and rotations are unitarily implementable on such lattices.

  9. Invariants of directed spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Directed spaces are the objects of study within directed algebraic topology. They are characterised by spaces of directed paths associated to a source and a target, both elements of an underlying topological space. The algebraic topology of these path spaces and their connections are studied from...... a categorical perspective. In particular, we study the preorder category associated to a directed space and various "quotient" categories arising from algebraic topological functors. Furthermore, we propose and study a new notion of directed homotopy equivalence between directed spaces....

  10. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  11. [Reflections on physical spaces and mental spaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yi

    2013-08-01

    This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition. The author uses Gilles Deleuses's opinion regarding the 17th-century Baroque style and contemporary social collective symptoms as an explanation. From these theoretical studies, the author analyzes the differences of spatial epistemology generated by Taiwan's special geological text. Finally, the author applies Michel Foucault's studies on spatial context to assess the possible application of this thesis of reciprocal impacts from mental spaces to physical spaces in a nursing context.

  12. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  13. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 361, č. 6 (2016), 198/1-198/8 ISSN 0004-640X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : cosmic background radiation * interstellar dust * light extinction * universe opacity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.622, year: 2016

  14. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with high-redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calverley, Alexander Peter

    2011-11-01

    Clues about the timing of reionization and the nature of the ionizing sources responsible are imprinted in the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. In this thesis, I use high-resolution quasar spectra in conjunction with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations to probe the IGM at high redshift, focusing on the ionization and thermal state of the gas. After reionization, the ionization state of the IGM is set by the intensity of the ultraviolet background (UVB), quantified by the hydrogen photoionization rate, Γ_bkg. At high redshifts this has been estimated by measuring the mean flux in the Lyα forest, and scaling Γ_bkg in simulations such that the simulated mean flux matches the observed value. In Chapter 3 I investigate whether the precision of these estimates can be improved by using the entire flux probability distribution function (PDF) instead of only the mean flux. Although I find it cannot improve the precision directly, the flux PDF can potentially be used to constrain other sources of error in observational estimates of Γ_bkg, and so may increase the precision indirectly. The ionizing output of a quasar will locally dominate over the UVB, and this leads to enhanced transmission bluewards of the quasar Lyα line, known as the proximity effect. In Chapter 4 I present the first measurements of Γ_bkg at z > 5 from the proximity effect. The UVB intensity declines smoothly with redshift over 4.6 6.4. There is a drop in Γ_bkg by roughly a factor of five, which corresponds to a drop in the ionizing emissivity by about a factor of two. Such a redshift evolution in the emissivity cannot continue to much higher redshift without reionization failing to complete, which suggests that reionization cannot have ended much higher than z = 6.4. Estimates of Γ_bkg from the proximity effect and the mean flux are generally discrepant at z ∼ 2-4, with those from the proximity effect systematically higher. This is generally attributed to effects of the quasar environment. I investigate the significance of several environmental biases on proximity effect measurements at z ∼ 5-6 in Chapter 5. The biases are found to be small, and so the proximity effect is expected to give relatively unbiased estimates of Γ_bkg at z > 5, in contrast to lower redshifts. Photoionization heats the gas in the IGM, and so the thermal history of the IGM provides important constraints on reionization. The thermal state of the IGM is reflected in the level of small-scale structure in the Lyα forest. In Chapter 6 I quantify the small-scale structure using two independent statistics, the curvature and the peakiness, and convert these into a temperature by comparing with simulations. These are the first measurements of the temperature in the general IGM at z > 5. Both statistics show an increase in the temperature by a factor of roughly two from z = 4.4 to 5.6. This rise is sensitive, however, to any smoothing of the gas density distribution due to the thermal history spanning reionization. I find that this should only be a small effect, as otherwise the corrected temperatures at z ∼ 4-5 are implausibly low. The temperature evolution therefore suggests a late reionization. The temperatures at z ≥ 4.8 are well fit by an adiabatic cooling curve, for which reasonable peak temperatures at the end of reionization are reached at 6 ≤ z ≤ 7. The temperatures at z ∼ 4-5 are consistent with reionization being carried out by Pop II stars. In conclusion, the ionization and thermal state of the IGM at z ∼ 5-6 suggest a late hydrogen reionization, driven by star-forming galaxies and ending around 6.5 ≤ z ≤ 7. This is consistent with other recent lines of observational evidence, and supports theoretical models that infer a late reionization from the observed star formation rate history.

  15. Determination of the Mean HI Absorption of the Intergalactic Medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... 75014 Paris, France. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. Universidade de Feira de Santana, Av. Transnordestinam S/N, 40036-900, Feira de Santana, BA - Brasil.

  16. Determination of the Mean HI Absorption of the Intergalactic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The derived continua are shown for each quasar in the Appendix. 4.1 The power law (PL) method. The overall shape of the quasar continuum is often modelled as a power law plus emission lines. One of the standard methods is to extrapolate in the Lyman-α forest the power-law (PL) calculated over wavelengths redward of ...

  17. A green flash from the Moon; BOSS measures the distant universe in 3D; Cuts in Parliament; When asteroids collide; SpaceX to beat China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The biggest 3D map of the distant universe, based on the intergalactic hydrogen distribution as well as on the distribution of visible galaxies, has been produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III).

  18. Flexible Composites for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload mass reduction and packaging efficiency in launch vehicles are essential for deep space exploration.  Inflatable softgoods have been identified as attractive...

  19. Space as interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    to conceptualize space as more than the physical container for human activity. I do this by investigating space as interface. Based on a theory of space and place set forth by Tuan (Tuan, 1977), and informed by an explorative research approach, I make the distinction between space and place as a Euclidian space...... with actual use (Hallnäs et al. 2006). The challenge thus becomes understanding space as the interface, and further how intentions can be induced into the design of space in ways that point towards the dimensions of place, when interpreted in actual use situations. By designing and exploring a range......This Ph.D. dissertation takes its offset in the migration of technology and computing power into our physical environment. The consequence of this movement, termed ubiquitous computing (Wieser, 1991), is a new relationship between humans, technology and spaces. In this new context, I seek...

  20. Beyond the Space Cadre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Bradley W

    2008-01-01

    .... For the past five decades, the United States has maintained an advantage in space; however, its adversaries are attempting to gain the asymmetrical advantage by taking away America's space superiority...

  1. 2001 Industry Studies: Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argodale, John

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. space industry faces significant challenges in the 21st century. Although the U.S. dominates space in terms of investment and capabilities, commercial competition from Europe is formidable and growing...

  2. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  3. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  4. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  5. Space Physics Data Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SPDF is a project of the Heliospheric Science Division (HSD) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. SPDF consists of web-based services for survey and high...

  6. The space gravity environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Beysens, D.A.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally thought that gravity is zero on an object travelling at constant velocity in space. This is not exactly so. We detail in the following those causes that make space gravity not strictly zero.

  7. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  8. Beyond the Space Cadre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Bradley W

    2008-01-01

    The Marine Corps must develop an expeditionary trained and equipped core of space professionals who can provide the commander with integrated space analysis, products, and expertise during the Marine...

  9. Space spider crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Pennington, Jack E. (Inventor); Kinkead, Rebecca L. (Inventor); Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space spider crane for the movement, placement, and or assembly of various components on or in the vicinity of a space structure is described. As permanent space structures are utilized by the space program, a means will be required to transport cargo and perform various repair tasks. A space spider crane comprising a small central body with attached manipulators and legs fulfills this requirement. The manipulators may be equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors or tools to accomplish various repair tasks. The legs are also equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors to grip the space structure. Control of the space spider crane may be achieved either by computer software or a remotely situated human operator, who maintains visual contact via television cameras mounted on the space spider crane. One possible walking program consists of a parallel motion walking program whereby the small central body alternatively leans forward and backward relative to end effectors.

  10. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  11. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  12. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1922-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  13. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  14. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  15. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  16. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  17. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  18. Intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Han

    2004-01-01

    Using the idea of intuitionistic fuzzy set due to Atanassov [Intuitionistic fuzzy sets. in: V. Sgurev (Ed.), VII ITKR's Session, Sofia June, 1983; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 20 (1986) 87], we define the notion of intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces as a natural generalization of fuzzy metric spaces due to George and Veeramani [Fuzzy Sets Syst. 64 (1994) 395] and prove some known results of metric spaces including Baire's theorem and the Uniform limit theorem for intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

  19. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  20. VOIP over Space Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, C.; Kwong, W.; Pang, Jackson; Gao, Jerry; Clare, L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) over a space networking environment. The topics include: 1) Drivers for VOIP in Space; 2) Challenges in the Space Networking Environment: Long Latencies, Path errors, Simplex paths, Asymmetric paths, QoS requirements, Team-based operations, and Overhead concerns; 3) Possible VOIPOSN approaches; 4) Study of BER, code type and voice frame length on PESQ-MOS; 5) Codec Latency Trade Space; and 6) Testbed.

  1. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  2. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that the moduli space of morphisms of a fixed degree from to a projective space has a smooth compactification. As another application of the cohomology of the Picard bundle, we compute a top intersection number for the moduli space confirming the Vafa–Intriligator formulae in the nodal case.

  3. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  4. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  5. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  6. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  7. Finding industrial space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    2011-01-01

    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...

  8. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  9. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. κ-Rindler space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the noncommutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call κ-Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of κ-Minkowski space. We then rederive the commutator structure of κ-Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the κ-Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, 1/κ correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  11. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  12. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  13. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  14. INFORMATION SPACE– EDUCATIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. The second step was to identify how information space intersects with the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school. Interrelationship between the above mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support the family space, education and institutional space. Also, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. But this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or can support systems if we knew the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work in order to accomplish the educational scope.

  15. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-23

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  16. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...

  17. Space Technology Research Grants Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Technology Research Grants Program will accelerate the development of "push" technologies to support the future space science and exploration...

  18. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L

    2008-01-01

    .... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...

  19. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  20. θ-regular spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Janković

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define a topological space X to be θ-regular if every filterbase in X with a nonempty θ-adherence has a nonempty adherence. It is shown that the class of θ-regular topological spaces includes rim-compact topological spaces and that θ-regular H(i (Hausdorff topological spaces are compact (regular. The concept of θ-regularity is used to extend a closed graph theorem of Rose [1]. It is established that an r-subcontinuous closed graph function into a θ-regular topological space is continuous. Another sufficient condition for continuity of functions due to Rose [1] is also extended by introducing the concept of almost weak continuity which is weaker than both weak continuity of Levine and almost continuity of Husain. It is shown that an almost weakly continuous closed graph function into a strongly locally compact topological space is continuous.

  1. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    and its content. The urban and spatial question goes far beyond museums and other buildings for art: how in democratic societies should public spaces be supported by art and how can public art support ´cityness´ and meaning versus spaces of consumerism. Famous but egocentric buildings with the main......art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... historically considered even the mother of all arts) - but more relevant: what are appropriate architectural spaces for presenting, exhibiting, contemplating, reflecting, meditating, discussing, enjoying, dissenting, debating creations of art. Simplified, this is a question about the relation between package...

  2. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  3. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  4. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  5. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  6. Logic for physical space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the early days of physics, space has called for means to represent, experiment, and reason about it. Apart from physicists, the concept of space has intrigued also philosophers, mathematicians and, more recently, computer scientists. This longstanding interest has left us with a plethora...... of mathematical tools developed to represent and work with space. Here we take a special look at this evolution by considering the perspective of Logic. From the initial axiomatic efforts of Euclid, we revisit the major milestones in the logical representation of space and investigate current trends. In doing so......, we do not only consider classical logic, but we indulge ourselves with modal logics. These present themselves naturally by providing simple axiomatizations of different geometries, topologies, space-time causality, and vector spaces....

  7. Minimal TUD spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. McCluskey

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A topological space is TUD if the derived set of each point is the union of disjoint closed sets. We show that there is a minimal TUD space which is not just the Alexandroff topology on a linear order. Indeed the structure of the underlying partial order of a minimal TUD space can be quite complex. This contrasts sharply with the known results on minimality for weak separation axioms.

  8. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  9. Aging and space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  10. Discourses of space

    CERN Document Server

    Ajtony, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...

  11. The past and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  12. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  13. Our Future in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David

    2017-06-01

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  14. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  15. Start of space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Makoto

    1993-03-01

    Space tourism means commercialization of manned space flight. From the early stage of space development, space commercialization is a profound theme in multidisciplinary fields, on the basis of a principle that the outcomes of advanced technique developed by tax should be returned to citizens. In these days, space satellite system in which users pay a fee for utilization has succeeded commercially in business such as communication network or broadcasting, and an attempt has been made to observe the earth from outer space to resolve global problems, such as environmental destruction. There is also an increasing interest in space tourism, however, many obstacles should be overcome for the realization, especially the medical problems such as effect of acceleration, cosmic ray, noise or weightless condition. In addition, the space flight business should be managed on the commercial base so that reasonable cost and large number of passengers are essential. It is necessary to design rockets suitable for tourism. For attractive design, the policy of space tourism should be clarified.

  16. Collective space and urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajita, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    of evolving urbanity. The focus is on the essential and iconic collective space of the building 8TALLET- ramps and open stairs. How could space beyond private domain contribute to nurture social interactions among the residents but also enhance their relations to urban environments, while protecting...... the privacy of individual households? Envisaging potential functions and uses of the shared access route, this paper discusses the importance of continuous reflections of two perspectives: 1) architects’ logic (opportunistic attempt) of space making and 2) residents’ consideration and appropriation of spaces....

  17. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  18. Microsystems for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Palán

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in microsystems technologies make them suitable for the space research and development due to their low volume, low mass, low power consumption, leading to reduced mission cost. The most interesting approach is using standard technologies with additional post-processing steps to realize sensors and actuators together with signal processing circuits. This paper summarises some aspects and difficulties of the space environment. The radiation effects in space are described and damage on CMOS structures are explained. Design methodologies for hardening microsystems and MOS based circuits against these effects are presented. Some examples of microsystems examples for space applications fabricated by researches world-wide are given.

  19. Space Synthetic Biology (SSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focused on employing advanced biological engineering and bioelectrochemical reactor systems to increase life support loop closure and in situ resource...

  20. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  1. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Galilean relativity; inertial frames; Newtonian mechanics; Maxwell electromagnetism; special relativity; non Euclidean geometry; principle of equiva ence; general relativity; absolute space and time.

  2. Finding industrial space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    2011-01-01

    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...... that have been operative in the redevelopment of the so-called Carlsberg Square in Copenhagen between 2006-2009. It concludes with general remarcs on dealing with the complex matter open space in the practices of design and heritage management in urban redevelopment processes....

  3. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  4. A primer on Hilbert space theory linear spaces, topological spaces, metric spaces, normed spaces, and topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, a fundamental tool for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Linear, topological, metric, and normed spaces are all addressed in detail, in a rigorous but reader-friendly fashion. The rationale for an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, rather than a detailed study of Hilbert space theory itself, resides in the very high mathematical difficulty of even the simplest physical case. Within an ordinary graduate course in physics there is insufficient time to cover the theory of Hilbert spaces and operators, as well as distribution theory, with sufficient mathematical rigor. Compromises must be found between full rigor and practical use of the instruments. The book is based on the author's lessons on functional analysis for graduate students in physics. It will equip the reader to approach Hilbert space and, subsequently, rigged Hilbert space, with a more practical attitude. With respect to the original lectures, the mathematical flavor in all sub...

  5. Intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, We introduce an intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and investigate the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces and intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure spaces. Moreover, we can obtain intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space. We study the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and the intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space

  6. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope advanced camera for surveys coma cluster survey. I. Survey objectives and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F.; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sharples, Ray M.; Smith, Russell J.; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    We describe the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma Cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 arcmin2 in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium

  8. Space Resource Roundtable Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the U.S. Space Program has renewed interest in space resource issues. The Lunar Prospector mission conducted in NASA's Discovery Program has yielded interesting new insights into lunar resource issues, particularly the possibility that water is concentrated in cold traps at the lunar poles. This finding has not yet triggered a new program of lunar exploration or development, however it opens the possibility that new Discovery Missions might be viable. Several asteroid missions are underway or under development and a mission to return samples from the Mars satellite, Phobos, is being developed. These exploration missions are oriented toward scientific analysis, not resource development and utilization, but can provide additional insight into the possibilities for mining asteroids. The Mars Surveyor program now includes experiments on the 2001 lander that are directly applicable to developing propellants from the atmosphere of Mars, and the program has solicited proposals for the 2003/2005 missions in the area of resource utilization. These are aimed at the eventual human exploration of Mars. The beginning of construction of the International Space Station has awakened interest in follow-on programs of human exploration, and NASA is once more studying the human exploration of Moon, Mars and asteroids. Resource utilization will be included as objectives by some of these human exploration programs. At the same time, research and technology development programs in NASA such as the Microgravity Materials Science Program and the Cross-Enterprise Technology Development Program are including resource utilization as a valid area for study. Several major development areas that could utilize space resources, such as space tourism and solar power satellite programs, are actively under study. NASA's interests in space resource development largely are associated with NASA missions rather than the economic development of resources for industrial processes. That

  9. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space

  10. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....

  11. Quantization in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, N.T. de; Lobo, R.

    1980-01-01

    The quantization of systems moving in Riemannian manifold is performed by first embeding the space into a larger Euclidean space. The reduction to the original manifold is performed using Dirac's treatment of degenerate Lagrangean and Faddeev-Fradkin quantization technique for constrained Hamiltonian systems. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  13. Parapharyngeal space lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Carol M.; Cunningham, Michael J. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Department of Otolaryngology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Otology and Laryngology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Parapharyngeal space masses are rare in the pediatric population and have a higher incidence of malignancy than those in adults, although the differential diagnosis is similar. We present the work-up and treatment of a child with a parapharyngeal space mass discovered incidentally on CT imaging. (orig.)

  14. Technology Enhanced Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Today’s tools and learning environments are often not designed for supporting situated, social, and mobile learning experiences and linking them to real world experiences. The talk will discuss some of the approaches for linking information space and real world space with new technology. By linking

  15. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  16. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and external collaborations.

  17. International Space Station Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  18. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  19. What's space to learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Rie

    As “space […] works on its occupants” (Pouler cited in Scheer & Preiser 1994, p. 175), both students and teachers are influenced by the physical contexts in which learning occurs. However, so far focus on the furnishing of classrooms (and built environment as a whole) in universities as being...... of importance to the student learning experience has not been overwhelming (Temple 2008). In this paper preliminary findings from a small-scale research project are presented aiming at investigating the influence of spatial conditions on teachers’ views on teaching and learning. Not to evaluate if any given...... to enhance teaching that uses the full potential of a given learning space as is also the noted in other similar, recent studies (Pearlshouse et al. 2009, Melhuish 2010). The different interpretations of the space give also rise to considerations on the relations between physical space and pedagogical space...

  20. Atoms for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig

  1. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  2. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...

  3. What's space to learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Rie

    As “space […] works on its occupants” (Pouler cited in Scheer & Preiser 1994, p. 175), both students and teachers are influenced by the physical contexts in which learning occurs. However, so far focus on the furnishing of classrooms (and built environment as a whole) in universities as being...... learning space is liked or not, and not even to evaluate whether it has prompted better teaching, but to understand how teachers are in dialogue with the learning space they are going to use for teaching – that is, how teachers shape the room and how the room then shape their teaching. The research method...... for this project builds on Lefebvre’s (1991) spatial triad; the perceived, the conceived and the lived space. Semi-structured interviews with four teachers on their expectations, intentions and experiences with a certain learning space were conducted and as part of the interviews, the teachers were asked...

  4. Atoms for space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig.

  5. Space Shuttle Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Apollo program demonstrated that men could travel into space, perform useful tasks there, and return safely to Earth. But space had to be more accessible. This led to the development of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components.

  6. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...... in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified...

  7. Lubrication of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has many high-technology programs plannned for the future, such as the space station, Mission to Planet Earth (a series of Earth-observing satellites), space telescopes, and planetary orbiters. These missions will involve advanced mechanical moving components, space mechanisms that will need wear protection and lubrication. The tribology practices used in space today are primarily based on a technology that is more than 20 years old. The question is the following: Is this technology base good enough to meet the needs of these future long-duration NASA missions? This paper examines NASA's future space missions, how mechanisms are currently lubricated, some of the mechanism and tribology challenges that may be encountered in future missions, and some potential solutions to these future challenges.

  8. Thermal Space in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    Present research is revolving around the design process and the use of digital applications to support the design process among architects. This work is made in relation to the current discussions about sustainable architecture and the increased focus on energy consumption and the comfort in our...... buildings. However at the bottom of this lies an understanding of how we inhabit the space in our buildings and how we historically have adapted to the changing conditions of the seasons in our buildings. Through an increased understanding of this adaptability of and to our buildings, our work with spaces...... and understanding of spaces in buildings can change significantly and instead of the creation of frozen geometrical spaces, thermal spaces can be created as it is suggested in meteorological architecture where functions are distributed in relation to temperature gradients. This creates an interesting contrast...

  9. Space 2000 Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Space 2000 Symposium is to present the creativity and achievements of key figures of the 20th century. It offers a retrospective discussion on space exploration. It considers the future of the enterprise, and the legacy that will be left for future generations. The symposium includes panel discussions, smaller session meetings with some panelists, exhibits, and displays. The first session entitled "From Science Fiction to Science Facts" commences after a brief overview of the symposium. The panel discussions include talks on space exploration over many decades, and the missions of the millennium to search for life on Mars. The second session, "Risks and Rewards of Human Space Exploration," focuses on the training and health risks that astronauts face on their exploratory mission to space. Session three, "Messages and Messengers Informing and Inspire Space Exploration and the Public," focuses on the use of TV medium by educators and actors to inform and inspire a wide variety of audiences with adventures of space exploration. Session four, "The Legacy of Carl Sagan," discusses the influences made by Sagan to scientific research and the general public. In session five, "Space Exploration for a new Generation," two student speakers and the NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin address the group. Session six, "Destiny or Delusion? -- Humankind's Place in the Cosmos," ends the symposium with issues of space exploration and some thought provoking questions. Some of these issues and questions are: what will be the societal implications if we discover the origin of the universe, stars, or life; what will be the impact if scientists find clear evidence of life outside the domains of the Earth; should there be limits to what humans can or should learn; and what visionary steps should space-faring people take now for future generations.

  10. Cassava For Space Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Njemanze, Philip; Nweke, Felix; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support enginnering concept based on biological and ecological system ot drive the materials recycle loop and create pleasant life environment on distant planetary bodies. Choice of space diet is one of primary decision required ot be made at designing space agriculture. We propose cassava, Manihot esculenta and, for one major composition of space food materials, and evaluate its value and feasibility of farming and processing it for space diet. Criteria to select space crop species could be stated as follows. 1) Fill th enutritional requirements. There is no perfect food material to meet this requirements without making a combination with others. A set of food materials which are adopted inthe space recipe shall fit to the nutritional requirement. 2) Space food is not just for maintaining physiological activities of human, but an element of human culture. We shall consider joy of dining in space life. In this context, space foos or recipe should be accepted by future astronauts. Food culture is diverse in the world, and has close relatioship to each cultural background. Cassava root tuber is a material to supply mainly energy in the form of carbohydrate, same as cereals and other tuber crops. Cassava leaf is rich in protein high as 5.1 percents about ten times higher content than its tuber. In the food culture in Africa, cassava is a major component. Cassava root tuber in most of its strain contains cyanide, it should be removed during preparation for cooking. However certain strain are less in this cyanogenic compound, and genetically modified cassava can also aboid this problem safely.

  11. Imagined Spaces: Motion Graphics in Performance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I introduce the first steps in my work with adjoining and developing concepts relevant to the study and practical design of motion graphics in spatial experience design; performance, event and exhibition design. Based on a presentation of a practical case where motion graphics...... are used in performance design, the chapter portrays the work in progress on a design model for designing spatial experiences in performances through the use of motion graphics. The purpose of the model is to systematize and categorize different design elements e.g. space, line and shape, tone, colour......, space, movement, and rhythm, in relation to e.g. expression and atmosphere, to be considered when designing and analyzing motion graphics in performance design, one kind of spatial experience design. The analysis of the case, here a dance performance utilizing video projected motion graphics, isbe done...

  12. Kennedy Space Center - "America's Gateway to Space"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janet; Chevalier, Mary Ann; Hurst, Chery

    2011-01-01

    KSC fits into the overall NASA vision and mission by moving forward so that what we do and learn will benefit all here on Earth. In January of last year, KSC revised its Mission and Vision statements to articulate our identity as we align with this new direction the Agency is heading. Currently KSC is endeavoring to form partnerships with industry, , Government, and academia, utilizing institutional assets and technical capabilities to support current and future m!issions. With a goal of safe, low-cost, and readily available access to space, KSC seeks to leverage emerging industries to initiate development of a new space launch system, oversee the development of a multipurpose crew vehicle, and assist with the efficient and timely evolution of commercial crew transportation capabilities. At the same time, KSC is pursuing modernizing the Center's infrastructure and creating a multi-user launch complex with increased onsite processing and integration capabilities.

  13. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205...; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means a toilet, washing, or shower space that is accessible only from one single or double occupancy sleeping...

  14. Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maicke, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The main task for this project was the development of a prototype for the Space to Space Advanced EMU Radio (SSAER). The SSAER is an updated version of the Space to Space EMU Radio (SSER), which is the current radio used by EMUs (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) for communication between suits and with the ISS. The SSER was developed in 1999, and it was desired to update the design used in the system. Importantly, besides replacing out-of-production parts it was necessary to decrease the size of the radio due to increased volume constraints with the updated Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.5, which will be attached on future space suits. In particular, it was desired to fabricate a PCB for the front-end of the prototype SSAER system. Once this board was manufactured and all parts assembled, it could then be tested for quality of operation as well as compliancy with the SSER required specifications. Upon arrival, a small outline of the target system was provided, and it was my responsibility to take that outline to a finished, testable board. This board would include several stages, including frequency mixing, amplification, modulation, demodulation, and handled both the transmit and receive lines of the radio. I developed a new design based on the old SSER system and the outline provided to me, and found parts to fit the tasks in my design. It was also important to consider the specifications of the SSER, which included the system noise figure, gain, and power consumption. Further, all parts needed to be impedance matched, and spurious signals needed to be avoided. In order to fulfill these two requirements, it was necessary to perform some calculations using a Smith Chart and excel analysis. Once all parts were selected, I drew the schematics for the system in Altium Designer. This included developing schematic symbols, as well as layout. Once the schematic was finished, it was then necessary to lay the parts out onto a PCB using Altium. Similar to the schematic

  15. Managing the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In April 1994 the National Research Council received a request from NASA that the NRC's Space Studies Board provide guidance on questions relating to the management of NASA's programs in the space sciences. The issues raised in the request closely reflect questions posed in the agency's fiscal year 1994 Senate appropriations report. These questions included the following: Should all the NASA space science programs be gathered into a 'National Institute for Space Science'? What other organizational changes might be made to improve the coordination and oversight of NASA space science programs? What processes should be used for establishing interdisciplinary science priorities based on scientific merit and other criteria, while ensuring opportunities for newer fields and disciplines to emerge? And what steps could be taken to improve utilization of advanced technologies in future space scienc missions? This report details the findings of the Committee on the Future of Space Science (FOSS) and its three task groups: the Task Group on Alternative Organizations, Task Group on Research Prioritization, and the Task Group on Technology.

  16. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  17. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  18. Advanced space transportation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of propulsion technologies for space transportation are discussed in the literature. It is clear from the literature review that a single propulsion technology cannot satisfy the many mission needs in space. Many of the technologies tested, proposed, or in experimental stages relate to: chemical and nuclear fuel; radiative and corpuscular external energy source; tethers; cannons; and electromagnetic acceleration. The scope and limitation of these technologies is well tabulated in the literature. Prior experience has shown that an extensive amount of fuel needs to be carried along for the return mission. This requirement puts additional constraints on the lift off rocket technology and limits the payload capacity. Consider the possibility of refueling in space. If the return fuel supply is guaranteed, it will not only be possible to lift off more payload but also to provide security and safety of the mission. Exploration to deep space where solar sails and thermal effects fade would also be possible. Refueling would also facilitate travel on the planet of exploration. This aspect of space transportation prompts the present investigation. The particle emissions from the Sun's corona will be collected under three different conditions: in space closer to the Sun, in the Van Allen Belts; and on the Moon. It is proposed to convert the particle state into gaseous, liquid, or solid state and store it for refueling space vehicles. These facilities may be called space pump stations and the fuel collected as space fuel. Preliminary estimates of fuel collection at all three sites will be made. Future work will continue towards advancing the art of collection rate and design schemes for pumping stations.

  19. Genealogies of Social Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Shields

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing space is of universal social interest and the topic of some of the most historic knowledge projects and texts produced by human cultures. How is space known? How might we take stock of our spatial knowledges across cultures? What are the elements of a genealogy of space? If history and geography have a descriptive bias, a genealogy would go in a different direction, attempting to both avoid describing and ‘speaking for’ while critically exposing the conditions and formations of timespace discourses (however fragmented and discontinuous.

  20. Power galore in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, L.

    1988-01-01

    Future developments in space activities depend on the use of powerful and reliable power sources. This paper discusses the technology available at present and that which will be available in the near future. It considers the near- and medium-term growth of power levels for different classes of satellites and space stations. It looks also at longer-term prospects for low-orbit platforms and solar power satellites in geostationary orbit. These tentative forecasts are combined to provide a global assessment of the evolution of energy needs of future space systems. 13 refs

  1. The Textile Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space...... and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how...

  2. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  3. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  4. New city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    2001-01-01

    2. rev. udg. engelsk udgave af 'Nye byrum'. This book presents an overview of the developments in the use and planning of public spaces, and offers a detailed description of 9 cities with interesting public space strategies: Barcelona, Lyon, Strasbourg, Freiburg and Copenhagen in Europe, Portland...... in North America, Curitiba and Cordoba in South America and Melbourne in Australia. It also portrays 39 selected public space projects from all parts of the World. The strategies and projects are extensively illustrated by drawings, plans and photographs....

  5. Space Station cupola definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Laurie A.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of a Space Station cupola has evolved from a small bubble-type viewport into the primary location for proximity operations requiring direct unobstructed viewing. Derived from a viewing analysis conducted by the Man-Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center, the cupola represents a solution for out-of-plane viewing which cannot be provided by windows placed in the shell of the habitation and/or laboratory modules. An extended Man-Systems design study resulted in several cupola configurations, each illustrating an alternate solution to the required balance between viewing, projected Space Station operations, and human/machine interface issues.

  6. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  7. The Convergent Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    The concept of the Convergent Learning Space has been hypothesized and explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College, where classrooms are technology rich and students bring their own devices. The changes...... describes this pilot study involving teachers in conscious, documented reflection on methods, approaches, and procedures conducive to learning processes in this new learning space. As a perspective, the article briefly outlines an intervention study aimed at investigating how students benefit from...... a pedagogical approach based on the principles introduced. Keywords: Learning spaces, innovation, technology, action research, pedagogy, higher education...

  8. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  9. Smart space technology innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mu-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Recently, ad hoc and wireless communication technologies have made available the device, service and information rich environment for users. Smart Space and ubiquitous computing extend the ""Living Lab"" vision of everyday objects and provide context-awareness services to users in smart living environments. This ebook investigates smart space technology and its innovations around the Living Labs. The final goal is to build context-awareness smart space and location-based service applications that integrate information from independent systems which autonomously and securely support human activ

  10. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    With the number of privately owned cars increasing, the issue of locating an available parking space becomes apparant. This paper deals with the verification of vacant parking spaces, by using a vision based system looking over parking areas. In particular the paper proposes a binary classifier...... system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  11. Views from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    Only in the last century have human beings flown in space and men and machines have explored the worlds of our solar system. Robots have gone to most of the our neighboring worlds, the valleys of Mars and the clouds and moons of Jupiter. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have looked into deep space. Those of us on the earth have been able to participate as vicarious explorers through the records, and experiences and the photographs that have been returned. At the beginning of the space program hardly anyone thought of photographs from space as anything more than a branch of industrial photography. There were pictures of the spaceships, and launches and of astronauts in training, but these were all pictures taken on the ground. When John Glenn became America's first man in orbit, bringing a camera was an afterthought. An Ansco Autoset was purchased in a drug store and hastily modified so the astronaut could use it more easily while in his pressure suit. In 1962, everything that Glenn did was deemed an experiment. At the beginning of the program, no one knew for certain whether weightlessness would prevent a man from seeing, or from breathing, or from eating and swallowing. Photography was deemed nothing more than a recreational extra. Not only was little expected of those first pictures taken from space, but there was serious concern that taking pictures of other nations from orbit would be seen as an act of ill will and even one of war- as sovereign sensitive nations would resent having pictures taken by Americans orbiting overhead. A few years earlier, in 1957, in reaction to the Soviet launch of the first Sputnik satellite, scientists told congressman of the necessity of orbiting our own robot spacecraft-they predicted that one day we would take daily pictures of the world's weather. Congressman were incredulous. But space photography developed quickly. For security purposes, spy satellites took over many of the responsibilities we had depended upon

  12. Barrelled locally convex spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Carreras, P

    1987-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of barrelled spaces, and of structures in which barrelledness conditions are significant. It is a fairly self-contained study of the structural theory of those spaces, concentrating on the basic phenomena in the theory, and presenting a variety of functional-analytic techniques.Beginning with some basic and important results in different branches of Analysis, the volume deals with Baire spaces, presents a variety of techniques, and gives the necessary definitions, exploring conditions on discs to ensure that they are absorbed by the barrels of the sp

  13. Climate engineering and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrogl, K.-U.; Summerer, L.

    2016-12-01

    This article provides a comprehensive look at climate engineering and space. Its starting point is that the States are failing to slow down global warming. The consequences for the environment and the economic and societal burden are uncontested. The priority to maintain the use of fossil resources might soon lead to the implementation of deliberate engineering measures to alter the climate instead of reducing the greenhouse gases. The article describes these currently discussed measures for such climate engineering. It will particularly analyse the expected contributions from space to these concepts. Based on this it evaluates the economic and political implications and finally tests the conformity of these concepts with space law.

  14. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the transformation of twistor space under space inversion and time inversion. (orig.)

  15. Space Guiding Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Studies of Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Mather, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has contributed significantly to studies of dark energy. It was used to find the first evidence of deceleration at z=1.8 (Riess et al. 2001) through the serendipitous discovery of a type 1a supernova (SN1a) in the Hubble Deep Field. The discovery of deceleration at z greater than 1 was confirmation that the apparent acceleration at low redshift (Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999) was due to dark energy rather than observational or astrophysical effects such as systematic errors, evolution in the SN1a population or intergalactic dust. The GOODS project and associated follow-up discovered 21 SN1a, expanding on this result (Riess et al. 2007). HST has also been used to constrain cosmological parameters and dark energy through weak lensing measurements in the COSMOS survey (Massey et al 2007; Schrabback et al 2009) and strong gravitational lensing with measured time delays (Suyu et al 2010). Constraints on dark energy are often parameterized as the equation of state, w = P/p. For the cosmological constant model, w = -1 at all times; other models predict a change with time, sometimes parameterized generally as w(a) or approximated as w(sub 0)+(1-a)w(sub a), where a = (1+z)(sup -1) is the scale factor of the universe relative to its current scale. Dark energy can be constrained through several measurements. Standard candles, such as SN1a, provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance as a function of redshift, which can be converted to H(z), the change in the Hubble constant with redshift. An analysis of weak lensing in a galaxy field can be used to derive the angular-diameter distance from the weak-lensing equation and to measure the power spectrum of dark-matter halos, which constrains the growth of structure in the Universe. Baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), imprinted on the distribution of matter at recombination, provide a standard rod for measuring the cosmological geometry. Strong gravitational lensing of a

  17. Mobius invariant QK spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wulan, Hasi

    2017-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the recent major achievements in Möbius invariant QK spaces. First introduced by Hasi Wulan and his collaborators, the theory of QK spaces has developed immensely in the last two decades, and the topics covered in this book will be helpful to graduate students and new researchers interested in the field. Featuring a wide range of subjects, including an overview of QK spaces, QK-Teichmüller spaces, K-Carleson measures and analysis of weight functions, this book serves as an important resource for analysts interested in this area of complex analysis. Notes, numerous exercises, and a comprehensive up-to-date bibliography provide an accessible entry to anyone with a standard graduate background in real and complex analysis.

  18. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  19. Emergency medicine in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight.

  20. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  1. Resiliant Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task goal is to develop and demonstrate an innovative software architecture, the “Resilient Spacecraft Executive”, that will enable highly-resilient...

  2. Space, Art and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinilla Burgos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of Heidegger’s analysis of space and art, and its link with a milestone for modern sculpture such as Eduardo Chillida, space is presented, together with time, as a fundamental element of art and especially of sculpture and architecture. Space is not a homogeneous neutral background, but an original phenomenon that compromises from the beginning the creation and the peculiar kind of transcendence to which every work of art invites us. Every work submerges us on one side in a feverish, sensitive and bodily immanence, in the mystery of the sensitive (aesthetic that we are, but aswell it takes us beyond or nearer than the conventional meanings and relations and our situation. From here, we will consider whether and how we can put the aesthetic experience of space in relation to the transcendence of which religion commonly speaks, illuminated in turn from the study of the sacred of Mircea Eliade.

  3. Analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas; Veraar, Mark; Weis, Lutz

    The present volume develops the theory of integration in Banach spaces, martingales and UMD spaces, and culminates in a treatment of the Hilbert transform, Littlewood-Paley theory and the vector-valued Mihlin multiplier theorem. Over the past fifteen years, motivated by regularity problems in evolution equations, there has been tremendous progress in the analysis of Banach space-valued functions and processes. The contents of this extensive and powerful toolbox have been mostly scattered around in research papers and lecture notes. Collecting this diverse body of material into a unified and accessible presentation fills a gap in the existing literature. The principal audience that we have in mind consists of researchers who need and use Analysis in Banach Spaces as a tool for studying problems in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, and stochastic analysis. Self-contained and offering complete proofs, this work is accessible to graduate students and researchers with a background in functional an...

  4. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  5. Space communications in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.

    This paper outlines some of the planned satellite comunication projects in Japan over the next 5-7 years. In addition, Japanese space development policies are set out along with a historic review of the development of artificial satellites.

  6. The Textile Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    Textile has within the last decade increasingly been regarded as an architectural material. Many new textiles have been developed and this has increased its applications in architecture. But how do textile and space meet and which spatial qualities can arise in this meeting? The paper describes...... a series of practical studies of the spatial qualities that can be established through the design of three very different fabrics. The topic is part of an ongoing Ph.D. project at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. The main theme of the Ph.D. is the inter-play between textile, space and sound. Space...... and it has a special poetry which is not to be found in any other material. Which spatial qualities can be obtained with these textile properties? Contemporary conception of space in architecture can be said still to rely on the modernist conception. In practical experiments it is investigated how...

  7. Analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas; Veraar, Mark; Weis, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The present volume develops the theory of integration in Banach spaces, martingales and UMD spaces, and culminates in a treatment of the Hilbert transform, Littlewood-Paley theory and the vector-valued Mihlin multiplier theorem. Over the past fifteen years, motivated by regularity problems in evolution equations, there has been tremendous progress in the analysis of Banach space-valued functions and processes. The contents of this extensive and powerful toolbox have been mostly scattered around in research papers and lecture notes. Collecting this diverse body of material into a unified and accessible presentation fills a gap in the existing literature. The principal audience that we have in mind consists of researchers who need and use Analysis in Banach Spaces as a tool for studying problems in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, and stochastic analysis. Self-contained and offering complete proofs, this work is accessible to graduate students and researchers with a background in functional an...

  8. JSSG - SPACED RECEIVER MEASUREMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The height of ionospheric irregularities was measured by several laboratories belonging to the Joint Satellite Studies Group, using spaced receiver techniques. The method of analysis and results obtained are presented. (Author)

  9. Ombud's corner: space invaders

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2015-01-01

    When normal communication breaks down and there is no sharing anymore, office-mates can become ‘space invaders’. Very often, the situation can be resolved effectively by taking just a few simple steps...   The lack of office space at CERN is a permanent issue that the various departments regularly have to address. As a result, very often this precious space where we spend the entire day has to be shared with other colleagues. Office-mates may come from different backgrounds and cultures and may have very different habits and behaviours; they may also have different activities during the day, sometimes requiring unusual, (perhaps even strange?) interactions with the space they occupy; finally, their presence might be irregular, making it very difficult for us to establish a stable relationship. Mark and Claire share an office as well as some professional activities. In the beginning, the relationship seems to work normally but, over time, the communication between them ste...

  10. Graphene for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Individual talks by JPL and Caltech experts on graphene to present the different ambits of application in which graphene is currently being used on campus,...

  11. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  12. Space for Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    SPACE FOR INTERACTION QUALIFYING GROUP TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN THROUGH OPTIMIZATION(?) OF SPACE. A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY. In a Ph-D. Mariane Ellen Jørgensen / Nurse + psykoterapist / maej@rn.dk / Pain Center / Aalborg University Hospital / Denmark / Mette Blicher Folmer...... Building Research Institute / Aalborg University / Denmark AIM Research shows the hospital space has significance for human healing processes and the physical environment can have both positive and negative impact on the interaction between patients and staff. In order to qualify treatment for patients...... with chronic pain, the effect and experience of two different rooms for group therapy were compared. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) Room decor affects the interaction and thus the psychotherapeutic group therapy 2) The meaning of space for the interaction could be measured on the effect of treatment 3...

  13. Mastering the Master Space

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; He, Yang-Hui; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Supersymmetric gauge theories have an important but perhaps under-appreciated notion of a master space, which controls the full moduli space. For world-volume theories of D-branes probing a Calabi-Yau singularity X the situation is particularly illustrative. In the case of one physical brane, the master space F is the space of F-terms and a particular quotient thereof is X itself. We study various properties of F which encode such physical quantities as Higgsing, BPS spectra, hidden global symmetries, etc. Using the plethystic program we also discuss what happens at higher number N of branes. This letter is a summary and some extensions of the key points of a longer companion paper arXiv:0801.1585.

  14. The Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heape, Chris

    the empirical examples and their analyses, it emerged that it is possible to describe an alternative concept of the design process, namely as the construction, exploration and expansion of a conceptual space, a Design Space, where there is a transactional relationship between those three principle processes......The Design Space: the design process as the construction, exploration and expansion of a conceptual space.   Abstract The principal motivation for this dissertation and the research endeavour as a whole was the concern that current descriptions of the design process, generally conceptualised...... proposition and given to the students as an overall design process course, the design tasks of which became increasingly more complex. The tasks were designed to challenge the students’ design practice and to introduce alternative perspectives on designing, alternative ways of appreciating and reflecting...

  15. Public spaces - public life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces....

  16. Hyperbolic space for tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasjo, Viktor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338038108

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how a creature accustomed to Euclidean space would fare in a world of hyperbolic or spherical geometry, and conversely. Various optical illusions and counterintuitive experiences arise, which can be explicated mathematically using plane models of these geometries.

  17. The Space Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borrelli, Carmine; Buckon, Danielle; Cogossi, Bruce; Davidson, Cynthia; Ditzler-Smith, Cristie; Doddato, August; Gabrielson, Charles; Hubbard, Kenneth; Jacocks, Kent; Jircitano, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    .... To ensure these, U.S. policy should encourage more commercial activity in space, emphasize a more globally cooperative environment, change acquisition methods to emphasize cost control over performance at any cost...

  18. Should we industrialize space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, G. W.; Gould, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two reports project world needs over next 30 to 50 years and correlate them with space opportunities. Effects of diminishing resources, market, population, and technological changes are considered. Possible benefits are outlined.

  19. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  20. Argentine Space Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyarzabal, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to define how some of the commercial space assets already in use or under development could be useful to the Argentine Navy as tools for better accomplishment of their basic missions...

  1. Argentine Space Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyarzabal, Xavier

    1997-01-01

    .... Research efforts involved investigating part of what is available on the international market and some space related international laws and policies that may represent limits for military use of civilian assets...

  2. Liquid lubrication in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for long-term, reliable operation of aerospace mechanisms has, with a few exceptions, pushed the state of the art in tribology. Space mission life requirements in the early 1960s were generally 6 months to a year. The proposed U.S. space station schedule to be launched in the 1990s must be continuously usable for 10 to 20 years. Liquid lubrication systems are generally used for mission life requirements longer than a year. Although most spacecraft or satellites have reached their required lifetimes without a lubrication-related failure, the application of liquid lubricants in the space environment presents unique challenges. The state of the art of liquid lubrication in space as well as the problems and their solutions are reviewed.

  3. Staging Sociotechnical Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    The management of innovation and product development is increasingly facing complex challenges of staging design processes across heterogeneous organisational spaces, with multiple actor-concerns and sources of knowledge. This paper addresses how insights from the Actor-Network Theory and political...... process theory may contribute to a reflexive understanding of design as the staging of socio-technical relations and processes cutting across boundaries of diverse organisational, political and knowledge domains. This idea is pursued through the notion of ‘socio-technical spaces’. Socio-technical space...... of product development. The concept of socio-technical spaces is further illustrated through actual examples from industry dealing with early conceptualisation in product development and the role played by management concepts in the configuration of spaces....

  4. Lasers in space.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Michaelis, MM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections...

  5. Nuclear Power in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  6. Space-time symmetries of noncommutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    We define a noncommutative Lorentz symmetry for canonical noncommutative spaces. The noncommutative vector fields and the derivatives transform under a deformed Lorentz transformation. We show that the star product is invariant under noncommutative Lorentz transformations. We then apply our idea to the case of actions obtained by expanding the star product and the fields taken in the enveloping algebra via the Seiberg-Witten maps and verify that these actions are invariant under these new noncommutative Lorentz transformations. We finally consider general coordinate transformations and show that the metric is undeformed

  7. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  8. The Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    advantage. But the solar winds of change are blowing. America’s dominance in this important domain can no longer be taken for granted. Space represents an...venture between Boeing, Energia , Aker Kvaerner, and SDO Yuzhnoye/PO Yuzhmash. The Ukranian Zenit booster, a former ICBM and the Soyuz rocket are also...U.S. customers, and the use of the Russian Energia RD-180 engine in Lockheed Martin’s Atlas V booster. The Nature of the Market The space industry

  9. Space laser components reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Space environment presents unique challenges for operation of optics and optical coatings as part of laser systems. Besides testing components and sub-systems on the component qualification level, the extended testing of complete laser systems like flight modules under acceptance level conditions is an effective way to determine the reliability and long term stability, mitigating the mission risk. Hence, optics as part of high power space laser systems have to be extensively tested in view...

  10. Lasers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.

    2008-05-01

    A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"

  11. Public spaces - public life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan; Gemzøe, Lars

    A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces.......A handbook on how to create human qualities in the city comparing European cities in general to what is obtained in Copenhagen. A metod of assessing urban quality and a thorough insigt into how people use urban spaces....

  12. AU-18 Space Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    pay- loads into space, as well as satellites to complete their Globalnaya Navigatisionnaya 23 SPACE HISTORY Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS... visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth.”13 2. National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA...Successfully synchronized, operational art and design combine to help commanders and staffs visualize the flow of a campaign. There are 17 elements of

  13. -Metric Space: A Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Khojasteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.

  14. Man in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Challenger disaster focused attention on the hazards as well as the possibilities of man in space. The physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness include important changes in vestibular, bone, muscle, cardiovascular, blood, renal, and pulmonary function. Much has been learned from US and Soviet experiments, but large areas of ignorance remain. Exceptional opportunities for physiological research are provided by Spacelab, a pressurized laboratory planned as a payload of the Space Shuttle.

  15. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  16. The Changing Collateral Space

    OpenAIRE

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the changing collateral landscape and how it may shape the global demand/supply for collateral. We first identify the key collateral pools (relative to the “old” collateral space) and associated collateral velocities. Post-Lehman and continuing into the European crisis, some aspects of unconventional monetary policies pursued by central banks are significantly altering the collateral space. Moreover, regulatory demands stemming from Basel III, Dodd Frank, EMIR etc., new ...

  17. Spaces of Abstract Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajda, Ivan; Länger, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    We generalize the concept of a space of numerical events in such a way that this generalization corresponds to arbitrary orthomodular posets whereas spaces of numerical events correspond to orthomodular posets having a full set of states. Moreover, we show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between orthomodular posets and certain posets with sectionally antitone involutions. Finally, we characterize orthomodular lattices among orthomodular posets.

  18. Smell, Space and Othering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Fe L. Sta Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently experiencing social shift from the rural/coastal to the urban, Matnog, Sorsogon, in the Philippines is left with markings of people who live by the coast, who are confronted by poverty, a poverty which can easily be seen in the space they occupy. The present article concerns itself less with seeing, but rather forms a spin-off from the spatial discourse to that of the smell/scent of a woman enmeshed with the space she inhabits and enabling the unfolding of the reproduction of social differences. As a way of knowing, a methodology, in this embodied qualitative research, the scent/smell becomes the agent and the space as the agency of power are both explored as a purview in cultural studies. The sense of smell as a sociocultural construction that establishes social identity and reifies and reproduces social differences is highlighted and positioned. Extrapolating from field work conducted in Matnog demonstrates that the smell of this rural space is rapidly transitioning to that of the urbane and the smell of women who inhabits that space. Through narrative poetry and the presentation of photographs and verbal analyses, olfactory identities and imprints, social differences, identity and spaces are explored, culminating in the transitional reconfiguration of poverty constructs.

  19. ATLAS Physicist in Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Bengt Lund-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    On December 9, the former ATLAS physicist Christer Fuglesang was launched into space onboard the STS-116 Space Shuttle flight from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Christer worked on the development of the accordion-type liquid argon calorimeter and SUSY simulations in what eventually became ATLAS until summer 1992 when he became one out of six astronaut trainees with the European Space Agency (ESA). His selection out of a very large number of applicants from all over the ESA member states involved a number of tests in order to choose the most suitable candidates. As ESA astronaut Christer trained with the Russian Soyuz programme in Star City outside of Moscow from 1993 until 1996, when he moved to Houston to train for space shuttle missions with NASA. Christer belonged to the backup crew for the Euromir95 mission. After additional training in Russia, Christer qualified as ‘Soyuz return commander’ in 1998. Christer rerouting cables during his second space walk. (Photo: courtesy NASA) During...

  20. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  1. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  2. Angry Birds in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    When space computers first started listening into space radio, they noticed that there were radio noises that happened on the morning side of the Earth. Because these waves sounded like noises birds make in the morning, we named these waves after them. These bird sounding waves can move around the Earth, flying up and down, and sometimes move into an area where there is more stuff. This area is also much colder than where these bird noises are first made. When the waves move into this cold area where there is more stuff, they start to sound like angry birds instead of happy birds. Both of these waves, the happy and angry bird sounding waves, are very important to our understanding of how the tiny things in space move and change. Sometimes the waves which sound like birds can push these tiniest of things into the sky. The happy bird sounding waves can push the tiniest things quickly while the angry bird sounding waves push the tinest of things more slowly. When the tiny things fall into the sky, they create beautiful space lights and light that burns which can hurt people in up goers and not so up goers as well as our things like phones, and space computers. We study these waves that sound like birds to better understand when and where the tiny things will fall. That way we can be prepared and enjoy watching the pretty space lights at night with no worries.

  3. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  4. Space debris- ECSL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferranderie, G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite several attempts and despite the worldwide recognition of the need of attacking it, the space debris legal issues has not been put in the agenda as a separate issue on the agenda of the COPUOS Legal Subcommittee. However for the first time, mention will appear in 2002 but only under item 5 of the Legal Subcommittee: report of activities of international organisations, here the European Centre for Space Law (ECSL). ECSL report will describe the method followed, a questionnaire widely distributed to interested persons and on a personal basis. The questionnaire tries to identify the basic concerns. From the responses received and from also analysis of positions expressed in various colloquia, articles, etc. some directions could be drawn up: do we need a "legal definition" of space debris? For which purposes? Are we in a situation fro presenting now such a legal definition able to cope with the technical evolution of the space object? Which type of legal or technical description "instrument" will be the most appropriate? Etc. One particular question is emerging: the basis of the liability for damages caused in outer space. The author wish is simply to draw the attention on concrete, immediate concerns while identifying also simple ways able to offer a framework to deal with the legal impacts coming from space debris issue. I have envisioned two other subjects that I have abandoned: .

  5. Space Debris & its Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sourabh; Arora, Nishant

    2012-07-01

    Space debris has become a growing concern in recent years, since collisions at orbital velocities can be highly damaging to functioning satellites and can also produce even more space debris in the process. Some spacecraft, like the International Space Station, are now armored to deal with this hazard but armor and mitigation measures can be prohibitively costly when trying to protect satellites or human spaceflight vehicles like the shuttle. This paper describes the current orbital debris environment, outline its main sources, and identify mitigation measures to reduce orbital debris growth by controlling these sources. We studied the literature on the topic Space Debris. We have proposed some methods to solve this problem of space debris. We have also highlighted the shortcomings of already proposed methods by space experts and we have proposed some modification in those methods. Some of them can be very effective in the process of mitigation of space debris, but some of them need some modification. Recently proposed methods by space experts are maneuver, shielding of space elevator with the foil, vaporizing or redirecting of space debris back to earth with the help of laser, use of aerogel as a protective layer, construction of large junkyards around international space station, use of electrodynamics tether & the latest method proposed is the use of nano satellites in the clearing of the space debris. Limitations of the already proposed methods are as follows: - Maneuvering can't be the final solution to our problem as it is the act of self-defence. - Shielding can't be done on the parts like solar panels and optical devices. - Vaporizing or redirecting of space debris can affect the human life on earth if it is not done in proper manner. - Aerogel has a threshold limit up to which it can bear (resist) the impact of collision. - Large junkyards can be effective only for large sized debris. In this paper we propose: A. The Use of Nano Tubes by creating a mesh

  6. Space Warfighting Construct: Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teehan, R. F.; Anttonen, J. S.; Stein, J. M.; Stearns, J. A.

    Space is undergoing a period of great change, as the barriers to entry are lowering in every arena. Launch to any orbit is becoming more routine and feasible thanks to industry innovation, the rise of small- and cubesats, and the use of ESPA rings enabling “freight trains to GEO.” With more regular rides to space, there is a concomitant rise in the capability for space qualification, technology validation and verification, and all types of experimentation in both the space and ground segments. The types of architectures that commercial and government agencies develop is being influenced because space is becoming more accessible. Whereas current architectures are designed to have four to six satellites perform a mission, in the future that same mission may be distributed among dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of satellites. This changing landscape is something of a double-edged sword for Space Situational Awareness (SSA): safety of flight becomes a heightened concern, but the opportunities for the entire community to innovate, prototype, and ultimately provide novel, robust solutions have never been greater.

  7. Implicit Functions from Topological Vector Spaces to Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Glockner, Helge

    2003-01-01

    We prove implicit function theorems for mappings on topological vector spaces over valued fields. In the real and complex cases, we obtain implicit function theorems for mappings from arbitrary (not necessarily locally convex) topological vector spaces to Banach spaces.

  8. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of space nuclear power and propulsion in the United States started in 1955 with the initiation of the ROVER project. The first step in the ROVER program was the KIWI project that included the development and testing of 8 non-flyable ultrahigh temperature nuclear test reactors during 1955-1964. The KIWI project was precursor to the PHOEBUS carbon-based fuel reactor project that resulted in ground testing of three high power reactors during 1965-1968 with the last reactor operated at 4,100 MW. During the same time period a parallel program was pursued to develop a nuclear thermal rocket based on cermet fuel technology. The third component of the ROVER program was the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) that was initiated in 1961 with the primary goal of designing the first generation of nuclear rocket engine based on the KIWI project experience. The fourth component of the ROVER program was the Reactor In-Flight Test (RIFT) project that was intended to design, fabricate, and flight test a NERVA powered upper stage engine for the Saturn-class lunch vehicle. During the ROVER program era, the Unites States ventured in a comprehensive space nuclear program that included design and testing of several compact reactors and space suitable power conversion systems, and the development of a few light weight heat rejection systems. Contrary to its sister ROVER program, the space nuclear power program resulted in the first ever deployment and in-space operation of the nuclear powered SNAP-10A in 1965. The USSR space nuclear program started in early 70's and resulted in deployment of two 6 kWe TOPAZ reactors into space and ground testing of the prototype of a relatively small nuclear rocket engine in 1984. The US ambition for the development and deployment of space nuclear powered systems was resurrected in mid 1980's and intermittently continued to date with the initiation of several research programs that included the SP-100, Space Exploration

  9. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  10. Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dales, H G; Lau, A T -M; Strauss, D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a coherent account of the theory of Banach spaces and Banach lattices, using the spaces C_0(K) of continuous functions on a locally compact space K as the main example. The study of C_0(K) has been an important area of functional analysis for many years. It gives several new constructions, some involving Boolean rings, of this space as well as many results on the Stonean space of Boolean rings. The book also discusses when Banach spaces of continuous functions are dual spaces and when they are bidual spaces.

  11. 5. Space and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiev, K. L.; Supmi, W.

    1989-08-01

    The Space and Ecology round table was attented by 73 persons and addressed by 27 speakers on topics bearing on major global ecological problems: biogeophysical exchanges of matter and energy: the key aspect of global ecology; current problems in exploring the World Ocean and the Earth's climate; dynamics of global systems and processes with the potential to control it in future; mutual influence of changes in natural resources and the environment as they occur in different regions on the globe; spaceborne observational systems: a means for revealing the dynamics of natural processes and a basis for making ecological predictions. Scientists and specialists in space ecology — Prof. I. Rasool (U.S.A.), R. Moore (U.S.A.), W. Suomi (U.S.A.), Academician K. Kondratiev (U.S.S.R.), Prof. Zavarzin, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences (U.S.S.R.), Prof. W. Peters (Denmark), Prof. B. Nei, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences (Poland), the Soviet cosmonauts G. Beregovoi, G. Grechko, B. Volynov, and other attendees of the round table on Space and Ecology stressed the immediate urgency of addressing vitally important ecological problems through widescale uses of space technologies. Wide-ranging international cooperative programme in space ecology have now been designed and started, bringing together space-related expertise from more than 70 countries. The round table participants made several suggestions for ways to enhanced cooperation and collaboration on ecological problems; one of these proposed setting up an International Organisation on Problems of Global Ecology. The discussion was held in an atmosphere of friendship, mutual understanding and further enhancement of cooperative effort in space for the sake of peace on Earth.

  12. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  13. Rich Design Research Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Sevaldson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and discusses a Rich Research Space as an inclusive methodological framework and scaffold for research-by-design. The Rich Research Space especially addresses the issue of richness in design processes and design-led research. There is a general trend towards increased complexity in design processes, caused on one hand by the increasing depth and width in the use of design media and methods, and on the other hand by the increasing complexity and interdependency of society due to globalisation. These issues confront the designer-researcher with new challenges. This paper formulates a research strategy for research-by-design in fields that have a high degree of richness in the use of media, the amount of information, and the methods involved. The Rich Research Space concept proposed takes into account the physical, social, and cultural spaces, and the virtual and visual media spaces in which the research-by-design takes place. The concept takes the form of a specific integral approach to design, and a holistic theoretical mindset. It embraces many types of investigation, from analytical to intuitive. The Rich Research Space provides a flexible framework within which the complexity of research-by-design can be interrelated, discussed, and reflected upon. Potentially, it can create a more involved role for the designer-researcher, a role that allows contributions towards the resolution of ever more pressing issues in our society. This approach is currently one of a limited number of possible frameworks that the design professions can utilize in order to make a difference in a world of at times overwhelming complexity. The concept of the Rich Research Space is discussed with reference to an art installation called Barely.Keywords: Research by design, collaborative design, complexity, creativity, research methods.

  14. Space Network Devices Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center through a contract with Spectrum Astro, Inc., has been developing space network hardware as an enabling technology using open systems interconnect (OSI) standards for space-based communications applications. The OSI standard is a well-recognized layered reference model that specifies how data should be sent node to node in a communications network. Because of this research and technology development, a space-qualifiable Ethernet-based network interface card (similar to the type found in a networked personal computer) and the associated four-port hub were designed and developed to flight specifications. During this research and development, there also have been many lessons learned for determining approaches for migrating existing spacecraft architectures to an OSI-network-based platform. Industry has recognized the benefits of targeting hardware developed around OSI standards such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) or similar protocols for use in future generations of space communication systems. Some of these tangible benefits include overall reductions in mission schedule and cost and in system complexity. This development also brings us a step closer to the realization of a principal investigator on a terrestrial Internet site being able to interact with space platform assets in near real time. To develop this hardware, Spectrum Astro first conducted a technology analysis of alternatives study. For this analysis, they looked at the features of three protocol specifications: Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Spacewire (IEEE 1355). A thorough analysis was performed on the basis of criteria such as current protocol performance and suitability for future space applications. Spectrum Astro also projected future influences such as cost, hardware and software availability, throughput performance, and integration procedures for current and transitive space architectures. After a thorough analysis

  15. SpaceCube Core Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a flexible, modular and user friendly SpaceCube Core Software system that will dramatically simplify SpaceCube application development and enable any...

  16. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional electro-optical (EO) imaging payloads consist of an optical telescope to collect the light from the object scene and map the photons to an image plane to be digitized by a focal plane detector array. The size, weight, and power (SWaP) for the traditional EO imager is dominated by the optical telescope, driven primarily by the large optics, large stiff structures, and the thermal control needed to maintain precision free-space optical alignments. We propose a non-traditional Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for EO Reconnaissance (SPIDER) imager concept that is designed to substantially reduce SWaP, by at least an order of magnitude. SPIDER maximizes performance by providing a larger effective diameter (resolution) while minimizing mass and cost. SPIDER replaces the traditional optical telescope and digital focal plane detector array with a densely packed interferometer array based on emerging photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies. Lenslets couple light from the object into a set of waveguides on a PIC. Light from each lenslet is distributed among different waveguides by both field angle and optical frequency, and the lenslets are paired up to form unique interferometer baselines by combining light from different waveguides. The complex spatial coherence of the object (for each field angle, frequency, and baseline) is measured with a balanced four quadrature detection scheme. By the Van-Cittert Zernike Theorem, each measurement corresponds to a unique Fourier component of the incoherent object intensity distribution. Finally, an image reconstruction algorithm is used to invert all the data and form an image. Our approach replaces the large optics and structures required by a conventional telescope with PICs that are accommodated by standard lithographic fabrication techniques (e.g., CMOS fabrication). The standard EO payload integration and test process which involves precision alignment and test of optical components to form a diffraction

  17. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2016-12-14

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  18. Multimegawatt Space Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Multimegawatt (MMW) Space Reactor Project supports the Strategic Defense Initiative Office requirement to provide reliable, safe, cost-effective, electrical power in the MMW range. Specifically, power may be used for neutral particle beams, free electron lasers, electromagnetic launchers, and orbital transfer vehicles. This power plant technology may also apply to the electrical power required for other uses such as deep-space probes and planetary exploration. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Project, the Thermionic Fuel Element Verification Program, and Centaurus Program all support the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program and form an important part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) space and defense power systems activities. A major objective of the MMW project is the development of a reference flight system design that provides the desired levels of public safety, health protection, and special nuclear material (SNM) protection when used during its designated missions. The safety requirements for the MMW project are a hierarchy of requirements that consist of safety requirements/regulations, a safety policy, general safety criteria, safety technical specifications, safety design specifications, and the system design. This paper describes the strategy and philosophy behind the development of the safety requirements imposed upon the MMW concept developers. The safety organization, safety policy, generic safety issues, general safety criteria, and the safety technical specifications are discussed

  19. Kazakhstan Space Weather Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryakunova, Olga

    2012-07-01

    Kazakhstan experimental complex is a center of experimental study of space weather. This complex is situated near Almaty, Kazakhstan and includes experimental setup for registration of cosmic ray intensity (neutron monitor) at altitude of 3340 m above sea level, geomagnetic observatory and setup for registration of solar flux density with frequency of 1 and 3 GHz with 1 second time resolution. Results of space environment monitoring in real time are accessible via Internet. This experimental information is used for space weather investigations and different cosmic ray effects. Almaty mountain cosmic ray station is one of the most suitable and sensitive stations for investigation and forecasting of the dangerous situations for satellites; for this reason Almaty cosmic ray station is included in the world-wide neutron monitor network for the real-time monitoring of the space weather conditions and European Database NMDB (www.nmdb.eu). All data are represented on the web-site of the Institute of Ionosphere (www.ionos.kz) in real time. Since July, 2006 the space environment prediction laboratory represents the forecast of geomagnetic activity every day on the same site (www.ionos.kz/?q=en/node/21).

  20. Temporary Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    For more than 40 years designers, researchers and engineers have used prototypes and other types of materiality to involve a great number of diverse actors in co-design processes. Researchers such as Blanco, Boujout, Vinck and Jeantet (Blanco & Boujut, 2003; Vinck & Jeantet, 1995) has promoted...... the concept of intermediary objects focusing on direct interactions centred around prototypes. However, not on-ly the prototype foster production and translation of knowledge in design processes, which is why this article introduces the concept of intermediary spaces to broaden the perspective. Intermediary...... spaces offer a framework for analysing design pro-cesses and following the translation and navigation of knowledge and actors from one space to the next. The framework can be used analytically to follow the translation and transformation of knowledge and actors and practically for designers to stage...

  1. New media sociofugal spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a classic piece, Sommer (1967: 654 once defined sociofugal space as ‘a place where people typically try to avoid one another’. And the point is that – because of environmental spatial characteristics – people cannot successfully avoid each other, or can do so only to a limited extent. Typically, we are dealing with open public places, where the first come cannot prevent others from arriving afterwards. Under these conditions, space is often unwillingly shared. Consequently, every new arrival raises the thorny issue of the ‘critical distance’ between two or more co-specific socii (members of the same species, together with the question of how each socius is going to make space for himself or herself inside the shifting geometry that each new socius introduces in a context of inter-visibility (or, more precisely, in the element of visible.

  2. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  3. Performative urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the background of contemporary life, i.e., the urban teoretical and analytical framework that shows the nee for a pluralistic and open city life. possibilities for developing performative places and spaces for social and cultural exchange will be suggested. The article is div...... for establishing 'open -minded' urban spaces and public domains. In the fifth section, I present and define a series of analytical concepts related to the experience city's stages and cultural projects. The article ends with a short conclusion and recapitulation.......The article examines the background of contemporary life, i.e., the urban teoretical and analytical framework that shows the nee for a pluralistic and open city life. possibilities for developing performative places and spaces for social and cultural exchange will be suggested. The article...

  4. Space Age Spuds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    American Ag-Tech International, Ltd. developed a system called Quantum Tubers through the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center). Using computerization and technologies originally intended for growing plants in space, the company developed a growth chamber that accelerates plant growth and is free of plant pathogens. The chamber is used to grow minitubers, which serve as nuclear seed stock for potatoes. Using lighting technology, temperature and humidity controls, and automation technology, the minituber can be generated in one closed facility with out much labor handling. This means they can be grown year round in extreme environments. The system eliminates the need for multiple generations of seed and eliminates exposure to pathogens, disease and pests. The Quantum Tubers system can produce 10-20 million tubers throughout the year, about equal to the world's supply of this generation seed stock.

  5. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  6. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  7. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  8. Dispersion and space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Kishek, R.A.; Reiser, M.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of space charge affects the value of the dispersion function. On the other hand dispersion has a role in shaping the beam distribution and therefore in determining the resulting forces due to space charge. In this paper we present a framework where the interplay between space charge and dispersion for a continuous beam can be simultaneously treated. We revise the derivation of a new set of rms envelope-dispersion equations we have recently proposed in [1]. The new equations generalize the standard rms envelope equations currently used for matching to the case where bends and a longitudinal momentum spread are present. We report a comparison between the solutions of the rms envelope-dispersion equations and the results obtained using WARP, a Particle in Cell (PIC) code, in the modeling of the Maryland Electron Ring. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. Dispersion and space charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kishek, R.A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Electrical Engeneering and Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The presence of space charge affects the value of the dispersion function. On the other hand dispersion has a role in shaping the beam distribution and therefore in determining the resulting forces due to space charge. In this paper we present a framework where the interplay between space charge and dispersion for a continuous beam can be simultaneously treated. We revise the derivation of a new set of rms envelope-dispersion equations we have recently proposed in [1]. The new equations generalize the standard rms envelope equations currently used for matching to the case where bends and a longitudinal momentum spread are present. We report a comparison between the solutions of the rms envelope-dispersion equations and the results obtained using WARP, a Particle in Cell (PIC) code, in the modeling of the Maryland Electron Ring. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Dispersion and space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Marco; Kishek, Rami A.; Reiser, Martin

    1998-01-01

    The presence of space charge affects the value of the dispersion function. On the other hand dispersion has a role in shaping the beam distribution and therefore in determining the resulting forces due to space charge. In this paper we present a framework where the interplay between space charge and dispersion for a continuous beam can be simultaneously treated. We revise the derivation of a new set of rms envelope-dispersion equations we have recently proposed. The new equations generalize the standard rms envelope equations currently used for matching to the case where bends and a longitudinal momentum spread are present. We report a comparison between the solutions of the rms envelope-dispersion equations and the results obtained using WARP, a Particle in Cell (PIC) code, in the modeling of the Maryland Electron Ring

  11. Education in space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrick, C. Russell

    2005-08-01

    The educational process for teaching space science has been examined as a topic at the 17th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon, and Related Research. The approach used for an introductory course during the past 18 years at Penn State University is considered as an example. The opportunities for using space science topics to motivate the thinking and efforts of advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students are examined. The topics covered in the introductory course are briefly described in an outline indicating the breath of the material covered. Several additional topics and assignments are included to help prepare the students for their careers. These topics include discussions on workplace ethics, project management, tools for research, presentation skills, and opportunities to participate in student projects.

  12. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide....... This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. I will examine how games make use of space, and show that the magic circle not only is a viable, though criticized, concept but should be understood as a spatial concept. In order to do this several games are examined, leading...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games....

  13. Methane monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.

    2017-11-01

    Methane is one of the strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It contributes by its radiative forcing significantly to the global warming. For a better understanding of climate changes, it is necessary to apply precise space-based measurement techniques in order to obtain a global view on the complex processes that control the methane concentration in the atmosphere. The MERLIN mission is a joint French-German cooperation, on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for greenhouse gas monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows measurements at alllatitudes, all-seasons and during night.

  14. On spaces of hospitality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    Although specialists in hospitality have worked extensively on hospitality with respect to relations between different nations or between nations and individuals of a different nationality, for instance when they seek asylum, Jacques Derrida preferred to focus instead upon the relationship between...... the guest and the host. This has provided a much-needed rethinking of how to understand hospitality as a way of relating, as an ethics and as a politics. Within this work, there have often appeared discussions of ‘spaces of hospitality’, but these spaces have remained largely abstract. This is where...... this paper comes in: It will re open discussions of spaces of hospitality with an introduction into an on-going research project that studies the performative, structural and social dynamics of cultural encounters focusing on forms of hospitality that are related to particular sites in the city, namely...

  15. Grounding of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  16. On spaces of hospitality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    this paper comes in: It will re open discussions of spaces of hospitality with an introduction into an on-going research project that studies the performative, structural and social dynamics of cultural encounters focusing on forms of hospitality that are related to particular sites in the city, namely......Although specialists in hospitality have worked extensively on hospitality with respect to relations between different nations or between nations and individuals of a different nationality, for instance when they seek asylum, Jacques Derrida preferred to focus instead upon the relationship between...... the guest and the host. This has provided a much-needed rethinking of how to understand hospitality as a way of relating, as an ethics and as a politics. Within this work, there have often appeared discussions of ‘spaces of hospitality’, but these spaces have remained largely abstract. This is where...

  17. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of project visualisations in shaping healthcare spaces and practices. The study draws upon an ethnographic field study from a large on-going hospital construction project in Denmark, and focuses on the early phases of on-boarding the design team...... into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...... to a number of emergent concerns in the processes of designing and constructing the new hospital, notably concerns and tensions between innovation and control....

  18. Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  19. Spaces of constant curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    This book is the sixth edition of the classic Spaces of Constant Curvature, first published in 1967, with the previous (fifth) edition published in 1984. It illustrates the high degree of interplay between group theory and geometry. The reader will benefit from the very concise treatments of riemannian and pseudo-riemannian manifolds and their curvatures, of the representation theory of finite groups, and of indications of recent progress in discrete subgroups of Lie groups. Part I is a brief introduction to differentiable manifolds, covering spaces, and riemannian and pseudo-riemannian geomet

  20. Uniformizable Cauchy spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lowen-Colebunders

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A family C of filters on a set X is uniformizable if there is a uniformity on X such that C is its collection of Cauchy filters. Using the theory of completions and Cauchy continuous maps for Cauchy spaces, we obtain characterizations of uniformizable Cauchy spaces. In particular, given a Cauchy structure C on X we investigate under what conditions the filter u(C=⋂F∈CF×F is a uniformity and C is its collection of Cauchy filters. This problem is treated using Cauchy covering systems.

  1. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    the number of museums went up from 300 by 1980 to estimated 3000 museums by 2015. In urban discourses, new museums and buildings for art have been considered as drivers for ´cultural sustainability´ of cities. The notion is diffuse and the reality is more an economic centred ´city branding´ to help...... and its content. The urban and spatial question goes far beyond museums and other buildings for art: how in democratic societies should public spaces be supported by art and how can public art support ´cityness´ and meaning versus spaces of consumerism. Famous but egocentric buildings with the main...

  2. Problems in Epistemic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup

    2014-01-01

    be done for modal claims involving epistemic possibility. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prospects of constructing a space of worlds—epistemic space—that allows us to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary, non-ideally rational agents like you and me. I will argue...... that the prospects look dim for successfully constructing such a space. In turn, this will make a case for the claim that we cannot use the standard possible worlds framework to model what is epistemically possible for ordinary agents....

  3. Living in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  4. The Space Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan; Hatfield, Skip

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight in the US and other space-faring countries is faced with a twin challenge that is likely to persist for many years: flat or declining budgets along with an expectation of continuing, significant achievements. A partial solution may involve increased participation by multiple commercial competitors with the promise - albeit yet to be fully demonstrated - of much-reduced costs. That said, most commercial goals are concentrated on low-Earth orbit (LEO) for the time being, leaving human trips beyond Earth orbit (BED) as governmental initiatives. The past decade, beginning with the 1999/2000 Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT) human space flight studies for the White House Office of Management and Budget (http://history.nasa.gov/DPT/DPT.htm), can arguably be described as a Golden Age of engineering design, strategic planning, technology capability prioritization, and development programs on the International Space Station (ISS). However, cynics have criticized the same period as little more than PowerPoint presentations, and unfocused technology investments with only limited progress toward a goal of human space flight beyond the immediate vicinity of the Earth. We disagree with the cynics. Experience with the ISS on increasingly sophisticated capabilities have prepared international partners to deploy a major "stepping stone" for human space flight: a habitation system in free space beyond low-Earth orbit. Such an achievement would be a major milestone in human space flight and, very likely, an essential demonstration site for subsequent, very ambitious exploration missions such as to Mars. Developing critical capabilities for human voyages beyond LEO, such as Earth-Moon libration points, offers, as just one example, easy return to Earth within days (see, e.g., Farquhar 1971 (Aeronautics & Astronautics, July, p. 59ff), Thronson, Lester, and Talay 2011 (http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1756/1), and Lester 2012 (http

  5. Space dissipative structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernousenko, V.M.; Kuklin, V.M.; Panachenko, I.P.; Vorob'yov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a wide spectrum of oscillations that is excited due to the evolution instabilities, being in a weak above-threshold state, in the inequilibrium media with decaying spectrum. In this case the pumping, whose part is played by an intensive wave or occupation inversion in the active medium, synchronized the phases of excited modes and, thus, forms the space dissipative structure of the field. In dissipative nonlinear media with nondecaying spectrum the space structures, formed due to the development of instability, experience small-scale hexagonal modulation

  6. Space botanic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, K.M.; Kordyum, Se.L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic results of investigations in the field of space botanics are considered, starting with the effect of cosmic radiation on quiet spores and seeds and ending with the modern stage of complex study of lower plants, growing and developing within various periods of time under conditions of a real space flight in special chambers and growing systems. The possibility of using different investigation methods such as luminooptic, electronomicroscopic, biochemical, biophysical, physiological and others to estimate the effect of factors of an orbital flight on plants, are discussed [ru

  7. Publics and their Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Crawford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than fifty years designers, planners, social scientists and political theorists have debated the meaning and significance of public space. The course “Publics and their spaces”, at the University of California Berkeley, Faculty of Architecture (College of Environmental Design, examines the multiple and complex ways in which public space has been defined along with other relevant concepts such as the public sphere, community, and democracy. It explores these ideas through theoretical readings, case studies and our own observations and research.

  8. Designing Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  9. Transforming Public Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Dora

    2009-01-01

    the public space into a critical and deliberative public in urban sites. I focus on one local Catholic radio station in Huaycan, a shantytown in the outskirts of Lima, Peru. I describe the radios' journalistic work, showing examples of how they mobilise local leaders and monitor democratic processes......, such as municipal elections and the district's participatory budget. In addition, I show how the public uses the radio to channel their claims. I also identify the factors that prevent the radio from fully empowering the public and transforming public space into a more critical and democratic one....

  10. The OTTI space experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, D.A.; Clifton, K.S.; Pearson, S.D.; Barth, J.L.; LaBel, K.; Ritter, J.C.; Peden, J.; Campbell, A.; Liang, R.

    1999-01-01

    The orbiting technology tested initiative (OTTI) provides a concept for a series of space experiment platforms to be flown at 2-year interval over the next ten years. The long-term purpose of this program is to provide a convenient test-beds to simulate high radiation environments. The purposes of the first platform is to evaluate the on-orbit performance of novel, emerging, breakthrough technologies and advanced state-of-the-art devices in high radiation orbits and to provide correlations between the natural space radiation environment and the device response in the flight test-bed. This short article presents the concept of the OTTI program

  11. Space construction technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    Space construction systems made feasible by an operational Space Shuttle are discussed with a view toward assembly, installation and construction support equipment. The level of construction capability will be reflected in the number of launches to accomplish a certain mission, either in terms of the mission time line or on the density of packaging in the Orbiter payload bay. It is noted that the development of construction support equipment in zero-gravity simulations should be the most productive initial activity. Crew EVAs, as well as the beam builder, cherrypicker and power distribution buses are covered in detail.

  12. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  13. Space vs. Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Chris; Madsen, Rene; Hammer Eliassen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    of Importance’. Second, we elaborate on methods deployed for collecting both mobile GPS and social media traces that the smart phone generates in physical spaces. Third, we compare and contrast the automatically geocoded presence in space and at events with the intentionally socially tagged consumption......This paper applies urban informatics methods and techniques on big data generated from the concentrated environment of the second largest music festival in the world, Roskilde Festival. First, we explain how to utilize relevant dimensions from human geography theories towards mapping a ‘Geography...

  14. National space legislation : future perspectives for Malaysian Space Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, Che Zuhaida Binti

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the future perspectives for Malaysian space law. It aims at demonstrating the development of Malaysian outer space activities inclusive of her status with respect to United Nations space conventions and her membership of international and regional space-related organizations.

  15. Compact space-like hypersurfaces in de Sitter space

    OpenAIRE

    Jinchi Lv

    2005-01-01

    We present some integral formulas for compact space-like hypersurfaces in de Sitter space and some equivalent characterizations for totally umbilical compact space-like hypersurfaces in de Sitter space in terms of mean curvature and higher-order mean curvatures.

  16. Investigating Space Weather Events Impacting the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Leo Y.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Stowers, Kennis; Lowrance, Patrick; Stewart, Andrzej; Travis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamical process in the space environment has increased dramatically. A relatively new field of study called "Space Weather" has emerged in the last few decades. Fundamental to the study of space weather is an understanding of how space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections impact spacecraft in varying orbits and distances around the Sun. Specialized space weather satellite monitoring systems operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allow scientists to predict space weather events affecting critical systems on and orbiting the Earth. However, the Spitzer Space Telescope is in an orbit far outside the areas covered by those space weather monitoring systems. This poses a challenge for the Spitzer's Mission Operations Team in determining whether space weather events affect Spitzer.

  17. Another extension of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Aïssaoui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose another extension of Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to metric spaces based on the concepts of the Φ-modulus and Φ-capacity. The resulting space NΦ1 is a Banach space. The relationship between NΦ1 and MΦ1 (the first extension defined in Aïssaoui (2002 is studied. We also explore and compare different definitions of capacities and give a criterion under which NΦ1 is strictly smaller than the Orlicz space LΦ.

  18. NewSpace: The Emerging Commercial Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary

    2016-01-01

    A lecture to students at the International Space University. Topics include: - We are at a turning point in the history of space exploration and development the cusp of a revolution, new industries are being born that use space in many non-traditional ways - The established military industrial space sector is no longer the only game in town - Increased competition and new capabilities will change the marketplace forever - Everyone interested in working in the space sector will be affected.

  19. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...

  20. Dust in Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "They cannot look out far·IThey cannot look in deep. I. But when was that ever a bar ITo any watch they keep?" - Robert Frost, (Neither Out Far Nor In Deep'. Dust grains in space, which absorb and redden starlight, were once considered to be a nuisance for astronomers, but the study of dust has be- come important in ...

  1. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  2. Designing New Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We are moving towards new learning spaces merging the digital and the physical world. Real world objects get augmented by information streams and real world activities are measured with sensor technology to be reviewed afterwards or in real time. A variety of links is currently created to link

  3. Dust in Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure B. The concept of photon nlust travel such that the probability of its interacting is interaction length is ex- almost unity. Putting the above probability equal to unity, and plained. writing ~x = 1, the interaction length, 1, is given by 1 = (/n'. How much Dust is there? One can estimate the amount of dust in interstellar space ...

  4. Johnson Space Center Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafka, Tammy; Terrier, Doug; Smith, James

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is a review of the work of Johnson Space Center. It includes a section on technology development areas, (i.e., composite structures, non-destructive evaluation, applied nanotechnology, additive manufacturing, and fracture and fatigue analytical methods), a section on structural analysis capabilities within NASA/JSC and a section on Friction stir welding and laser peening.

  5. ALT/Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  6. Experiencing Performative Urban Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the article is performative urban spaces. The case study the Frederiksberg New City Centre. Here the atmosphere is produced via intentional designs and via different arrangements with sound, light and water. The designer has worked with different moods and experiences of moods. Some...

  7. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Special Relativity is now a hundred years old, and Gen- eral Relativity is just ten years younger. Even the gen- eral literate public probably knows that these two the- ories of physics - STR and GTR - profoundly altered previous conceptions and understanding of space and time in physics. We will try to describe these ...

  8. Sketches as Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two purposes. First, we hope to demonstrate how a design sketch can play a role in design practice as a physical space for negotiation. Thus our focus is not on the representivity of the sketch as such, but how it helps to organise design. Our second purpose is to reflect upon the ...

  9. Space age. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Space age had its world premiere at the large-screen Spaceport Theater at Cape Canaveral/Kennedy Spaceport. The first program was screened for invited guests who, that morning, also witnessed a launch of the Space Shuttle. Since that mission carried the first Japanese astronaut, it was a nice tie-in to the substantial co-production participation of space age by NHK Japan. A special press conference for the series and a twenty-minute preview reel was screened for journalists who were also at the Cape for the shuttle launch. Numerous first-hand newspaper articles were generated. CNN ran part of the preview reel. The first episode in the series, `The Quest for Planet Mars,` then ran twice a day for a week, prior to the Public Broadcasting Service broadcast on an Imax format screen at the Spaceport theater. The program was seen by thousands of visitors. Space age also had a special premier at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC with some 400 special guests, including scientists and government agency representatives.

  10. I-space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne; Bryderup, Karin Jensen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents I-Space. The purpose of this project is to improve the wellbeing and life quality of mentally impaired citizens through the development of new technologies, which could enhance learning and motivation. The project is used asreference to a discussion on structures within design...

  11. I-space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne; Bryderup, Karin Jensen

    This paper presents I-Space. The purpose of this project is to improve the wellbeing and life quality of mentally impaired citizens through the development of new technologies, which could enhance learning and motivation. The project is used as reference to a discussion on structures within design...

  12. Personal Space Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    —constitutes one of the main areas of interest, dividing cultures into either contact or low-contact cultures. Examples of proxetics—human spatial behavior studied in terms of universal spacing patterns and cultural similarities—are presented. Finally, future directions for the study of PS in the digital age...

  13. Selectors and scattered spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelant, Jan; Artico, G.; Marconi, U.; Moresco, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 111, 1-2 (2001), s. 35-48 ISSN 0166-8641 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : selection theory%generalized matric spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.280, year: 2001

  14. Space Environment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Various environmental effects were ranked according to their perceived importance. The relative importance of any particular environment component is viewed within the context of the anticipated mission environment. The chart does serve as an indication of the historically major environmental concerns for operating space power systems

  15. SpaceTwist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Xuegang, Huang

    2008-01-01

    -based matching generally fall short in offering practical query accuracy guarantees. Our proposed framework, called SpaceTwist, rectifies these shortcomings for k nearest neighbor (kNN) queries. Starting with a location different from the user's actual location, nearest neighbors are retrieved incrementally...

  16. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  17. Extra Dimensions of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…

  18. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  19. Space-time structure

    CERN Document Server

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    1985-01-01

    In response to repeated requests this classic book on space-time structure by Professor Erwin Schrödinger is now available in the Cambridge Science Classics series. First published in 1950, and reprinted in 1954 and 1960, this lucid and profound exposition of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravitation still provides valuable reading for students and research workers in the field.

  20. Universality of Asplund Spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr Pavel; Lancien, G.; Montesinos, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 7 (2007), s. 2031-2035 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA ČR GA201/04/0090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : universality * Asplund space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.520, year: 2007

  1. Vasorelaxation in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, Peter; Damgaard, Morten; Petersen, Lonnie Grove

    2005-01-01

    leads to a prompt increase in cardiac output and to systemic vasodilatation and that these effects persist for at least a week of weightlessness in space. Cardiac output and mean arterial pressure were measured in 8 healthy humans during acute 20-s periods of weightlessness in parabolic airplane flights...

  2. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  3. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  4. Virtual Interactive Space (VIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2015-01-01

    This paper shares code that enables the making of a Virtual Interactive Space (VIS) where the skin of the invisible active sensor area is dynamically responsive to the velocity of a limb e.g. hand. Used in proprioception training of movement the patch is at the core of the author’s Reafferentation...

  5. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...

  6. EARTH FROM SPACE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  7. Space Made Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    These drawings, published in their first book "Space Made Light", reveal concepts and layouts, physical qualities and technological details, research procedures and origin of the materials, logistics and timetables of planning and realization. The diagrams have been conceived also for several...

  8. Transduced space and transvisuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2017-01-01

    feeds into the matter of architecture in new ways. On this background, the chapter discusses the ideas behind the drawing material of Architecture, Time and Form as presented in this book, as a relationship between transduced space and transvisual aesthetics. The material of drawing treated in this book...

  9. Space Operations Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) is a tool that provides an online learning environment where students can learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through a series of training modules. SOLC is also an effective media for NASA to showcase its contributions to the general public. SOLC is a Web-based environment with a learning platform for students to understand STEM through interactive modules in various engineering topics. SOLC is unique in its approach to develop learning materials to teach schoolaged students the basic concepts of space operations. SOLC utilizes the latest Web and software technologies to present this educational content in a fun and engaging way for all grade levels. SOLC uses animations, streaming video, cartoon characters, audio narration, interactive games and more to deliver educational concepts. The Web portal organizes all of these training modules in an easily accessible way for visitors worldwide. SOLC provides multiple training modules on various topics. At the time of this reporting, seven modules have been developed: Space Communication, Flight Dynamics, Information Processing, Mission Operations, Kids Zone 1, Kids Zone 2, and Save The Forest. For the first four modules, each contains three components: Flight Training, Flight License, and Fly It! Kids Zone 1 and 2 include a number of educational videos and games designed specifically for grades K-6. Save The Forest is a space operations mission with four simulations and activities to complete, optimized for new touch screen technology. The Kids Zone 1 module has recently been ported to Facebook to attract wider audience.

  10. Space, Time and Relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We will try to describe these changes. ~ginning with earlier ideas ... various states of relative motion, each with a global space-time ... planetary system, provided that we neglect the perturbations due to the sun and planets". - Einstein. GENERAL I ARTICLE planet Mars are known with great accuracy, including the time of its ...

  11. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We compute the cohomology of the Picard bundle on the desingulariza- tion ˜Jd(Y) of the compactified Jacobian of an irreducible nodal curve Y. We use it to compute the cohomology classes of the Brill–Noether loci in ˜Jd(Y). We show that the moduli space M of morphisms of a fixed degree from Y to a pro-.

  12. Borderline Space for Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Being on the borderline as a student in higher education is not always negative, to do with marginalisation, exclusion and having a voice that is vulnerable. Paradoxically, being on the edge also has positive connections with integration, inclusion and having a voice that is strong. Alternative understandings of the concept of borderline space can…

  13. Chemistry of interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Descriptions of the sun and other stars, energy sources in the interstellar clouds, spectroscopy and excitation, the chemistry and chemical abundance of interstellar elements, recent developments in interstellar molecular spectroscopy for a deeper insight into star evolution and other dynamics of the galaxy, and the next ten years of interstellar chemistry are described in an overall picture of the chemistry of interstellar space

  14. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  15. Space and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølner, Torunn

    2005-01-01

    The article takes concept art and Deleuze and Guattari's understanding of concept as  references for thinking theatre as an art form defined as a composition of elements in time and space. It offers a discussion of three different kinds of spatial approaches to theatre making and  a discussion...

  16. Compactor for Space Toilet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, David (Inventor); Morrison, Terrell Lee (Inventor); Kaufman, Cory (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A toilet for use on a space vehicle has a toilet bowl having a storage canister at a remote end for receiving human waste. The compactor includes a cable connected to a lever which pulls the cable in a direction forcing the compactor into the storage canister to compact the captured waste when the lever is actuated.

  17. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  18. How to Reclaim Space?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    multitasking and very little autonomy. So far, very little attention has been paid to this problem in responsible management education scholarship. So far, we know little about how to build productive learning spaces into curricula. Inspired by the Japanese concept of ma, meaning ‘inbetweenness’, ‘interval...

  19. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  20. Space Station Energy Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  1. Accessing Space Weather Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D.; Weiss, M.; Immer, E. A.; Patrone, D.; Potter, M.; Barnes, R. J.; Colclough, C.; Holder, R.

    2009-12-01

    To meet the needs of our technology based society, space weather forecasting needs to be advanced and this will entail collaboration amongst research, military and commercial communities to find new ways to understand, characterize, and forecast. In this presentation VITMO, the Virtual Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere Observatory will be used as a prototype for a generalized system as a means to bring together a set of tools to access data, models and online collaboration tools to enable rapid progress. VITMO, available at http://vitmo.jhuapl.edu/, currently provides a data access portal for researchers and scientists to enable finding data products as well as access to tools and models. To further the needs of space weather forecasters, the existing VITMO data holdings need to be expanded to provide additional datasets as well as integrating relevant models and model output. VITMO can easily be adapted for the Space Weather domain in its entirety. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how VITMO and the VITMO architecture can be utilized as a prototype in support of integration of Space Weather forecasting tools, models and data.

  2. Gemini Space Program emblem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  3. The pore space scramble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  4. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  5. Space mapping and defect correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. Then, space-mapping algorithms can be seen as special cases of defect correction iteration. In order to analyze the properties of space mapping and the space-mapping function, we introduce

  6. Illusions can warp visual space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, J.B.J.; Sousa, R.; Brenner, E.

    2009-01-01

    Our perception of the space around us is not veridical. It has been reported that the systematic errors in our perception of visual space can be described by a reasonably well-behaving space (the resulting space is approximately projective and complies with an affine geometry). The evidence for this

  7. Hilbert spaces from path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, Fay; Johnston, Steven [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sorkin, Rafael D, E-mail: f.dowker@imperial.ac.u, E-mail: steven.johnston02@imperial.ac.u, E-mail: rsorkin@perimeterinstitute.c [Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2010-07-09

    It is shown that a Hilbert space can be constructed for a quantum system starting from a framework in which histories are fundamental. The decoherence functional provides the inner product on this 'history Hilbert space'. It is also shown that the history Hilbert space is the standard Hilbert space in the case of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  8. Nuclearity for dual operator spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spaces. This result is used to prove that V. ∗∗ is nuclear if and only if V is nuclear and. V. ∗∗ is exact. Keywords. Operator space; nuclear; injective. 1. Introduction. The theory of operator spaces is a recently arising area in modern analysis, which is a natural non-commutative quantization of Banach space theory.

  9. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. S. (Editor); Donnelly, K. L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  11. Making Kids Space Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Organizations that build the world's space training systems have access to a wealth of engineering and operations knowledge. That knowledge is organized and packaged into some of the world's top-notch technical curricula and courses - courses that reach a training audience of astronauts and cosmonauts, mission controllers, and engineering support teams. What if that same knowledge and course media could be redesigned, repackaged, and taught to our world's youth? The space engineering and technology outreach opportunities would be tremendous. This paper presents an example of a hands-on educational outreach program that was designed around this concept, and has been used in U.S. high schools to teach Geography, Physics and Earth Science students how space vehicle engineering and remote sensing operations relate to their daily studies. Authors' Biographical Sketch Steven Berry is a Senior Principal Product Engineer with The Boeing Company. Mr. Berry graduated from the University of Illinois with a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering, 1985. He is a 1992 alumnus of the International Space University. He received an M.A. in Multi-Cultural Studies from the University of Houston, Clear Lake, 1993. Among his recent business accomplishments, Mr. Berry led a multi-national, global engineering team in prototyping a distributed simulator to be used for ground astronaut training delivery on the international space station program. He has been involved in educational outreach programs in local schools, and has participated in national workshops on educational outreach and e-learning. Mr. Berry leads an organizational effectiveness project at The Boeing Company that facilitates work teams, and deploys workforce teambuilding and leadership programs. He also oversees workforce training programs for software engineering and business initiatives at The Boeing Company.

  12. Urban Spaces and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Grazia De Paoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of vulnerability understood in the traditional sense as a “single manufactured good” is insufficient when it comes to describing the real conditions of an urban system’s vulnerability within which an indefinite variable of factors interact with one another thereby determining the damage caused by an earthquake. These interacting factors constitute so-called “urban vulnerability” which town planners use in order to contribute to the field in the form of analysis definition and interventions in the mitigation of seismic risk on an urban scale. The research paper “Relational Spaces as Safe Places” positions itself firmly in the vein of town planning research which focuses on the mitigation of seismic risk, and which intends to blaze a new methodological trail that aims to identify safety traits in urban spaces. The research paper’s starting point is the assumption that empty urban spaces, given the indications provided by the principal organs for Civic Protection, have come to be seen as the spaces designed to accommodate the public in cases of emergency. This can generate new thought regarding town planning by reviewing early post-earthquake urban designs where the rules were laid out for earthquake-proof cities: a “chessboard” plan with wide streets, both straight and perpendicular, empty spaces like squares and markets positioned along the longitudinal streets, and buildings with regular layouts all at right-angles. These simple guidelines, which are often disregarded and distorted in modern towns, are extraordinarily relevant and oriented towards new definitions of the urban traits of quality and security.

  13. The Space Puppets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M. Miguel; Esteban Berea, J.; Miñambres Fernández, M.; Rufino, M.

    2002-01-01

    This proposal is a response to the initiative "Physics on Stage 2" to excite interest in physics and science by a dance and puppetry performance. The purpose of this piece is to show the possibilities and characteristics of entertainment with space knowledge and education for the audience of teachers and children through a show. Two virtually opposite areas (science and arts), both generally inaccessible for children, will be introduced in a funny and amusing way, with the interaction of puppets. Education is not "fashion"... we need to develop an educational package to focus the attention of children on the uses of Space in everyday life. Our world today is mainly logic and mathematical. The presence of art in the children's lives is often scarce or even inexistent. With the performance children will gain a better understanding of space physics through the joy of a dance performance like an educational tool. Dance as body expression, is a very powerful tool to explain and interact with children and teachers. Through dance the physics of movement may be studied in a visual way, within the body's limits. We consider as priority the use of dance as well as theater (in this case, puppet theater) as an efficient and fun didactic method, which we may go further and explain in an imaginative funny way all those complex processes of physics, which are further unknown. Aiming to teach in a relaxing atmosphere the performance is based on the " Earth Space Alphabet", a first dictionary for Primary Schools combining Science, Space and Education... Did you ever realize that people are not interested in something because they do not understand the words or the meaning? The alphabet is intended to meet the overwhelming need that exists for education on space, and allows both teachers and children to learn about the "Art of Teaching Space" combining earth and space language linked by space technology. The performance explains many concepts of physics through a comet puppet, which

  14. Introduction to generalized topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zvina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of generalized topological space (gt-space. Generalized topology of gt-space has the structure of frame and is closed under arbitrary unions and finite intersections modulo small subsets. The family of small subsets of a gt-space forms an ideal that is compatible with the generalized topology. To support the definition of gt-space we prove the frame embedding modulo compatible ideal theorem. Weprovide some examples of gt-spaces and study key topological notions (continuity, separation axioms, cardinal invariants in terms of generalized spaces.

  15. The ( Property in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyal Soybaş

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Banach space is said to have (D property if every bounded linear operator ∶→∗ is weakly compact for every Banach space whose dual does not contain an isomorphic copy of ∞. Studying this property in connection with other geometric properties, we show that every Banach space whose dual has (V∗ property of Pełczyński (and hence every Banach space with (V property has (D property. We show that the space 1( of real functions, which are integrable with respect to a measure with values in a Banach space , has (D property. We give some other results concerning Banach spaces with (D property.

  16. Regular capacities on metrizable spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cherkovskyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that for a (not necessarily compact metric space: the metrics on the space of capacities in the sense of Zarichnyi and Prokhorov are equal; completeness of the space of capacities is equivalent to completeness of the original space. It is shown that for the capacities on metrizable spaces the properties of $\\omega$-smoothness and of $\\tau$-smoothness are equivalent precisely on the separable spaces, and the properties of $\\omega$-smoothness and of regularity w.r.t. some (then w.r.t. any admissible metric are equivalent precisely on the compact spaces.

  17. q-deformed Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, O.; Pillin, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Wess, J.; Zumino, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this lecture I discuss the algebraic structure of a q-deformed four-vector space. It serves as a good example of quantizing Minkowski space. To give a physical interpretation of such a quantized Minkowski space we construct the Hilbert space representation and find that the relevant time and space operators have a discrete spectrum. Thus the q-deformed Minkowski space has a lattice structure. Nevertheless this lattice structure is compatible with the operation of q-deformed Lorentz transformations. The generators of the q-deformed Lorentz group can be represented as linear operators in the same Hilbert space. (orig.)

  18. Soft b-compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkan Özkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of generalized soft open sets in soft generalized topological spaces as a generalization of compact spaces, called soft b-compact spaces, is introduced and studied. A soft generalized topological space is soft b-compact if every soft b-open soft cover of (F,E contains a finite soft subcover. We characterize soft b-compact space and study some of their basic properties.

  19. Legal Aspects of Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.

  20. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  1. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  2. NewSpace: The Emerging Commercial Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary

    2017-01-01

    We are at a turning point in the history of space exploration and development, where new industries are being born to use space in non-traditional ways. Established state-run industrial space sector is no longer the only game in town; commercial space is becoming competitive. Many new entrepreneurial companies, such as SpaceX, Deep Space Industries, etc. are developing new markets, such as Orbital, Suborbital, and Deep Space. Together, government and private industry can facilitate the birth of this new industry. The U.S. national policy on commercial space is to develop a robust and competitive U.S. commercial space sector and to energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets. NASA can do this by purchasing and using commercial space capabilities and services; exploring the use of nontraditional arrangements for acquiring space capabilities and services; refraining from activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with commercial space activities; and pursuing opportunities to transfer some functions to the commercial space sector, where beneficial. Commercial space must be competitive, while the government has other priorities such as safety, jobs, etc.

  3. Metric space construction for the boundary of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A distance function between points in space-time is defined and used to consider the manifold as a topological metric space. The properties of the distance function are investigated: conditions under which the metric and manifold topologies agree, the relationship with the causal structure of the space-time and with the maximum lifetime function of Wald and Yip, and in terms of the space of causal curves. The space-time is then completed as a topological metric space; the resultant boundary is compared with the causal boundary and is also calculated for some pertinent examples

  4. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  5. Anthropogenic Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Balogh, A.; Erickson, P. J.; Huba, J. D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Anthropogenic effects on the space environment started in the late 19th century and reached their peak in the 1960s when high-altitude nuclear explosions were carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union. These explosions created artificial radiation belts near Earth that resulted in major damages to several satellites. Another, unexpected impact of the high-altitude nuclear tests was the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that can have devastating effects over a large geographic area (as large as the continental United States). Other anthropogenic impacts on the space environment include chemical release experiments, high-frequency wave heating of the ionosphere and the interaction of VLF waves with the radiation belts. This paper reviews the fundamental physical process behind these phenomena and discusses the observations of their impacts.

  6. Space-based detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    ) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload “LISA Technology Package” will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical......The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF...... bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts...

  7. CMS Space Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Huang, C.-H. [Fermilab; Sanchez-Hernandez, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.; Zhang, X. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2014-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  8. CMS Space Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-06-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  9. Brentano on Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Kavanaugh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Vienna at the end of the nineteenth century, a virtual explosion occured of thought, creativity and revolutionary energy. At the origins of phenomenology, Franz Brentano took inspiration from Aristotle's de Anima in order to provide the bridge between mental acts [psychisch] and sensible phenomena [physisch]; the link or relationship which he called intentional in-existence. Phenomenology would completely change the direction of how philosophy constituted its problems – the relation between the “physical” and the “psychic”, the inter-relatedness of all things, the relation of our body to space and time, as well as how phenomena “appear” to consciousness. This essay briefly sketches out this geneology, and explicates the importance of Brentano's thought on the issues of space-time-continuum.

  10. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  11. China's early space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilin, Zhu

    1994-05-01

    China's space exploration began in the late 1950s in response to the launch of the Soviet Sputnik. The Chinese Academy of Science formed a team which was responsible for establishing three design institutes. The Shanghai Institute for Machine and Electricity Design was established. When the plan for the other design institutes was abandoned, the Shanghai Institute began to develop a sounding rocket. In 1960 the liquid-propellant sounding rocket 'T-7' was launched. The T-7 was modified and improved. A series of interplanetary flight symposia were held to discuss developmental approaches to Chinese space technology. Academic research results and technical development achievements laid a solid foundation for the launch in 1970 of the first artificial satellite.

  12. CMS Space Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Wildish, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS saturated one hundred petabytes of storage resources with data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups, and further resource planning.We present newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage dumps produced at the sites. Storage contents information is aggregated and uploaded to the central database. Web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format.The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system PhEDEx have been re-used, reducing dramatically the development effort.

  13. Twist for Snyder space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meljanac, Daniel; Meljanac, Stjepan; Mignemi, Salvatore; Pikutić, Danijel; Štrajn, Rina

    2018-03-01

    We construct the twist operator for the Snyder space. Our starting point is a non-associative star product related to a Hermitian realisation of the noncommutative coordinates originally introduced by Snyder. The corresponding coproduct of momenta is non-coassociative. The twist is constructed using a general definition of the star product in terms of a bi-differential operator in the Hopf algebroid approach. The result is given by a closed analytical expression. We prove that this twist reproduces the correct coproducts of the momenta and the Lorentz generators. The twisted Poincaré symmetry is described by a non-associative Hopf algebra, while the twisted Lorentz symmetry is described by the undeformed Hopf algebra. This new twist might be important in the construction of different types of field theories on Snyder space.

  14. Akihabara as magical space

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 一人

    2014-01-01

    Akihabara(Tokyo,Japan) is a distinctive city in and of itself. (Akihabara and Akiba are very different. Akihabara is a region. Akiba refers to a unique atmosphere and space.)Akihabara is a region with diverse entrepreneurial types. The accumulation of these entrepreneurs and the way that theircareers have developed has functioned as a regional platform and formed the “milieu” in Akihabara as an Asyl (sanctuary). The birth of the entrepreneur generates competitive advantages in Akihabara. This...

  15. Essays in Space Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaty, R.; Cline, T.L.; Ormes, J.F.

    1987-06-01

    The papers presented cover a broad segment of space research and are an acknowledgement of the personal involvement of Frank McDonald in many of these efforts. The totality of the papers were chosen so as to sample the scientific areas influenced by him in a significant manner. Three broad areas are covered: particles and fields of the solar system; cosmic ray astrophysics; and gamma ray, x ray, and infrared astronomics

  16. Defense against Space Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    which can be used at present are space defense missiles, killer satellites, high energy laser weapons and particle beam weapons. In 1962, the U.S... laser weapons and particle beam weapons have the ad- 4vantages of high power, concentrated energy, hit accuracy, and conven- ience of use. They have... weapons development amounts to 5 US$200,000,000. At present, irradiation by a laser weapon operating on the earth’s surface can cause optical and infrared

  17. Newton in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    In this 'Liftoff to Learning' series video, astronauts (Charles Veach, Gregory Harbaugh, Donald McMonagle, Michael Coats, L. Blaine Hammond, Guion Bluford, Richard Hieb) from the STS-39 Mission use physical experiments and computer animation to explain how weightlessness and gravity affects everything and everyone onboard the Space Shuttle. The physics behind the differences between weight and mass, and the concepts of 'free fall', are demonstrated along with explanations and experiments of Sir Issac Newton's three laws of motion.

  18. Microsystem Interfaces for Space

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Microsystem interfaces to the macroscopic surroundings and within the microsystems themselves are formidable challenges that this thesis makes an effort to overcome, specifically for enabling a spacecraft based entirely on microsystems. The NanoSpace-1 nanospacecraft is a full-fledged satellite design with mass below 10 kg. The high performance with respect to mass is enabled by a massive implementation of microsystem technology – the entire spacecraft structure is built from square silicon p...

  19. Space, time and causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Originating from lectures given to first year undergraduates reading physics and philosophy or mathematics and philosophy, formal logic is applied to issues and the elucidation of problems in space, time and causality. No special knowledge of relativity theory or quantum mechanics is needed. The text is interspersed with exercises and each chapter is preceded by a suggested 'preliminary reading' and followed by 'further reading' references. (U.K.)

  20. Newton in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Dexter

    1992-03-01

    In this 'Liftoff to Learning' series video, astronauts (Charles Veach, Gregory Harbaugh, Donald McMonagle, Michael Coats, L. Blaine Hammond, Guion Bluford, Richard Hieb) from the STS-39 Mission use physical experiments and computer animation to explain how weightlessness and gravity affects everything and everyone onboard the Space Shuttle. The physics behind the differences between weight and mass, and the concepts of 'free fall', are demonstrated along with explanations and experiments of Sir Issac Newton's three laws of motion.

  1. Writing the Scripted Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2006-01-01

    In the following, I will take a critical look at the concept of virtual reality, and following literary experiments with the computer, I will argue for - and develop - an alternative concept of scripted space.1 Furthermore, I will give an idea of what is currently happening to the concept and pra...... and practice of writing and how it is interacting with our mediated environments on and off the Internet....

  2. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  3. Gas chromatography in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, S. O.; Dimandja, J. M.; Kojiro, D. R.; Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    Gas chromatography has proven to be a very useful analytical technique for in situ analysis of extraterrestrial environments as demonstrated by its successful operation on spacecraft missions to Mars and Venus. The technique is also one of the six scientific instruments aboard the Huygens probe to explore Titan's atmosphere and surface. A review of gas chromatography in previous space missions and some recent developments in the current environment of fiscal constraints and payload size limitations are presented.

  4. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  5. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  6. Space programs in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Earth Sciences, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Guey-Shin, E-mail: gschang@nspo.narl.org.tw [National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Ting, Nan-Hong [National Applied Research Laboratories, 3F, 106, Sec. 2, Hepin East Rd., Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  7. Space, myth and cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambardzumov, Arsen

    2016-12-01

    There exist both ancient and modern myths. The competition of good and evil, sanctity, mythic hero character, etc. make up those myths. Connection between the myth and literature, art and mainly cinematography is highly essential. Hollywood is a striking example of that connection, in other words "A Dream Factory". The mythic component in American films is obvious. It refers to the product structure which is frequently created by mythic rules. One of its striking examples is D. Lucas's film "Star wars. Episode IV - New Hope" (1977): The film plot is built on the struggle between the good and the evil. On one hand those are the representatives of the Empire with Darth Vader and princess Leia with her devotees on the other. The space has played a unique role for Greek philosophers as well. It was the symbol of perfection and grace. The attempt to approach this perfection, the desire to see the internal similarity besides the external one has been reflected in S. Kubrick's film "2001: Space Odyssey" (1968). Showing the space distance director looks for perfection in us which lies in the harmony of truth, human and nature.

  8. Collision in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    On June 25, 1997, the Russian supply spacecraft Progress 234 collided with the Mir space station, rupturing Mir's pressure hull, throwing it into an uncontrolled attitude drift, and nearly forcing evacuation of the station. Like many high-profile accidents, this collision was the consequence of a chain of events leading to the final piloting errors that were its immediate cause. The discussion in this article does not resolve the relative contributions of the actions and decisions in this chain. Neither does it suggest corrective measures, many of which are straightforward and have already been implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency. Rather, its purpose is to identify the human factors that played a pervasive role in the incident. Workplace stress, fatigue, and sleep deprivation were identified by NASA as contributory factors in the Mir-Progress collision (Culbertson, 1997; NASA, forthcoming), but other contributing factors, such as requiring crew to perform difficult tasks for which their training is not current, could potentially become important factors in future situations.

  9. Variable plant spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a system for varying the spacings between soybean plants as they grow to maximize the number of plants grown in a given volume. The project was studied to aid in the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The resulting design consists of plant trays which are three dimensional trapezoids arranged into circles in a compact geometrical configuration. These circles are stacked together in back to back pairs to form a long cylinder. In each growth tray, plants will be housed in individual containers containing a nutrient delivery system and a plant support mechanism. Between the containers, a half trellis has been designed to space the plants for maximum space efficiency. The design allows for localized seeding and harvesting mechanisms due to the chambers' geometrical configuration. In addition, the components have been designed for ease of cleaning and minimal maintenance. Next semester, the individual components will be constructed and tested to determine the success of the design.

  10. Laser Welding in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Solidification type welding process experiments in conditions of microgravity were performed. The role of convection in such phenomena was examined and convective effects in the small volumes obtained in the laser weld zone were observed. Heat transfer within the weld was affected by acceleration level as indicated by the resulting microstructure changes in low gravity. All experiments were performed such that both high and low gravity welds occurred along the same weld beam, allowing the effects of gravity alone to be examined. Results indicate that laser welding in a space environment is feasible and can be safely performed IVA or EVA. Development of the hardware to perform the experiment in a Hitchhiker-g platform is recomended as the next step. This experiment provides NASA with a capable technology for welding needs in space. The resources required to perform this experiment aboard a Shuttle Hitchhiker-pallet are assessed. Over the four year period 1991 to 1994, it is recommended that the task will require 13.6 manyears and $914,900. In addition to demonstrating the technology and ferreting out the problems encountered, it is suggested that NASA will also have a useful laser materials processing facility for working with both the scientific and the engineering aspects of materials processing in space. Several concepts are also included for long-term optimization of available solar power through solar pumping solid state lasers directly for welding power.

  11. Conflict, Space and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  12. Management of space networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, R. W.; Williams, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA has proposed missions to the Moon and Mars that reflect three areas of emphasis: human presence, exploration, and space resource development for the benefit of Earth. A major requirement for such missions is a robust and reliable communications architecture. Network management--the ability to maintain some degree of human and automatic control over the span of the network from the space elements to the end users on Earth--is required to realize such robust and reliable communications. This article addresses several of the architectural issues associated with space network management. Round-trip delays, such as the 5- to 40-min delays in the Mars case, introduce a host of problems that must be solved by delegating significant control authority to remote nodes. Therefore, management hierarchy is one of the important architectural issues. The following article addresses these concerns, and proposes a network management approach based on emerging standards that covers the needs for fault, configuration, and performance management, delegated control authority, and hierarchical reporting of events. A relatively simple approach based on standards was demonstrated in the DSN 2000 Information Systems Laboratory, and the results are described.

  13. Hyperspace for Space Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Murad, Paul; Baker, Robert M. L.

    2007-01-01

    In the Theory of Relativity time is treated as a dimension. This property of time has never been completely understood and accepted because we instinctively perceive time only as a running parameter. In recent developments of the Theory of Relativity, it has been proposed to apply a coordinate transformation by which the four coordinates all acquire the dimension of space, with time defined as a running parameter related to the speed of light. The transformation formally defines the Four-Space or, using a common word for spaces with more than three dimensions, the ``Hyperspace''. Under this paradigm, the entire story of the Universe is similar to a set of nested trajectories in which our ``reality'' develops along a membrane moving through the nested trajectories at the speed of light. The new paradigm implies the existence of multiple ``parallel'' membranes, or parallel local universes or multiverses and ``crossing'' membranes, or ``orthogonal'' local Universes, which do not emerge from the plain Theory of Relativity. In the Hyperspace everything normally travels at the speed of light, but a localized strong gravitational field, which creates a propagation speed discontinuity in Hyperspace, may allow travel to different local universes or Faster Than Light (FTL) travel within the same local universe. The collision or focusing of gravitational waves can produce effects comparable to those of short-lived black holes that can be projected into the Hyperspace to produce the required speed modification. Well known optical effects and four-dimensional rotation may also find application to Hyperspace travel.

  14. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  15. Moessbauer spectroscopy in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Held, P.; Teucher, R.; Schlichting, F.; Foh, J.; Kankeleit, E.

    1995-01-01

    Nearly 40 years after the discovery of the Moessbauer effect for the first time a Moessbauer spectrometer will leave our planet to explore in situ the surface of another solar system body: the red planet Mars [1]. We are currently developing a miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer (MIMOS) which is part of the scientific payload of the Russian Mars96 mission, to be launched within the next 2-4 years [2,3]. To fulfill the requirements for a space mission to the planet Mars, all parts of the spectrometer had to be extremely miniaturized and ruggedized to withstand the space flight and Mars environmental conditions. The relevant parts (e.g. drive, detector system, electronics etc.) will be described in more detail and its characteristics compared to standard systems. Because of this new development there now is a growing interest to include a Moessbauer (MB) instrument in future space missions to other solar system bodies as for instance Venus, the terrestrial Moon, and a comet nucleus. Because of extremely different environmental conditions (e.g. nearly zero gravity on the surface of a comet nucleus, high pressure and temperature on the surface of Venus, etc.) different instrument designs and concepts are required for different missions. We will present some ideas for various types of missions, as well as the motivation for using Moessbauer spectroscopy in these cases. (orig.)

  16. CERN and space science

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The connection between CERN and space is tangible this week, as former CERN Fellow and ESA astronaut Christer Fuglesang begins the second week of his mission on space shuttle flight STS-128. I had the pleasure to meet Christer back in October 2008 at an IEEE symposium in Dresden, and he asked me whether we could give him something related to CERN for his official flight kit. We thought of caps and tee-shirts, but in the end decided to give him a neutralino as a symbol of the link between particle physics and the science of the Universe. Neutralinos are theoretical particles that the LHC will be looking for, and if they exist, they’re strong candidates for the Universe’s dark matter. Christer’s neutralino is just a model, of course, escaped from the particle zoo, but what better symbol of the connectedness of science? Christer Fuglesang is not the only link CERN has with the space shuttle programme. We’ve recently learned that...

  17. Berkovich spaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles; Nicaise, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We present an introduction to Berkovich’s theory of non-archimedean analytic spaces that emphasizes its applications in various fields. The first part contains surveys of a foundational nature, including an introduction to Berkovich analytic spaces by M. Temkin, and to étale cohomology by A. Ducros, as well as a short note by C. Favre on the topology of some Berkovich spaces. The second part focuses on applications to geometry. A second text by A. Ducros contains a new proof of the fact that the higher direct images of a coherent sheaf under a proper map are coherent, and B. Rémy, A. Thuillier and A. Werner provide an overview of their work on the compactification of Bruhat-Tits buildings using Berkovich analytic geometry. The third and final part explores the relationship between non-archimedean geometry and dynamics. A contribution by M. Jonsson contains a thorough discussion of non-archimedean dynamical systems in dimension 1 and 2. Finally a survey by J.-P. Otal gives an account of Morgan-Shalen's the...

  18. Compliance evaluation of removable space maintainer or space regainer usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanti Ramadhani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss could cause a problem with the tooth arrangement or the dental arch size. A space left by the primary tooth loss could cause migration of the adjacent teeth. As a result, space will be narrowed and undermined the eruption of the permanent teeth. The success of the space maintainer or space regainer usage due to the premature loss marked by space for the replacement of the permanent teeth. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the compliance of children in wearing a space maintainer or space regainer after insertion at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The research method was descriptive survey technique. The sample consisted of 30 patients selected using the total sampling technique. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and statistically analyzed. The results showed that majority of the children uses the removable space maintainer or the space regainer daily was only about 23,3% overall. Most of the children only use the removable space maintainer or the space regainer for sometimes. The research concluded that the low rate of pedodontic patients compliance at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital in the usage of the removable space maintainer or the space regainer was usually caused by pain or discomfort. This fact was evidence of a low awareness of parents in preventing malocclusion to their children.

  19. A Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Search for Warm-hot Baryons in the Mrk 421 Sight Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Penton, Steven V.; Shull, J. Michael; Yao, Yangsen; Green, James C.

    2011-12-01

    Thermally broadened Lyα absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternate method to using highly ionized metal absorbers (O VI, O VII, etc.) to probe the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM, T = 105-107 K). Until now, WHIM surveys via BLAs have been no less ambiguous than those via far-UV and X-ray metal-ion probes. Detecting these weak, broad features requires background sources with a well-characterized far-UV continuum and data of very high quality. However, a recent Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observation of the z = 0.03 blazar Mrk 421 allows us to perform a metal-independent search for WHIM gas with unprecedented precision. The data have high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 50 per ~20 km s-1 resolution element) and the smooth, power-law blazar spectrum allows a fully parametric continuum model. We analyze the Mrk 421 sight line for BLA absorbers, particularly for counterparts to the proposed O VII WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. based on Chandra/Low Energy Transmission Grating observations. We derive the Lyα profiles predicted by the X-ray observations. The S/N of the COS data is high (S/N ≈ 25 pixel-1), but much higher S/N can be obtained by binning the data to widths characteristic of the expected BLA profiles. With this technique, we are sensitive to WHIM gas over a large (N H, T) parameter range in the Mrk 421 sight line. We rule out the claimed Nicastro et al. O VII detections at their nominal temperatures (T ~ 1-2 × 106 K) and metallicities (Z = 0.1 Z ⊙) at >~ 2σ level. However, WHIM gas at higher temperatures and/or higher metallicities is consistent with our COS non-detections. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. Public choice economics and space policy: realising space tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick

    2001-03-01

    Government space agencies have the statutory responsibility to suport the commercialisation of space activities. NASA's 1998 report "General Public Space Travel and Tourism" concluded that passenger space travel can start using already existing technology, and is likely to grow into the largest commercial activity in space: it is therefore greatly in taxpayers' economic interest that passenger space travel and accommodation industries should be developed. However, space agencies are doing nothing to help realise this — indeed, they are actively delaying it. This behaviour is predicted by 'public choice' economics, pioneered by Professors George Stigler and James Buchanan who received the 1982 and 1986 Nobel prizes for Economics, which views government organisations as primarily self-interested. The paper uses this viewpoint to discuss public and private roles in the coming development of a space tourism industry.

  1. Commercial space transportation regulation and its effects on space safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Norman C.; Lang, Derek E.

    1993-09-01

    Safety in space will become an increasingly important issue as the number of foreign space programs grow, and as the U.S. private sector increases its space activities. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is the federal agency responsible, under the Commercial Space launch Act of 1984, with regulation of the U.S. commercial space transportation industry in order to protect public health and safety, and safety of property. This paper discusses how the regulatory and licensing responsibilities of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation influence the safety of private sector launch operations in space. Of particular interest are impacts and benefits for commercial space services providers resulting from the government's safety research and technical safety evaluations.

  2. The Space Maneuver Vehicle: Enhancing Space's Utility to the Warfighter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    ... (the purpose of space control) and lack operational responsiveness. The rapid response, quick turnaround, and high on-orbit maneuverability of the Space Maneuver Vehicle can correct these shortfalls...

  3. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L

    2008-01-01

    ...) Modern theorists suggest today's military is poised to develop a space power theory, similar to Gorbett's sea power theory, that is relevant in the exploitation of the space medium The challenges...

  4. Space market model space industry input-output model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.

  5. Pseudo-Riemannian VSI spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervik, Sigbjoern; Coley, Alan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider pseudo-Riemannian spaces of arbitrary signature for which all of the polynomial curvature invariants vanish (VSI spaces). We discuss an algebraic classification of pseudo-Riemannian spaces in terms of the boost weight decomposition and define the S i - and N-properties, and show that if the curvature tensors of the space possess the N-property, then it is a VSI space. We then use this result to construct a set of metrics that are VSI. All of the VSI spaces constructed possess a geodesic, expansion-free, shear-free, and twist-free null congruence. We also discuss the related Walker metrics.

  6. Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of high-redshift quasars with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Webb, Wayne; Petry, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of three bright high-redshift low-polarization quasars (LPQs) was obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Two of the quasars, PG 1634+706 and PG 2302+029, had polarizations p approximately = 0.5%-1.0% throughout the ultraviolet, and showed no significant variation of polarization amplitude or position angle with wavelength. PG 2302+029 was also marginally (2.4 sigma) circularly polarized in the optical continuum. For the highest redshift quasar, PG 1222+228 (Ton 1530), the polarization was measured down to rest wavelengths below 800 A. Although the continuum of PG 1222+228 was weakened by Lyman limit absorption from an intergalactic gas cloud, the polarization increased sharply from 1% to about 4.5%, a change of 4 sigma significance. This abrupt rise in polarization does not appear attributable to any known instrumental artifact. These UV polarizations were only slightly less than those previously observed for these same objects in the optical. The polarization spectra were flat with a typical slope of the polarized flux pF(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -0.8 +/- 0.5). Unlike the case of several high luminosity Seyfert 1 nuclei studied previously, polarization caused by scattering from dust grains does not provide the best fit to the polarization spectra of these luminous quasars. These observed spectra are consistent with a wavelength-independent polarization proportional to the total nonstellar light or, possibly, to the contribution of the blue thermal component. The polarization spectra have insufficient signal-to-noise to locate the scatterers with respect to the continuum source and the much larger broad line region. A decrease in amplitude and rotation of the position angle of the polarization vector at the shortest wavelengths, which could result from general relativistic effects near a spinning black hole, was not observed. In fact, in PG 1222+228, the polarization was observed to

  7. Space Development and Space Science Together, an Historic Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The national space programs have an historic opportunity to help solve the global-scale economic and environmental problems of Earth while becoming more effective at science through the use of space resources. Space programs will be more cost-effective when they work to establish a supply chain in space, mining and manufacturing then replicating the assets of the supply chain so it grows to larger capacity. This has become achievable because of advances in robotics and artificial intelligence...

  8. Studying Space: Improving Space Planning with User Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Cindy; Lee, Norice

    2011-01-01

    How can libraries best assess and improve user space, even if they are not in a position to undertake new construction or a major renovation? Staff at New Mexico State University used a variety of ethnographic methods to learn how our spaces were being used as well as what our users considered to be ideal library space. Our findings helped us make…

  9. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the

  10. Mapping spaces and automorphism groups of toric noncommutative spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gwendolyn E.; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a sheaf theory approach to toric noncommutative geometry which allows us to formalize the concept of mapping spaces between two toric noncommutative spaces. As an application, we study the `internalized' automorphism group of a toric noncommutative space and show that its Lie algebra has an elementary description in terms of braided derivations.

  11. Emerging US Space Launch, Trends and Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the state of the art of emerging US space launch and spacecraft. Reviews the NASA budget ascontext, while providing example scenarios. Connects what has been learned in space systems commercial partnershipsto a potential path for consideration by the space solar power community.

  12. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  13. Space Weathering of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  14. Fundamental space radiobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The unique feature of the space radiation environment is the dominance of high-energy charged particles (HZE or high LET radiation) emitted by the Sun and galactic sources, or trapped in the Van Allen radiation belts. These charged particles present a significant hazard to space flight crews, and accelerator-based experiments are underway to quantify the health risks due to unavoidable radiation exposure. There are three principal properties of charged particles that distinguish them from conventional radiation, i.e. gamma rays and x-rays. First, they have a defined range in matter rather than an exponential absorption profile. Second, they undergo nuclear reactions to produce secondary particles. Third, and most important, they deposit their energy along well-defined linear paths or tracks rather than diffuse fields. The structured energy deposition pattern interacts on multiple scales with the biological structures of DNA, cells and tissues to produce correlated patterns of damage that evade repair systems. Traditional concepts of dose and its associated normalization parameter, RBE (relative biological effectiveness), break down under experimental scrutiny, and probabilistic models of risk based on the number of particle traversals per cell may be more appropriate. Unique patterns of DNA damage, gene expression, mobilization of repair proteins, activation of cytokines and remodeling of cellular microenvironment are observed following exposure to high LET radiation. At low levels of exposure the communication of bioactive substances from irradiated to unirradiated "bystander" cells can amplify the damage and cause a significant deviation from linearity in dose vs. response relations. Under some circumstances, there is even a multigenerational delay in the expression of radiation-induced genetic damage (genomic instability) which is not strictly dose dependent. These issues and the experimental evidence derived from ground based experiments at particle

  15. Space Power Engineering Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  16. Dual Space Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowbel, W.; Loutfy, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years, MER has had several NASA SBIR Phase II programs in the area of space technology, based upon carbon-carbon (C-C) composites. In addition, in November 2004, leading edges supplied by MER provided the enabling technology to reach a Mach 10 record for an air breathing engine on the X-43 A flight. The MER business model constitutes a spin-off of technologies initially by incubating in house, and ultimately creating spin-off stand alone companies. FMC was formed to provide for technology transfer in the area of fabrication of C-C composites. FMC has acquired ISO 9000 and AS9100 quality certifications. FMC is fabricating under AS9100 certification, flight parts for several flight programs. In addition, FMC is expanding the application of carbon-carbon composites to several critical military programs. In addition to space technology transfer to critical military programs, FMC is becoming the world leader in the commercial area of low-cost C-C composites for furnace fixtures. Market penetrations have been accomplished in North America, Europe and Asia. Low-cost, quick turn-around and excellent quality of FMC products paves the way to greatly increased sales. In addition, FMC is actively pursuing a joint venture with a new partner, near closure, to become the leading supplier of high temperature carbon based composites. In addition, several other spin-off companies such as TMC, FiC, Li-Tech and NMIC were formed by MER with a plethora of potential space applications.

  17. Aeroacoustics of Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    While for airplanes the subject of aeroacoustics is associated with community noise, for space vehicles it is associated with vibro-acoustics and structural dynamics. Surface pressure fluctuations encountered during launch and travel through lower part of the atmosphere create intense vibro-acoustics environment for the payload, electronics, navigational equipment, and a large number of subsystems. All of these components have to be designed and tested for flight-certification. This presentation will cover all three major sources encountered in manned and unmanned space vehicles: launch acoustics, ascent acoustics and abort acoustics. Launch pads employ elaborate acoustic suppression systems to mitigate the ignition pressure waves and rocket plume generated noise during the early part of the liftoff. Recently we have used large microphone arrays to identify the noise sources during liftoff and found that the standard model by Eldred and Jones (NASA SP-8072) to be grossly inadequate. As the vehicle speeds up and reaches transonic speed in relatively denser part of the atmosphere, various shock waves and flow separation events create unsteady pressure fluctuations that can lead to high vibration environment, and occasional coupling with the structural modes, which may lead to buffet. Examples of wind tunnel tests and computational simulations to optimize the outer mold line to quantify and reduce the surface pressure fluctuations will be presented. Finally, a manned space vehicle needs to be designed for crew safety during malfunctioning of the primary rocket vehicle. This brings the subject of acoustic environment during abort. For NASAs Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), abort will be performed by lighting rocket motors atop the crew module. The severe aeroacoustics environments during various abort scenarios were measured for the first time by using hot helium to simulate rocket plumes in the Ames unitary plan wind tunnels. Various considerations used for the

  18. International space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author begins his paper by noting the range of international cooperation which has occured in science since its earliest days. The brightest minds were allowed to cross international frontiers even in the face of major wars, to work on their interests and to interact with like minded scientists in other countries. There has of course been a political side to this movement at times. The author makes the point that doing science on an international basis is extemely important but it is not a way of conducting foreign policy. Even though governments may work together on scientific efforts, it is no glue which will bind them to work together on larger political or economic issues. The reason for doing science on an international basis is that it will lead to better science, not better international relations. There are a limited number of great scientists in the world, and they must be allowed to develop their talents. He then discusses two internationl space programs which have has such collaboration, the Soviet-American Space Biology Program, and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). He then touches on the NASA space exploration program, and the fact that its basic objectives were laid out in the 1940's and l950's. With this laid out he argues in favor of establishment of a lunar base, one of the key elements of NASA's plan, arguing for the value of this step based upon the infrared astronomical work which could be done from a stable lunar site, away from the earth's atmosphere

  19. Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GCD Program funded Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) Project is targeting at least 10x higher instantaneous downlink data-rate while utilizing the...

  20. Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA NSTRF proposal entitled Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power is targeted towards research to improve the current state of the art photovoltaic...