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Sample records for interferon-inducible protein mediates

  1. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

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    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  2. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection.

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    Yueting Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT. IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib, a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection.

  3. A membrane topology model for human interferon inducible transmembrane protein 1.

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    Stuart Weston

    Full Text Available InterFeron Inducible TransMembrane proteins 1-3 (IFITM1, IFITM2 and IFITM3 are a family of proteins capable of inhibiting the cellular entry of numerous human and animal viruses. IFITM1-3 are unique amongst the currently described viral restriction factors in their apparent ability to block viral entry. This restrictive property is dependant on the localisation of the proteins to plasma and endosomal membranes, which constitute the main portals of viral entry into cells. The topology of the IFITM proteins within cell membranes is an unresolved aspect of their biology. Here we present data from immunofluorescence microscopy, protease cleavage, biotin-labelling and immuno-electron microscopy assays, showing that human IFITM1 has a membrane topology in which the N-terminal domain resides in the cytoplasm, and the C-terminal domain is extracellular. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this topology is conserved for all of the human interferon-induced IFITM proteins. This model is consistent with that recently proposed for murine IFITM3, but differs from that proposed for murine IFITM1.

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus Exploits Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Proteins To Facilitate Morphogenesis of the Virion Assembly Compartment

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    Xie, Maorong; Xuan, Baoqin; Shan, Jiaoyu; Pan, Deng; Sun, Yamei; Shan, Zhao; Zhang, Jinping; Yu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have been identified to be key effector molecules in the host type I interferon defense system. The invasion of host cells by a large range of RNA viruses is inhibited by IFITMs during the entry step. However, the roles of IFITMs in DNA virus infections have not been studied in detail. In this study, we report that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a large human DNA virus, exploits IFITMs to facilitate the formation of the virion assembly compartment (vAC) during infection of human fibroblasts. We found that IFITMs were expressed constitutively in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells). HCMV infection inhibited IFITM protein accumulation in the later stages of infection. Overexpression of an IFITM protein in MRC5 cells slightly enhanced HCMV production and knockdown of IFITMs by RNA interference reduced the virus titer by about 100-fold on day 8 postinfection, according to the findings of a virus yield assay at a low multiplicity of infection. Virus gene expression and DNA synthesis were not affected, but the typical round structure of the vAC was not formed after the suppression of IFITMs, thereby resulting in defective virion assembly and the production of less infectious virion particles. Interestingly, the replication of herpes simplex virus, a human herpesvirus that is closely related to HCMV, was not affected by the suppression of IFITMs in MRC5 cells. These results indicate that IFITMs are involved in a specific pathway required for HCMV replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV is known to repurpose the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) viperin and tetherin to facilitate its replication. Our results expand the range of ISGs that can be exploited by HCMV for its replication. This is also the first report of a proviral function of IFITMs in DNA virus replication. In addition, whereas previous studies showed that IFITMs modulate virus entry, which is a very early stage in the virus life cycle, we

  5. pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion.

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    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Mason, Caleb; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2017-05-12

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), with endosomes. First, we found that a modest elevation of external pH can raise the pH in early endosomes in a cell type-dependent manner and thereby delay the acid-induced fusion of endocytosed ASLV. Second, we observed a cell type-dependent delay between the low pH-dependent and temperature-dependent steps of viral fusion, consistent with the delayed enlargement of the fusion pore. Third, ectopic expression of IFITMs, known to potently block influenza virus fusion with late compartments, was found to only partially inhibit ASLV fusion with early endosomes. Interestingly, IFITM expression promoted virus uptake and the acidification of endosomal compartments, resulting in an accelerated fusion rate when driven by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, but not by the transmembrane isoform of the ASLV receptor. Collectively, these results highlight the role of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic factors in regulating the efficiency and kinetics of virus entry and fusion with target cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Evolution and Antiviral Specificities of Interferon-Induced Mx Proteins of Bats against Ebola, Influenza, and Other RNA Viruses.

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    Fuchs, Jonas; Hölzer, Martin; Schilling, Mirjam; Patzina, Corinna; Schoen, Andreas; Hoenen, Thomas; Zimmer, Gert; Marz, Manja; Weber, Friedemann; Müller, Marcel A; Kochs, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Bats serve as a reservoir for various, often zoonotic viruses, including significant human pathogens such as Ebola and influenza viruses. However, for unknown reasons, viral infections rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats. A tight control of viral replication by the host innate immune defense might contribute to this phenomenon. Transcriptomic studies revealed the presence of the interferon-induced antiviral myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins in bats, but detailed functional aspects have not been assessed. To provide evidence that bat Mx proteins might act as key factors to control viral replication we cloned Mx1 cDNAs from three bat families, Pteropodidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phylogenetically these bat Mx1 genes cluster closely with their human ortholog MxA. Using transfected cell cultures, minireplicon systems, virus-like particles, and virus infections, we determined the antiviral potential of the bat Mx1 proteins. Bat Mx1 significantly reduced the polymerase activity of viruses circulating in bats, including Ebola and influenza A-like viruses. The related Thogoto virus, however, which is not known to infect bats, was not inhibited by bat Mx1. Further, we provide evidence for positive selection in bat Mx1 genes that might explain species-specific antiviral activities of these proteins. Together, our data suggest a role for Mx1 in controlling these viruses in their bat hosts. IMPORTANCE Bats are a natural reservoir for various viruses that rarely cause clinical symptoms in bats but are dangerous zoonotic pathogens, like Ebola or rabies virus. It has been hypothesized that the interferon system might play a key role in controlling viral replication in bats. We speculate that the interferon-induced Mx proteins might be key antiviral factors of bats and have coevolved with bat-borne viruses. This study evaluated for the first time a large set of bat Mx1 proteins spanning three major bat families for their antiviral potential, including activity

  7. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

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    Hoenen, Antje [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Gillespie, Leah [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der [Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Khromykh, Alexander [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Mackenzie, Jason, E-mail: jason.mackenzie@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-01-05

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV{sub KUN}) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV{sub KUN} particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV{sub KUN} under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV{sub KUN} assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV{sub KUN} assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition.

  8. The West Nile virus assembly process evades the conserved antiviral mechanism of the interferon-induced MxA protein

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    Hoenen, Antje; Gillespie, Leah; Morgan, Garry; Heide, Peter van der; Khromykh, Alexander; Mackenzie, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses have evolved means to evade host innate immune responses. Recent evidence suggests this is due to prevention of interferon production and signaling in flavivirus-infected cells. Here we show that the interferon-induced MxA protein can sequester the West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNV KUN ) capsid protein in cytoplasmic tubular structures in an expression-replication system. This sequestering resulted in reduced titers of secreted WNV KUN particles. We show by electron microscopy, tomography and 3D modeling that these cytoplasmic tubular structures form organized bundles. Additionally we show that recombinant ER-targeted MxA can restrict production of infectious WNV KUN under conditions of virus infection. Our results indicate a co-ordinated and compartmentalized WNV KUN assembly process may prevent recognition of viral components by MxA, particularly the capsid protein. This recognition can be exploited if MxA is targeted to intracellular sites of WNV KUN assembly. This results in further understanding of the mechanisms of flavivirus evasion from the immune system. - Highlights: • We show that the ISG MxA can recognize the West Nile virus capsid protein. • Interaction between WNV C protein and MxA induces cytoplasmic fibrils. • MxA can be retargeted to the ER to restrict WNV particle release. • WNV assembly process is a strategy to avoid MxA recognition

  9. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is associated with viremia of early HIV-1 infection in Korean patients.

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    Lee, SoYong; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Shin, YoungHyun; Kim, SeungHyun; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-05-01

    Cytokines/chemokines play key roles in modulating disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although it is known that early HIV-1 infection is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, the relationship between cytokine levels and HIV-1 pathogenesis is not clear. The concentrations of 18 cytokines/chemokines in 30 HIV-1 negative and 208 HIV-1 positive plasma samples from Korean patients were measured by the Luminex system. Early HIV-1 infection was classified according to the Fiebig stage (FS) based on the characteristics of the patients infected with HIV-1. Concentrations of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were increased significantly during the early stage of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) compared with the HIV-1-negative group. Of these cytokines, an elevated level of IP-10 was the only factor to be correlated positively with a higher viral load during the early stages of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) in Koreans (R = 0.52, P IP-10 may be an indicator for HIV-1 viremia and associated closely with viral replication in patients with early HIV-1 infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Parental influenza virion nucleocapsids are efficiently transported into the nuclei of murine cells expressing the nuclear interferon-induced Mx protein.

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    Broni, B; Julkunen, I; Condra, J H; Davies, M E; Berry, M J; Krug, R M

    1990-01-01

    The interferon-induced murine Mx1 protein, which is localized in the nucleus, most likely specifically blocks influenza virus replication by inhibiting nuclear viral mRNA synthesis, including the mRNA synthesis catalyzed by inoculum (parental) virion nucleocapsids (R. M. Krug, M. Shaw, B. Broni, G. Shapiro, and O. Haller, J. Virol. 56:201-206, 1985). We tested two possible mechanisms for this inhibition. First, we determined whether the transport of parental nucleocapsids into the nucleus was...

  11. Identification and expression analysis of the interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5 gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus.

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    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5 full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE. Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12. Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1 and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5.

  12. Interferon-induced protein 56 (IFI56) is induced by VHSV infection but not by bacterial infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

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    Hwang, Jee Youn; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Hwang, Seong Don; Son, Maeng-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Interferon-inducible protein 56 (IFI56, also known as ISG56/IFIT1, interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1) is strongly induced in response to interferon and a potent inhibitor of viral replication and translational initiation. Here, we describe the identification of IFI56 (OfIFI56) in olive flounder, its characteristic features, and expression levels in various tissues before and after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection. The full-length OfIFI56 sequence was identified from rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. The complete coding sequence of OfIFI56 is 1971 bp in length and encodes 431 amino acids. The putative OfIFI56 protein has multiple tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs, which regulate diverse biological processes, such as organelle targeting, protein import, and vesicle fusion. Based on sequence analysis, the Larimichthys crocea IFI56 protein (61%) had the highest sequence homology to OfIFI56. In healthy olive flounder, OfIFI56 mRNA expression was detected in many tissues such as intestine, gill, head kidney, heart, spleen, and trunk kidney tissues. After VHSV challenge, OfIFI56 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in these tissues. Additionally, OfIFI56 expression was induced by poly I:C but not by Streptococcus parauberis and S. iniae infection or lipopolysaccharide injection in kidney and spleen tissues of olive flounder. These results demonstrate that piscine OfIFI56 expression is not induced by bacterial infection but is selectively induced by viral infection, especially VHSV, and that OfIFI56 may play an important role in the host response against VHSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microparticles released from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human macrophages contain increased levels of the type I interferon inducible proteins including ISG15.

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    Hare, Nathan J; Chan, Brian; Chan, Edwina; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Britton, Warwick J; Saunders, Bernadette M

    2015-09-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small membranous particles (100-1000 nm) released under normal steady-state conditions and are thought to provide a communication network between host cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection of macrophages increased the release of MPs, and these MPs induced a proinflammatory response from uninfected macrophages in vitro and in vivo following their transfer into uninfected mice. To determine how M. tb infection modulates the protein composition of the MPs, and if this contributes to their proinflammatory properties, we compared the proteomes of MPs derived from M. tb-infected (TBinf-MP) and uninfected human THP-1 monocytic cells. MP proteins were analyzed by GeLC-MS/MS with spectral counting revealing 68 proteins with statistically significant differential abundances. The 42 proteins increased in abundance in TBinf-MPs included proteins associated with immune function (7), lysosomal/endosomal maturation (4), vesicular formation (12), nucleosome proteins (4), and antigen processing (9). Prominent among these were the type I interferon inducible proteins, ISG15, IFIT1, IFIT2, and IFIT3. Exposure of uninfected THP-1 cells to TBinf-MPs induced increased gene expression of isg15, ifit1, ifit2, and ifit3 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. These proteins may regulate the proinflammatory potential of the MPs and provide candidate biomarkers for M. tb infection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Positive selection drives rapid evolution of certain amino acid residues in an evolutionarily highly conserved interferon-inducible antiviral protein of fishes.

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    Padhi, Abinash

    2013-01-01

    Viperin, an evolutionarily highly conserved interferon-inducible multifunctional protein, has previously been reported to exhibit antiviral activity against a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses. Utilizing the complete nucleotide coding sequence data of fish viperin antiviral genes, and employing the maximum likelihood-based codon substitution models, the present study reports the pervasive role of positive selection in the evolution of viperin antiviral protein in fishes. The overall rate of nonsynonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) substitutions (dN/dS) for the three functional domains of viperin (N-terminal, central domain and C-terminal) were 1.1, 0.12, and 0.24, respectively. Codon-by-codon substitution analyses have revealed that while most of the positively selected sites were located at the N-terminal amphipathic α-helix domain, few amino acid residues at the C-terminal domain were under positive selection. However, none of the sites in the central domain were under positive selection. These results indicate that, although viperin is evolutionarily highly conserved, the three functional domains experienced differential selection pressures. Taken together with the results of previous studies, the present study suggests that the persistent antagonistic nature of surrounding infectious viral pathogens might be the likely cause for such adaptive evolutionary changes of certain amino acids in fish viperin antiviral protein.

  15. Parental influenza virion nucleocapsids are efficiently transported into the nuclei of murine cells expressing the nuclear interferon-induced Mx protein.

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    Broni, B; Julkunen, I; Condra, J H; Davies, M E; Berry, M J; Krug, R M

    1990-12-01

    The interferon-induced murine Mx1 protein, which is localized in the nucleus, most likely specifically blocks influenza virus replication by inhibiting nuclear viral mRNA synthesis, including the mRNA synthesis catalyzed by inoculum (parental) virion nucleocapsids (R. M. Krug, M. Shaw, B. Broni, G. Shapiro, and O. Haller, J. Virol. 56:201-206, 1985). We tested two possible mechanisms for this inhibition. First, we determined whether the transport of parental nucleocapsids into the nucleus was inhibited in murine cells expressing the nuclear Mx1 protein. To detect the Mx1 protein, we prepared rabbit antibodies against the Mx1 protein with a CheY-Mx fusion protein expressed in bacteria. The fate of parental nucleocapsids was monitored by immunofluorescence with an appropriate dilution of monoclonal antibody to the nucleocapsid protein. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was added to the cells 30 min prior to infection, so that the only nucleocapsids protein molecules in the cells were those associated with nucleocapsids of the parental virus. These nucleocapsids were efficiently transported into the nuclei of murine cells expressing the Mx1 protein, indicating that this protein most likely acts after the parental nucleocapsids enter the nucleus. The second possibility was that the murine Mx1 protein might act in the nucleus to inhibit viral mRNA synthesis indirectly via new cap-binding activities that sequestered cellular capped RNAs away from the viral RNA transcriptase. We show that the same array of nuclear cap-binding proteins was present in Mx-positive and Mx-negative cells treated with interferon. Interestingly, a large amount of a 43-kDa cap-binding activity appeared after interferon treatment of both Mx-positive and Mx-negative cells. Hence, the appearance of new cap-binding activities was unlikely to account for the Mx-specific inhibition of viral mRNA synthesis. These results are most consistent with the possibility that the Mx1 protein acts

  16. The interferon-inducible DNA-sensor protein IFI16: a key player in the antiviral response.

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    Dell'Oste, Valentina; Gatti, Deborah; Giorgio, Alessandro G; Gariglio, Marisa; Landolfo, Santo; De Andrea, Marco

    2015-01-01

    IFI16, a member of the IFN-inducible PYHIN-200 gene family, displays multifaceted activity due to its ability to bind to various target proteins and, in turn, modulate a variety cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis/pyroptosis, senescence, and in? ammation. The last few year have seen major advances in our knowledge of IFI16 antiviral activity and its role in the immune response. Indeed, a wealth of evidence now supports a key role of IFI16 in the activation of innate immunity and viral restriction against Herpesviruses and Lentiviruses, such that the definition of IFI16 as a "restriction factor" is now widely accepted. However, most viruses have developed their own unique strategy to antagonize IFI16, leading to a modification or disruption of its function. This review summarizes our current understanding of how viral replication is sensed and then inhibited by IFI16 protein and the viral strategies employed to defeat this host defense mechanism. We will focus mainly on Herpesviruses, although recent discoveries on the role of IFI16 in lentiviral infection will also be considered.

  17. Inhibition of CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Engineering by a Type I Interferon-Induced Reduction in Guide RNA Expression.

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    Machitani, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Fuminori; Wakabayashi, Keisaku; Nakatani, Kosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome engineering technology is a powerful tool for generation of cells and animals with engineered mutations in their genomes. In order to introduce the CRISPR/Cas9 system into target cells, nonviral and viral vectors are often used; however, such vectors trigger innate immune responses associated with production of type I interferons (IFNs). We have recently demonstrated that type I IFNs inhibit short-hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing, which led us to hypothesize that type I IFNs may also inhibit CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome mutagenesis. Here we investigated this hypothesis. A single-strand annealing assay using a reporter plasmid demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage efficiencies of the target double-stranded DNA were significantly reduced by IFNα. A mismatch recognition nuclease-dependent genotyping assay also demonstrated that IFNα reduced insertion or deletion (indel) mutation levels by approximately half. Treatment with IFNα did not alter Cas9 protein expression levels, whereas the copy numbers of guide RNA (gRNA) were significantly reduced by IFNα stimulation. These results indicate that type I IFNs significantly reduce gRNA expression levels following introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the cells, leading to a reduction in the efficiencies of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome mutagenesis. Our findings provide important clues for the achievement of efficient genome engineering using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

  18. pH Optimum of Hemagglutinin-Mediated Membrane Fusion Determines Sensitivity of Influenza A Viruses to the Interferon-Induced Antiviral State and IFITMs.

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    Gerlach, Thomas; Hensen, Luca; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Bergmann, Janina; Winkler, Michael; Peteranderl, Christin; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Weber, Friedemann; Herold, Susanne; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2017-06-01

    The replication and pathogenicity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) critically depend on their ability to tolerate the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. To determine a potential role for the IAV hemagglutinin (HA) in viral sensitivity to IFN, we studied the restriction of IAV infection in IFN-β-treated human epithelial cells by using 2:6 recombinant IAVs that shared six gene segments of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus (PR8) and contained HAs and neuraminidases of representative avian, human, and zoonotic H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. In A549 and Calu-3 cells, viruses displaying a higher pH optimum of HA-mediated membrane fusion, H5N1-PR8 and H7N9-PR8, were less sensitive to the IFN-induced antiviral state than their counterparts with HAs from duck and human viruses, which fused at a lower pH. The association between a high pH optimum of fusion and reduced IFN sensitivity was confirmed by using HA point mutants of A/Hong Kong/1/1968-PR8 that differed solely by their fusion properties. Furthermore, similar effects of the viral fusion pH on IFN sensitivity were observed in experiments with (i) primary human type II alveolar epithelial cells and differentiated cultures of human airway epithelial cells, (ii) nonrecombinant zoonotic and pandemic IAVs, and (iii) preparations of IFN-α and IFN-λ1. A higher pH of membrane fusion and reduced sensitivity to IFN correlated with lower restriction of the viruses in MDCK cells stably expressing the IFN-inducible transmembrane proteins IFITM2 and IFITM3, which are known to inhibit viral fusion. Our results reveal that the pH optimum of HA-driven membrane fusion of IAVs is a determinant of their sensitivity to IFN and IFITM proteins. IMPORTANCE The IFN system constitutes an important innate defense against viral infection. Substantial information is available on how IAVs avoid detection by sensors of the IFN system and disable IFN signaling pathways. Much less is known about the ability of IAVs to tolerate the antiviral activity of IFN

  19. The interferon-induced antiviral protein PML (TRIM19) promotes the restriction and transcriptional silencing of lentiviruses in a context-specific, isoform-specific fashion.

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    Masroori, Nasser; Merindol, Natacha; Berthoux, Lionel

    2016-03-22

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, a type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced gene product and a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, modulates the transcriptional activity of viruses belonging to various families. Whether PML has an impact on the replication of HIV-1 has not been fully addressed, but recent studies point to its possible involvement in the restriction of HIV-1 in human cells and in the maintenance of transcriptional latency in human cell lines in which HIV-1 is constitutively repressed. We investigated further the restriction of HIV-1 and a related lentivirus, SIVmac, by PML in murine cells and in a lymphocytic human cell line. In particular, we studied the relevance of PML to IFN-I-mediated inhibition and the role of individual human isoforms. We demonstrate that both human PML (hPML) and murine PML (mPML) inhibit the early post-entry stages of the replication of HIV-1 and a related lentivirus, SIVmac. In addition, HIV-1 was transcriptionally silenced by mPML and by hPML isoforms I, II, IV and VI in MEFs. This PML-mediated transcriptional repression was attenuated in presence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. In contrast, depletion of PML had no effect on HIV-1 gene expression in a human T cell line. PML was found to contribute to the inhibition of HIV-1 by IFN-I. Specifically, IFN-α and IFN-β treatments of MEFs enhanced the PML-dependent inhibition of HIV-1 early replication stages. We show that PML can inhibit HIV-1 and other lentiviruses as part of the IFN-I-mediated response. The restriction takes place at two distinct steps, i.e. reverse transcription and transcription, and in an isoform-specific, cellular context-specific fashion. Our results support a model in which PML activates innate immune antilentiviral effectors. These data are relevant to the development of latency reversal-inducing pharmacological agents, since PML was previously proposed as a pharmacological target for such inhibitors. This study also has

  20. Detergent-mediated protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Ghanei, Hamed; Holyoake, John; Bishop, Russell E; Privé, Gilbert G; Pomès, Régis

    2013-04-01

    Because detergents are commonly used to solvate membrane proteins for structural evaluation, much attention has been devoted to assessing the conformational bias imparted by detergent micelles in comparison to the native environment of the lipid bilayer. Here, we conduct six 500-ns simulations of a system with >600,000 atoms to investigate the spontaneous self assembly of dodecylphosphocholine detergent around multiple molecules of the integral membrane protein PagP. This detergent formed equatorial micelles in which acyl chains surround the protein's hydrophobic belt, confirming existing models of the detergent solvation of membrane proteins. In addition, unexpectedly, the extracellular and periplasmic apical surfaces of PagP interacted with the headgroups of detergents in other micelles 85 and 60% of the time, respectively, forming complexes that were stable for hundreds of nanoseconds. In some cases, an apical surface of one molecule of PagP interacted with an equatorial micelle surrounding another molecule of PagP. In other cases, the apical surfaces of two molecules of PagP simultaneously bound a neat detergent micelle. In these ways, detergents mediated the non-specific aggregation of folded PagP. These simulation results are consistent with dynamic light scattering experiments, which show that, at detergent concentrations ≥600 mM, PagP induces the formation of large scattering species that are likely to contain many copies of the PagP protein. Together, these simulation and experimental results point to a potentially generic mechanism of detergent-mediated protein aggregation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Secreted Proteins Involved in Nonspecific dsRNA-Mediated Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 Cell Antiviral Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martins-da-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs. This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response. Secreted molecules have been implicated in immune responses, including interferon-related responses. We conducted a mass spectrometry analysis of conditioned medium from LL5 cells 24 and 48 h after dsRNA or mock treatment. We identified 304 proteins. At 24 h, 19 proteins had an abundance equal or greater than 2-fold change, while the levels of 17 proteins were reduced when compared to control cells. At the 48 h time point, these numbers were 33 and 71, respectively. The two most abundant secreted peptides at 24 h in the dsRNA-transfected group were phospholipid scramblase, an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity, and forskolin-binding protein (FKBP, a member of the immunophilin family, which mediates the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The transcription profile of most candidates did not follow the pattern of secreted protein abundance.

  2. Dissecting interferon-induced transcriptional programs in human peripheral blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Waddell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are key modulators of the immune system, and are central to the control of many diseases. The response of immune cells to stimuli in complex populations is the product of direct and indirect effects, and of homotypic and heterotypic cell interactions. Dissecting the global transcriptional profiles of immune cell populations may provide insights into this regulatory interplay. The host transcriptional response may also be useful in discriminating between disease states, and in understanding pathophysiology. The transcriptional programs of cell populations in health therefore provide a paradigm for deconvoluting disease-associated gene expression profiles.We used human cDNA microarrays to (1 compare the gene expression programs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs elicited by 6 major mediators of the immune response: interferons alpha, beta, omega and gamma, IL12 and TNFalpha; and (2 characterize the transcriptional responses of purified immune cell populations (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes to IFNgamma stimulation. We defined a highly stereotyped response to type I interferons, while responses to IFNgamma and IL12 were largely restricted to a subset of type I interferon-inducible genes. TNFalpha stimulation resulted in a distinct pattern of gene expression. Cell type-specific transcriptional programs were identified, highlighting the pronounced response of monocytes to IFNgamma, and emergent properties associated with IFN-mediated activation of mixed cell populations. This information provides a detailed view of cellular activation by immune mediators, and contributes an interpretive framework for the definition of host immune responses in a variety of disease settings.

  3. GILT expression in B cells diminishes cathepsin S steady-state protein expression and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps-Yonas, Hannah; Semik, Vikki; Hastings, Karen Taraszka

    2012-01-01

    MHC class II-restricted Ag processing requires protein degradation in the endocytic pathway for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) facilitates Ag processing by reducing protein disulfide bonds in this compartment. Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) contains disulfide bonds and mediates essential steps in MHC class II-restricted processing, including proteolysis of large polypeptides and cleavage of the invariant chain. We so...

  4. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma....

  5. Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J; Zhang, Lifan; Ding, Bo; Lunney, Joan K; Liu, Bang; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals.

  6. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pUL83 inhibits IFI16-mediated DNA sensing for immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuo; Chen, Jin; Cristea, Ileana M

    2013-11-13

    Nuclear sensing of viral DNA has emerged as an essential step in innate immune responses against herpesviruses. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into host recognition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and subsequent immune evasion by this prominent DNA virus. We establish that the interferon-inducible protein IFI16 acts as a nuclear DNA sensor following HCMV infection, binding viral DNA and triggering expression of antiviral cytokines via the STING-TBK1-IRF3 signaling pathway. The HCMV tegument protein pUL83 inhibits this response by interacting with the IFI16 pyrin domain, blocking its oligomerization upon DNA sensing and subsequent immune signals. pUL83 disrupts IFI16 by concerted action of its N- and C-terminal domains, in which an evolutionarily conserved N-terminal pyrin association domain (PAD) binds IFI16. Additionally, phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain modulates pUL83-mediated inhibition of pyrin aggregation. Collectively, our data elucidate the interplay between host DNA sensing and HCMV immune evasion, providing targets for restoring antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial antagonist mediated protein molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Urbizu, Lucia Paola; Sparo, Mónica Delfina; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial antagonism mediated by ribosomally synthesised peptides has gained considerable attention in recent years because of its potential applications in the control of undesirable microbiota. These peptides, generally referred to as bacteriocins, are defined as a heterogeneous group of ribosomally synthesised, proteinaceous substances (with or without further modifications) extracellularly secreted by many Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria. Their mode of activity is primarily ...

  8. Detergent-Mediated Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, J; Sjollema, K.A; Poolman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of reconstitution of the lactose transport protein (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus is markedly higher with Triton X-100 than with other detergents commonly employed to mediate the membrane insertion. To rationalize these differences, the lipid/detergent structures that are formed

  9. Identification of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) homologues in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongton, Kittima; McCall, Kimberly; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2014-06-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been demonstrated to be involved in the immune response to bacterial challenge in various organisms. However, little is known about GILT function in innate immunity. Drosophila has been commonly used as a model for the study of the innate immune response of invertebrates. Here, we identify the CG9796, CG10157, and CG13822 genes of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as GILT homologues. All deduced Drosophila GILT coding sequences contained the major characteristic features of the GILT protein family: the GILT signature CQHGX2ECX2NX4C sequence and the active site CXXC or CXXS motif. The mRNA transcript levels of the Drosophila GILT genes were up-regulated after Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli DH5α infection. Moreover, a bacterial load assay showed that over-expression of Drosophila GILT in fat body or hemocytes led to a low bacterial colony number whereas knock-down of Drosophila GILT in fat body or hemocytes led to a high bacterial colony number when compared to a wild-type control. These results indicate that the Drosophila GILTs are very likely to play a role in the innate immune response upon bacterial challenge of Drosophila host defense. This study may provide the basis for further study on GILT function in innate immunity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The first echinoderm gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Yanhong; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been described as a key enzyme that facilitating the processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted antigen in mammals. In this study, the first echinoderm GILT named StmGILT was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The StmGILT cDNA is 1529 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 87 bp, a 3'-UTR of 674 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp that encoding a protein of 255 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 27.82 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 4.73. The putative StmGILT protein possesses all the main characteristics of known GILT proteins, including a signature sequence, a reductase active site CXXC, twelve conserved cysteines, and two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. For the gene structure, StmGILT contains four exons separated by three introns. In the promoter region of StmGILT gene, an NF-κB binding site and an IFN-γ activation site were found. The thiol reductase activity of recombinant StmGILT protein was also demonstrated in this study. In addition, the highest level of mRNA expression was noticed in coelomocytes of S. monotuberculatus. In in vitro experiments performed in coelomocytes, the expression of StmGILT mRNA was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), inactivated bacteria or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] challenge, suggested that the sea cucumber GILT might play critical roles in the innate immune defending against bacterial and viral infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  12. The protein-protein interaction-mediated inactivation of PTEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, J; He, L; Tang, D

    2014-01-01

    PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, 10q23.3) is the dominant phosphatase responsible for the dephosphorylation of the 3-position phosphate from the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphate (PIP3), and thereby directly antagonizes the actions mediated by Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI3K). PI3K functions in numerous pathways and cellular processes, including tumourigenesis. Therefore, mechanisms regulating PTEN function, either positively or negatively are of great interest not only to oncogenesis but also to other aspects of human health. Since its discovery in 1997, PTEN has been one of the most-heavily studied tumour suppressors and has been the subject of numerous reviews. Most investigations and reviews center on PTEN's function and its regulation. While the regulation of PTEN function via genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms has been extensively studied, the impact of protein-protein interaction on PTEN function remains less clear. Recent research has revealed that PTEN can be specifically inhibited by its interaction with other proteins, which are collectively termed PTEN-negative regulators (PTENNRs). This review will summarize our current understanding on the protein network that influences PTEN function with a specific focus on PTEN-NRs.

  13. Interferon-inducible protein 16: Insight into the interaction with tumor suppressor p53

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liao, J.C.C.; Lam, R.; Brázda, Václav; Duan, S.; Ravichandran, M.; Ma, J.; Xiao, T.; Tempel, W.; Zuo, X.; Wang, Y.-X.; Chirgadze, N.Y.; Arrowsmith, Ch.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 418-424 ISSN 0969-2126 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : p53 * HIN domain * p53 -DNA complex Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.347, year: 2011

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of the interferon-induced transmembrane gene family in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhang

    Full Text Available Vertebrate interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM genes have been demonstrated to have extensive and diverse functions, playing important roles in the evolution of vertebrates. Despite observance of their functionality, the evolutionary dynamics of this gene family are complex and currently unknown. Here, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses to unravel the evolutionary history of the vertebrate IFITM family. A total of 174 IFITM orthologous genes and 112 pseudogenes were identified from 27 vertebrate genome sequences. The vertebrate IFITM family can be divided into immunity-related IFITM (IR-IFITM, IFITM5 and IFITM10 sub-families in phylogeny, implying origins from three different progenitors. In general, vertebrate IFITM genes are located in two loci, one containing the IFITM10 gene, and the other locus containing IFITM5 and various numbers of IR-IFITM genes. Conservation of evolutionary synteny was observed in these IFITM genes. Significant functional divergence was detected among the three IFITM sub-families. No gene duplication or positive selection was found in IFITM5 sub-family, implying the functional conservation of IFITM5 in vertebrate evolution, which is involved in bone formation. No IFITM5 locus was identified in the marmoset genome, suggesting a potential association with the tiny size of this monkey. The IFITM10 sub-family was divided into two groups: aquatic and terrestrial types. Functional divergence was detected between the two groups, and five IFITM10-like genes from frog were dispersed into the two groups. Both gene duplication and positive selection were observed in aquatic vertebrate IFITM10-like genes, indicating that IFITM10 might be associated with the adaptation to aquatic environments. A large number of lineage- and species-specific gene duplications were observed in IR-IFITM sub-family and positive selection was detected in IR-IFITM of primates and rodents. Because primates have experienced a long history of

  15. Segmental isotopic labeling by asparaginyl endopeptidase-mediated protein ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikula, Kornelia M; Krumwiede, Luisa; Plückthun, Andreas; Iwaï, Hideo

    2018-03-13

    Segmental isotopic labeling can facilitate NMR studies of large proteins, multi-domain proteins, and proteins with repetitive sequences by alleviating NMR signal overlaps. Segmental isotopic labeling also allows us to investigate an individual domain in the context of a full-length protein by NMR. Several established methods are available for segmental isotopic labeling such as intein-mediated ligation, but each has specific requirements and limitations. Here, we report an enzymatic approach using bacterially produced asparagine endopeptidase from Oldenlandia affinis for segmental isotopic labeling of a protein with repetitive sequences, a designed armadillo repeat protein, by overcoming some of the shortcomings of enzymatic ligation for segmental isotopic labeling.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are ...

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are ...

  18. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  19. Membrane-mediated interaction between strongly anisotropic protein scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Schweitzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Specialized proteins serve as scaffolds sculpting strongly curved membranes of intracellular organelles. Effective membrane shaping requires segregation of these proteins into domains and is, therefore, critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction. Interactions mediated by membrane elastic deformations have been extensively analyzed within approximations of large inter-protein distances, small extents of the protein-mediated membrane bending and small deviations of the protein shapes from isotropic spherical segments. At the same time, important classes of the realistic membrane-shaping proteins have strongly elongated shapes with large and highly anisotropic curvature. Here we investigated, computationally, the membrane mediated interaction between proteins or protein oligomers representing membrane scaffolds with strongly anisotropic curvature, and addressed, quantitatively, a specific case of the scaffold geometrical parameters characterizing BAR domains, which are crucial for membrane shaping in endocytosis. In addition to the previously analyzed contributions to the interaction, we considered a repulsive force stemming from the entropy of the scaffold orientation. We computed this interaction to be of the same order of magnitude as the well-known attractive force related to the entropy of membrane undulations. We demonstrated the scaffold shape anisotropy to cause a mutual aligning of the scaffolds and to generate a strong attractive interaction bringing the scaffolds close to each other to equilibrium distances much smaller than the scaffold size. We computed the energy of interaction between scaffolds of a realistic geometry to constitute tens of kBT, which guarantees a robust segregation of the scaffolds into domains.

  20. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan

    2005-01-01

    to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is inhibited...... to bind and mediate cellular uptake of FBP. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows binding of bovine and human milk FBP to immobilized megalin, but not to low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Binding of (125)I-labeled folate binding protein (FBP) to sections of kidney proximal tubule, known...

  1. Molecular structure and functional characterization of the gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) gene in largemouth bass (Microptenus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Jiaxin; Hu, Lingling; Lu, Jia; Sang, Ming; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) plays a role in facilitating the processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted antigens and is also involved in MHC I-restricted antigens in adaptive immunity catalyzing disulfide bond reduction in mammals. In this study, we cloned a GILT gene homolog from largemouth bass (designated 'lbGILT'), a freshwater fish belonging to Perciformes and known for its nutritive value. We obtained the full-length cDNA of lbGILT by reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. This cDNA is comprised of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 87 bp, a 3'-UTR of 189 bp, and an open reading frame of 771 bp. It encodes a protein of 256 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 28.548 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.62. The deduced protein possesses the typical structural features of known GILTs, including an active site motif, two potential N-linked glycosylation sites, a GILT signature sequence, and six conserved cysteines. Tissue-specific expression of lbGILT was shown by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of lbGILT mRNA was obviously up regulated in spleen and kidney after induction with lipopolysaccharide. Recombinant lbGILT was produced as an inclusion body with a His6 tag in ArcticExpress (DE3), and the protein was then washed, solubilized, and refolded. The refolded lbGILT showed reduction activity against an IgG substrate. These results suggest that lbGILT plays a role in innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    as radical termination reactions. This paper reviews the data available on singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation and concentrates primarily on the mechanisms by which this excited state species brings about changes to both the side-chains and backbone of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Recent work...... to other biological targets, and may play a significant role in bystander damage, or dark reactions, in systems where proteins are subjected to oxidation....

  3. Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Adam; Bubb, William A; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2002-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is generated by a number of enzymes as well as by UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer and has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including cataract, sunburn, and skin cancers. Proteins, and Cys, Met, Trp, Tyr and His side chains in pa...

  4. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  5. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R

    1997-01-01

    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several......-metal ions and thereby facilitate their reaction with hydroperoxides; and aldehydes may participate in Schiff-base formation and other reactions. Cells can detoxify some of the reactive species, e.g. by reducing protein hydroperoxides to unreactive hydroxides. Oxidized proteins are often functionally...... inactive and their unfolding is associated with enhanced susceptibility to proteinases. Thus cells can generally remove oxidized proteins by proteolysis. However, certain oxidized proteins are poorly handled by cells, and together with possible alterations in the rate of production of oxidized proteins...

  6. Emerging roles of protein kinases in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-12-15

    Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation. To date, 32 small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cancer and inflammation. However, there is no drug effectively targeting neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have advanced several protein kinases as important drug targets in neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review emerging protein kinases potentially involved in neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is defined as when one or more water molecules mediate an interaction between a pair of charged residues. For example, disruption of surface salt bridges (a class of ionic interactions) by water molecules in proteins permits protein–DNA inter- actions (Grove 2003) because it creates the cationic surface complementary to ...

  8. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that water molecules play an indispensable role in the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The water-mediated ionic interactions between the charged residues provide stability and plasticity and in turn address the function of the protein structures. Thus, this study specifically addresses the ...

  9. Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Adam; Bubb, William A; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2002-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is generated by a number of enzymes as well as by UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer and has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including cataract, sunburn, and skin cancers. Proteins, and Cys, Met, Trp, Tyr and His side chains...... methods. The yield of these species is significantly enhanced in D2O and decreased by azide. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic analysis of reaction mixtures, or materials separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, are consistent with the initial formation of an (undetected......-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,3,3a,6,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid. Hydroperoxides that lack a free alpha-amino group (e.g. those formed on 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, N-Ac-Tyr and Tyr-containing peptides) are longer-lived, with half-lives of hours to days. These species undergo slow decay at low...

  10. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  11. Protein: MPA1 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MPA1 TLR signaling molecules Rsad2 Vig1 Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain-containing pr...otein 2 Viperin, Virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, interferon-inducible 10090 Mus musculus 58185 Q8CBB9 21435586 ...

  12. Protein A-Mediated Multicellular Behavior in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Nekane; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Valle, Jaione; Solano, Cristina; Calvo, Enrique; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Foster, Timothy J.; Penadés, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo

    2009-01-01

    The capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to form biofilms on host tissues and implanted medical devices is one of the major virulence traits underlying persistent and chronic infections. The matrix in which S. aureus cells are encased in a biofilm often consists of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) or poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). However, surface proteins capable of promoting biofilm development in the absence of PIA/PNAG exopolysaccharide have been described. Here, we used two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to investigate the composition of a proteinaceous biofilm matrix and identified protein A (spa) as an essential component of the biofilm; protein A induced bacterial aggregation in liquid medium and biofilm formation under standing and flow conditions. Exogenous addition of synthetic protein A or supernatants containing secreted protein A to growth media induced biofilm development, indicating that protein A can promote biofilm development without being covalently anchored to the cell wall. Protein A-mediated biofilm formation was completely inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by addition of serum, purified immunoglobulin G, or anti-protein A-specific antibodies. A murine model of subcutaneous catheter infection unveiled a significant role for protein A in the development of biofilm-associated infections, as the amount of protein A-deficient bacteria recovered from the catheter was significantly lower than that of wild-type bacteria when both strains were used to coinfect the implanted medical device. Our results suggest a novel role for protein A complementary to its known capacity to interact with multiple immunologically important eukaryotic receptors. PMID:19047354

  13. Type I Interferons Induce T Regulatory 1 Responses and Restrict Humoral Immunity during Experimental Malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Zander

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CD4 T cell-dependent antibody responses are essential for limiting Plasmodium parasite replication and the severity of malaria; however, the factors that regulate humoral immunity during highly inflammatory, Th1-biased systemic infections are poorly understood. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we show that Plasmodium infection-induced type I interferons limit T follicular helper accumulation and constrain anti-malarial humoral immunity. Mechanistically we show that CD4 T cell-intrinsic type I interferon signaling induces T-bet and Blimp-1 expression, thereby promoting T regulatory 1 responses. We further show that the secreted effector cytokines of T regulatory 1 cells, IL-10 and IFN-γ, collaborate to restrict T follicular helper accumulation, limit parasite-specific antibody responses, and diminish parasite control. This circuit of interferon-mediated Blimp-1 induction is also operational during chronic virus infection and can occur independently of IL-2 signaling. Thus, type I interferon-mediated induction of Blimp-1 and subsequent expansion of T regulatory 1 cells represent generalizable features of systemic, inflammatory Th1-biased viral and parasitic infections that are associated with suppression of humoral immunity.

  14. Singlet oxygen-mediated formation of protein peroxides within cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.; Policarpio, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Singlet oxygen is generated by a number of cellular, enzymatic and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV, or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer; as a consequence this oxidant has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including photo-aging and skin cancer. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that illumination of viable, sensitizer-loaded, THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intra-cellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires the presence of the sensitizer, is enhanced in D 2 O, and decreased by azide; these data are consistent with the mediation of singlet oxygen. The concentration of peroxides detected, which is not affected by glucose or ascorbate loading of the cells, corresponds to ca. 1.5 nmoles peroxide per 10 6 cells using rose bengal as sensitizer, or 10 nmoles per mg cell protein and account for up to ca. 15% of the O 2 consumed by the cells. Similar peroxides have been detected on isolated cellular proteins exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal and oxygen. After cessation of illumination, the cellular protein peroxide levels decreases with t 1/2 ca. 4 hrs at 37 deg C, and this is associated with increased cell lysis. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions, gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These protein peroxides, and radicals derived from them, can inactivate key cellular enzymes (including caspases, GAPDH and glutathione reductase) and induce DNA base oxidation, strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer gives rise to novel long-lived, but reactive, intra-cellular protein peroxides via singlet oxygen-mediated

  15. Protein-crystal interface mediates cell adhesion and proangiogenic secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Chen, Weisi; Gillis, Brian; Fischbach, Claudia; Estroff, Lara A; Gourdon, Delphine

    2017-02-01

    The nanoscale materials properties of bone apatite crystals have been implicated in breast cancer bone metastasis and their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins are likely involved. In this study, we used geologic hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ), closely related to bone apatite, to investigate how HAP surface chemistry and nano/microscale topography individually influence the crystal-protein interface, and how the altered protein deposition impacts subsequent breast cancer cell activities. We first utilized Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to assess the molecular conformation of fibronectin (Fn), a major extracellular matrix protein upregulated in cancer, when it adsorbed onto HAP facets. Our analysis reveals that both low surface charge density and nanoscale roughness of HAP facets individually contributed to molecular unfolding of Fn. We next quantified cell adhesion and secretion on Fn-coated HAP facets using MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our data show elevated proangiogenic and proinflammatory secretions associated with more unfolded Fn adsorbed onto nano-rough HAP facets with low surface charge density. These findings not only deconvolute the roles of crystal surface chemistry and topography in interfacial protein deposition but also enhance our knowledge of protein-mediated breast cancer cell interactions with apatite, which may be implicated in tumor growth and bone metastasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. X-ray-mediated cross linking of protein and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsky, B.D.; Braun, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple filter assay for the binding of BSA or lysozyme to DNA, two mechanisms of x-ray-mediated cross linking are shown to occur. One, a fast reaction, appears to involve a radical intermediate, is inhibited by high pH and salt, and seems to be enhanced by deoxygenation. The second mechanism, a slow time-dependent component, differs from the fast reaction in its stimulation by histidine, its inhibition by catalase, and the lack of an oxygen effect. Separate irradiation of DNA or water does not lead to cross linking. However, separate irradiation of protein leads to cross linking which proceeds with slow-component kinetics

  17. Interferon induces up-regulation of Spi-1/PU.1 in human leukemia K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P; Delgado, M D; Richard, C; Moreau-Gachelin, F; León, J

    1997-11-26

    The human K562 cell line is derived from a chronic myelogenous leukemia in blastic crisis. Treatment of K562 cells with interferons alpha, beta or gamma resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation. Spi-1/PU.1 is a transcription factor of the Ets family which is required for normal hematopoyesis. We have found that spi-1 mRNA and protein as well as Spi-1-DNA binding activity increase after exposure of K562 cells to interferons. The increase in spi-1 expression ranged from 4- to 8-fold with the different interferons. K562 cells can be differentiated in vitro towards erythroid cells or monocyte-macrophage cells. Interestingly, the regulation of spi-1 by interferon-alpha depended on the differentiated phenotype of K562 cells: interferon-alpha failed to induce spi-1 in erythroid differentiated cells, whereas it induced spi-1 in monocyte-macrophage differentiated cells. The results suggest a role for Spi-1 in the cytostatic response to interferons.

  18. Cesarean Section and Interferon-Induced Helicase Gene Polymorphisms Combine to Increase Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Warncke, Katharina; Winkler, Christiane; Wallner, Maike; Ziegler, Anette-G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing. Delivery by cesarean section is also more prevalent, and it is suggested that cesarean section is associated with type 1 diabetes risk. We examine associations between cesarean delivery, islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes, and genes involved in type 1 diabetes susceptibility. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cesarean section was examined as a risk factor in 1,650 children born to a parent with type 1 diabetes and followed from birth for the development of islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes. RESULTS Children delivered by cesarean section (n = 495) had more than twofold higher risk for type 1 diabetes than children born by vaginal delivery (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5; 95% CI 1.4–4.3; P = 0.001). Cesarean section did not increase the risk for islet autoantibodies (P = 0.6) but was associated with a faster progression to diabetes after the appearance of autoimmunity (P = 0.015). Cesarean section–associated risk was independent of potential confounder variables (adjusted HR 2.7;1.5–5.0; P = 0.001) and observed in children with and without high-risk HLA genotypes. Interestingly, cesarean section appeared to interact with immune response genes, including CD25 and in particular the interferon-induced helicase 1 gene, where increased risk for type 1 diabetes was only seen in children who were delivered by cesarean section and had type 1 diabetes–susceptible IFIH1 genotypes (12-year risk, 9.1 vs. cesarean section may be linked to viral responses in the preclinical autoantibody-positive disease phase. PMID:22110093

  19. Nitrosative stress and nitrated proteins in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs including SLE, scleroderma and hepatitis. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ADs are largely unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggested the contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC supplementation provided protection by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the contribution of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity and to identify proteins susceptible to nitrosative stress. Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, ∼ 250 mg/kg/day via drinking water. TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum anti-nuclear and anti-histone antibodies together with significant induction of iNOS and increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT in sera and livers. Proteomic analysis identified 14 additional nitrated proteins in the livers of TCE-treated mice. Furthermore, TCE exposure led to decreased GSH levels and increased activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, NAC supplementation not only ameliorated TCE-induced nitrosative stress as evident from decreased iNOS, NT, nitrated proteins, NF-κB p65 activation and increased GSH levels, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of autoantibodies in the sera. These findings provide support to the role of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmune response and identify specific nitrated proteins which could have autoimmune potential. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for designing therapeutic strategies.

  20. Salicylic acid interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytic protein trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunlong; Tejos, Ricardo; Beck, Martina; Himschoot, Ellie; Li, Hongjiang; Robatzek, Silke; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí

    2013-05-07

    Removal of cargos from the cell surface via endocytosis is an efficient mechanism to regulate activities of plasma membrane (PM)-resident proteins, such as receptors or transporters. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that is traditionally associated with pathogen defense. Here, we describe an unanticipated effect of SA on subcellular endocytic cycling of proteins. Both exogenous treatments and endogenously enhanced SA levels repressed endocytosis of different PM proteins. The SA effect on endocytosis did not involve transcription or known components of the SA signaling pathway for transcriptional regulation. SA likely targets an endocytic mechanism that involves the coat protein clathrin, because SA interfered with the clathrin incidence at the PM and clathrin-deficient mutants were less sensitive to the impact of SA on the auxin distribution and root bending during the gravitropic response. By contrast, SA did not affect the ligand-induced endocytosis of the flagellin sensing2 (FLS2) receptor during pathogen responses. Our data suggest that the established SA impact on transcription in plant immunity and the nontranscriptional effect of SA on clathrin-mediated endocytosis are independent mechanisms by which SA regulates distinct aspects of plant physiology.

  1. Electron-mediating Cu(A) centers in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epel, Boris; Slutter, Claire S; Neese, Frank

    2002-01-01

    High field (W-band, 95 GHz) pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) measurements were carried out on a number of proteins that contain the mixed-valence, binuclear electron-mediating Cu(A) center. These include nitrous oxide reductase (N(2)OR), the recombinant water-soluble fragment...... of subunit II of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c oxidase (COX) ba(3) (M160T9), its M160QT0 mutant, where the weak axial methionine ligand has been replaced by a glutamine, and the engineered "purple" azurin (purpAz). The three-dimensional (3-D) structures of these proteins, apart from the mutant, are known...... indicates differences in the positions of the imidazole rings relative to the Cu(2)S(2) core. Comparison of the spectral features of the weakly coupled protons of M160QT0 with those of the other investigated proteins shows that they are very similar to those of purpAz, where the Cu(A) center is the most...

  2. Human endogenous retrovirus expression is inversely related with the up-regulation of interferon-inducible genes in the skin of patients with lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelle Almeida de Sousa; Gavioli, Camila Fátima Biancardi; Pereira, Nátalli Zanete; de Carvalho, Gabriel Costa; Domingues, Rosana; Aoki, Valéria; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2015-04-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Reports of a common transactivation of quiescent human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) support the connection of viruses to the disease. HERVs are ancient retroviral sequences in the human genome and their transcription is often deregulated in cancer and autoimmune diseases. We explored the transcriptional activity of HERV sequences as well as the antiviral restriction factor and interferon-inducible genes in the skin from LP patients and healthy control (HC) donors. The study included 13 skin biopsies from patients with LP and 12 controls. Real-time PCR assay identified significant decrease in the HERV-K gag and env mRNA expression levels in LP subjects, when compared to control group. The expressions of HERV-K18 and HERV-W env were also inhibited in the skin of LP patients. We observed a strong correlation between HERV-K gag with other HERV sequences, regardless the down-modulation of transcripts levels in LP group. In contrast, a significant up-regulation of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC 3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing), and the GTPase MxA (Myxovirus resistance A) mRNA expression level was identified in the LP skin specimens. Other transcript expressions, such as the master regulator of type I interferon-dependent immune responses, STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and IRF-7 (interferon regulatory factor 7), IFN-β and the inflammassome NALP3, had increased levels in LP, when compared to HC group. Our study suggests that interferon-inducible factors, in addition to their role in innate immunity against exogenous pathogens, contribute to the immune control of HERVs. Evaluation of the balance between HERV and interferon-inducible factor expression could possibly contribute to surveillance of inflammatory/malignant status of skin diseases.

  3. Translation initiation mediated by nuclear cap-binding protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Incheol; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2017-04-01

    In mammals, cap-dependent translation of mRNAs is initiated by two distinct mechanisms: cap-binding complex (CBC; a heterodimer of CBP80 and 20)-dependent translation (CT) and eIF4E-dependent translation (ET). Both translation initiation mechanisms share common features in driving cap- dependent translation; nevertheless, they can be distinguished from each other based on their molecular features and biological roles. CT is largely associated with mRNA surveillance such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), whereas ET is predominantly involved in the bulk of protein synthesis. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that CT and ET have similar roles in protein synthesis and mRNA surveillance. In a subset of mRNAs, CT preferentially drives the cap-dependent translation, as ET does, and ET is responsible for mRNA surveillance, as CT does. In this review, we summarize and compare the molecular features of CT and ET with a focus on the emerging roles of CT in translation. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 186-193].

  4. Water-mediated energy transport and structure across a protein-protein interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, David

    2010-03-01

    Water molecules embedded within proteins or at the interface between globules play a central role in folding and function. We discuss the influence of interfacial water molecules on energy transport and structure, specifically the role of water at the interface between the two globules of the homodimeric hemoglobin from Scapharca inaequivalvis, which binds oxygen cooperatively. We have studied the water-mediated energy transport in this protein with communication maps and nonequilibrium molecular simulations of energy flow, which reveal the disproportionate amount of energy carried by the water molecules, particularly across the interface, i.e., a larger thermal conductivity of the interfacial waters compared with other parts of the protein, promoting hydrogen bond rearrangements at the interface.

  5. Developmental environment mediates male seminal protein investment in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigby, Stuart; Perry, Jennifer C; Kim, Yon-Hee; Sirot, Laura K

    2016-03-01

    Males of many species fine-tune their ejaculates in response to sperm competition risk. Resource availability and the number of competitors during development can also strongly influence sperm production. However, despite the key role of seminal proteins in mediating reproductive processes, it is unclear whether seminal protein investment is dependent on the developmental environment.We manipulated the developmental environment of Drosophila melanogaster by rearing flies at low and high density. As expected, this resulted in large and small (i.e. high and low condition) adult phenotypes, respectively.As predicted, large males produced more of two key seminal proteins, sex peptide (SP) and ovulin, and were more successful at obtaining matings with both virgin and previously mated females. However, there was only a weak and non-significant trend for large males to transfer more absolute quantities of SP at mating, and thus, small males ejaculated proportionally more of their stored accessory gland SP resources.Males transferred more receptivity-inhibiting SP to large females. Despite this, large females remated more quickly than small females and thus responded to their developmental environment over and above the quantity of SP they received.The results are consistent with two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. First, flies might respond to condition-dependent reproductive opportunities, with (i) small males investing heavily in ejaculates when mating opportunities arise and large males strategically partitioning SP resources and (ii) small females remating at reduced rates because they have higher mating costs or need to replenish sperm less often.Second, flies may be primed by their larval environment to deal with similar adult population densities, with (i) males perceiving high density as signalling increased competition, leading small males to invest proportionally more SP resources at mating and (ii) females perceiving high density as signalling abundant

  6. Phenylmethimazole inhibits production of proinflammatory mediators and is protective in an experimental model of endotoxic shock*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Uruguaysito; Gonzalez-Murguiondo, Mariana; Harii, Norikazu; Lewis, Christopher J; Schwartz, Anthony L; Giuliani, Cesidio; Napolitano, Giorgio; Dagia, Nilesh M; Malgor, Ramiro; McCall, Kelly D; Kohn, Leonard D

    2012-03-01

    One form of sepsis, or endotoxic shock, is a hyperactivated systemic response caused by excessive expression of proinflammatory mediators, which results from Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Toll-like receptor-4 signaling. This lipopolysaccharide signaling is known to consist of a MyD88-dependent nuclear factor-κB-mediated pathway that results in production of proinflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2) and a MyD88-independent interferon regulatory factor-mediated pathway that regulates production of Type 1 interferon-inducible proteins (interferon γ-induced protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1). In prior studies, phenylmethimazole markedly decreased virally induced Toll-like receptor-3 expression and signaling and significantly suppressed murine colitis in an experimental model wherein lipopolysaccharide is known to play an important role. In this study, we probed the hypothesis that phenylmethimazole inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated Toll-like receptor-4 signaling and is efficacious in attenuating inflammatory changes and improving survival in an in vivo murine model of endotoxic shock. Experimental animal model. University laboratory. Male C57BL/6J mice weighing 18-22 g. Phenylmethimazole (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to mice before a lethal lipopolysaccharide challenge (25 mg/kg). RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells were pretreated with phenylmethimazole followed by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. : Macroscopic observations revealed that phenylmethimazole was significantly protective in controlling clinical manifestations of endotoxic shock and death under conditions wherein flunixin of meglumine and prednisolone were marginally effective. A combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Northern blot, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry

  7. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 mediates compensatory renal hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxian; Chen, Jianchun; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying renal hypertrophy and progressive nephron damage remains poorly understood. Here we generated congenic ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) knockin mice expressing non-phosphorylatable rpS6 and found that uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy was significantly blunted in these knockin mice. Uninephrectomy-induced increases in cyclin D1 and decreases in cyclin E in the remaining kidney were attenuated in the knockin mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Uninephrectomy induced rpS6 phosphorylation in the wild type mice; however, no rpS6 phosphorylation was detected in uninephrectomized or sham-operated knockin mice. Nonetheless, uninephrectomy stimulated comparable 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in both knockin and wild type mice, indicating that mTORC1 was still activated in the knockin mice. Moreover, the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented both rpS6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, significantly blunted uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy in wild type mice, but did not prevent residual renal hypertrophy despite inhibiting 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in uninephrectomized knockin mice. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological approaches unequivocally demonstrate that phosphorylated rpS6 is a downstream effector of the mTORC1-S6K1 signaling pathway mediating renal hypertrophy. Hence, rpS6 phosphorylation facilitates the increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in cyclin E1 that underlie the hypertrophic nature of uninephrectomy-induced kidney growth. PMID:25229342

  8. GILT: Shaping the MHC Class II-Restricted Peptidome and CD4(+) T Cell-Mediated Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Karen Taraszka

    2013-12-04

    The MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway generates peptide:MHC complexes in the endocytic pathway for the activation of CD4(+) T cells. Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) reduces protein disulfide bonds in the endocytic compartment, thereby exposing buried epitopes for MHC class II binding and presentation. T cell hybridoma responses and elution of MHC class II bound peptides have identified GILT-dependent epitopes, GILT-independent epitopes, and epitopes that are more efficiently presented in the absence of GILT termed GILT-prevented epitopes. GILT-mediated alteration in the MHC class II-restricted peptidome modulates T cell development in the thymus and peripheral tolerance and influences the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Recent studies suggest an emerging role for GILT in the response to pathogens and cancer survival.

  9. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  10. The regulatory effect of nucleoside diphosphate kinase on G-protein and G-protein mediated phospholipase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Chang, K

    1995-03-01

    The effect of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) on the activity of guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) mediated phospholipase C (PLC) and on the [35S] GTPT tau S binding of G-protein was investigated in this work in order to demonstrate the mechanism behind the regulation of G-protein and its effector PLC by NDPK. The stimulation of PLC in turkey erythrocyte membrane by both GTP and GTP tau S indicated that the PLC stimulation was mediated by G-protein. NDPK alone stimulated PLC activity, as well as the stimulation in the presence of GTP and GDP, in a dose-dependent manner. However, NDPK inhibited GTP tau S-stimulated PLC. Furthermore, NDPK inhibited [35S]GTP tau S binding of purified Gi-protein in a non-competitive manner. A hypothesis implying an important role of direct interaction of G-protein and NDPK in the regulation of their functions is suggested and discussed.

  11. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 mediates compensatory renal hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxian; Chen, Jianchun; Dong, Zheng; Meyuhas, Oded; Chen, Jian-Kang

    2015-03-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying renal hypertrophy and progressive nephron damage remains poorly understood. Here we generated congenic ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) knock-in mice expressing nonphosphorylatable rpS6 and found that uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy was significantly blunted in these knock-in mice. Uninephrectomy-induced increases in cyclin D1 and decreases in cyclin E in the remaining kidney were attenuated in the knock-in mice compared with their wild-type littermates. Uninephrectomy induced rpS6 phosphorylation in the wild-type mice; however, no rpS6 phosphorylation was detected in uninephrectomized or sham-operated knock-in mice. Nonetheless, uninephrectomy stimulated comparable 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in both knock-in and wild-type mice, indicating that mTORC1 was still activated in the knock-in mice. Moreover, the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin prevented both rpS6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, significantly blunted uninephrectomy-induced renal hypertrophy in wild-type mice, but did not prevent residual renal hypertrophy despite inhibiting 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in uninephrectomized knock-in mice. Thus, both genetic and pharmacological approaches unequivocally demonstrate that phosphorylated rpS6 is a downstream effector of the mTORC1-S6K1 signaling pathway mediating renal hypertrophy. Hence, rpS6 phosphorylation facilitates the increase in cyclin D1 and decrease in cyclin E1 that underlie the hypertrophic nature of uninephrectomy-induced kidney growth.

  12. Aptamer-mediated indirect quantum dot labeling and fluorescent imaging of target proteins in living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Guo, Qiuping; Huang, Jin; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Protein labeling for dynamic living cell imaging plays a significant role in basic biological research, as well as in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed a novel strategy in which the dynamic visualization of proteins within living cells is achieved by using aptamers as mediators for indirect protein labeling of quantum dots (QDs). With this strategy, the target protein angiogenin was successfully labeled with fluorescent QDs in a minor intactness model, which was mediated by the aptamer AL6-B. Subsequent living cell imaging analyses indicated that the QDs nanoprobes were selectively bound to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, gradually internalized into the cytoplasm, and mostly localized in the lysosome organelle, indicating that the labeled protein retained high activity. Compared with traditional direct protein labeling methods, the proposed aptamer-mediated strategy is simple, inexpensive, and provides a highly selective, stable, and intact labeling platform that has shown great promise for future biomedical labeling and intracellular protein dynamic analyses. (paper)

  13. Heat shock protein 70-mediated sensitization of cells to apoptosis by Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sack Ragna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB/Akt is involved in insulin signaling, cellular survival, and transformation. Carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP has been identified as a novel PKB binding partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen, and appears to be a negative PKB regulator with tumor suppressor-like properties. In the present study we investigate novel mechanisms by which CTMP plays a role in apoptosis process. Results CTMP is localized to mitochondria. Furthermore, CTMP becomes phosphorylated following the treatment of cells with pervanadate, an insulin-mimetic. Two serine residues (Ser37 and Ser38 were identified as novel in vivo phosphorylation sites of CTMP. Association of CTMP and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 inhibits the formation of complexes containing apoptotic protease activating factor 1 and Hsp70. Overexpression of CTMP increased the sensitivity of cells to apoptosis, most likely due to the inhibition of Hsp70 function. Conclusion Our data suggest that phosphorylation on Ser37/Ser38 of CTMP is important for the prevention of mitochondrial localization of CTMP, eventually leading to cell death by binding to Hsp70. In addition to its role in PKB inhibition, CTMP may therefore play a key role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by localizing to mitochondria.

  14. Role of β-Interferon Inducer (DEAE-Dextran in Tumorigenesis by VEGF and NOTCH1 Inhibition along with Apoptosis Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K. Bakrania

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a novel target for breast cancer, interferon inducers have found its role as anti-angiogenic agents with diethylaminoethyl dextran (DEAE-Dextran being a molecule used for centuries as a transfection agent. Our results herein offer an explanation for the emergence of DEAE-Dextran as an anti-tumor agent for TNBC with in-depth mechanistic approach as an anti-angiogenic molecule. DEAE-Dextran has found to possess cytotoxic activity demonstrated during the various in vitro cytotoxicity assays; moreover, as an anti-oxidant, DEAE-Dextran has shown to possess excellent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. The interferon inducing capacity of DEAE-Dextran was determined qualitatively as well as quantitatively specifically demonstrating overexpression of β-interferon. As a measure of anti-proliferative activity, DEAE-Dextran exhibited reduced ki67, p53, and PCNA levels. Also, overexpression of CK5/6 and p63 in DEAE-Dextran treated animals indicated improvement in breast cell morphology along with an improvement in cell–cell adhesion by virtue of upregulation of β-catenin and E-cadherin. Anti-angiogenic property of DEAE-Dextran was concluded by the downregulation of CD31, VEGF, and NOTCH1 both in vivo and in vitro. Further, apoptosis due to DEAE-Dextran, initially determined by downregulation of Bcl2, was confirmed with flow cytometry. Overall, results are defensive of DEAE-Dextran as an emerging anti-tumor agent with mechanisms pertaining to β-interferon induction with probable VEGF and NOTCH1 inhibition as well as apoptosis which still needs to be studied in further depth.

  15. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ISHWARYA( R SARANI( M KIRTI VAISHNAVI and K SEKAR. Supplementary table 1. List of complete water-mediated ionic interactions formed by different combinations of charged atoms and their corresponding occurrences. S. No. Type.

  16. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  17. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R

    1997-01-01

    , this may contribute to the observed accumulation and damaging actions of oxidized proteins during aging and in pathologies such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Protein oxidation may also sometimes play controlling roles in cellular remodelling and cell growth. Proteins are also...

  18. Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morey, Lluís; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work as transcri...

  19. Gene transfer mediated by fusion protein hemagglutinin reconstituted in cationic lipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, P; Chonn, A; Cullis, PR; Wilschut, J; Scherrer, P

    Hemagglutinin, the membrane fusion protein of influenza virus,is known to mediate a low-pH-dependent fusion reaction between the viral envelope and the limiting membrane of the endosomal cell compartment following cellular uptake of the virus particles by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we

  20. Coat protein-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coat protein (CP)-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were ...

  1. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways

  2. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: innks@khu.ac.kr

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  3. Signaling via G proteins mediates tumorigenic effects of GPR87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arfelt, Kristine Niss; Fares, Suzan; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H.

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large protein family of seven transmembrane (7TM) spanning proteins that regulate multiple physiological functions. GPR87 is overexpressed in several cancers and plays a role in tumor cell survival. Here, the basal activity of GPR87 was investigated...... in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, revealing ligand-independent coupling to Gαi, Gαq and Gα12/13. Furthermore, GPR87 showed a ligand-independent G protein-dependent activation of the downstream transcription factors CREB, NFκB, NFAT and SRE. In tetracycline-induced Flp-In T-Rex-293 cells, GPR87 induced...

  4. Sortase-mediated backbone cyclization of proteins and peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, W.; Hansenová Maňásková, S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Bolscher, J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Backbone cyclization has a profound impact on the biological activity and thermal and proteolytic stability of proteins and peptides. Chemical methods for cyclization are not always feasible, especially for large peptides or proteins. Recombinant Staphylococcus aureus sortase A shows potential as a

  5. Virosome-mediated delivery of protein antigens to dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, L; Serre, K; Bijl, L; Leserman, L; Wilschut, J; Daemen, T; Machy, P

    2002-01-01

    Virosomes are reconstituted viral membranes in which protein can be encapsulated. Fusion-active virosomes, fusion-inactive virosomes and liposomes were used to study the conditions needed for delivery of encapsulated protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) to dendritic cells (DCs) for MHC class I and 11

  6. Endothelin and calciotropic hormones share regulatory pathways in multidrug resistance protein 2-mediated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Masereeuw, R.; Miller, D.S.; Hang, X.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    The kidney of vertebrates plays a key role in excretion of endogenous waste products and xenobiotics. Active secretion in the proximal nephron is at the basis of this excretion, mediated by carrier proteins including multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2). We previously showed that Mrp2 function is

  7. Endothelin and calciotropic hormones share regulatory pathways in multidrug resistance protein 2-mediated transport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Masereeuw, R.; Miller, D.S.; Hang, X.M.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    The kidney of vertebrates plays a key role in excretion of endogenous waste products and xenobiotics. Active secretion in the proximal nephron is at the basis of this excretion, mediated by carrier proteins including multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2). We previously showed that Mrp2 function is

  8. Endothelin and calciotropic hormones share regulatory pathways in multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2-) mediated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Masereeuw, R.; Miller, D.S.; Hang, X.M.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    The kidney of vertebrates plays a key role in excretion of endogenous waste products and xenobiotics. Active secretion in the proximal nephron is at the basis of this excretion, mediated by carrier proteins including multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2). We previously showed that Mrp2 function is

  9. Endothelin and calciotropic hormones share regulatory pathways in multidrug resistance protein 2-mediated transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Masereeuw, R.; Miller, D.S.; Hang, X.M.; Flik, G.

    2006-01-01

    The kidney of vertebrates plays a key role in excretion of endogenous waste products and xenobiotics. Active secretion in the proximal nephron is at the basis of this excretion, mediated by carrier proteins including multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2). We previously showed that Mrp2 function is

  10. Analysis of Exocyst-Positive Organelle (EXPO)-Mediated Unconventional Protein Secretion (UPS) in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Wang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) together with conventional protein secretion (CPS) is responsible for protein secretion in plants. We have previously identified a novel UPS pathway in plants, which is mediated by exocyst-positive organelle-EXPO. Here, we describe detailed protocols to study UPS in plants by using Arabidopsis protoplasts or transgenic suspension cells, expressing the EXPO marker Exo70E2-XFP, as materials. Via drug and osmotic treatment plus secretion assay, we illustrate several major methods to analyze EXPO-mediated UPS in plant cells, which also supplys mining tools for similar study.

  11. Protein microarray-mediated detection of antienterovirus antibodies in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiying; Xiu, Bingshui; Zhang, Heqiu; Li, Ning

    2016-04-01

    To utilize prokaryotic gene expression and protein microarray to develop and evaluate a sensitive, accurate protein microarray assay for detecting antienterovirus antibodies in serum samples from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), two common causative agents for HFMD, were used for assay development. Serum was collected from patients with HFMD and healthy controls. EV71 and CA16 VP1 and VP3 genes were expressed in transfected Escherichia coli; the resultant VP1 and 3 proteins were used in a microarray assay for human serum EV71 and CA16 immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG. To validate the microarray assay, serum samples were tested for EV71 IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of 50 patients with HFMD, EV71 IgM and CA16 IgM was detected in 80% and 44% of serum samples, respectively, using protein microarray, and EV71 IgM was detected in 78% of samples using ELISA. Protein microarray and ELISA showed 100% specificity for EV71-IgM detection. The protein microarray assay developed in the present study shows potential as a sensitive technique for detecting EV71 IgM in serum samples from patients with HFMD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca 2+ . This study examined the effects of Ca 2+ -ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. [ 32 P] Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with 32 P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production

  13. Cdon, a cell surface protein, mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Almazan, Guillermina

    2016-06-01

    During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) establish multiple branched processes and axonal contacts to initiate myelination. A complete understanding of the molecular signals implicated in cell surface interaction to initiate myelination/remyelination is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to assess whether Cdon, a cell surface protein that was shown to participate in muscle and neuron cell development, is involved in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Cdon protein is expressed in OLPs, increasing in the early differentiation stages and decreasing in mature OLGs. Immunocytochemistry of endogenous Cdon showed localization on both OLG cell membranes and cellular processes exhibiting puncta- or varicosity-like structures. Cdon knockdown with siRNA decreased protein levels by 62% as well as two myelin-specific proteins, MBP and MAG. Conversely, overexpression of full-length rat Cdon increased myelin proteins in OLGs. The complexity of OLGs branching and contact point numbers with axons were also increased in Cdon overexpressing cells growing alone or in coculture with dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Furthermore, myelination of DRGNs was decreased when OLPs were transfected with Cdon siRNA. Altogether, our results suggest that Cdon participates in OLG differentiation and myelination, most likely in the initial stages of development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Protein-Polymer Matrix Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in the protein-polymer matrices of two different ratios to obtain a stringent control over the morphology. UV-visible spectrophotometry showed a single plasmon resonance peak at 416nm and 418nm respectively, confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. X-ray diffractometry confirmed that the peaks matched with that of the reference silver. Both confocal microscopy and FEG-SEM confirmed the uniform morphology of the synthesized particles dependent on the template ratio. Doubling the protein-polymer concentration results in greater stability, more nucleation sites and hence restricted growth. Photoluminescence of the sample in the doubled matrix was found to be much greater at any given wavelength, meaning the flexibility and rigidity of interacting molecules affects the luminescence signal. The interaction in turn is dependent on the proximity of the proteins and polymer in the dispersion that forms a template and dictates the synthesis.

  15. Innate Immune Evasion Mediated by Flaviviridae Non-Structural Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-10-07

    Flaviviridae-caused diseases are a critical, emerging public health problem worldwide. Flaviviridae infections usually cause severe, acute or chronic diseases, such as liver damage and liver cancer resulting from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and high fever and shock caused by yellow fever. Many researchers worldwide are investigating the mechanisms by which Flaviviridae cause severe diseases. Flaviviridae can interfere with the host's innate immunity to achieve their purpose of proliferation. For instance, dengue virus (DENV) NS2A, NS2B3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5; HCV NS2, NS3, NS3/4A, NS4B and NS5A; and West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 and NS4B proteins are involved in immune evasion. This review discusses the interplay between viral non-structural Flaviviridae proteins and relevant host proteins, which leads to the suppression of the host's innate antiviral immunity.

  16. Identification, RNAi Knockdown and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezgotic Phenotype in a cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male ejaculate proteins, including both sperm and seminal fluid proteins, play an important role in mediating reproductive biology. The function of ejaculate proteins can include enabling sperm-egg interactions, enhancing sperm storage, mediating female attractiveness, and even regulating female lif...

  17. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  18. Systematic discovery of new recognition peptides mediating protein interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neduva, Victor; Linding, Rune; Su-Angrand, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Many aspects of cell signalling, trafficking, and targeting are governed by interactions between globular protein domains and short peptide segments. These domains often bind multiple peptides that share a common sequence pattern, or "linear motif" (e.g., SH3 binding to PxxP). Many domains are kn...

  19. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein mediates LPS detoxification by chylomicrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Rousseau, Corine H.; Hartung, Thomas; Greve, Jan Willem M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Buurman, Wim A.

    2003-01-01

    Chylomicrons have been shown to protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. LPS-binding protein (LBP) is involved in the inactivation of bacterial toxin by lipoproteins. The current study examined the interaction among LBP, chylomicrons, and bacterial toxin. LBP was demonstrated to associate with

  20. Incorporation of selenomethionine into proteins through selenohomocysteine-mediated ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfes, G; Hilvert, D

    2003-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of moderate-sized proteins has benefited enormously from the development of chemoselective methods for the ligation of peptide fragments. In this regard, the reaction of peptide thioesters with peptides containing an N-terminal cysteine has proved particularly powerful. The

  1. Delivery of proteins to mammalian cells via gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, D; Kalies, S; Schomaker, M; Ertmer, W; Meyer, H; Ripken, T; Murua Escobar, H

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle laser interactions are in widespread use in cell manipulation. In particular, molecular medicine needs techniques for the directed delivery of molecules into mammalian cells. Proteins are the final mediator of most cellular cascades. However, despite several methodical approaches, the efficient delivery of proteins to cells remains challenging. This paper presents a new protein transfection technique via laser scanning of cells previously incubated with gold nanoparticles. The laser-induced plasmonic effects on the gold nanoparticles cause a transient permeabilization of the cellular membrane, allowing proteins to enter the cell. Applying this technique, it was possible to deliver green fluorescent protein into mammalian cells with an efficiency of 43%, maintaining a high level of cell viability. Furthermore, a functional delivery of Caspase 3, an apoptosis mediating protein, was demonstrated and evaluated in several cellular assays. Compared to conventional protein transfection techniques such as microinjection, the methodical approach presented here enables high-throughput transfection of about 10 000 cells per second. Moreover, a well-defined point in time of delivery is guaranteed by gold nanoparticle mediated laser transfection, allowing the detailed temporal analysis of cellular pathways and protein trafficking. (papers)

  2. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus...... control or virus-induced T-cell-dependent inflammation. Thus, MIP-1alpha is not mandatory for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity....

  3. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  4. G-protein-coupled receptors mediate 14-3-3 signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Eishingdrelo, Alex; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Eishingdrelo, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-interacting proteins likely participate in regulating GPCR signaling by eliciting specific signal transduction cascades, inducing cross-talk with other pathways, and fine tuning the signal. However, except for G-proteins and β-arrestins, other GPCR-interacting proteins are poorly characterized. 14-3-3 proteins are signal adaptors, and their participation in GPCR signaling is not well understood or recognized. Here we demonstrate that GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling is ligand-regulated and is likely to be a more general phenomenon than suggested by the previous reports of 14-3-3 involvement with a few GPCRs. For the first time, we can pharmacologically characterize GPCR/14-3-3 signaling. We have shown that GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling is phosphorylation-dependent, and that the GPCR/14-3-3 interaction likely occurs later than receptor desensitization and internalization. GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling can be β-arrestin-independent, and individual agonists can have different potencies on 14-3-3 and β-arrestin signaling. GPCRs can also mediate the interaction between 14-3-3 and Raf-1. Our work opens up a new broad realm of previously unappreciated GPCR signal transduction. Linking GPCRs to 14-3-3 signal transduction creates the potential for the development of new research directions and provides a new signaling pathway for drug discovery.

  5. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1: a key mediator in inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2009-05-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent chemoattractant for monocytes and macrophages to areas of inflammation. MCP-1 is a prototypical chemokine subject to coordinated regulation by immunomodulatory agents. Since MCP-1 is implicated in multiple inflammatory diseases, it is a potential target for the treatment of these disorders. In this review, we will provide background information and summarize the MCP-1 structure and signaling pathways. Its involvement in multiple diseases, such as tumour development, atherogenesis and rare autoimmune diseases is also revised.

  6. Hepatitis C virus replicative double-stranded RNA is a potent interferon inducer that triggers interferon production through MDA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoting; Pan, Tingting; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Song, Wuhui; Yi, Zhigang; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2016-11-01

    The cytoplasmic RNA sensors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, play crucial roles in innate sensing of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the exact identity of the IFN inducer generated during HCV infection is poorly understood. To identify the IFN inducer, we extracted the RNAs from HCV-replicating cells and introduced these into IFN signalling-competent cells to examine IFN production. RNAs isolated from HCV-replicating cells triggered robust IFN-β and IFN-λ production in Huh7 cells in a viral replication-dependent manner, preferentially through the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 but not through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-mediated pathway. The IFN-inducing capacity of HCV RNA survived after calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and ssRNA-specific S1 nuclease treatment, but was completely eliminated by dsRNA-specific RNase III digestion, suggesting that viral replicative dsRNA is an IFN inducer. Furthermore, HCV viral RNA extracted from replicating cells was sensitive to 5'-monophosphate-dependent 5'→3' exonuclease (TER) digestion, suggesting that the HCV genome lacks a 5'-triphosphate or -diphosphate. In semi-permeabilized cells, the HCV IFN inducer primarily resided in an enclosed membranous structure that protects the IFN inducer from RNase digestion. Taken together, we identified HCV replicative dsRNA as a viral IFN inducer enclosed within the viral replication factory.

  7. The F-box protein FBXO44 mediates BRCA1 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhe; Li, Jiezhi; Cheng, Dongmei; Parameswaran, Balaji; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zefei; Yew, P Renee; Peng, Junmin; Ye, Qinong; Hu, Yanfen

    2012-11-30

    BRCA1 mutations account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, reduced BRCA1 protein is associated with sporadic cancer cases in these tissues. At the cellular level, BRCA1 plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Its protein level is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, regulation of BRCA1 protein stability is not fully understood. Our earlier study showed that the amino terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation. In the current study, we used mass spectrometry to identify Skp1 that regulates BRCA1 protein stability. Small interfering RNA screening that targets all human F-box proteins uncovered FBXO44 as an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein44 (SCF(FBXO44)) complex ubiquitinates full-length BRCA1 in vitro. Furthermore, the N terminus of BRCA1 mediates the interaction between BRCA1 and FBXO44. Overexpression of SCF(FBXO44) reduces BRCA1 protein level. Taken together, our work strongly suggests that SCF(FBXO44) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for BRCA1 degradation. In addition, FBXO44 expression pattern in breast carcinomas suggests that SCF(FBXO44)-mediated BRCA1 degradation might contribute to sporadic breast tumor development.

  8. The F-box Protein FBXO44 Mediates BRCA1 Ubiquitination and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunzhe; Li, Jiezhi; Cheng, Dongmei; Parameswaran, Balaji; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Zefei; Yew, P. Renee; Peng, Junmin; Ye, Qinong; Hu, Yanfen

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 mutations account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. In addition, reduced BRCA1 protein is associated with sporadic cancer cases in these tissues. At the cellular level, BRCA1 plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions such as DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control. Its protein level is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. However, regulation of BRCA1 protein stability is not fully understood. Our earlier study showed that the amino terminus of BRCA1 harbors a degron sequence that is sufficient and necessary for conferring BRCA1 degradation. In the current study, we used mass spectrometry to identify Skp1 that regulates BRCA1 protein stability. Small interfering RNA screening that targets all human F-box proteins uncovered FBXO44 as an important protein that influences BRCA1 protein level. The Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein44 (SCFFBXO44) complex ubiquitinates full-length BRCA1 in vitro. Furthermore, the N terminus of BRCA1 mediates the interaction between BRCA1 and FBXO44. Overexpression of SCFFBXO44 reduces BRCA1 protein level. Taken together, our work strongly suggests that SCFFBXO44 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for BRCA1 degradation. In addition, FBXO44 expression pattern in breast carcinomas suggests that SCFFBXO44-mediated BRCA1 degradation might contribute to sporadic breast tumor development. PMID:23086937

  9. Protein acetylation sites mediated by Schistosoma mansoni GCN5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes Maciel, Renata de; Furtado Madeiro da Costa, Rodrigo; Meirelles Bastosde Oliveira, Francisco; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional co-activator GCN5, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), is part of large multimeric complexes that are required for chromatin remodeling and transcription activation. As in other eukaryotes, the DNA from the parasite Schistosome mansoni is organized into nucleosomes and the genome encodes components of chromatin-remodeling complexes. Using a series of synthetic peptides we determined that Lys-14 of histone H3 was acetylated by the recombinant SmGCN5-HAT domain. SmGCN5 was also able to acetylate schistosome non-histone proteins, such as the nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1, and the co-activator SmNCoA-62. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of SmGCN5 protein in the nuclei of vitelline cells. Within the nucleus, SmGCN5 was found to be located in interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), which are transcriptionally active structures. The data suggest that SmGCN5 is involved in transcription activation

  10. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2006-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  11. Electron-mediating Cu(A) centers in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epel, Boris; Slutter, Claire S; Neese, Frank

    2002-01-01

    -protons and the copper hyperfine interaction. Comparison of the best-fit anisotropic hyperfine parameters with those calculated from dipolar interactions extracted from the available 3-D structures sets limit to the sulfur spin densities. Similarly, the small coupling spectral region was simulated on the basis of the 3....... The EPR spectra of all samples showed the presence of a mononuclear Cu(II) impurity with EPR characteristics of a type II copper. At W-band, the g( perpendicular) features of this center and of Cu(A) are well resolved, thus allowing us to obtain a clean Cu(A) ENDOR spectrum. The latter consists of two...... symmetric, but the copper spin density and the H(epsilon)(1)-Cu distances are somewhat smaller. All proteins show the presence of a proton with a significantly negative A(iso) value which is assigned to an amide proton of one of the cysteines. The simulations of both strongly and weakly coupled protons...

  12. Identification of the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of trichloroethylene by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohu; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wen-Xu; Huang, Peiwu; Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Shen, Liming; Yang, Linqing; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-05-16

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials. Since the wide use of TCE as industrial degreasing of metals, adhesive paint and polyvinyl chloride production, TCE has turned into an environmental and occupational toxicant. Exposure to TCE could cause severe hepatotoxicity; however, the toxic mechanisms of TCE remain poorly understood. Recently, we reported that SET protein mediated TCE-induced cytotoxicity in L-02 cells. Here, we further identified the proteins related to SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE using the techniques of DIGE (differential gel electrophoresis) and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Among the 20 differential proteins identified, 8 were found to be modulated by SET in TCE-induced cytotoxicity and three of them (cofilin-1, peroxiredoxin-2 and S100-A11) were validated by Western-blot analysis. The functional analysis revealed that most of the identified SET-modulated proteins are apoptosis-associated proteins. These data indicated that these proteins may be involved in SET-mediated hepatic cytotoxicity of TCE in L-02 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulforaphane-induced autophagy flux prevents prion protein-mediated neurotoxicity through AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-H; Jeong, J-K; Park, S-Y

    2014-10-10

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative and infectious disorders that involve accumulation of misfolded scrapie prion protein, and which are characterized by spongiform degeneration. Autophagy, a major homeostatic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components, has garnered attention as the potential target for neurodegenerative diseases such as prion disease. We focused on protective effects of sulforaphane found in cruciferous vegetables on prion-mediated neurotoxicity and the mechanism of sulforaphane related to autophagy. In human neuroblastoma cells, sulforaphane protected prion protein (PrP) (106-126)-mediated neurotoxicity and increased autophagy flux marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II protein levels, following a decrease of p62 protein level. Pharmacological and genetical inhibition of autophagy by 3MA, wortmannin and knockdown of autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) led to block the effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore we demonstrated that both sulforaphane-induced autophagy and protective effect of sulforaphane against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity are dependent on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. The present results indicated that sulforaphane of cruciferous vegetables enhanced autophagy flux led to the protection effects against prion-mediated neurotoxicity, which was regulated by AMPK signaling pathways in human neuron cells. Our data also suggest that sulforaphane has a potential value as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disease including prion diseases. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-Mediated Trafficking of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangju Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding how proteins are specifically delivered to the vacuole. One of the most crucial steps in this process is specific sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins. Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs, which are type I membrane proteins, are involved in the sorting and packaging of soluble vacuolar proteins into transport vesicles with the help of various accessory proteins. To date, large amounts of data have led to the development of two different models describing VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking that are radically different in multiple ways, particularly regarding the location of cargo binding to, and release from, the VSR and the types of carriers utilized. In this review, we summarize current literature aimed at elucidating VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and compare the two models with respect to the sorting signals of vacuolar proteins, as well as the molecular machinery involved in VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and its action mechanisms.

  15. Adenovirus DNA binding protein inhibits SrCap-activated CBP and CREB-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiequn; Tarakanova, Vera; Chrivia, John; Yaciuk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The SNF2-related CBP activator protein (SrCap) is a potent activator of transcription mediated by CBP and CREB. We have previously demonstrated that the Adenovirus 2 DNA Binding Protein (DBP) binds to SrCap and inhibits the transcription mediated by the carboxyl-terminal region of SrCap (amino acids 1275-2971). We report here that DBP inhibits the ability of full-length SrCap (1-2971) to activate transcription mediated by Gal-CREB and Gal-CBP. In addition, DBP also inhibits the ability of SrCap to enhance Protein Kinase A (PKA) activated transcription of the enkaphalin promoter. DBP was found to dramatically inhibit transcription of a mammalian two-hybrid system that was dependent on the interaction of SrCap and CBP binding domains. We also found that DBP has no effect on transcription mediated by a transcriptional activator that is not related to SrCap, indicating that our reported transcriptional inhibition is specific for SrCap and not due to nonspecific effects of DBP's DNA binding activity on the CAT reporter plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which DBP inhibits cellular transcription mediated by the interaction between SrCap and CBP

  16. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present ...

  17. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    of the thrombin receptor in growth-responsive CCL39 fibroblasts. Shc phosphorylation by thrombin or the thrombin receptor agonist peptide is maximal by 15 min and persists for > or = 2 h. Following thrombin stimulation, phosphorylated Shc is recruited to Grb2 complexes. One or more pertussis toxin......-insensitive proteins appear to mediate this effect, since (i) pertussis toxin pre-treatment of cells does not blunt the action of thrombin and (ii) Shc phosphorylation on tyrosine can be stimulated by the muscarinic m1 receptor. Shc phosphorylation does not appear to involve protein kinase C, since the addition of 4...

  18. Type I Interferon Induced Epigenetic Regulation of Macrophages Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Acute Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Kroetz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is an airborne pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. Macrophages (Mϕ are the first immune population to encounter IAV virions in the lungs and are required to control infection. In the present study, we explored the mechanism by which cytokine signaling regulates the phenotype and function of Mϕ via epigenetic modification of chromatin. We have found that type I interferon (IFN-I potently upregulates the lysine methyltransferase Setdb2 in murine and human Mϕ, and in turn Setdb2 regulates Mϕ-mediated immunity in response to IAV. The induction of Setdb2 by IFN-I was significantly impaired upon inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling cascade, and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that both STAT1 and interferon regulatory factor 7 bind upstream of the transcription start site to induce expression. The generation of Setdb2LacZ reporter mice revealed that IAV infection results in systemic upregulation of Setdb2 in myeloid cells. In the lungs, alveolar Mϕ expressed the highest level of Setdb2, with greater than 70% lacZ positive on day 4 post-infection. Silencing Setdb2 activity in Mϕ in vivo enhanced survival in lethal IAV infection. Enhanced host protection correlated with an amplified antiviral response and less obstruction to the airways. By tri-methylating H3K9, Setdb2 silenced the transcription of Mx1 and Isg15, antiviral effectors that inhibit IAV replication. Accordingly, a reduced viral load in knockout mice on day 8 post-infection was linked to elevated Isg15 and Mx1 transcript in the lungs. In addition, Setdb2 suppressed the expression of a large number of other genes with proinflammatory or immunomodulatory function. This included Ccl2, a chemokine that signals through CCR2 to regulate monocyte recruitment to infectious sites. Consistently, knockout mice produced more CCL2 upon IAV infection and this correlated with a 2-fold increase in the number of inflammatory monocytes and

  19. Structural insights into triglyceride storage mediated by fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gross

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2 belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9AAA in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation.

  20. Intracellular localisation of proteins to specific cellular areas by nanocapsule mediated delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huabin; Chen, Ligang; Sun, Xianchao; Fu, Ailing

    2017-09-01

    Nanocapsules are promising carriers with great potential for intracellular protein transport. Although many studies have intended to improve cell uptake efficacy, there is an increasing interest in understanding of subcellular distribution of cargoes inside cells, which is essential for purposeful delivery of biomolecules into specific sites within cells. Herein, we interrogate the intracellular localisation of exogenous proteins, including fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and green fluorescent protein (GFP), mediated by specially designed nanocapsules. The results show that the designed nanocapsules can deliver the two types of fluorescent proteins into different cellular destinations (cytosol, nucleus or the whole cell), depending on the composition of nanocapsules. Meanwhile, several impact factors that influence the distribution of proteins in cells have also been investigated, and the results suggest that the localisation of capsule-mediated proteins in cells is strongly affected by the surface properties of nanocapsules, the types of stabilisers and proteins, and environmental temperatures. The rational control of intracellular localised delivery of exogenous proteins as we demonstrated in this study might open new avenues to obtain desired magnitude of drug effects for modulating cell activity.

  1. Adult neurogenesis requires Smad4-mediated bone morphogenic protein signaling in stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, D.; Mori, T.; Brill, M.S; Pfeifer, A.; Falk, S.; Deng, C.; Monteiro, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Sommer, L.; Gotz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, neurogenesis continues only in few regions of the forebrain. The molecular signals governing neurogenesis in these unique neurogenic niches, however, are still ill defined. Here, we show that bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-mediated signaling is active in adult neural stem

  2. Site-specific N-terminal labeling of proteins using sortase-mediated reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theile, Christopher S.; Witte, Martin D.; Blom, Annet E. M.; Kundrat, Lenka; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Guimaraes, Carla P.

    This protocol describes the use of sortase-mediated reactions to label the N terminus of any given protein of interest. The sortase recognition sequence, LPXTG (for Streptococcus aureus sortase A) or LPXTA (for Staphylococcus pyogenes sortase A), can be appended to a variety of probes such as

  3. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  4. The protein oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) mediates oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    of the present work was to investigate whether DOPA, and especially PB-DOPA, can mediate oxidative damage to DNA. We chose to generate PB-DOPA using mushroom tyrosinase, which catalyses the hydroxylation of tyrosine residues in protein. This permitted us to study the reactions of PB-DOPA in the virtual absence...

  5. C-reactive protein enhances IgG-mediated phagocyte responses and thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapur, Rick; Heitink-Polle, Katja M. J.; Porcelijn, Leendert; Bentlage, Arthur E. H.; Bruin, MCA; Visser, Remco; Roos, Dirk; Schasfoort, Richard B. M.; de Haas, Masja; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2015-01-01

    Immune-mediated platelet destruction is most frequently caused by allo-or autoantibodies via Fc gamma receptor-dependent phagocytosis. Disease severity can be predicted neither by antibody isotype nor by titer, indicating that other factors play a role. Here we show that the acute phase protein

  6. Fabrication of worm-like Ag2S nanocrystals under mediation of protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabrication of worm-like Ag2S nanocrystals under mediation of protein. DEZHI QIN1, LI ZHANG1,∗, XIAN DU1, GUANGRUI YANG2 and QIUXIA ZHANG1. 1College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Pingdingshan University, Pingdingshan 467000, China. 2Institute of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, North ...

  7. Absence of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT is associated with poor disease-free survival in breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Juan Xiang

    Full Text Available Tumor immunosurveillance is known to be of critical importance in controlling tumorigenesis and progression in various cancers. The role of gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT in tumor immunosurveillance has recently been studied in several malignant diseases, but its role in breast cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we found GILT as a significant different expressed gene by cDNA microarray analysis. To further determine the role of GILT in breast cancer, we examined GILT expression in breast cancers as well as noncancerous breast tissues by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR, and assessed its association with clinicopathologic characteristics and patient outcome. The absence of GILT expression increased significantly from 2.02% (2/99 in noncancerous breast tissues to 15.6% (34/218 in breast cancer tissues (P<0.001. In accordance with its proliferation inhibiting function, GILT expression was inversely correlated with Ki67 index (P<0.05. In addition, absence of GILT was positively correlated with adverse characteristics of breast cancers, such as histological type, tumor size, lymph nodes status, and pTNM stage (P<0.05. Consistently, breast cancers with reduced GILT expression had poorer disease-free survival (P<0.005. Moreover, significantly decreased expression of GILT was found in both primary and metastatic breast cancer cells, in contrast to normal epithelial cells. These findings indicate that GILT may act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, in line with its previously suggested role in anti-tumor immunity. Thus, GILT has the potential to be a novel independent prognostic factor in breast cancer and further studies are needed to illustrate the underlying mechanism of this relationship.

  8. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins mediate cellular transport of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Guo, Dong; Obianom, Obinna N; Su, Tong; Polli, James E; Shu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally prevalent toxicant posing increasing risk to human health worldwide. As compared to the extensive research in Cd tissue accumulation, little was known about the elimination of Cd, particularly its toxic form, Cd ion (Cd 2+ ). In this study, we aimed to examine whether Cd 2+ is a substrate of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) that are important in renal xenobiotic elimination. HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human MATE1 (HEK-hMATE1), human MATE2-K (HEK-hMATE2-K) and mouse Mate1 (HEK-mMate1) were used to study the cellular transport and toxicity of Cd 2+ . The cells overexpressing MATEs showed a 2-4 fold increase of Cd 2+ uptake that could be blocked by the MATE inhibitor cimetidine. A saturable transport profile was observed with the Michaelis-Menten constant (K m ) of 130±15.8μM for HEK-hMATE1; 139±21.3μM for HEK-hMATE2-K; and 88.7±13.5μM for HEK-mMate1, respectively. Cd 2+ could inhibit the uptake of metformin, a substrate of MATE transporters, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 97.5±6.0μM, 20.2±2.6μM, and 49.9±6.9μM in HEK-hMATE1, HEK-hMATE2-K, and HEK-mMate1 cells, respectively. In addition, hMATE1 could transport preloaded Cd 2+ out of the HEK-hMATE1 cells, thus resulting in a significant decrease of Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity. The present study has provided the first evidence supporting that MATEs transport Cd 2+ and may function as cellular elimination machinery in Cd intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A subset of FG-nucleoporins is necessary for efficient Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Erin M.; DeRoo, Elise P.; Clement, George W.; Rao, Sheila; Kruse, Sarah E.; Kokanovich, Kate M.; Belanger, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The transport of proteins between the cytoplasm and nucleus requires interactions between soluble transport receptors (karyopherins) and phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeat domains on nuclear pore complex proteins (nucleoporins). However, the role of specific FG repeat-containing nucleoporins in nuclear protein export has not been carefully investigated. We have developed a novel kinetic assay to investigate the relative export kinetics mediated by the karyopherin Msn5/Kap142 in yeast containing specific FG-Nup mutations. Using the Msn5 substrate Crz1 as a marker for Msn5-mediated protein export, we observe that deletions of NUP100 or NUP2 result in decreased rates of Crz1 export, while nup60Δ and nup42Δ mutants do not vary significantly from wild type. The decreased Msn5 export rate in nup100Δ was confirmed using Mig1-GFP as a transport substrate. A nup100ΔGLFG mutant shows defects in nuclear export kinetics similar to a nup100Δ deletion. Removal of FG-repeats from Nsp1 also decreases export kinetics, while a loss of Nup1 FXFGs does not. To confirm that our export data reflected functional differences in protein localization, we performed Crz1 transcription activation assays using a CDRE::LacZ reporter gene that is upregulated upon increased transcription activation by Crz1 in vivo. We observe that expression from this reporter increases in nup100ΔGLFG and nsp1ΔFGΔFXFG strains that exhibit decreased Crz1 export kinetics but resembles wild-type levels in nup1ΔFXFG strains that do not exhibit export defects. These data provide evidence that the export of Msn5 is likely mediated by a specific subset of FG-Nups and that the GLFG repeat domain of Nup100 is important for Msn5-mediated nuclear protein export. PMID:23295456

  10. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoonsung [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyang-Min [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Peter I. [Department of Dermatology, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, 4301 West Markham, Slot 576, Little Rock, AR 72205 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Ho [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Yong [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Yeoul [Department of Physiology, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); You, Ho Jin, E-mail: hjyou@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  11. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonsung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Song, Peter I.; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sang-Yong; Jun, Jae Yeoul; You, Ho Jin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. → However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. → Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  12. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  13. Annexin A2 Mediates the Localization of Measles Virus Matrix Protein at the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Ritsuko; Kubota, Marie; Hashiguchi, Takao; Yanagi, Yusuke; Ohno, Shinji

    2018-02-28

    Annexins are a family of structurally related proteins that bind negatively charged membrane phospholipids in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a member of the family, has been implicated in a variety of cellular functions including the organization of membrane domains, vesicular trafficking and cell-cell adhesion. AnxA2 generally forms the heterotetrameric complex with a small Ca 2+ -binding protein S100A10. Measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative strand RNA genome. Knockdown of AnxA2 greatly reduced MV growth in cells, without affecting its entry and viral RNA production. In MV-infected, AnxA2-knockdown cells, the expression level of the matrix (M) protein, but not other viral proteins, was reduced compared with that in control cells, and the distribution of the M protein at the plasma membrane was decreased. The M protein lines the inner surface of the envelope and plays an important role in virus assembly by connecting the nucleocapsid to the envelope proteins. The M protein bound to AnxA2 independently of AnxA2's phosphorylation or its association with S100A10, and was co-localized with AnxA2 within cells. Truncation of the N-terminal 10 amino acid residues, but not the N-terminal 5 residues, compromised the ability of the M protein to interact with AnxA2 and localize at the plasma membrane. These results indicate that AnxA2 mediates the localization of the MV M protein at the plasma membrane by interacting with its N-terminal region (especially residues at positions 6-10), thereby aiding in MV assembly. IMPORTANCE Measles virus (MV) is an important human pathogen, still claiming ∼ 100,000 lives per year despite the presence of effective vaccines, and causes occasional outbreaks even in developed countries. Replication of viruses largely relies on the functions of host cells. Our study revealed that the reduction of the host protein annexin A2 compromises the replication of

  14. Interferon Inducers Against Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-15

    If AcCitPLL is metabolized, it will be converted to acetic and citric acids and to small oligol ’sines or to lysine. If not metabolized, it may be...is, reproducibility is the main consideration. The various methods described in the Hercules 8 manual for analysis of carboxymethyl cellulose are...Cyclodextrin sulfate CMdextran: Carboxymethyl dextran Gel: Gelatin HYL: Hyaluronic acid IC: Poly-IC ICL: Complex of IC with PLL ICLC: Complex of IC with

  15. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  16. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  17. Transglutaminase-mediated internal protein labeling with a designed peptide loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yutaro; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2011-07-15

    Post-translational internal protein labeling was explored through the insertion of a 13-mer peptidyl loop specifically recognized by microbial transglutaminase (MTG). The peptidyl loop included one lysine residue (abbreviated as the K-loop), and was designed and inserted into two different regions of the protein bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP). MTG-mediated selective labeling of a lysine residue in the K-loop was achieved with a functional Gln-donor substrate. Internal protein labeling in the vicinity of the active site of BAP (residues 91-93) markedly decreased the activity of the enzyme. Conversely, insertion of the K-loop at a site distal from the active site (residues 219-221) afforded site-specific and covalent internal protein labeling without impairing the activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  19. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Min-kyung; Yao Hequan; Rao Jianghong

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging

  20. Molecular Principles of Gene Fusion Mediated Rewiring of Protein Interaction Networks in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Oates, Matt E; Maddox, Louis; Flock, Tilman; Gough, Julian; Buljan, Marija; Weatheritt, Robert J; Babu, M Madan

    2016-08-18

    Gene fusions are common cancer-causing mutations, but the molecular principles by which fusion protein products affect interaction networks and cause disease are not well understood. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of the structural, interactomic, and regulatory properties of thousands of putative fusion proteins. We demonstrate that genes that form fusions (i.e., parent genes) tend to be highly connected hub genes, whose protein products are enriched in structured and disordered interaction-mediating features. Fusion often results in the loss of these parental features and the depletion of regulatory sites such as post-translational modifications. Fusion products disproportionately connect proteins that did not previously interact in the protein interaction network. In this manner, fusion products can escape cellular regulation and constitutively rewire protein interaction networks. We suggest that the deregulation of central, interaction-prone proteins may represent a widespread mechanism by which fusion proteins alter the topology of cellular signaling pathways and promote cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  3. IGFBP2 plays an important role in heat shock protein 27-mediated cancer progression and metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chin-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lee, Chia-Hwa; Chen, Wei-Yu; Huang, Ming-Te; Wei, Po-Li; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a key chaperone that interacts with over 200 client proteins. The expression of Hsp27 might be correlated with poor outcome in many types of cancer. Previous study indicated that Hsp27 might be an important biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the detailed mechanism is less well understood. The shRNA-mediated silencing of Hsp27 decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells. In a xenograft model, the silencing of Hsp27 reduce...

  4. Activation of G proteins mediates flow-induced prostaglandin E2 production in osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. M.; McAllister, T. N.; Gudi, S.; Frangos, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow may play a role in load-induced bone remodeling. Previously, we have shown that fluid flow stimulates osteoblast production of cAMP inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and PGE2. Flow-induced increases in cAMP and IP3 were shown to be a result of PG production. Thus, PGE2 production appears to be an important component in fluid flow induced signal transduction. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of flow-induced PGE2 synthesis. Flow-induced a 20-fold increase in PGE2 production in osteoblasts. Increases were also observed with ALF4-(10mM) (98-fold), an activator of guanidine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), and calcium ionophore A23187 (2 microM) (100-fold) in stationary cells. We then investigated whether flow stimulation is mediated by G proteins and increases in intracellular calcium. Flow-induced PGE2 production was inhibited by the G protein inhibitors GDP beta S (100 microM) and pertussis toxin (1 microgram/ml) by 83% and 72%, respectively. Chelation of extracellular calcium by EGTA (2 mM) and intracellular calcium by quin-2/AM (30 microM) blocked flow stimulation by 87% and 67%, respectively. These results suggest that G proteins and calcium play an important role in mediating mechanochemical signal transduction in osteoblasts.

  5. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9 for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid, the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs’ interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.

  6. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian.ceresa@louisville.edu

    2016-08-15

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  7. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  8. The K Domain Mediates Homologous and Heterologous Interactions Between FLC and SVP Proteins of Brassica juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Guanpeng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factors FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP can interact to form homologous and heterologous protein complexes that regulate flowering time in Brassica juncea Coss. (Mustard.Previous studies showed that protein interactions were mediated by the K domain, which contains the subdomains K1, K2 and K3. However, it remains unknown how the subdomains mediate the interactions between FLC and SVP. In the present study, we constructed several mutants of subdomains K1–K3 and investigated the mechanisms involved in the heterologous interaction of BjFLC/BjSVP and in the homologous interaction of BjFLC/BjFLC or BjSVP/BjSVP. Yeast two-hybrid and β-Galactosidase activity assays showed that the 19 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjSVP and the 17 amino acids of the K1 subdomain in BjFLC were functional subdomains that interact with each other to mediate hetero-dimerization. The heterologous interaction was enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjSVP protein, but weakened by its interhelical domain L2. The heterologous interaction was also enhanced by the K2 subdomain of BjFLC protein, but weakened by its K3 subdomain. The homologous interaction of BjSVP was mediated by the full K-domain. However, the homologous interaction of BjFLC was regulated only by its K1 and weakened by its K2 and K3 subdomains. The results provided new insights into the interactions between FLC and SVP, which will be valuable for further studies on the molecular regulation mechanisms of the regulation of flowering time in B. juncea and other Brassicaceae.

  9. Saccharide-mediated interactions of boar sperm surface proteins with components of the porcine oviduct

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Prelovská, L.; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2006), s. 112-125 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP303/04/P070; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/0895; GA MZd(CZ) NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * saccharide-mediated events * sperm oviductal reservoir Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2006

  10. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    significantly in Sirt1-KO cells as compared with wild-type MEFs. Various mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters, such as the oxygen consumption rate in cell cultures, enzyme activities of the electron transport chain complexes in isolated mitochondria, and production of ATP and lactate, indicated that Sirt1-KO...... cells exhibited higher mitochondrial respiration as compared with wild-type MEFs. Two independent approaches, including ectopic expression of SIRT1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3, led to reduction in intracellular ATP levels and increased lactate production in Sirt1-KO cells that were approaching...

  11. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-m...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated di...sorders. PubmedID 14643884 Title Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation

  12. Salbutamol inhibits ubiquitin-mediated survival motor neuron protein degradation in spinal muscular atrophy cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Nurputra, Dian Kesumapramudya; Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Shima, Ai; Morisada, Naoya; Takarada, Toru; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Tohyama, Yumi; Yanagisawa, Shinichiro; Nishio, Hisahide

    2015-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is currently incurable. SMA is caused by decreased levels of the survival motor neuron protein (SMN), as a result of loss or mutation of SMN1 . Although the SMN1 homolog SMN2 also produces some SMN protein, it does not fully compensate for the loss or dysfunction of SMN1 . Salbutamol, a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist and well-known bronchodilator used in asthma patients, has recently been shown to ameliorate symptoms in SMA patients. However, the precise mechanism of salbutamol action is unclear. We treated SMA fibroblast cells lacking SMN1 and HeLa cells with salbutamol and analyzed SMN2 mRNA and SMN protein levels in SMA fibroblasts, and changes in SMN protein ubiquitination in HeLa cells. Salbutamol increased SMN protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in SMA fibroblast cells lacking SMN1 , though no significant changes in SMN2 mRNA levels were observed. Notably, the salbutamol-induced increase in SMN was blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor and deubiquitinase inhibitor, respectively. Co-immunoprecipitation assay using HeLa cells showed that ubiquitinated SMN levels decreased in the presence of salbutamol, suggesting that salbutamol inhibited ubiquitination. The results of this study suggest that salbutamol may increase SMN protein levels in SMA by inhibiting ubiquitin-mediated SMN degradation via activating β2-adrenergic receptor-PKA pathways.

  13. Transglutaminase-mediated protein immobilization to casein nanolayers created on a plastic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Noriho; Doi, Satoshi; Tominaga, Jo; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Goto, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    An enzymatic method for covalent and site-specific immobilization of recombinant proteins on a plastic surface was explored. Using Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) with a specific peptide tag (MKHKGS) genetically incorporated at the N-terminus as a model (NK-AP), microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-mediated protein immobilization was demonstrated. To generate a reactive surface for MTG, a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate was physically coated with casein, a good MTG substrate. Successful immobilization of recombinant AP to the nanolayer of casein on the surface of the microtiter plate was verified by the detection of enzymatic activity. Since little activity was observed when wild-type AP was used, immobilization of NK-AP was likely directed by the specific peptide tag. When polymeric casein prepared by MTG was used as a matrix on the plate, the loading capacity of AP was increased about 2-fold compared to when casein was used as the matrix. Transglutaminase-mediated site-specific posttranslational modification of proteins offers one way of generating a variety of protein-based solid formulations for biotechnological applications.

  14. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR-type resistance (R protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5, which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1 to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1, RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4 and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1. Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses.

  15. DIBS: a repository of disordered binding sites mediating interactions with ordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Eva; Fichó, Erzsébet; Pancsa, Rita; Simon, István; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Mészáros, Bálint

    2018-02-01

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) mediate crucial protein-protein interactions, most notably in signaling and regulation. As their importance is increasingly recognized, the detailed analyses of specific IDP interactions opened up new opportunities for therapeutic targeting. Yet, large scale information about IDP-mediated interactions in structural and functional details are lacking, hindering the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this distinct binding mode. Here, we present DIBS, the first comprehensive, curated collection of complexes between IDPs and ordered proteins. DIBS not only describes by far the highest number of cases, it also provides the dissociation constants of their interactions, as well as the description of potential post-translational modifications modulating the binding strength and linear motifs involved in the binding. Together with the wide range of structural and functional annotations, DIBS will provide the cornerstone for structural and functional studies of IDP complexes. DIBS is freely accessible at http://dibs.enzim.ttk.mta.hu/. The DIBS application is hosted by Apache web server and was implemented in PHP. To enrich querying features and to enhance backend performance a MySQL database was also created. dosztanyi@caesar.elte.hu or bmeszaros@caesar.elte.hu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization of PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Udo; Meinhart, Anton; Winkler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.winkler@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Crystal structures of two truncated variants of the transcription factor PpsR from R. sphaeroides are presented that enabled the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct. Together, these structures reveal the importance of α-helical PAS extensions for multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function. Per–ARNT–Sim (PAS) domains are essential modules of many multi-domain signalling proteins that mediate protein interaction and/or sense environmental stimuli. Frequently, multiple PAS domains are present within single polypeptide chains, where their interplay is required for protein function. Although many isolated PAS domain structures have been reported over the last decades, only a few structures of multi-PAS proteins are known. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function is poorly understood. The transcription factor PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is such a multi-PAS domain protein that, in addition to its three PAS domains, contains a glutamine-rich linker and a C-terminal helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif. Here, crystal structures of two N-terminally and C-terminally truncated PpsR variants that comprise a single (PpsR{sub Q-PAS1}) and two (PpsR{sub N-Q-PAS1}) PAS domains, respectively, are presented and the multi-step strategy required for the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct (PpsR{sub ΔHTH}) is illustrated. While parts of the biologically relevant dimerization interface can already be observed in the two shorter constructs, the PpsR{sub ΔHTH} structure reveals how three PAS domains enable the formation of multiple oligomeric states (dimer, tetramer and octamer), highlighting that not only the PAS cores but also their α-helical extensions are essential for protein oligomerization. The results demonstrate that the long helical glutamine-rich linker of PpsR results from a direct fusion of the N-cap of the PAS1 domain with the C-terminal extension of the N-domain that

  17. Cross-system excision of chaperone-mediated proteolysis in chaperone-assisted recombinant protein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Villaverde, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Main Escherichia coli cytosolic chaperones such as DnaK are key components of the control quality network designed to minimize the prevalence of polypeptides with aberrant conformations. This is achieved by both favoring refolding activities but also stimulating proteolytic degradation of folding reluctant species. This last activity is responsible for the decrease of the proteolytic stability of recombinant proteins when co-produced along with DnaK, where an increase in solubility might be associated to a decrease in protein yield. However, when DnaK and its co-chaperone DnaJ are co-produced in cultured insect cells or whole insect larvae (and expectedly, in other heterologous hosts), only positive, folding-related effects of these chaperones are observed, in absence of proteolysis-mediated reduction of recombinant protein yield. PMID:21326941

  18. Cell-mediated immunity against human retinal extract, S-antigen, and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein in onchocercal chorioretinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of onchocercal chorioretinopathy. Cell-mediated immune responses to human retinal S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), and crude retinal extract were investigated in patients with onchocerciasis from

  19. Evidence for a lactose-mediated association between two nuclear carbohydrate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sève, A P; Felin, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Sahraoui, T; Aubery, M; Hubert, J

    1993-02-01

    Nuclear proteins were extracted in 2 M NaCl from membrane-depleted nuclei isolated from HL60 cells. Extracted proteins were submitted to affinity chromatography columns containing immobilized glucose, galactose or lactose. The polypeptides present in the different eluted fractions were resolved by SDS-PAGE and were either silver stained or analysed by immunoblotting with monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies, respectively, raised against the glucose-binding protein CBP67 and the galactose-binding proteins CBP35 and L14. The results presented here show that HL60 cell nuclei contain CBP35 and a glucose-binding lectin of 70 kDa (CBP70). These data account for the previously reported binding of neoglycoproteins containing glucosyl and galactosyl residues to HL60 cell nuclei. Furthermore, the present study provides the new information that CBP35 can associate with CBP70 by interactions dependent on the binding of CBP35 to lactose, and the results of some affinity chromatography experiments strongly suggest that CBP35 and CBP70 associate by protein-protein interactions. The potential function of this lactose-mediated interaction is discussed with respect to data recently reported by others showing that CBP35 is involved in in vitro mRNA splicing and that lactose inhibits the processing of the pre-RNA substrate.

  20. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingsheng; Minoda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Iha, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takaesu, Giichi

    2008-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-κB activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-κB-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax

  1. Cytokine-mediated inhibition of ketogenesis is unrelated to nitric oxide or protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailla, K; El-Mir, M Y; Cynober, L; Blonde-Cynober, F

    2001-08-01

    Cytokines play an important role in the lipid disturbances commonly associated with sepsis. Ketogenesis is inhibited during sepsis, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been suggested to mediate this impairment, irrespective of the ketogenic substrate (fatty acid or branched chain ketoacid). However, the underlying mechanism of cytokine action is still unknown. First we investigated the possible role of the induction of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, using rat hepatocyte monolayers. Hepatocytes were incubated for 6 h, with either alpha -ketoisocaproate (KIC) (1 mM) or oleic acid (0.5 mM) in the presence or absence of TNF alpha (25 microg/L) and IL-6 (15 microg/L). In some experiments, cells were incubated with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The ketone body (beta -hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) production and nitrite production were measured in the incubation medium. Our results indicated no involvement of nitric oxide in the inhibitory action of cytokines on ketogenesis. Secondly, we showed that cycloheximide (10(-4)M) did not counteract the cytokine-mediated ketogenesis decrease; hence, the effects of cytokines on ketogenesis are not protein synthesis-dependent. The cytokine-mediated inhibition of ketogenesis is therefore unrelated to either NO production or protein synthesis. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  2. Interferon-inducible ribonuclease ISG20 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication through directly binding to the epsilon stem-loop structure of viral RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV replicates its DNA genome through reverse transcription of a viral RNA pregenome. We report herein that the interferon (IFN stimulated exoribonuclease gene of 20 KD (ISG20 inhibits HBV replication through degradation of HBV RNA. ISG20 expression was observed at basal level and was highly upregulated upon IFN treatment in hepatocytes, and knock down of ISG20 resulted in elevation of HBV replication and attenuation of IFN-mediated antiviral effect. The sequence element conferring the susceptibility of HBV RNA to ISG20-mediated RNA degradation was mapped at the HBV RNA terminal redundant region containing epsilon (ε stem-loop. Furthermore, ISG20-induced HBV RNA degradation relies on its ribonuclease activity, as the enzymatic inactive form ISG20D94G was unable to promote HBV RNA decay. Interestingly, ISG20D94G retained antiviral activity against HBV DNA replication by preventing pgRNA encapsidation, resulting from a consequence of ISG20-ε interaction. This interaction was further characterized by in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and ISG20 was able to bind HBV ε directly in absence of any other cellular proteins, indicating a direct ε RNA binding capability of ISG20; however, cofactor(s may be required for ISG20 to efficiently degrade ε. In addition, the lower stem portion of ε is the major ISG20 binding site, and the removal of 4 base pairs from the bottom portion of ε abrogated the sensitivity of HBV RNA to ISG20, suggesting that the specificity of ISG20-ε interaction relies on both RNA structure and sequence. Furthermore, the C-terminal Exonuclease III (ExoIII domain of ISG20 was determined to be responsible for interacting with ε, as the deletion of ExoIII abolished in vitro ISG20-ε binding and intracellular HBV RNA degradation. Taken together, our study sheds light on the underlying mechanisms of IFN-mediated HBV inhibition and the antiviral mechanism of ISG20 in general.

  3. Mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Mediatization research shares media effects studies' ambition of answering the difficult questions with regard to whether and how media matter and influence contemporary culture and society. The two approaches nevertheless differ fundamentally in that mediatization research seeks answers...... research is concerned with long-term structural changes involving media, culture, and society, i.e. the influences of the media are understood in relation to how media are implicated in social and cultural changes and how these processes come to create new conditions for human communication and interaction....... From the perspective of mediatization research, the most important effect of the media stems from their embeddedness in culture and society....

  4. Alternative electron transport mediated by flavodiiron proteins is operational in organisms from cyanobacteria up to gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilík, Petr; Pavlovič, Andrej; Kouřil, Roman; Alboresi, Alessandro; Morosinotto, Tomas; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shikanai, Toshiharu

    2017-05-01

    Photo-reduction of O 2 to water mediated by flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) represents a safety valve for the photosynthetic electron transport chain in fluctuating light. So far, the FDP-mediated O 2 photo-reduction has been evidenced only in cyanobacteria and the moss Physcomitrella; however, a recent phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of photosynthetic organisms has also revealed the presence of FDP genes in several nonflowering plant groups. What remains to be clarified is whether the FDP-dependent O 2 photo-reduction is actually operational in these organisms. We have established a simple method for the monitoring of FDP-mediated O 2 photo-reduction, based on the measurement of redox kinetics of P700 (the electron donor of photosystem I) upon dark-to-light transition. The O 2 photo-reduction is manifested as a fast re-oxidation of P700. The validity of the method was verified by experiments with transgenic organisms, namely FDP knock-out mutants of Synechocystis and Physcomitrella and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing FDPs from Physcomitrella. We observed the fast P700 re-oxidation in representatives of all green plant groups excluding angiosperms. Our results provide strong evidence that the FDP-mediated O 2 photo-reduction is functional in all nonflowering green plant groups. This finding suggests a major change in the strategy of photosynthetic regulation during the evolution of angiosperms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxia; Hu, Zhangli; Wang, Chaogang; Li, Shuangfei; Lei, Anping

    2008-08-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a high efficient expression vector was constructed. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in C. reinhardtii under the control of promoters: RBCS2 and HSP70A-RBCS2. Efficiency of transformation and expression were compared between two transgenic algae: RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-I and HSP70A-RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-II. Results show that HSP70A-RBCS2 could improve greatly the transformation efficiency by approximately eightfold of RBCS2, and the expression efficiency of GFP in Tran-II was at least double of that in Tran-I. In addition, a threefold increase of GFP in Tran-II was induced by heat shock at 40°C. All of the results demonstrated that HSP70A-RBCS2 was more efficient than RBCS2 in expressing exogenous gene in C. reinhardtii.

  6. Comparative time-courses of copper-ion-mediated protein and lipid oxidation in low-density lipoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Heather M; Baoutina, Anna; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    -courses of lipid and protein oxidation during copper-ion-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. We show that there is an early, lipid-mediated loss of 40-50% of the Trp residues of the apoB100 protein. There is no comparable loss over an identical period during the copper-ion-mediated oxidation of lipid......Free radicals damage both lipids and proteins and evidence has accumulated for the presence of both oxidised lipids and proteins in aged tissue samples as well as those from a variety of pathologies including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Oxidation of the protein and lipid...... moieties of low-density lipoprotein is of particular interest due to its potential role in the unregulated uptake of lipids and cholesterol by macrophages; this may contribute to the initial stage of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. In the study reported here, we examined the comparative time...

  7. T4 phage and its head surface proteins do not stimulate inflammatory mediator production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Miernikiewicz

    Full Text Available Viruses are potent activators of the signal pathways leading to increased cytokine or ROS production. The effects exerted on the immune system are usually mediated by viral proteins. Complementary to the progress in phage therapy practice, advancement of knowledge about the influence of bacteriophages on mammalian immunity is necessary. Particularly, the potential ability of phage proteins to act like other viral stimulators of the immune system may have strong practical implications for the safety and efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. Here we present studies on the effect of T4 phage and its head proteins on production of inflammatory mediators and inflammation-related factors: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40/p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, GCSF, GM-CSF and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plasma cytokine profiles in an in vivo mouse model and in human blood cells treated with gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc were evaluated by cytokine antibody arrays. Cytokine production and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules were also investigated in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated with whole T4 phage particle or the same capsid proteins. The influence of T4 and gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc on reactive oxygen species generation was examined in blood cells using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In all performed assays, the T4 bacteriophage and its capsid proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc did not affect production of inflammatory-related cytokines or ROS. These observations are of importance for any medical or veterinary application of bacteriophages.

  8. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongqiao; Levison, Bruce S; Buffa, Jennifer A; Huang, Ying; Fu, Xiaoming; Wang, Zeneng; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies reveal 2-aminoadipic acid (2-AAA) is both elevated in subjects at risk for diabetes and mechanistically linked to glucose homeostasis. Prior studies also suggest enrichment of protein-bound 2-AAA as an oxidative post-translational modification of lysyl residues in tissues associated with degenerative diseases of aging. While in vitro studies suggest redox active transition metals or myeloperoxidase (MPO) generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl) may produce protein-bound 2-AAA, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of 2-AAA during inflammatory diseases are unknown. In initial studies we observed that traditional acid- or base-catalyzed protein hydrolysis methods previously employed to measure tissue 2-AAA can artificially generate protein-bound 2-AAA from an alternative potential lysine oxidative product, lysine nitrile (LysCN). Using a validated protease-based digestion method coupled with stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS, we now report protein bound 2-AAA and LysCN are both formed by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and the MPO/H 2 O 2 /Cl - system of leukocytes. At low molar ratio of oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine moiety, 2-AAA is formed via an initial N ε -monochloramine intermediate, which ultimately produces the more stable 2-AAA end-product via sequential generation of transient imine and semialdehyde intermediates. At higher oxidant to target protein N ε -lysine amine ratios, protein-bound LysCN is formed via initial generation of a lysine N ε -dichloramine intermediate. In studies employing MPO knockout mice and an acute inflammation model, we show that both free and protein-bound 2-AAA, and in lower yield, protein-bound LysCN, are formed by MPO in vivo during inflammation. Finally, both 2-AAA and to lesser extent LysCN are shown to be enriched in human aortic atherosclerotic plaque, a tissue known to harbor multiple MPO-catalyzed protein oxidation products. Collectively, these results show that MPO-mediated oxidation of protein lysyl

  9. LIM-domain proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP are required for microRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Victoria; Zhang, Yining; Foxler, Daniel E; de Moor, Cornelia H; Kong, Yi Wen; Webb, Thomas M; Self, Tim J; Feng, Yungfeng; Lagos, Dimitrios; Chu, Chia-Ying; Rana, Tariq M; Morley, Simon J; Longmore, Gregory D; Bushell, Martin; Sharp, Tyson V

    2010-07-13

    In recent years there have been major advances with respect to the identification of the protein components and mechanisms of microRNA (miRNA) mediated silencing. However, the complete and precise repertoire of components and mechanism(s) of action remain to be fully elucidated. Herein we reveal the identification of a family of three LIM domain-containing proteins, LIMD1, Ajuba and WTIP (Ajuba LIM proteins) as novel mammalian processing body (P-body) components, which highlight a novel mechanism of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Furthermore, we reveal that LIMD1, Ajuba, and WTIP bind to Ago1/2, RCK, Dcp2, and eIF4E in vivo, that they are required for miRNA-mediated, but not siRNA-mediated gene silencing and that all three proteins bind to the mRNA 5' m(7)GTP cap-protein complex. Mechanistically, we propose the Ajuba LIM proteins interact with the m(7)GTP cap structure via a specific interaction with eIF4E that prevents 4EBP1 and eIF4G interaction. In addition, these LIM-domain proteins facilitate miRNA-mediated gene silencing by acting as an essential molecular link between the translationally inhibited eIF4E-m(7)GTP-5(')cap and Ago1/2 within the miRISC complex attached to the 3'-UTR of mRNA, creating an inhibitory closed-loop complex.

  10. Infectious Entry Pathway Mediated by the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Envelope Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lindsey R; Whelan, Sean P J

    2016-01-20

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the majority of which exist as degraded remnants of ancient viruses, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. The youngest human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the HERV-K(HML-2) subgroup and were endogenized within the past 1 million years. The viral envelope protein (ENV) facilitates the earliest events of endogenization (cellular attachment and entry), and here, we characterize the requirements for HERV-K ENV to mediate infectious cell entry. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that a minimum of two events are required for fusion, proteolytic processing by furin-like proteases and exposure to acidic pH. We generated an infectious autonomously replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein was replaced by HERV-K ENV. HERV-K ENV imparts an endocytic entry pathway that requires dynamin-mediated membrane scission and endosomal acidification but is distinct from clathrin-dependent or macropinocytic uptake pathways. The lack of impediments to the replication of the VSV core in eukaryotic cells allowed us to broadly survey the HERV-K ENV-dictated tropism. Unlike extant betaretroviral envelopes, which impart a narrow species tropism, we found that HERV-K ENV mediates broad tropism encompassing cells from multiple mammalian and nonmammalian species. We conclude that HERV-K ENV dictates an evolutionarily conserved entry pathway and that the restriction of HERV-K to primate genomes reflects downstream stages of the viral replication cycle. Approximately 8% of the human genome is of retroviral origin. While many of those viral genomes have become inactivated, some copies of the most recently endogenized human retrovirus, HERV-K, can encode individual functional proteins. Here, we characterize the envelope protein (ENV) of the virus to define how it mediates infection of cells. We demonstrate that HERV-K ENV undergoes a proteolytic processing step and triggers membrane fusion in response to acidic pH--a strategy

  11. Protein kinase C is activated in glomeruli from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Possible mediation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.; DeRubertis, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular inositol content and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides was reduced by 58% in 1-2 wk streptozotocin diabetic rats. Addition of inositol to the incubation medium increased polyphosphoinositide turnover in glomeruli from diabetic rats to control values. Despite the reduction in inositol content and polyphosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C was activated in glomeruli from diabetic rats, as assessed by an increase in the percentage of enzyme activity associated with the particulate cell fraction. Total protein kinase C activity was not different between glomeruli from control and diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin to achieve near euglycemia prevented the increase in particulate protein kinase C. Moreover, incubation of glomeruli from control rats with glucose (100-1,000 mg/dl) resulted in a progressive increase in labeled diacylglycerol production and in the percentage of protein kinase C activity which was associated with the particulate fraction. These results support a role for hyperglycemia per se in the enhanced state of activation of protein kinase C seen in glomeruli from diabetic rats. Glucose did not appear to increase diacylglycerol by stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in glomeruli. Other pathways for diacylglycerol production, including de novo synthesis and phospholipase C mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan are not excluded

  12. Aldehyde stress-mediated novel modification of proteins: epimerization of the N-terminal amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Ryo; Goto, Takaaki; Lee, Seon Hwa; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2013-12-16

    Various kinds of aldehyde-mediated chemical modifications of proteins have been identified as being exclusively covalent. We report a unique noncovalent modification: the aldehyde-mediated epimerization of the N-terminal amino acid. Epimerization of amino acids is thought to cause conformational changes that alter their biological activity. However, few mechanistic studies have been performed, because epimerization of an amino acid is a miniscule change in a whole protein. Furthermore, it does not produce a mass shift, making mass spectrometric analysis difficult. Here, we have demonstrated epimerization mediated by endogenous aldehydes. A model peptide, with an N-terminal l- or d-FMRFamide, was incubated with an endogenous or synthetic aldehyde [acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal, 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, d-glucose (Glc), 4- or 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde] under physiological conditions. Each reaction mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and/or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Considerable epimerization occurred after incubation with some endogenous aldehydes (PLP, 40.6% after 1 day; Glc with copper ions, 6.5% after 7 days). Moreover, the epimerization also occurred in whole proteins (human serum albumin and PLP, 26.3% after 1 day). Tandem mass spectrometric studies, including deuterium labeling and sodium borohydride reduction, suggested that the epimerization results from initial Schiff base formation followed by tautomerization to ketimine that causes the chirality to be lost. This suggests that the epimerization of the N-terminal amino acid can also occur in vivo as a post-translational modification under a high level of aldehyde stress.

  13. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Fabio; Guerra, Germano; Parisi, Melania; De Marinis, Marta; Tafuri, Domenico; Cinelli, Mariapia; Ammendola, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas K Brödel

    Full Text Available Internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established

  16. Optimization and utilization of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Moneim; Trusa, Jason; Mett, Vadim; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2014-04-19

    Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein production in plants is a promising approach to produce vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins within a short period of time. However, this technology is only just beginning to be applied to large-scale production as many technological obstacles to scale up are now being overcome. Here, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for industrial-scale transient protein production based on vacuum infiltration of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacteria carrying launch vectors. Optimization of Agrobacterium cultivation in AB medium allows direct dilution of the bacterial culture in Milli-Q water, simplifying the infiltration process. Among three tested species of Nicotiana, N. excelsiana (N. benthamiana × N. excelsior) was selected as the most promising host due to the ease of infiltration, high level of reporter protein production, and about two-fold higher biomass production under controlled environmental conditions. Induction of Agrobacterium harboring pBID4-GFP (Tobacco mosaic virus-based) using chemicals such as acetosyringone and monosaccharide had no effect on the protein production level. Infiltrating plant under 50 to 100 mbar for 30 or 60 sec resulted in about 95% infiltration of plant leaf tissues. Infiltration with Agrobacterium laboratory strain GV3101 showed the highest protein production compared to Agrobacteria laboratory strains LBA4404 and C58C1 and wild-type Agrobacteria strains at6, at10, at77 and A4. Co-expression of a viral RNA silencing suppressor, p23 or p19, in N. benthamiana resulted in earlier accumulation and increased production (15-25%) of target protein (influenza virus hemagglutinin).

  17. IRES-Mediated Translation of Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins in Eukaryotic Cell-Free Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O.; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5′ untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems. PMID

  18. IRES-mediated translation of membrane proteins and glycoproteins in eukaryotic cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brödel, Andreas K; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5' untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems.

  19. Regulation of Ubiquitination-Mediated Protein Degradation by Survival Kinases in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system is essential for multiple physiological processes via selective degradation of target proteins and has been shown to plays a critical role in human cancer. Activation of oncogenic factors and inhibition of tumor suppressors have been shown to be essential for cancer development, and protein ubiquitination has been linked to the regulation of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors. Three kinases, AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and IκB kinase, we refer to as oncokinases, are activated in multiple human cancers. We and others have identified several key downstream targets that are commonly regulated by these oncokinases, some of which are regulated directly or indirectly via ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation, including FOXO3, β-catenin, myeloid cell leukemia-1, and Snail. In this review, we summarize these findings from our and other groups and discuss potential future studies and applications in the clinic.

  20. Regulation of ubiquitination-mediated protein degradation by survival kinases in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito eYamaguchi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for multiple physiological processes via selective degradation of target proteins and has been shown to plays a critical role in human cancer. Activation of oncogenic factors and inhibition of tumor suppressors have been shown to be essential for cancer development, and protein ubiquitination has been linked to the regulation of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors. Three kinases, Akt, ERK, and IKK, we refer to as oncokinases, are activated in multiple human cancers. We and others have identified several key downstream targets that are commonly regulated by these oncokinases, some of which are regulated directly or indirectly via ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation, including FOXO3, β-catenin, Mcl-1, and Snail. In this review, we summarize these findings from our and other groups and discuss potential future studies and applications in the clinic.

  1. Unfolded protein response inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol promote myeloma cell differentiation mediated by XBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Zou, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Weijun; Zeng, Tianmei; Huang, Hejing; Zhou, Fan; Hou, Jian

    2015-02-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an essential pathway for both normal and malignant plasma cells to maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in response to the large amount of immunoglobulin (Ig) output. The inositol-requiring enzyme 1-X-box binding protein-1 (IRE1-XBP-1) arm of the UPR pathway has been shown to play crucial roles not only in relieving the ER stress by up-regulating a series of genes favoring ER-associated protein degradation and protein folding, but in mediating terminal plasmacytic differentiation and maturation. Myeloma cells comprise various subsets arrested in diverse differentiated phases, and the immaturity of myeloma cells has been taken as a marker for poor prognosis, suggesting that differentiation induction would be a promising therapeutic strategy for myeloma. Herein, we used low-dose pharmacological UPR inducers such as tunicamycin (TM) and dithiothreitol (DTT) to efficiently activate the IRE1-XBP-1 pathway in myeloma cells characterized by transcriptional expression increase in spliced XBP-1 and molecular chaperons, accompanied by significant differentiation and maturation of these myeloma cells, without concomitant cytotoxicity. These differentiated myeloma cells exhibited a more mature appearance with well-developed cytoplasm and a reduced nucleocytoplasmic ratio, and a further differentiated phenotype with markedly increased expression of CD49e together with significantly elevated cellular secretion of Ig light chain as shown by flow cytometry and ELISA, in contrast to the control myeloma cells without exposed to TM or DTT. Moreover, siRNA knockdown of XBP-1 disrupted TM- or DTT-induced myeloma cell differentiation and maturation. Our study, for the first time, validated that the modest activation of the UPR pathway enables myeloma cells to further differentiate, and identified that XBP-1 plays an indispensable role in UPR-mediated myeloma cell differentiation and maturation. Thus, we provided the rationale and

  2. Mammalian Tead proteins regulate cell proliferation and contact inhibition as transcriptional mediators of Hippo signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsunori; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Regulation of organ size is important for development and tissue homeostasis. In Drosophila, Hippo signaling controls organ size by regulating the activity of a TEAD transcription factor, Scalloped, through modulation of its co-activator protein Yki. Here, we show that mouse Tead proteins regulate cell proliferation by mediating Hippo signaling. In NIH3T3 cells, cell density and Hippo signaling regulated the activity of endogenous Tead proteins by modulating nuclear localization of a Yki homolog, Yap1, and the resulting change in Tead activity altered cell proliferation. Tead2-VP16 mimicked Yap1 overexpression, including increased cell proliferation, reduced cell death, promotion of EMT, lack of cell contact inhibition and promotion of tumor formation. Growth-promoting activities of various Yap1 mutants correlated with their Tead-co-activator activities. Tead2-VP16 and Yap1 regulated largely overlapping sets of genes. However, only a few of the Tead/Yap1-regulated genes in NIH3T3 cells were affected in Tead1(-/-);Tead2(-/-) or Yap1(-/-) embryos. Most of the previously identified Yap1-regulated genes were not affected in NIH3T3 cells or mutant mice. In embryos, levels of nuclear Yap1 and Tead1 varied depending on cell type. Strong nuclear accumulation of Yap1 and Tead1 were seen in myocardium, correlating with requirements of Tead1 for proliferation. However, their distribution did not always correlate with proliferation. Taken together, mammalian Tead proteins regulate cell proliferation and contact inhibition as a transcriptional mediator of Hippo signaling, but the mechanisms by which Tead/Yap1 regulate cell proliferation differ depending on the cell type, and Tead, Yap1 and Hippo signaling may play multiple roles in mouse embryos.

  3. Splice-mediated Variants of Proteins (SpliVaP) - data and characterization of changes in signatures among protein isoforms due to alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Matteo; Orsini, Massimiliano; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2008-10-02

    It is often the case that mammalian genes are alternatively spliced; the resulting alternate transcripts often encode protein isoforms that differ in amino acid sequences. Changes among the protein isoforms can alter the cellular properties of proteins. The effect can range from a subtle modulation to a complete loss of function. (i) We examined human splice-mediated protein isoforms (as extracted from a manually curated data set, and from a computationally predicted data set) for differences in the annotation for protein signatures (Pfam domains and PRINTS fingerprints) and we characterized the differences & their effects on protein functionalities. An important question addressed relates to the extent of protein isoforms that may lack any known function in the cell. (ii) We present a database that reports differences in protein signatures among human splice-mediated protein isoform sequences. (i) Characterization: The work points to distinct sets of alternatively spliced genes with varying degrees of annotation for the splice-mediated protein isoforms. Protein molecular functions seen to be often affected are those that relate to: binding, catalytic, transcription regulation, structural molecule, transporter, motor, and antioxidant; and the processes that are often affected are nucleic acid binding, signal transduction, and protein-protein interactions. Signatures are often included/excluded and truncated in length among protein isoforms; truncation is seen as the predominant type of change. Analysis points to the following novel aspects: (a) Analysis using data from the manually curated Vega indicates that one in 8.9 genes can lead to a protein isoform of no "known" function; and one in 18 expressed protein isoforms can be such an "orphan" isoform; the corresponding numbers as seen with computationally predicted ASD data set are: one in 4.9 genes and one in 9.8 isoforms. (b) When swapping of signatures occurs, it is often between those of same functional

  4. THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated

  5. Socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and C-reactive protein: a moderated-mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Mezuk, Briana; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Rafferty, Jane A; Jackson, James S

    2010-05-01

    We sought to understand the link between low socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by examining the association between SEP, health-related coping behaviors, and C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker and independent risk factor for CVD, in a U.S. sample of adults. We used a multiple mediation model to evaluate how these behaviors work in concert to influence CRP levels and whether these relationships were moderated by gender and race/ethnicity. CRP levels were divided into two categories: elevated CRP (3.1-10.0 mg/L) and normal CRP (mediator. These behaviors accounted for 87.9% of the total effect of education on CRP and 55.8% the total effect of poverty on CRP. We also found significant moderation of these mediated effects by gender and race/ethnicity. These findings demonstrate the influence of socioeconomically patterned environmental constraints on individual-level health behaviors. Specifically, reducing socioeconomic inequalities may have positive effects on CVD disparities through reducing cigarette smoking and increasing vigorous exercise. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Angiopoietin-1 mediates the proangiogenic activity of the bone morphogenic protein antagonist Drm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitola, Stefania; Moroni, Emanuela; Ravelli, Cosetta; Andres, German; Belleri, Mirella; Presta, Marco

    2008-08-15

    Recent observations have shown that Drm, a member the Dan family of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) antagonists, induces endothelial cell (EC) sprouting in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo by interacting with signaling EC receptors in a BMP-independent manner. Here, recombinant Drm (rDrm) up-regulates angiopoientin-1 (Ang-1) expression in EC without affecting Ang-2 and Tie-2 receptor expression. Ang-1 up-regulation is mediated by the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Specific inhibition of Ang-1 activity by anti-Ang-1 antibodies, soluble Tie-2 receptor, or Ang-1 siRNA transfection significantly reduced the rDrm-mediated sprouting of EC in three-dimensional fibrin and type I collagen gels. In addition, Ang-1 antagonists inhibited the angiogenic activity exerted by rDrm in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Taken together, the data indicate that the proangiogenic activity of Drm is mediated by the activation of an Ang-1-dependent autocrine loop of stimulation in EC.

  7. Protein-mediated efficient synergistic "antenna effect" in a ternary system in D₂O medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Shyamal Kr; Samanta, Swarna Kamal; Mukherjee, Manini; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2012-08-16

    A ternary system consisting of a protein, catechin (either + or - epimer), and Tb(III) in suitable aqueous buffer medium at physiological pH (= 6.8) has been shown to exhibit highly efficient "antenna effect". Steady state and time-resolved emission studies of each component in the binary complexes (protein with Tb(III) and (+)- or (-)-catechin with Tb(III)) and the ternary systems along with the molecular docking studies reveal that the efficient sensitization could be ascribed to the effective shielding of microenvironment of Tb(III) from O-H oscillator and increased Tb-C (+/-) interaction in the ternary systems in aqueous medium. The ternary system exhibits protein-mediated efficient antenna effect in D(2)O medium due to synergistic ET from both the lowest ππ* triplet state of Trp residue in protein and that of catechin apart from protection of the Tb(III) environment from matrix vibration. The simple system consisting of (+)- or (-)-catechin and Tb(III) in D(2)O buffer at pH 6.8 has been prescribed to be a useful biosensor.

  8. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Rachel M.; Wurth, Mark A.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur; Moncman, Carole L.; McCann, Richard O.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1 V12 or Cdc42 V12 could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA L63 decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia

  9. 5-ALA mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagic cell death via AMP-activated protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been developed as an anticancer treatment, which is based on the tumor-specific accumulation of a photosensitizer that induces cell death after irradiation of light with a specific wavelength. Depending on the subcellular localization of the photosensitizer, PDT could trigger various signal transduction cascades and induce cell death such as apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In this study, we report that both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascades are activated following 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated PDT in both PC12 and CL1-0 cells. Although the activities of caspase-9 and -3 are elevated, the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk did not protect cells against ALA-PDT-induced cell death. Instead, autophagic cell death was found in PC12 and CL1-0 cells treated with ALA-PDT. Most importantly, we report here for the first time that it is the activation of AMPK, but not MAPKs that plays a crucial role in mediating autophagic cell death induced by ALA-PDT. This novel observation indicates that the AMPK pathway play an important role in ALA-PDT-induced autophagy.

  10. Arctigenin suppresses unfolded protein response and sensitizes glucose deprivation-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengrong; Wang, Xiong; Wang, Changhua; Nawaz, Ahmed; Wei, Wen; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Lijun; Yu, De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in tumor survival and resistance to chemotherapies suggests a new anticancer strategy targeting UPR pathway. Arctigenin, a natural product, has been recently identified for its antitumor activity with selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation with unknown mechanism. Here we found that arctigenin specifically blocks the transcriptional induction of two potential anticancer targets, namely glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78) and its analog GRP94, under glucose deprivation, but not by tunicamycin. The activation of other UPR pathways, e.g., XBP-1 and ATF4, by glucose deprivation was also suppressed by arctigenin. A further transgene experiment showed that ectopic expression of GRP78 at least partially rescued arctigenin/glucose starvation-mediated cell growth inhibition, suggesting the causal role of UPR suppression in arctigenin-mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. These observations bring a new insight into the mechanism of action of arctigenin and may lead to the design of new anticancer therapeutics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Heat shock protein 90β: A novel mediator of vitamin D action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, Giana; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Sonna, Larry A.; Lindauer, Meghan L.; Wood, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in vitamin D action in Caco-2 cells using geldanamycin (GA) to block Hsp90 function and RNA interference to reduce Hsp90β expression. When cells were exposed to GA, vitamin D-mediated gene expression and transcriptional activity were inhibited by 69% and 54%, respectively. Gel shift analysis indicated that GA reduced vitamin D-mediated DNA binding activity of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We tested the specific role of Hsp90β by knocking down its expression with stably expressed short hairpin RNA. Vitamin D-induced gene expression and transcriptional activity were reduced by 90% and 80%, respectively, in Hsp90β-deficient cells. Nuclear protein for VDR and RXRα, its heterodimer partner, were not reduced in Hsp90β-deficient cells. These findings indicate that Hsp90β is needed for optimal vitamin D responsiveness in the enterocyte and demonstrate a specific role for Hsp90β in VDR signaling

  12. Estrogen inhibits glucocorticoid action via protein phosphatase 5 (PP5)-mediated glucocorticoid receptor dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Leung, Donald Y M; Nordeen, Steven K; Goleva, Elena

    2009-09-04

    Although glucocorticoids suppress proliferation of many cell types and are used in the treatment of certain cancers, trials of glucocorticoid therapy in breast cancer have been a disappointment. Another suggestion that estrogens may affect glucocorticoid action is that the course of some inflammatory diseases tends to be more severe and less responsive to corticosteroid treatment in females. To date, the molecular mechanism of cross-talk between estrogens and glucocorticoids is poorly understood. Here we show that, in both MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells, estrogen inhibits glucocorticoid induction of the MKP-1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1) and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase genes. Estrogen did not affect glucocorticoid-induced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation but reduced ligand-induced GR phosphorylation at Ser-211, which is associated with the active form of GR. We show that estrogen increases expression of protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), which mediates the dephosphorylation of GR at Ser-211. Gene knockdown of PP5 abolished the estrogen-mediated suppression of GR phosphorylation and induction of MKP-1 and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase. More importantly, after PP5 knockdown estrogen-promoted cell proliferation was significantly suppressed by glucocorticoids. This study demonstrates cross-talk between estrogen-induced PP5 and GR action. It also reveals that PP5 inhibition may antagonize estrogen-promoted events in response to corticosteroid therapy.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate mediates activation of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming V. [Program of Cardiovascular Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chen, Weiqin [Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Harmancey, Romain N. [Division of Cardiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Nuotio-Antar, Alli M.; Imamura, Minako; Saha, Pradip [Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Taegtmeyer, Heinrich [Division of Cardiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chan, Lawrence, E-mail: lchan@bcm.tmc.edu [Program of Cardiovascular Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Departments of Medicine and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a Mondo family transcription factor that activates a number of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose stimulation. We have previously reported that high glucose can activate the transcriptional activity of ChREBP independent of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated increase in nuclear entry and DNA binding. Here, we found that formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is essential for glucose activation of ChREBP. The glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP is attenuated by D-mannoheptulose, a potent hexokinase inhibitor, as well as over-expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase); kinetics of activation of GAL4-ChREBP can be modified by exogenously expressed GCK. Further metabolism of G-6-P through the two major glucose metabolic pathways, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway, is not required for activation of ChREBP; over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) diminishes, whereas RNAi knockdown of the enzyme enhances, the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP, respectively. Moreover, the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which is phosphorylated by hexokinase, but not further metabolized, effectively upregulates the transcription activity of ChREBP. In addition, over-expression of phosphofructokinase (PFK) 1 and 2, synergistically diminishes the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP. These multiple lines of evidence support the conclusion that G-6-P mediates the activation of ChREBP.

  14. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  15. NBR1-mediated selective autophagy targets insoluble ubiquitinated protein aggregates in plant stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    Full Text Available Plant autophagy plays an important role in delaying senescence, nutrient recycling, and stress responses. Functional analysis of plant autophagy has almost exclusively focused on the proteins required for the core process of autophagosome assembly, but little is known about the proteins involved in other important processes of autophagy, including autophagy cargo recognition and sequestration. In this study, we report functional genetic analysis of Arabidopsis NBR1, a homolog of mammalian autophagy cargo adaptors P62 and NBR1. We isolated two nbr1 knockout mutants and discovered that they displayed some but not all of the phenotypes of autophagy-deficient atg5 and atg7 mutants. Like ATG5 and ATG7, NBR1 is important for plant tolerance to heat, oxidative, salt, and drought stresses. The role of NBR1 in plant tolerance to these abiotic stresses is dependent on its interaction with ATG8. Unlike ATG5 and ATG7, however, NBR1 is dispensable in age- and darkness-induced senescence and in resistance to a necrotrophic pathogen. A selective role of NBR1 in plant responses to specific abiotic stresses suggest that plant autophagy in diverse biological processes operates through multiple cargo recognition and delivery systems. The compromised heat tolerance of atg5, atg7, and nbr1 mutants was associated with increased accumulation of insoluble, detergent-resistant proteins that were highly ubiquitinated under heat stress. NBR1, which contains an ubiquitin-binding domain, also accumulated to high levels with an increasing enrichment in the insoluble protein fraction in the autophagy-deficient mutants under heat stress. These results suggest that NBR1-mediated autophagy targets ubiquitinated protein aggregates most likely derived from denatured or otherwise damaged nonnative proteins generated under stress conditions.

  16. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of transcription factors by leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Sarma, Nayan J; Abdul-Nabi, Anmaar M; Yaseen, Nabeel R

    2010-05-21

    NUP98 is a nucleoporin that plays complex roles in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules. Rearrangements of the NUP98 gene in human leukemia result in the expression of numerous fusion oncoproteins whose effect on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. NUP98-HOXA9, a prototypic NUP98 fusion, inhibited the nuclear export of two known CRM1 substrates: mutated cytoplasmic nucleophosmin and HIV-1 Rev. In vitro binding assays revealed that NUP98-HOXA9 binds CRM1 through the FG repeat motif in a Ran-GTP-dependent manner similar to but stronger than the interaction between CRM1 and its export substrates. Two NUP98 fusions, NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10, whose fusion partners are structurally and functionally unrelated, interacted with endogenous CRM1 in myeloid cells as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. These leukemogenic NUP98 fusion proteins interacted with CRM1, Ran, and the nucleoporin NUP214 in a manner fundamentally different from that of wild-type NUP98. NUP98-HOXA9 and NUP98-DDX10 formed characteristic aggregates within the nuclei of a myeloid cell line and primary human CD34+ cells and caused aberrant localization of CRM1 to these aggregates. These NUP98 fusions caused nuclear accumulation of two transcription factors, NFAT and NFkappaB, that are regulated by CRM1-mediated export. The nuclear entrapment of NFAT and NFkappaB correlated with enhanced transcription from promoters responsive to these transcription factors. Taken together, the results suggest a new mechanism by which NUP98 fusions dysregulate transcription and cause leukemia, namely, inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export with aberrant nuclear retention of transcriptional regulators.

  17. 14-3-3 mediated regulation of the tumor suppressor protein, RASSF1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Chow, Renfred S; Choo, Sheryl L; Pham, Diana; Olesen, Jamie D; Wong, Russell X; Onyskiw, Christina; Baksh, Shairaz

    2010-02-01

    Death receptor-dependent apoptosis is an important mechanism of growth control. It has been demonstrated that Ras association domain family protein 1A (RASSF1A) is a tumor suppressor protein involved in death receptor-dependent apoptosis. However, it is unclear how RASSF1A-mediated cell death is initiated. We have now detailed 14-3-3 dependent regulation of RASSF1A-mediated cell death. We demonstrate that basal association of RASSF1A with 14-3-3 was lost following stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or TNFalpha related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Subsequent to the loss of 14-3-3 association, RASSF1A associated with modulator of apoptosis (MOAP-1) followed by death receptor association with either TNFalpha receptor 1 (TNF-R1) or TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1). 14-3-3 association required basal phosphorylation by the serine/threonine kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), on serine 175, 178, and 179. Mutation of these critical serines resulted in the loss of 14-3-3 association and earlier recruitment of RASSF1A to MOAP-1, TNF-R1, and TRAIL-R1. Furthermore, stable cells containing a triple serine mutant of RASSF1A [serine (S) 175 to alanine (A) [S175A], S178A, and S179A] resulted in increased basal cell death, enhanced Annexin V staining and enhanced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) following TNFalpha stimulation when compared to stable cells containing wild type RASSF1A. RASSF1A-mediated cell death is, therefore, tightly controlled by 14-3-3 association.

  18. Lignans and norlignans inhibit multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1)-mediated transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Anna; Eklund, Patrik; Bobrowska-Hägerstrand, Malgorzata; Hägerstrand, Henry

    2010-11-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is one of the drug efflux pumps mediating multidrug resistance in several cancer types. Efficient nontoxic inhibitors of MRP1-mediated transport are sought to potentially sensitise cancer cells to anticancer drugs. This study examined the potency of a series of plant lignans and norlignans of various structures to inhibit MRP1-mediated transport from human erythrocytes. The occurrence of MRP1 in the human erythrocyte membrane makes this cell a useful model in searching for efficient MRP1inhibitors. The inhibition of 2',7'-bis-(carboxypropyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCPCF) transport from human erythrocytes was measured fluorymetrically. In order to study possible membrane-perturbing effects of lignans and norlignans, the potency of these compounds to induce haemolysis, erythrocyte shape change, and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in the external layer of the erythrocyte membrane was examined. Nine compounds (six norlignans and three lignans) of the fourteen that were tested inhibited BCPCF transport from human erythrocytes. The most efficient inhibitor, the norlignan coded L1, had IC(50)=50 μM. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that the strongest inhibitors were found among lignans and norlignans bearing a carbonyl function at position C-9. The highly oxidised structures and the presence of an ionisable group such as the carboxylic acid function enhance activity. All compounds that significantly decreased BCPCF transport were non-haemolytic, did not cause PS exposure and did not have any effect on erythrocyte shapes up to 200 μM. Lignans and norlignans can inhibit MRP1-mediated transport from human erythrocytes and should be further investigated as possible agents reversing multidrug resistance.

  19. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  20. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  1. Differential modulation of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide-mediated TLR2 signaling by individual Pellino proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sinéad M; Freeley, Michael; Moynagh, Paul N; Kelleher, Dermot P

    2017-02-01

    Eradication rates for current H. pylori therapies have fallen in recent years, in line with the emergence of antibiotic resistant infections. The development of therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics, such as immunomodulatory therapy and vaccines, requires a more lucid understanding of host-pathogen interactions, including the relationships between the organism and the innate immune response. Pellino proteins are emerging as key regulators of immune signaling, including the Toll-like receptor pathways known to be regulated by H. pylori. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of Pellino proteins in the innate immune response to H. pylori lipopolysaccharide. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were utilized to elucidate the role of individual Pellino proteins in the Toll-like receptor 2-mediated response to H. pylori LPS by monitoring NF-ĸB activation and the induction of proinflammatory chemokines. Expression of Pellino family members was investigated in gastric epithelial cells and gastric tissue biopsy material. Pellino1 and Pellino2 positively regulated Toll-like receptor 2-driven responses to H. pylori LPS, whereas Pellino3 exerted a negative modulatory role. Expression of Pellino1 was significantly higher than Pellino3 in gastric epithelial cells and gastric tissue. Furthermore, Pellino1 expression was further augmented in gastric epithelial cells in response to infection with H. pylori or stimulation with H. pylori LPS. The combination of low Pellino3 levels together with high and inducible Pellino1 expression may be an important determinant of the degree of inflammation triggered upon Toll-like receptor 2 engagement by H. pylori and/or its components, contributing to H. pylori-associated pathogenesis by directing the incoming signal toward an NF-kB-mediated proinflammatory response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Enhanced B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation contributes to ABCC1-mediated chemoresistance and glutathione-mediated survival in acquired topoisomerase II poison-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Hui; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Tang, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Lin, Li-Mei; Cheng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Sun, Man-Wu; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Kuo, Ching-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) mainly regulates transcriptional activation through antioxidant-responsive elements (AREs) present in the promoters of NRF2 target genes. Recently, we found that NRF2 was overexpressed in a KB-derived drug-resistant cancer cell panel. In this panel, KB-7D cells, which show acquired resistance to topoisomerase II (Top II) poisons, exhibited the highest NRF2 activation. To investigate whether NRF2 directly contributed to acquired resistance against Top II poisons, we manipulated NRF2 by genetic and pharmacological approaches. The result demonstrated that silencing of NRF2 by RNA interference increased the sensitivity and treatment with NRF2 activator decreased the sensitivity of KB and KB-7D cells toward Top II poisons. Further, increased B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation activated NRF2 signaling in KB-7D cells. Moreover, increased binding of NRF2 to an ARE in the promoter of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1) directly contributed to Top II poison resistance. In addition, activation of NRF2 increased glutathione level and antioxidant capacity in KB-7D cells compared with that in KB cells; moreover, high glutathione level provided survival advantage to KB-7D cells. Our study is the first to show that aberrant NRF2 activation is via increased B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation, which increases the acquired resistance and promote the survival of Top II poison-resistant cancer cells. Importantly, NRF2 downstream effectors ABCC1 and glutathione directly contribute to acquired resistance and survival, respectively. These results suggest that blockade of NRF2 signaling may enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce the survival of Top II poison-refractory tumors in clinical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed serum proteins to endothelial cells adhesion and growth on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dayun; Lü, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2013-07-01

    To explore molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth on biomaterials, this study examined endothelial cell adhesion, morphology and viability on bare and titanium nitride (TiN) coated nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys and chitosan film firstly, and then identified the type and amount of serum proteins adsorbed on the three surfaces by proteomic technology. Subsequently, the mediation role of the identified proteins to cell adhesion and growth was investigated with bioinformatics analyses, and further confirmed by a series of cellular and molecular biological experiments. Results showed that the type and amount of adsorbed serum proteins associated with cell adhesion and growth was obviously higher on the alloys than on the chitosan film, and these proteins mediated endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the alloys via four ways. First, proteins such as adiponectin in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface receptors to generate signal transduction, which activated cell surface integrins through increasing intracellular calcium level. Another way, thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer promoted TGF-β signaling pathway activation and enhanced integrins expression. The third, RGD sequence containing proteins such as fibronectin 1, vitronectin and thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with activated integrins to activate focal adhesion pathway, increased focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton organization and mediated cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, the activated focal adhesion pathway promoted the expression of cell growth related genes and resulted in cell proliferation. The fourth route, coagulation factor II (F2) and fibronectin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface F2 receptor and integrin, activated regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway and regulated actin cytoskeleton organization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Poly(C)-binding protein 1 mediates drug resistance in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiani; Zhu, Changli; Yang, Kangqun; Li, Jin; Du, Nan; Zong, Mingzhu; Zhou, Jianwei; He, Jingdong

    2017-02-21

    Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is standard treatment for colorectal cancer. However, resistance to L-OHP often leads to treatment failure or cancer relapse. Understanding of the mechanism underlying L-OHP resistance is important to overcome the resistance and improve colorectal cancer treatment. This study aimed to identify new proteins that mediates L-OHP resistance in colorectal cancer and elucidate their mode of function. HT-29 cells were exposed to gradually increased concentration of L-OHP to select L-OHP resistant HT-29/L-OHP cell line. Proteomic analysis of HT-29 and HT-29/L-OHP cells were performed to identify differentially expressed proteins, including Poly(C)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1). PCBP1 expression level in 20 cases of L-OHP sensitive patients and 20 cases of L-OHP refractory patients was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Chemoresistance and Akt activation in HT-29 and HT-29/L-OHP cells were analyzed by MTT assay and Western blot analysis. We identified 37 proteins showing differential expression in HT-29/L-OHP and HT-29 cells. In particular, PCBP1 protein level increased 15.6 fold in HT-29/L-OHP cells compared to HT-29 cells. Knockdown of PCBP1 sensitized HT-29/L-OHP and HT-29 cells to L-OHP, while overexpression of PCBP1 increased L-OHP resistance in HT-29 cells. In addition, PCBP1 expression was significantly higher in tumor samples from L-OHP refractory patients than in those from L-OHP responsive patients. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of PCBP1 inhibited the activation of Akt in HT-29/L-OHP and HT-29 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PCBP1 is a molecular marker of L-OHP resistance in colorectal cancer and a promising target for colorectal cancer therapy.

  5. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  6. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C; knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  7. Metal-Mediated Affinity and Orientation Specificity in a Computationally Designed Protein Homodimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Der, Bryan S.; Machius, Mischa; Miley, Michael J.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian (UNC); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Computationally designing protein-protein interactions with high affinity and desired orientation is a challenging task. Incorporating metal-binding sites at the target interface may be one approach for increasing affinity and specifying the binding mode, thereby improving robustness of designed interactions for use as tools in basic research as well as in applications from biotechnology to medicine. Here we describe a Rosetta-based approach for the rational design of a protein monomer to form a zinc-mediated, symmetric homodimer. Our metal interface design, named MID1 (NESG target ID OR37), forms a tight dimer in the presence of zinc (MID1-zinc) with a dissociation constant <30 nM. Without zinc the dissociation constant is 4 {micro}M. The crystal structure of MID1-zinc shows good overall agreement with the computational model, but only three out of four designed histidines coordinate zinc. However, a histidine-to-glutamate point mutation resulted in four-coordination of zinc, and the resulting metal binding site and dimer orientation closely matches the computational model (C{alpha} rmsd = 1.4 {angstrom}).

  8. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid sensitizes neuroblastoma to paclitaxel by inhibiting thioredoxin-related protein 14-mediated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zijun; Yang, Kaibin; Ye, Litong; You, Zhiyao; Chen, Rirong; Liu, Ying; He, Youjian

    2017-07-01

    Paclitaxel is not as effective for neuroblastoma as most of the front-line chemotherapeutics due to drug resistance. This study explored the regulatory mechanism of paclitaxel-associated autophagy and potential solutions to paclitaxel resistance in neuroblastoma. The formation of autophagic vesicles was detected by scanning transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The autophagy-associated proteins were assessed by western blot. Autophagy was induced and the autophagy-associated proteins LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, and thioredoxin-related protein 14 (TRP14), were found to be upregulated in neuroblastoma cells that were exposed to paclitaxel. The inhibition of Beclin 1 or TRP14 by siRNA increased the sensitivity of the tumor cells to paclitaxel. In addition, Beclin 1-mediated autophagy was regulated by TRP14. Furthermore, the TRP14 inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) downregulated paclitaxel-induced autophagy and enhanced the anticancer effects of paclitaxel in normal control cancer cells but not in cells with upregulated Beclin 1 and TRP14 expression. Our findings showed that paclitaxel-induced autophagy in neuroblastoma cells was regulated by TRP14 and that SAHA could sensitize neuroblastoma cells to paclitaxel by specifically inhibiting TRP14. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  10. Anesthesia-induced hypothermia mediates decreased ARC gene and protein expression through ERK/MAPK inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robert A.; Bretteville, Alexis; Virág, László; Emala, Charles W.; Maurin, Thomas O.; Marcouiller, François; Julien, Carl; Petry, Franck R.; El-Khoury, Noura B.; Morin, Françoise; Charron, Jean; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Several anesthetics have been reported to suppress the transcription of a number of genes, including Arc, also known as Arg3.1, an immediate early gene that plays a significant role in memory consolidation. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of anesthesia-mediated depression in Arc gene and protein expression. Here, we demonstrate that isoflurane or propofol anesthesia decreases hippocampal Arc protein expression in rats and mice. Surprisingly, this change was secondary to anesthesia-induced hypothermia. Furthermore, we confirm in vivo and in vitro that hypothermia per se is directly responsible for decreased Arc protein levels. This effect was the result of the decline of Arc mRNA basal levels following inhibition of ERK/MAPK by hypothermia. Overall, our results suggest that anesthesia-induced hypothermia leads to ERK inhibition, which in turns decreases Arc levels. These data give new mechanistic insights on the regulation of immediate early genes by anesthesia and hypothermia. PMID:24045785

  11. Appoptosin is a Novel Proapoptotic Protein and Mediates Cell Death in Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhang, Yun-wu; Chen, Yaomin; Huang, Xiumei; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Xian, Bo; Zhang, Xian; Masliah, Eliezer; Chen, Quan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Bu, Guojun; Reed, John C.; Liao, Francesca-Fang; Chen, Ye-Guang; Xu, Huaxi

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is an essential cellular process in multiple diseases and a major pathway for neuronal death in neurodegeneration. The detailed signaling events/pathways leading to apoptosis, especially in neurons, require further elucidation. Here we identify a β-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-interacting protein, designated as appoptosin, whose levels are upregulated in brain samples from Alzheimer’s disease and infarct patients, and in rodent stroke models, as well as in neurons treated with β-amyloid (Aβ) and glutamate. We further demonstrate that appoptosin induces reactive oxygen species release and intrinsic caspase-dependent apoptosis. The physiological function of appoptosin is to transport/exchange glycine/5-amino-levulinic acid across the mitochondrial membrane for heme synthesis. Downregulation of appoptosin prevents cell death and caspase activation caused by glutamate or Aβ insults. APP modulates appoptosin-mediated apoptosis through interaction with appoptosin. Our study identifies appoptosin as a crucial player in apoptosis and a novel proapoptotic protein involved in neuronal cell death, providing a possible new therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. PMID:23115192

  12. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated Telomere Removal Leads to Mitochondrial Stress and Protein Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojung Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is considered the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence. In this regard, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of telomerase activity has been used to model cellular aging. Here, we employed CRISPR-Cas9 technology to instantly remove the telomere to induce aging in a neuroblastoma cell line. Expression of both Cas9 and guide RNA targeting telomere repeats ablated the telomere, leading to retardation of cell proliferation. Instant deletion of telomere in SH-SY5Y cells impaired mitochondrial function with diminished mitochondrial respiration and cell viability. Supporting the pathological relevance of cell aging by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated telomere removal, alterations were observed in the levels of PD-associated proteins including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, parkin, and aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein 2. Significantly, α-synuclein expression in the background of telomere removal led to the enhancement of protein aggregation, suggesting positive feed-forward interaction between aging and PD pathogenesis. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to efficiently model cellular aging and PD.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human zygotes using Cas9 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lichun; Zeng, Yanting; Du, Hongzi; Gong, Mengmeng; Peng, Jin; Zhang, Buxi; Lei, Ming; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaowei; Liu, Jianqiao

    2017-06-01

    Previous works using human tripronuclear zygotes suggested that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system could be a tool in correcting disease-causing mutations. However, whether this system was applicable in normal human (dual pronuclear, 2PN) zygotes was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 is also effective as a gene-editing tool in human 2PN zygotes. By injection of Cas9 protein complexed with the appropriate sgRNAs and homology donors into one-cell human embryos, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination-mediated correction of point mutations in HBB and G6PD. However, our results also reveal limitations of this correction procedure and highlight the need for further research.

  14. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  15. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

  16. TAT-mediated delivery of Tousled protein to salivary glands protects against radiation-induced hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo; Schrott, Lisa; Caldito, Gloria

    2012-09-01

    Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D₀ = 4.13 ± 1.0 Gy; α/β = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D₀ = 4.91 ± 1.0 Gy; α/β = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Prediction of Drug Transfer into Milk Considering Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP)-Mediated Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Naoki; Ito, Kousei; Ikebuchi, Yuki; Toyoda, Yu; Takada, Tappei; Hisaka, Akihiro; Oka, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Drug transfer into milk is of concern due to the unnecessary exposure of infants to drugs. Proposed prediction methods for such transfer assume only passive drug diffusion across the mammary epithelium. This study reorganized data from the literature to assess the contribution of carrier-mediated transport to drug transfer into milk, and to improve the predictability thereof. Milk-to-plasma drug concentration ratios (M/Ps) in humans were exhaustively collected from the literature and converted into observed unbound concentration ratios (M/Punbound,obs). The ratios were also predicted based on passive diffusion across the mammary epithelium (M/Punbound,pred). An in vitro transport assay was performed for selected drugs in breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-expressing cell monolayers. M/Punbound,obs and M/Punbound,pred values were compared for 166 drugs. M/Punbound,obs values were 1.5 times or more higher than M/Punbound,pred values for as many as 13 out of 16 known BCRP substrates, reconfirming BCRP as the predominant transporter contributing to secretory transfer of drugs into milk. Predictability of M/P values for selected BCRP substrates and non-substrates was improved by considering in vitro-evaluated BCRP-mediated transport relative to passive diffusion alone. The current analysis improved the predictability of drug transfer into milk, particularly for BCRP substrates, based on an exhaustive data overhaul followed by focused in vitro transport experimentation.

  18. A Raf-like protein kinase BHP mediates blue light-dependent stomatal opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Maki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Ueno, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2017-03-30

    Stomata in the plant epidermis open in response to blue light and affect photosynthesis and plant growth by regulating CO 2 uptake and transpiration. In stomatal guard cells under blue light, plasma membrane H + -ATPase is phosphorylated and activated via blue light-receptor phototropins and a signaling mediator BLUS1, and H + -ATPase activation drives stomatal opening. However, details of the signaling between phototropins and H + -ATPase remain largely unknown. In this study, through a screening of specific inhibitors for the blue light-dependent H + -ATPase phosphorylation in guard cells, we identified a Raf-like protein kinase, BLUE LIGHT-DEPENDENT H + -ATPASE PHOSPHORYLATION (BHP). Guard cells in the bhp mutant showed impairments of stomatal opening and H + -ATPase phosphorylation in response to blue light. BHP is abundantly expressed in the cytosol of guard cells and interacts with BLUS1 both in vitro and in vivo. Based on these results, BHP is a novel signaling mediator in blue light-dependent stomatal opening, likely downstream of BLUS1.

  19. Reducing the RNA binding protein TIA1 protects against tau-mediated neurodegeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicco, Daniel J; Ash, Peter E A; Maziuk, Brandon; LeBlang, Chelsey; Medalla, Maria; Al Abdullatif, Ali; Ferragud, Antonio; Botelho, Emily; Ballance, Heather I; Dhawan, Uma; Boudeau, Samantha; Cruz, Anna Lourdes; Kashy, Daniel; Wong, Aria; Goldberg, Lisa R; Yazdani, Neema; Zhang, Cheng; Ung, Choong Y; Tripodis, Yorghos; Kanaan, Nicholas M; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Cottone, Pietro; Leszyk, John; Li, Hu; Luebke, Jennifer; Bryant, Camron D; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Emerging studies suggest a role for tau in regulating the biology of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). We now show that reducing the RBP T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) in vivo protects against neurodegeneration and prolongs survival in transgenic P301S Tau mice. Biochemical fractionation shows co-enrichment and co-localization of tau oligomers and RBPs in transgenic P301S Tau mice. Reducing TIA1 decreased the number and size of granules co-localizing with stress granule markers. Decreasing TIA1 also inhibited the accumulation of tau oligomers at the expense of increasing neurofibrillary tangles. Despite the increase in neurofibrillary tangles, TIA1 reduction increased neuronal survival and rescued behavioral deficits and lifespan. These data provide in vivo evidence that TIA1 plays a key role in mediating toxicity and further suggest that RBPs direct the pathway of tau aggregation and the resulting neurodegeneration. We propose a model in which dysfunction of the translational stress response leads to tau-mediated pathology.

  20. Simplified lentivirus vector production in protein-free media using polyethylenimine-mediated transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hitoshi; Kutner, Robert H; Bazan, Nicolas G; Reiser, Jakob

    2009-05-01

    During the past 12 years, lentiviral vectors have emerged as valuable tools for transgene delivery because of their ability to transduce nondividing cells and their capacity to sustain long-term transgene expression. Despite significant progress, the production of high-titer high-quality lentiviral vectors is cumbersome and costly. The most commonly used method to produce lentiviral vectors involves transient transfection using calcium phosphate (CaP)-mediated precipitation of plasmid DNAs. However, inconsistencies in pH can cause significant batch-to-batch variations in lentiviral vector titers, making this method unreliable. This study describes optimized protocols for lentiviral vector production based on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection, resulting in more consistent lentiviral vector stocks. To achieve this goal, simple production methods for high-titer lentiviral vector production involving transfection of HEK 293T cells immediately after plating were developed. Importantly, high titers were obtained with cell culture media lacking serum or other protein additives altogether. As a consequence, large-scale lentiviral vector stocks can now be generated with fewer batch-to-batch variations and at reduced costs and with less labor compared to the standard protocols.

  1. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  2. Integrin-mediated targeting of protein polymer nanoparticles carrying a cytostatic macrolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and offtarget side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or nonpolymeric. This chapter summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. This chapter explores an alternative encapsulation strategy based on high-specificity avidity between a small molecule drug and its cognate protein target fused to the corona of protein polymer nanoparticles. With the new strategy, the drug associates tightly to the carrier and releases slowly, which may decrease toxicity and promote tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To test this hypothesis, the drug Rapamycin (Rapa) was selected for its potent anti-proliferative properties, which give it immunosuppressant and anti-tumor activity. Despite its potency, Rapa has low solubility, low oral bioavailability, and rapid systemic clearance, which make it an excellent candidate for

  3. Gnaz couples the circadian and dopaminergic system to G protein-mediated signaling in mouse photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Vancura

    Full Text Available The mammalian retina harbors a circadian clockwork that regulates vision and promotes healthiness of retinal neurons, mainly through directing the rhythmic release of the neurohormones dopamine-acting on dopamine D4 receptors-and melatonin-acting on MT1 and MT2 receptors. The gene Gnaz-a unique Gi/o subfamily member-was seen in the present study to be expressed in photoreceptors where its protein product Gαz shows a daily rhythm in its subcellular localization. Apart from subcellular localization, Gnaz displays a daily rhythm in expression-with peak values at night-in preparations of the whole retina, microdissected photoreceptors and photoreceptor-related pinealocytes. In retina, Gnaz rhythmicity was observed to persist under constant darkness and to be abolished in retina deficient for Clock or dopamine D4 receptors. Furthermore, circadian regulation of Gnaz was disturbed in the db/db mouse, a model of diabetic retinopathy. The data of the present study suggest that Gnaz links the circadian clockwork-via dopamine acting on D4 receptors-to G protein-mediated signaling in intact but not diabetic retina.

  4. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC-dependent cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway.

  5. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  6. Surfactant protein D delays Fas- and TRAIL-mediated extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiadeu, Pascal; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Sweezey, Neil; Palaniyar, Nades

    2017-05-01

    Only a few extracellular soluble proteins are known to modulate apoptosis. We considered that surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D), an innate immune collectin present on many mucosal surfaces, could regulate apoptosis. Although SP-D is known to be important for immune cell homeostasis, whether SP-D affects apoptosis is unknown. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SP-D on Jurkat T cells and human T cells dying by apoptosis. Here we show that SP-D binds to Jurkat T cells and delays the progression of Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand and TRAIL-TRAIL receptor induced, but not TNF-TNF receptor-mediated apoptosis. SP-D exerts its effects by reducing the activation of initiator caspase-8 and executioner caspase-3. SP-D also delays the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine. The effect of SP-D was ablated by the presence of caspase-8 inhibitor, but not by intrinsic pathway inhibitors. The binding ability of SP-D to dying cells decreases during the early stages of apoptosis, suggesting the release of apoptotic cell surface targets during apoptosis. SP-D also delays FasL-induced death of primary human T cells. SP-D delaying the progression of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis could have important implications in regulating immune cell homeostasis at mucosal surfaces.

  7. The yeast Snt2 protein coordinates the transcriptional response to hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsey A; Ueberheide, Beatrix M; Dewell, Scott; Chait, Brian T; Zheng, Deyou; Allis, C David

    2013-10-01

    Regulation of gene expression is a vital part of the cellular stress response, yet the full set of proteins that orchestrate this regulation remains unknown. Snt2 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein whose function has not been well characterized that was recently shown to associate with Ecm5 and the Rpd3 deacetylase. Here, we confirm that Snt2, Ecm5, and Rpd3 physically associate. We then demonstrate that cells lacking Rpd3 or Snt2 are resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative stress and use chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) to show that Snt2 and Ecm5 recruit Rpd3 to a small number of promoters and in response to H2O2, colocalize independently of Rpd3 to the promoters of stress response genes. By integrating ChIP-seq and expression analyses, we identify target genes that require Snt2 for proper expression after H2O2. Finally, we show that cells lacking Snt2 are also resistant to nutrient stress imparted by the TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway inhibitor rapamycin and identify a common set of genes targeted by Snt2 and Ecm5 in response to both H2O2 and rapamycin. Our results establish a function for Snt2 in regulating transcription in response to oxidative stress and suggest Snt2 may also function in multiple stress pathways.

  8. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Standen, Claire L; Morel, Caroline; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K; Swat, Wojciech; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

    2017-09-19

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-dependent cJun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation of ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticles mediated by peptides in anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Huang, Hai; Zeng, Mingyong

    2013-01-09

    Nanosized iron fortificants appear to be promising and can be synthesized in a greener way using peptides as biotemplates. Anchovy is a huge underdeveloped source of muscle protein that enhances human nonheme iron absorption. This paper shows that peptides in anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus ) muscle protein hydrolysate (AMPH) mediate the formation of monodispersed ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticles (FeONPs) with diameters of 20-40 nm above pH 3.0. Peptides in AMPH nucleate iron through carboxyl groups and crystal growth then occur as a result of condensation of carboxylate-ligated hydroxide iron centers, yielding Fe-O-Fe cross-link bonds. Monomers of FeONPs are formed after steric obstruction of further crystal growth by peptide backbones with certain lengths and further stabilized by surface-adsorbed peptides. The iron-loading capacity of peptides in AMPH is up to 27.5 mg iron/g peptide. Overall, the present study provides a greener alternative route to the synthesis of FeONPs.

  10. Identification of a novel protein-protein interaction motif mediating interaction of GPCR-associated sorting proteins with G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornert, Olivier; Møller, Thor Christian; Boeuf, Julien

    2013-01-01

    the degradation pathway. This protein belongs to the recently identified GPCR-associated sorting proteins (GASPs) family that comprises ten members for which structural and functional details are poorly documented. We present here a detailed structure-function relationship analysis of the molecular interaction...

  11. Light-induced, GTP-binding protein mediated membrane currents of Xenopus oocytes injected with rhodopsin of cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H; Seidou, M; Kito, Y

    1991-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes that were injected with rhabdomeric membranes of squid and octopus photoreceptors acquired light sensitivity. The injected oocytes showed a light-induced current having characteristics similar to other G-protein-mediated Cl- currents induced by the activation of other membrane receptors. Pretreatment of the oocytes with pertussis toxin before the injection suppressed the generation of the light-induced current, indicating an ability of cephalopod rhodopsin to cross-react with an endogenous G-protein of Xenopus oocytes.

  12. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na/sup +/ channel interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-12

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na/sup +/ channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) (G-protein(s)). These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxin to Na/sup +/ channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na/sup +/ channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na/sup +/channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na/sup +/ channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na/sup +/ channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues.

  13. Resistance of Yersinia pestis to complement-dependent killing is mediated by the Ail outer membrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Sara Schesser; Styer, Katie L; O'Bryant, Deanna M; Nilles, Matthew L; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Aballay, Alejandro; Plano, Gregory V

    2008-02-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, must survive in blood in order to cause disease and to be transmitted from host to host by fleas. Members of the Ail/Lom family of outer membrane proteins provide protection from complement-dependent killing for a number of pathogenic bacteria. The Y. pestis KIM genome is predicted to encode four Ail/Lom family proteins. Y. pestis mutants specifically deficient in expression of each of these proteins were constructed using lambda Red-mediated recombination. The Ail outer membrane protein was essential for Y. pestis to resist complement-mediated killing at 26 and 37 degrees C. Ail was expressed at high levels at both 26 and 37 degrees C, but not at 6 degrees C. Expression of Ail in Escherichia coli provided protection from the bactericidal activity of complement. High-level expression of the three other Y. pestis Ail/Lom family proteins (the y1682, y2034, and y2446 proteins) provided no protection against complement-mediated bacterial killing. A Y. pestis ail deletion mutant was rapidly killed by sera obtained from all mammals tested except mouse serum. The role of Ail in infection of mice, Caenorhabditis elegans, and fleas was investigated.

  14. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na+ channel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na + channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) [G-protein(s)]. These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of [ 3 H] acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxin to Na + channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced 22 Na + uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na + channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na + channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na + channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na + channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues

  15. Phage-Mediated Immuno-PCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Cry1Ac Protein Based on Nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Dongjian; Lu, Xin; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yang; He, Qinghua

    2016-10-11

    The widespread use of Cry proteins in transgenic plants for insect control has raised concerns about the environment and food safety in the public. An effective detection method for introduced Cry proteins is of significance for environmental risk assessment and product quality control. This paper describes a novel phage mediated immuno-PCR (iPCR) for the ultrasensitive determination of Cry proteins based on nanobodies. Three nanobodies against Cry1Ac protein were obtained from a naı̈ve phage displayed nanobody library without animal immunization process and were applied to the iPCR assay for Cry1Ac. The phage-mediated iPCR for Cry1Ac based on nanobodies showed a dynamic range of 0.001-100 ng/mL and a limit detection of 0.1 pg/mL. Specific measurement of this established method was performed by testing cross-reativity of other Cry1Ac analogues, and the result showed negligible cross-reactivity with other test Cry proteins (Cry1Ab, Cry1F, Cry3B). Furthermore, the phage-mediated iPCR based on nanobody should be easily applicable to the detection of many other Cry proteins.

  16. RAGE-mediated extracellular matrix proteins accumulation exacerbates HySu-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Daile; He, Yuhu; Zhu, Qian; Liu, Huan; Zuo, Caojian; Chen, Guilin; Yu, Ying; Lu, Ankang

    2017-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation contributes to the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rare and fatal cardiovascular condition defined by high pulmonary arterial pressure, whether primary, idiopathic, or secondary to other causes. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is constitutively expressed in the lungs and plays an important role in ECM deposition. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which RAGE mediates ECM deposition/formation in pulmonary arteries and its roles in PAH progression remain unclear. Expression of RAGE and its activating ligands, S100/calgranulins and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), were increased in both human and mouse pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxic conditions and were also strikingly upregulated in pulmonary arteries in hypoxia plus SU5416 (HySu)-induced PAH in mice. RAGE deletion alleviated pulmonary arterial pressure and restrained extracellular matrix accumulation in pulmonary arteries in HySu-induced PAH murine model. Moreover, blocking RAGE activity with a neutralizing antibody in human PASMCs, or RAGE deficiency in mouse PASMCs exposed to hypoxia, suppressed the expression of fibrotic proteins by reducing TGF-β1 expression. RAGE reconstitution in deficient mouse PASMCs restored hypoxia-stimulated TGF-β1 production via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway activation and subsequently increased ECM protein expression. Interestingly, HMGB1 acting on RAGE, not toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induced ECM deposition in PASMCs. Finally, in both idiopathic PAH patients and HySu-induced PAH mice, soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum were significantly elevated compared to those in controls. Activation of RAGE facilitates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by increase of ECM deposition in pulmonary arteries. Our results indicate that sRAGE may be a potential biomarker for PAH diagnosis and disease severity, and that RAGE may be a promising target for

  17. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-02

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of human prion protein is mediated by its N-terminal region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Pasupuleti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular prion-related protein (PrP(c is a cell-surface protein that is ubiquitously expressed in the human body. The multifunctionality of PrP(c, and presence of an exposed cationic and heparin-binding N-terminus, a feature characterizing many antimicrobial peptides, made us hypothesize that PrP(c could exert antimicrobial activity. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intact recombinant PrP exerted antibacterial and antifungal effects at normal and low pH. Studies employing recombinant PrP and N- and C-terminally truncated variants, as well as overlapping peptide 20mers, demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity is mediated by the unstructured N-terminal part of the protein. Synthetic peptides of the N-terminus of PrP killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungus Candida parapsilosis. Fluorescence studies of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the "classical" human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. In contrast to LL-37, however, no marked helix induction was detected for the PrP-derived peptides in presence of negatively charged (bacteria-mimicking liposomes. PrP furthermore showed an inducible expression during wounding of human skin ex vivo and in vivo, as well as stimulation of keratinocytes with TGF-alpha in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The demonstration of an antimicrobial activity of PrP, localisation of its activity to the N-terminal and heparin-binding region, combined with results showing an increased expression of PrP during wounding, indicate that PrPs could have a previously undisclosed role in host defense.

  19. Combined 3C-ChIP-Cloning (6C) Assay: A Tool to Unravel Protein-Mediated Genome Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Vijay K. Tiwari and Stephen B. Baylin Corresponding authors ([](); []()) ### INTRODUCTION Progress in technologies to address long-range chromosomal interactions in vivo has extensively revised concepts about different aspects of transcriptional regulation. These methods allow probing physical proximities between chromatin elements without specifically identifying the protein components that mediate ...

  20. Assembly of spikes into coronavirus particles is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of the spike protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godeke, G J; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Rossen, J W; Vennema, H; Rottier, P J

    The type I glycoprotein S of coronavirus, trimers of which constitute the typical viral spikes, is assembled into virions through noncovalent interactions with the M protein. Here we demonstrate that incorporation is mediated by the short carboxy-terminal segment comprising the transmembrane and

  1. A lower isoelectric point increases signal sequence-mediated secretion of recombinant proteins through a bacterial ABC transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjong; Park, Jiyeon; Kim, Sun Chang; Ahn, Jung Hoon

    2017-12-01

    Efficient protein production for industrial and academic purposes often involves engineering microorganisms to produce and secrete target proteins into the culture. Pseudomonas fluorescens has a TliDEF ATP-binding cassette transporter, a type I secretion system, which recognizes C-terminal LARD3 signal sequence of thermostable lipase TliA. Many proteins are secreted by TliDEF in vivo when recombined with LARD3, but there are still others that cannot be secreted by TliDEF even when LARD3 is attached. However, the factors that determine whether or not a recombinant protein can be secreted through TliDEF are still unknown. Here, we recombined LARD3 with several proteins and examined their secretion through TliDEF. We found that the proteins secreted via LARD3 are highly negatively charged with highly-acidic isoelectric points (pI) lower than 5.5. Attaching oligo-aspartate to lower the pI of negatively-charged recombinant proteins improved their secretion, and attaching oligo-arginine to negatively-charged proteins blocked their secretion by LARD3. In addition, negatively supercharged green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed improved secretion, whereas positively supercharged GFP did not secrete. These results disclosed that proteins' acidic pI and net negative charge are major factors that determine their secretion through TliDEF. Homology modeling for TliDEF revealed that TliD dimer forms evolutionarily-conserved positively-charged clusters in its pore and substrate entrance site, which also partially explains the pI dependence of the TliDEF-dependent secretions. In conclusion, lowering the isoelectric point improved LARD3-mediated protein secretion, both widening the range of protein targets for efficient production via secretion and signifying an important aspect of ABC transporter-mediated secretions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Memory formation for trace fear conditioning requires ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in the prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Reis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS, has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount of polyubiquinated protein. Other animals were trained with similar procedures but were infused with either a proteasome inhibitor (clasto-lactacystin β-lactone or a translation inhibitor (anisomycin in the PFC immediately after training. Our results show increased UPS-mediated protein degradation in the PFC following trace but not delay fear conditioning. Additionally, post-training proteasome or translation inhibition significantly impaired trace but not delay fear memory when tested the next day. Our results further support the idea that the PFC is critical for trace but not delay fear conditioning highlight the role of UPS-mediated degradation as critical for synaptic plasticity.

  3. The Adaptor Protein p62 Mediates Nuclear Factor κB Activation in Response to Inflammation and Facilitates the Formation of Prolabor Mediators in Human Myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Martha

    2017-05-01

    Preventing spontaneous preterm birth is one of the most important issues facing perinatal medicine today. The pathophysiology of preterm labor, the single biggest cause of preterm birth, is poorly understood. Inflammation, however, plays a significant role in the terminal processes of human labor, which include myometrial contractions. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) drives the transcription of proinflammatory mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labor and delivery. Recent studies in nongestational tissues have shown that the adaptor protein p62 interacts with NF-κB to induce inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of p62 in the genesis of NF-κB-induced proinflammatory and prolabur mediators. Human spontaneous term labor was associated with increased p62 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in myometrium. Myometrial cells treated with proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) also significantly increased p62 mRNA and protein expression. Functional studies using p62 small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated a significant attenuation of TNF-α- and IL-1β-induced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]) mRNA expression and secretion, expression of cyclooxygenase 2, release of prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ), and expression of the prostaglandin F receptor (FP). In addition, siRNA knockdown of p62 significantly suppressed IL-1β- and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation. Collectively, these studies suggest that p62 is involved in the genesis of NF-κB-induced proinflammatory and prolabor mediators.

  4. A Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 Isoform Controls Myosin II-Mediated Cell Migration and Matrix Assembly by Trapping ROCK II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin; Couchman, John R.; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among nonneuronal cells, regulates myosin II-mediated cellular functions, including cell migration. While the CRMP-2 short form (CRMP-2S) is recognized as a substrate of the Rho-GTP downstream kinase ROCK in neuronal cells, a CRMP-2 complex containing 2L not only bound the catalytic domain of ROCK II through two binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP-2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions through the inhibition of ROCK II in nonneuronal cells. PMID:22431514

  5. Receptor-mediated oral delivery of a bioencapsulated green fluorescent protein expressed in transgenic chloroplasts into the mouse circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Arati; Koya, Vijay; Samsam, Mohtashem; Daniell, Henry

    2006-05-01

    Oral delivery of biopharmaceutical proteins expressed in plant cells should reduce their cost of production, purification, processing, cold storage, transportation, and delivery. However, poor intestinal absorption of intact proteins is a major challenge. To overcome this limitation, we investigate here the concept of receptor-mediated oral delivery of chloroplast-expressed foreign proteins. Therefore, the transmucosal carrier cholera toxin B-subunit and green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP), separated by a furin cleavage site, was expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed site-specific transgene integration and homoplasmy. Immunoblot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of monomeric and pentameric forms of CTB-GFP, up to 21.3% of total soluble proteins. An in vitro furin cleavage assay confirmed integrity of the engineered furin cleavage site, and a GM1 binding assay confirmed the functionality of CTB-GFP pentamers. Following oral administration of CTB-GFP expressing leaf material to mice, GFP was observed in the mice intestinal mucosa, liver, and spleen in fluorescence and immunohistochemical studies, while CTB remained in the intestinal cell. This report of receptor-mediated oral delivery of a foreign protein into the circulatory system opens the door for low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins.

  6. Prognostic significance of INF-induced transmembrane protein 1 in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingdong; Li, Jin; Feng, Wanting; Chen, Longbang; Yang, Kangqun

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has recently been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the prognostic value of IFITM1 in colorectal cancer remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the expression and prognostic significance of IFITM1 in human colorectal cancer. IFITM1 expression was analyzed in 144 archived, paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissues and corresponding normal colorectal mucosa by immunohistochemistry. The correlation of IFITM1 with clinic-pathol...

  7. Sustained protein kinase D activation mediates respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Fariba; DeSando, Samantha A; Ivanov, Andrei I; Chapman, Timothy J; Knowlden, Sara A; Beck, Lisa A; Georas, Steve N

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the regulation of airway epithelial barrier function is a new frontier in asthma and respiratory viral infections. Despite recent progress, little is known about how respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) acts at mucosal sites, and very little is known about its ability to influence airway epithelial barrier function. Here, we studied the effect of RSV infection on the airway epithelial barrier using model epithelia. 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cells were grown on Transwell inserts and infected with RSV strain A2. We analyzed (i) epithelial apical junction complex (AJC) function, measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated dextran, and (ii) AJC structure using immunofluorescent staining. Cells were pretreated or not with protein kinase D (PKD) inhibitors. UV-irradiated RSV served as a negative control. RSV infection led to a significant reduction in TEER and increase in permeability. Additionally it caused disruption of the AJC and remodeling of the apical actin cytoskeleton. Pretreatment with two structurally unrelated PKD inhibitors markedly attenuated RSV-induced effects. RSV induced phosphorylation of the actin binding protein cortactin in a PKD-dependent manner. UV-inactivated RSV had no effect on AJC function or structure. Our results suggest that RSV-induced airway epithelial barrier disruption involves PKD-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling, possibly dependent on cortactin activation. Defining the mechanisms by which RSV disrupts epithelial structure and function should enhance our understanding of the association between respiratory viral infections, airway inflammation, and allergen sensitization. Impaired barrier function may open a potential new therapeutic target for RSV-mediated lung diseases.

  8. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Sebastian A.; Linden, Rafael [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Cordeiro, Yraima; Rocha e Lima, Luis M.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Lopes, Marilene H. [Instituto Ludwig de Pesquisa de Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBqM/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Bioquimica Medica

    2009-07-01

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrP{sup c}), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrP{sup c} with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr P{sup c} and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrP{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrP{sup c}. Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr P{sup c}, and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr P{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr P{sup c} scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  9. Brd4-Mediated Nuclear Retention of the Papillomavirus E2 Protein Contributes to Its Stabilization in Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillomavirus E2 is a multifunctional viral protein that regulates many aspects of the viral life cycle including viral episome maintenance, transcriptional activation, and repression. E2 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has been implicated in the stabilization of the E2 protein. E2 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that E2 ubiquitylation mostly occurs in the cytoplasm. We also find that the interaction with Brd4 promotes nuclear retention of papillomavirus E2 proteins and contributes to their stabilization in the nucleus. Compared to wild type E2 proteins, nuclear-localization-defective mutants are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; however, co-expression of Brd4 redirects these mutants into the nucleus and significantly increases their stability. We further demonstrate that tethering E2 proteins to chromatin as either double-bromodomain fusion proteins or histone 2B (H2B fusion proteins significantly stabilizes the E2 proteins. Our studies suggest that chromatin recruitment of the E2 protein via interaction with Brd4 prevents E2 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation in the cytoplasm, leading to its stabilization in the nucleus. These studies bring new insights for understanding Brd4-mediated E2 stabilization, and provide an additional mechanism by which the chromatin-associated Brd4 regulates E2 functions.

  10. Lysine and arginine biosyntheses mediated by a common carrier protein in Sulfolobus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Horie, Akira; Yoshida, Ayako; Takahashi, Kento; Nishida, Hiromi; Lassak, Kerstin; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kosono, Saori; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    LysW has been identified as a carrier protein in the lysine biosynthetic pathway that is active through the conversion of α-aminoadipate (AAA) to lysine. In this study, we found that the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, not only biosynthesizes lysine through LysW-mediated protection of AAA but also uses LysW to protect the amino group of glutamate in arginine biosynthesis. In this archaeon, after LysW modification, AAA and glutamate are converted to lysine and ornithine, respectively, by a single set of enzymes with dual functions. The crystal structure of ArgX, the enzyme responsible for modification and protection of the amino moiety of glutamate with LysW, was determined in complex with LysW. Structural comparison and enzymatic characterization using Sulfolobus LysX, Sulfolobus ArgX and Thermus LysX identify the amino acid motif responsible for substrate discrimination between AAA and glutamate. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that gene duplication events at different stages of evolution led to ArgX and LysX.

  11. CDO, A Robo-related Cell Surface Protein that Mediates Myogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong-Sun; Mulieri, Philip J.; Miller, Cary; Sassoon, David A.; Krauss, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    CDO, a member of the Ig/fibronectin type III repeat subfamily of transmembrane proteins that includes the axon guidance receptor Robo, was identified by virtue of its down-regulation by the ras oncogene. We report here that one prominent site of cdo mRNA expression during murine embryogenesis is the early myogenic compartment (newly formed somites, dermomyotome and myotome). CDO is expressed in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and in myoblast lines derived by treating 10T1/2 fibroblasts with 5-azacytidine, but not in parental 10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of CDO in C2C12 cells accelerates differentiation, while expression of secreted soluble extracellular regions of CDO inhibits this process. Oncogenic Ras is known to block differentiation of C2C12 cells via downregulation of MyoD. Reexpression of CDO in C2C12/Ras cells induces MyoD; conversely, MyoD induces CDO. Reexpression of either CDO or MyoD rescues differentiation of C2C12/Ras cells without altering anchorage-independent growth or morphological transformation. CDO and MyoD are therefore involved in a positive feedback loop that is central to the inverse relationship between cell differentiation and transformation. It is proposed that CDO mediates, at least in part, the effects of cell–cell interactions between muscle precursors that are critical in myogenesis. PMID:9786951

  12. Protein Kinases Possibly Mediate Hypergravity-Induced Changes in F-Actin Expression by Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Felisha D.; Melhado, Caroline D.; Bosah, Francis N.; Harris-Hooker, Sandra A.; Sanford, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    Basic cellular functions such as electrolyte concentration, cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation, and exocytosis are modified in microgravity. These studies indicate that microgravity affects a number of physiological systems and included in this are cell signaling mechanisms. Rijken and coworkers performed growth factor studies that showed PKC signaling and actin microfilament organization appears to be sensitive to microgravity, suggesting that the inhibition of signal transduction by microgravity may be related to alterations in actin microfilament organization. However, similar studies have not been done for vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in providing nutrients to organ and tissues and in wound repair. The major deterrent to ground-based microgravity studies is that it is impossible to achieved true microgravity for longer than a few minutes on earth. Hence, it has not been possible to conduct prolonged microgravity studies except for two models that simulate certain aspects of microgravity. However, hypergravity is quite easily achieved. Several researchers have shown that hypergravity will increase the proliferation of several different cell lines while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy, These studies indicate the hypergravity also alters the behavior of most cells. Several investigators have shown that hypergravity affects the activation of several protein kinases (PKs) in cells. In this study, we investigated whether hypergravity alters the expression of f-actin by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the role of PK's (calmodulin 11 dependent, PKA and PKC) as mediators of these effects.

  13. BH3-only protein BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Indra M; Chen, Miao-Der; Muro, Israel; Robertson, John D; Wright, Casey W; Bratton, Shawn B

    2014-01-01

    Acute heat shock can induce apoptosis through a canonical pathway involving the upstream activation of caspase-2, followed by BID cleavage and stimulation of the intrinsic pathway. Herein, we report that the BH3-only protein BIM, rather than BID, is essential to heat shock-induced cell death. We observed that BIM-deficient cells were highly resistant to heat shock, exhibiting short and long-term survival equivalent to Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells and better than either Bid(-/-) or dominant-negative caspase-9-expressing cells. Only Bim(-/-) and Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) cells exhibited resistance to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Moreover, while dimerized caspase-2 failed to induce apoptosis in Bid(-/-) cells, it readily did so in Bim(-/-) cells, implying that caspase-2 kills exclusively through BID, not BIM. Finally, BIM reportedly associates with MCL-1 following heat shock, and Mcl-1(-/-) cells were indeed sensitized to heat shock-induced apoptosis. However, pharmacological inhibition of BCL-2 and BCL-X(L) with ABT-737 also sensitized cells to heat shock, most likely through liberation of BIM. Thus, BIM mediates heat shock-induced apoptosis through a BAX/BAK-dependent pathway that is antagonized by antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members.

  14. Biomimetic magnetite mediated by magnetosome proteins vs. ALH84001 meteorite magnetite: Are both comparable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry-Sosa, A.; Jimenez-Lopez, C.

    2016-07-01

    The suggestion in 1996 that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 could contain proof of possible biologic activity in the past have generated a huge controversy that last until today. One of the most discussed evidence is the presence of magnetite crystals that resemble those produced by a particular group of bacteria, the so called magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). These microorganisms are the only known example of biologically controlled biomineralization among the prokaryotes and exert an exquisite control over the biomineralization process of intracellular magnetite that result in crystals with very unique features that, so far, cannot be replicated by inorganic means. These unique features have been used to recognize the biological origin of natural terrestrial magnetites, but the problem arises when those same biogenecity criteria are applied to extraterrestrial magnetites. Most of the problems are caused by the fact that it is not clear whether or not some of those characteristics can be reproduced inorganically. Magnetosome protein mediated magnetite synthesis seems to be the best approach to obtain magnetosome-like magnetites, and such strategy may help clarify what is the specific biosignature of magnetotactic bacteria. (Author)

  15. The unfolded protein response mediates reversible tau phosphorylation induced by metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harg, J M; Nölle, A; Zwart, R; Boerema, A S; van Haastert, E S; Strijkstra, A M; Hoozemans, J Jm; Scheper, W

    2014-08-28

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in neurodegenerative tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) in close connection with early stages of tau pathology. Metabolic disturbances are strongly associated with increased risk for AD and are a potent inducer of the UPR. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic stress induces the phosphorylation of endogenous tau via activation of the UPR. Strikingly, upon restoration of the metabolic homeostasis, not only the levels of the UPR markers pPERK, pIRE1α and BiP, but also tau phosphorylation are reversed both in cell models as well as in torpor, a physiological hypometabolic model in vivo. Intervention in the UPR using the global UPR inhibitor TUDCA or a specific small-molecule inhibitor of the PERK signaling pathway, inhibits the metabolic stress-induced phosphorylation of tau. These data support a role for UPR-mediated tau phosphorylation as part of an adaptive response to metabolic stress. Failure to restore the metabolic homeostasis will lead to prolonged UPR activation and tau phosphorylation, and may thus contribute to AD pathogenesis. We demonstrate that the UPR is functionally involved in the early stages of tau pathology. Our data indicate that targeting of the UPR may be employed for early intervention in tau-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Scaffold protein JLP mediates TCR-initiated CD4+T cell activation and CD154 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Yang, Cheng; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Zhaowei; Liu, Shan; Fu, Dou; Rahman, Rahmat N; Nakazato, Ryota; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Kung, Sam K P; Ding, Guohua; Wang, Huiming

    2017-07-01

    CD4 + T-cell activation and its subsequent induction of CD154 (CD40 ligand, CD40L) expression are pivotal in shaping both the humoral and cellular immune responses. Scaffold protein JLP regulates signal transduction pathways and molecular trafficking inside cells, thus represents a critical component in maintaining cellular functions. Its role in regulating CD4 + T-cell activation and CD154 expression, however, is unclear. Here, we demonstrated expression of JLP in mouse tissues of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and also CD4 + T cells. Using CD4+ T cells from jlp-deficient and jlp-wild-type mice, we demonstrated that JLP-deficiency impaired T-cell proliferation, IL-2 production, and CD154 induction upon TCR stimulations, but had no impacts on the expression of other surface molecules such as CD25, CD69, and TCR. These observed impaired T-cell functions in the jlp-/- CD4 + T cells were associated with defective NF-AT activation and Ca 2 + influx, but not the MAPK, NF-κB, as well as AP-1 signaling pathways. Our findings indicated that, for the first time, JLP plays a critical role in regulating CD4 + T cells response to TCR stimulation partly by mediating the activation of TCR-initiated Ca 2+ /NF-AT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. N-cadherin mediates the migration of MCF-10A cells undergoing bone morphogenetic protein 4-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ki-Sook; Dubon, Maria Jose; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial—mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mammary epithelial cells is important in both normal morphogenesis of mammary glands and metastasis of breast cancer. Cadherin switching from E-cadherin to N-cadherin plays important roles in EMT. We found that cadherin switching is important in bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-induced EMT in MCF-10A cells. BMP4 increased the phosphorylation of SMAD proteins in MCF-10A cells. Canonical BMP4 signaling decreased the expression of E-cadherin and disr...

  18. A Cell-Permeable Hairpin Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Viral Nonstructural Protein 5A Mediated Translation and Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Ruchala, Piotr; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Maloney, Eden M.; Miao, Edna; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    NS5A is a key regulator of hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle including RNA replication, assembly, and translation. We and others have shown NS5A to augment HCV IRES-mediated translation. Further, Quercetin treatment and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 knockdown inhibit NS5A-driven augmentation of IRES-mediated translation and infectious virus production. We have also co-immunoprecipitated HSP70 with NS5A and demonstrated cellular colocalization leading to the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex formation is important for IRES-mediated translation. Here, we have identified the NS5A region responsible for complex formation through in vitro deletion analyses. Deletion of NS5A domains II and III failed to reduce HSP70 binding, whereas domain I deletion eliminated complex formation. NS5A domain I alone also bound HSP70. Deletion mapping of domain I identified the C-terminal 34 amino acids (C34) to be the interaction site. Further, addition of C34 to domains II and III restored complex formation. C34 expression significantly reduced intracellular viral protein levels, in contrast to same size control peptides from other NS5A domains. C34 also competitively inhibited NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation, while controls did not. Triple-alanine scan mutagenesis identified an exposed beta-sheet hairpin in C34 to be primarily responsible for NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation. Moreover, treatment with a 10 amino acid peptide derivative of C34 suppressed NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation and significantly inhibited intracellular viral protein synthesis, with no associated cytotoxicity. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex augments viral IRES-mediated translation, identify a sequence-specific hairpin element in NS5A responsible for complex formation, and demonstrate the functional significance of C34 hairpin-mediated NS5A/HSP70 interaction. Identification of this element may allow for further interrogation of NS5A-mediated

  19. The identification of protein domains that mediate functional interactions between Rab-GTPases and RabGAPs using 3D protein modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davie JJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeremiah J Davie, Silviu L Faitar Department of Biology and Mathematics, School of Arts, Sciences, and Education, D’Youville College, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: Currently, time-consuming serial in vitro experimentation involving immunocytochemistry or radiolabeled materials is required to identify which of the numerous Rab-GTPases (Rab and Rab-GTPase activating proteins (RabGAP are capable of functional interactions. These interactions are essential for numerous cellular functions, and in silico methods of reducing in vitro trial and error would accelerate the pace of research in cell biology. We have utilized a combination of three-dimensional protein modeling and protein bioinformatics to identify domains present in Rab proteins that are predictive of their functional interaction with a specific RabGAP. The RabF2 and RabSF1 domains appear to play functional roles in mediating the interaction between Rabs and RabGAPs. Moreover, the RabSF1 domain can be used to make in silico predictions of functional Rab/RabGAP pairs. This method is expected to be a broadly applicable tool for predicting protein–protein interactions where existing crystal structures for homologs of the proteins of interest are available. Keywords: GTP hydrolysis, Rab proteins, RabGAPs, protein–protein interactions, structural informatics, computational biology, Evi5, Evi5L

  20. A collapsin response mediator protein 2 isoform controls myosin II-mediated cell migration and matrix assembly by trapping ROCK II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin

    2012-01-01

    -2L but not -2S inhibited fibronectin matrix assembly in fibroblasts. Underlying these responses, CRMP-2L regulated the kinase activity of ROCK II but not ROCK I, independent of GTP-RhoA levels. This study provides a new insight into CRMP-2 as a controller of myosin II-mediated cellular functions...... binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP...

  1. [In vivo expression of green fluorescent protein gene and immunogenicity of ES312 vaccine both mediated by starburst polyamidoamine dendrimers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun-Jun; Guo, Chen-Ying; Cai, Qi-Liang; Lin, Ya-Hui; Wang, Heng

    2005-08-01

    To study the expression of green fluorescent protein gene and immunogenicity of ES312 vaccine both mediated by Starburst polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers in vivo. The complex of green fluorescent protein or ES312 gene with Starburst PAMAM dendrimers were injected intramuscularly in Balb/c mice. The expression level and distribution of green fluorescent protein gene was detected by flow cytometer, Western blot and immunofluorescence assay. The immunogenicity of DNA vaccine was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of green fluorescent protein mediated by Starburst PAMAM dendrimers was found in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain and injected muscle from 2 hours to 7 days after the vaccination. The highest expression level of the gene was detected in kidney, as well as in endothelial cells. The antibody response evoked by the DNA vaccine carried by the Starburst PAMAM dendrimers was significantly higher than that of the net DNA vaccination. Vaccination with Starburst PAMAM dendrimers elicited higher expression level of the gene in brain and kidney than with the net gene itself. As a novel non-viral DNA carrier with low self-antigenicity, Starburst PAMAM dendrimers have potential to mediate DNA transfer and expression in vivo.

  2. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Nazarul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Room 515, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Hu, Chuan, E-mail: chuan.hu@louisville.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 319 Abraham Flexner Way, Room 515, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  3. Identification, RNAi knockdown, and functional analysis of an ejaculate protein that mediates a postmating, prezygotic phenotype in a cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L Marshall

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Postmating, prezygotic phenotypes, especially those that underlie reproductive isolation between closely related species, have been a central focus of evolutionary biologists over the past two decades. Such phenotypes are thought to evolve rapidly and be nearly ubiquitous among sexually reproducing eukaryotes where females mate with multiple partners. Because these phenotypes represent interplay between the male ejaculate and female reproductive tract, they are fertile ground for reproductive senescence--as ejaculate composition and female physiology typically change over an individual's life span. Although these phenotypes and their resulting dynamics are important, we have little understanding of the proteins that mediate these phenotypes, particularly for species groups where postmating, prezygotic traits are the primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. Here, we utilize proteomics, RNAi, mating experiments, and the Allonemobius socius complex of crickets, whose members are primarily isolated from one another by postmating, prezygotic phenotypes (including the ability of a male to induce a female to lay eggs, to demonstrate that one of the most abundant ejaculate proteins (a male accessory gland-biased protein similar to a trypsin-like serine protease decreases in abundance over a male's reproductive lifetime and mediates the induction of egg-laying in females. These findings represent one of the first studies to identify a protein that plays a role in mediating both a postmating, prezygotic isolation pathway and reproductive senescence.

  4. A role for protein kinase PKR in the mediation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, San San; Lee, Davy C W; Law, Anna H Y; Fang, Jun Wei; Chua, Daniel T T; Lau, Allan S Y

    2010-05-01

    Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogenic latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) has been substantially associated with tumorigenic transformation in the virus-infected cells. The pathogenic complexity of LMP1 is partly due to the cytokine dysregulation including IL-6 and IL-10 in perturbing the host immune responses. Here we have identified an important signaling event mediated by a dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, PKR, in regulating LMP1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression. We first demonstrated that PKR plays a significant role in mediating LMP1-induced cytokine expression by using a PKR inhibitor 2-aminopurine, and the specific role of PKR involved was confirmed by the use of siRNA oligos targeting PKR and/or a dominant-negative PKR mutant. We next revealed that PKR activity mediates LMP1-enhanced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation resulting in cytokine induction. We further demonstrated at the chromatin level that LMP1 can significantly elevate the phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine 10 (Ser 10), and the process was dependent on PKR activity. Our findings thus suggest that PKR plays an important role in mediating the cytokine gene expression induced by LMP1 through NF-kappaB activation and histone H3 Ser 10 phosphorylation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic Prediction of Scaffold Proteins Reveals New Design Principles in Scaffold-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold proteins play a crucial role in facilitating signal transduction in eukaryotes by bringing together multiple signaling components. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of scaffold proteins in signal transduction by integrating protein-protein interaction and kinase-substrate relationship networks. We predicted 212 scaffold proteins that are involved in 605 distinct signaling pathways. The computational prediction was validated using a protein microarray-based approach. The predicted scaffold proteins showed several interesting characteristics, as we expected from the functionality of scaffold proteins. We found that the scaffold proteins are likely to interact with each other, which is consistent with previous finding that scaffold proteins tend to form homodimers and heterodimers. Interestingly, a single scaffold protein can be involved in multiple signaling pathways by interacting with other scaffold protein partners. Furthermore, we propose two possible regulatory mechanisms by which the activity of scaffold proteins is coordinated with their associated pathways through phosphorylation process. PMID:26393507

  6. Cyclin B1 Destruction Box-Mediated Protein Instability: The Enhanced Sensitivity of Fluorescent-Protein-Based Reporter Gene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodic expression and destruction of several cyclins are the most important steps for the exact regulation of cell cycle. Cyclins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system during cell cycle. Besides, a short sequence near the N-terminal of cyclin B called the destruction box (D-box; CDB is also required. Fluorescent-protein-based reporter gene system is insensitive to analysis because of the overly stable fluorescent proteins. Therefore, in this study, we use human CDB fused with both enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP at C-terminus and red fluorescent protein (RFP, DsRed at N-terminus in the transfected human melanoma cells to examine the effects of CDB on different fluorescent proteins. Our results indicated that CDB-fused fluorescent protein can be used to examine the slight gene regulations in the reporter gene system and have the potential to be the system for screening of functional compounds in the future.

  7. Mechanisms of photosensitization by drugs: Involvement of tyrosines in the photomodification of proteins mediated by tiaprofenic acid in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M A; Castell, J V; Sarabia, Z; Hernández, D; Puertes, I; Morera, I M; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    1997-10-01

    The photosensitizing potential of drugs must be related to their photoreactivity towards the target biomolecules. In this context, a representative photosensitizing drug (tiaprofenic acid) was co-irradiated with a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). This led to a significant degree of protein crosslinking and to the formation of trace amounts of drug-BSA photoadducts. Amino acid analysis of the hydrolysed (HC1) protein showed that His and Tyr undergo a dramatic decrease (approx. 90%) as a consequence of drug-mediated photodynamic processes. When the drug was irradiated in the presence of the pure amino acids, extensive phototransformation of the latter was observed. Other photosensitizing drugs gave rise to similar processes when irradiated in the presence of BSA or the isolated amino acids. In conclusion, histidine and tyrosine appear to be key sites for the photosensitized damage to proteins. Photodegradation of the isolated amino acids in vitro may be an indicator of the photosensitizing potential of drugs.

  8. In vitro oxidation of fibrinogen promotes functional alterations and formation of advanced oxidation protein products, an inflammation mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; de Carvalho, José Antônio Mainardi; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; da Silva, José Edson Paz; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinogen (FB) is a soluble blood plasma protein and is a key molecule involved in coagulation. Oxidative modification of proteins, such as the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a heterogeneous family of protein compounds structurally modified and derived from oxidative stress, may be associated with the pathophysiology of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the formation of this mediator of inflammation occurs from FB and whether its generation is associated with structural changes. Results of the present study suggest that the oxidation of FB may provoke the formation of AOPP, which in turn, may promote functional alterations in FB, thus causing changes in its structural domains and increasing its procoagulant activity.

  9. Approaches to assess IgE mediated allergy risks (sensitization and cross-reactivity) from new or modified dietary proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remington, B.; Broekman, H. C. H.; Blom, W. M.

    2018-01-01

    The development and introduction of new dietary protein sources has the potential to improve food supply sustainability. Understanding the potential allergenicity of these new or modified proteins is crucial to ensure protection of public health. Exposure to new proteins may result in de novo...... sensitization, with or without clinical allergy, or clinical reactions through cross-reactivity. In this paper we review the potential of current methodologies (in silico, in vitro degradation, in vitro IgE binding, animal models and clinical studies) to address these outcomes for risk assessment purposes...... for new proteins, and especially to identify and characterise the risk of sensitization for IgE mediated allergy from oral exposure. Existing tools and tests are capable of assessing potential crossreactivity. However, there are few possibilities to assess the hazard due to de novo sensitization. The only...

  10. Enzyme-mediated site-specific bioconjugation of metal complexes to proteins: sortase-mediated coupling of copper-64 to a single-chain antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Brett M; Alt, Karen; Jeffery, Charmaine M; Price, Roger I; Jagdale, Shweta; Rigby, Sheena; Williams, Charlotte C; Peter, Karlheinz; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; Donnelly, Paul S

    2014-06-10

    The enzyme-mediated site-specific bioconjugation of a radioactive metal complex to a single-chain antibody using the transpeptidase sortase A is reported. Cage amine sarcophagine ligands that were designed to function as substrates for the sortase A mediated bioconjugation to antibodies were synthesized and enzymatically conjugated to a single-chain variable fragment. The antibody fragment scFv(anti-LIBS) targets ligand-induced binding sites (LIBS) on the glycoprotein receptor GPIIb/IIIa, which is present on activated platelets. The immunoconjugates were radiolabeled with the positron-emitting isotope (64)Cu. The new radiolabeled conjugates were shown to bind selectively to activated platelets. The diagnostic potential of the most promising conjugate was demonstrated in an in vivo model of carotid artery thrombosis using positron emission tomography. This approach gives homogeneous products through site-specific enzyme-mediated conjugation and should be broadly applicable to other metal complexes and proteins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated immune responses through Pasteurella multocida toxin-induced G protein signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand Dagmar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-triggered Toll-like receptor (TLR 4-signalling belongs to the key innate defence mechanisms upon infection with Gram-negative bacteria and triggers the subsequent activation of adaptive immunity. There is an active crosstalk between TLR4-mediated and other signalling cascades to secure an effective immune response, but also to prevent excessive inflammation. Many pathogens induce signalling cascades via secreted factors that interfere with TLR signalling to modify and presumably escape the host response. In this context heterotrimeric G proteins and their coupled receptors have been recognized as major cellular targets. Toxigenic strains of Gram-negative Pasteurella multocida produce a toxin (PMT that constitutively activates the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαq, Gα13 and Gαi independently of G protein-coupled receptors through deamidation. PMT is known to induce signalling events involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Results Here we show that the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins through PMT suppresses LPS-stimulated IL-12p40 production and eventually impairs the T cell-activating ability of LPS-treated monocytes. This inhibition of TLR4-induced IL-12p40 expression is mediated by Gαi-triggered signalling as well as by Gβγ-dependent activation of PI3kinase and JNK. Taken together we propose the following model: LPS stimulates TLR4-mediated activation of the NFĸB-pathway and thereby the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40. PMT inhibits the production of IL-12p40 by Gαi-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and cAMP accumulation and by Gβγ-mediated activation of PI3kinase and JNK activation. Conclusions On the basis of the experiments with PMT this study gives an example of a pathogen-induced interaction between G protein-mediated and TLR4-triggered signalling and illustrates how a bacterial toxin is able to interfere with the host’s immune

  12. Novel Functional Role of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Mitochondrial Connexin 43-Mediated Hypoxic Postconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hui Tu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90-mediated mitochondrial import of connexin 43 (Cx43 is critical in preconditioning cardioprotection. The present study was designed to test whether postconditioning has the same effect as preconditioning in promoting Cx43 translocation to mitochondria and whether mitochondrial HSP90 modulates this effect. Methods: Cellular models of hypoxic postconditioning (HPC from rat heart-derived H9c2 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were employed. The effects of HPC on cardiomyocytes apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. Reactive oxidative species (ROS production was assessed with the peroxide-sensitive fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin in diacetate (DCFH-DA. The anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2 and Bax, HSP90 and Cx43 protein levels were studied by Western blot analysis in total cell homogenate and sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fractions. The effects on HPC of the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA, ROS scavengers superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and small interfering RNA (siRNA targeting Cx43 and HSP90 were also investigated. Results: HPC significantly reduced hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These beneficial effects were accompanied by an increase in Bcl-2 levels and a decrease in Bax levels in both sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fractions. HPC with siRNA targeting Cx43 or the ROS scavengers SOD plus CAT significantly prevented ROS generation and HPC cardioprotection, but HPC with either SOD or CAT did not. These data strongly supported the involvement of Cx43 in HPC cardioprotection, likely via modulation of the ROS balance which plays a central role in HPC protection. Furthermore, HPC increased total and mitochondrial levels of HSP90 and the mitochondria-to-sarcolemma ratio of Cx43; blocking the function of HSP90 with the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GA or siRNA targeting

  13. Dihydrotestosterone regulating apolipoprotein M expression mediates via protein kinase C in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhou Ye

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administration of androgens decreases plasma concentrations of high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C. However, the mechanisms by which androgens mediate lipid metabolism remain unknown. This present study used HepG2 cell cultures and ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice to determine whether apolipoprotein M (ApoM, a constituent of HDL, was affected by dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured in the presence of either DHT, agonist of protein kinase C (PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, blocker of androgen receptor flutamide together with different concentrations of DHT, or DHT together with staurosporine at different concentrations for 24 hrs. Ovariectomized C57BL/6 J mice were treated with DHT or vehicle for 7d or 14d and the levels of plasma ApoM and livers ApoM mRNA were measured. The mRNA levels of ApoM, ApoAI were determined by real-time RT-PCR. ApoM and ApoAI were determined by western blotting analysis. Results Addition of DHT to cell culture medium selectively down-regulated ApoM mRNA expression and ApoM secretion in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 nM DHT, the ApoM mRNA levels were about 20% lower than in untreated cells and about 40% lower at 1000 nM DHT than in the control cells. The secretion of ApoM into the medium was reduced to a similar extent. The inhibitory effect of DHT on ApoM secretion was not blocked by the classical androgen receptor blocker flutamide but by an antagonist of PKC, Staurosporine. Agonist of PKC, PMA, also reduced ApoM. At 0.5 μM PMA, the ApoM mRNA levels and the secretion of ApoM into the medium were about 30% lower than in the control cells. The mRNA expression levels and secretion of another HDL-associated apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI were not affected by DHT. The levels of plasma ApoM and liver ApoM mRNA of DHT-treated C57BL/6 J mice were lower than those of vehicle-treated mice. Conclusions DHT directly and selectively down-regulated the level of ApoM mRNA and the

  14. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Ying [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650106 (China); Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Li, Qihan, E-mail: imbcams.lq@gmail.com [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China)

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  15. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Koteswararao Kanugula

    Full Text Available Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid-mediated protein aggregates may reduce proteasome activity and delay myotube degradation during muscle atrophy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jung Hoon; Son, Young Hoon; Lee, Min Wook; Kim, Hak Joong; Noh, Sue Ah; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, In-Gyu; Lee, Min Jae

    2017-01-20

    Proteasomes are the primary degradation machinery for oxidatively damaged proteins that compose a class of misfolded protein substrates. Cellular levels of reactive oxygen species increase with age and this cellular propensity is particularly harmful when combined with the age-associated development of various human disorders including cancer, neurodegenerative disease and muscle atrophy. Proteasome activity is reportedly downregulated in these disease conditions. Herein, we report that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, mediates intermolecular protein cross-linkages through oxidation, and the resulting protein aggregates potently reduce proteasomal activity both in vitro and in cultured cells. Cellular models overexpressing aggregation-prone proteins such as tau showed significantly elevated levels of tau aggregates and total ubiquitin conjugates in the presence of DHA, thereby reflecting suppressed proteasome activity. Strong synergetic cytotoxicity was observed when the cells overexpressing tau were simultaneously treated with DHA. Antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine significantly desensitized the cells to DHA-induced oxidative stress. DHA significantly delayed the proteasomal degradation of muscle proteins in a cellular atrophy model. Thus, the results of our study identified DHA as a potent inducer of cellular protein aggregates that inhibit proteasome activity and potentially delay systemic muscle protein degradation in certain pathologic conditions.

  17. Local Delivery Is Critical for Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Mediated Site-Specific Murine Aneurysm Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Hourani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLocal delivery of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2 via our drug-eluting coil has been shown to promote intrasaccular aneurysm healing via an inflammatory pathway.ObjectiveIn this study, we validate the importance of local MCP-1 in murine aneurysm healing. Whether systemic, rather than local, delivery of MCP-1 can direct site-specific aneurysm healing has significant translational implications. If systemic MCP-1 is effective, then MCP-1 could be administered as a pill rather than by endovascular procedure. Furthermore, we confirm that MCP-1 is the primary effector in our MCP-1 eluting coil-mediated murine aneurysm healing model.MethodsWe compare aneurysm healing with repeated intraperitoneal MCP-1 versus vehicle injection, in animals with control poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-coated coils. We demonstrate elimination of the MCP-1-associated tissue-healing response by knockout of MCP-1 or CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor and by selectively inhibiting MCP-1 or CCR2. Using immunofluorescent probing, we explore the cell populations found in healed aneurysm tissue following each intervention.ResultsSystemically administered MCP-1 with PLGA coil control does not produce comparable aneurysm healing, as seen with MCP-1 eluting coils. MCP-1-directed aneurysm healing is eliminated by selective inhibition of MCP-1 or CCR2 and in MCP-1-deficient or CCR2-deficient mice. No difference was detected in M2 macrophage and myofibroblast/smooth muscle cell staining with systemic MCP-1 versus vehicle in aneurysm wall, but a significant increase in these cell types was observed with MCP-1 eluting coil implant and attenuated by MCP-1/CCR2 blockade or deficiency.ConclusionWe show that systemic MCP-1 concurrent with PLGA-coated platinum coil implant is not sufficient to produce site-specific aneurysm healing. MCP-1 is a critical, not merely complementary, actor in the aneurysm healing pathway.

  18. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies

  19. Bradycardic effects mediated by activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in rat nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Oprea, Tudor I; Chitravanshi, Vineet C; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-03-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified in several brain regions, including cholinergic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus, which are critical for parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Using calcium imaging and electrophysiological techniques, microinjection into the nucleus ambiguus and blood pressure measurement, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of GPER activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons. A GPER selective agonist, G-1, produced a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in a concentration-dependent manner in retrogradely labelled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. The increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) produced by G-1 was abolished by pretreatment with G36, a GPER antagonist. G-1 depolarized cultured cardiac vagal neurons of the nucleus ambiguus. The excitatory effect of G-1 was also identified by whole-cell visual patch-clamp recordings in nucleus ambiguus neurons, in medullary slices. To validate the physiological relevance of our in vitro studies, we carried out in vivo experiments. Microinjection of G-1 into the nucleus ambiguus elicited a decrease in heart rate; the effect was blocked by prior microinjection of G36. Systemic injection of G-1, in addition to a previously reported decrease in blood pressure, also reduced the heart rate. The G-1-induced bradycardia was prevented by systemic injection of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, or by bilateral microinjection of G36 into the nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that GPER-mediated bradycardia occurs via activation of cardiac parasympathetic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus and support the involvement of the GPER in the modulation of cardiac vagal tone.

  20. The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuner, Donalyn; Gromeier, Matthias; Davies, Monique V.; Dorner, Andrew J.; Song Benbo; Patel, Rupali V.; Wimmer, Eckard J.; McLendon, Roger E.; Kaufman, Randal J.

    2003-01-01

    The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of viral infections and cell growth. We have studied the role of PKR in viral infection in mice that are defective in the PKR signaling pathway. Transgenic mice were derived that constitutively express a trans-dominant-negative kinase-defective mutant PKR under control of the β-actin promoter. The trans-dominant-negative PKR mutant expressing transgenic mice do not have a detectable phenotype, similar to observations with PKR knock-out mice. The requirement for PKR in viral pathogenesis was studied by intracerebral infection of mice with a mouse-adapted poliovirus. Histopathological analysis revealed diffuse encephalomyelitis with severe inflammatory lesions throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in infected wild-type mice. In contrast, histopathological evaluation of virus-injected trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic mice as well as PKR knock-out mice yielded no signs of tissue damage associated with inflammatory host responses. However, the virus did replicate in both models of PKR-deficient mice at a level equal to that observed in wild-type infected mice. Although the results indicate a clear difference in susceptibility to poliovirus-induced encephalitis, this difference manifests clinically as a slight delay in fatal neuropathy in trans-dominant-negative PKR transgenic and PKR knock-out animals. Our observations support the finding that viral-induced PKR activation may play a significant role in pathogenesis by mediating the host response to viral CNS infection. They support PKR to be an effective target to control tissue damage due to deleterious host responses to viral infection

  1. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses ?-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Lind, Stuart E.; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes β-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPP's suppression of β-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the β-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome ...

  2. Notch-mediated post-translational control of Ngn3 protein stability regulates pancreatic patterning and cell fate commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Afelik, Solomon; Jensen, Jan Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    activation of the Notch>Hes1 pathway impacts formation of the trunk domain in the pancreas causing multipotent progenitors to lose acinar, while gaining endocrine and ductal, competence. The subsequent selection of fate from such bipotential progenitors is then governed by lateral inhibition, where Notch...... protein stabilization in the normal mouse pancreas explants. We conclude that the mutually exclusive expression pattern of Ngn3/Hes1 proteins in the mammalian pancreas is partially controlled through Notch-mediated post-translational regulation and we demonstrate that the formation of insulin...

  3. Histamine induces activation of protein kinase D that mediates tissue factor expression and activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Wu, Daniel Dongwei; Xu, Xuemin

    2012-01-01

    Histamine, an inflammatory mediator, has been shown to influence the pathogenesis of vascular wall cells. However, the molecular basis of its influence is not well understood. Our data reveal that histamine markedly induces protein kinase D (PKD) activation in human aortic smooth muscle cells. PKD belongs to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and its function in vascular disease is largely unknown. Our data show that histamine-induced PKD phosphorylation is dependent on the activation of histamine receptor 1 and protein kinase C (PKC). To determine the role of PKD in the histamine pathway, we employed a small-interfering RNA approach to downregulate PKD expression and found that PKD1 and PKD2 are key mediators for expression of tissue factor (TF), which is the key initiator of blood coagulation and is important for thrombosis. Our results show that PKD2 predominantly mediates histamine-induced TF expression via the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, whereas PKD1 mediates histamine-induced TF expression through a p38 MAPK-independent pathway. We demonstrate that histamine induces TF expression via the PKC-dependent PKD activation. Our data provide the first evidence that PKD is a new component in histamine signaling in live cells and that PKD has a novel function in the histamine signaling pathway leading to gene expression, as evidenced by TF expression. Importantly, our data reveal a regulatory link from histamine to PKD and TF, providing new insights into the mechanisms of coagulation and the development of atherothrombosis. PMID:23001835

  4. Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Mediates Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1?Induced Parathyroid Cell Proliferation in Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Volovelsky, Oded; Cohen, Gili; Kenig, Ariel; Wasserman, Gilad; Dreazen, Avigail; Meyuhas, Oded; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and parathyroid cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways mediating the increased parathyroid cell proliferation remain undefined. Here, we found that the mTOR pathway was activated in the parathyroid of rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by either chronic hypocalcemia or uremia, which was measured by increased phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), a downstream ta...

  5. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    motility parameters. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that resveratrol-induced improvement of cryopreserved sperm functions may be mediated through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, indicating the importance of AMP-activated protein kinase activity for human spermatozoa functions. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol ameliorates oxidative stress-mediated damages in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  7. Role of the retinoblastoma protein in cell cycle arrest mediated by a novel cell surface proliferation inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enebo, D. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Moos, P. J.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A novel cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS-18), purified from the cell surface of bovine cerebral cortex cells has been shown to be a potent and reversible inhibitor of proliferation of a wide array of fibroblasts as well as epithelial-like cells and nontransformed and transformed cells. To investigate the possible mechanisms by which CeReS-18 exerts its inhibitory action, the effect of the inhibitor on the posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB), a tumor suppressor gene, has been examined. It is shown that CeReS-18 mediated cell cycle arrest of both human diploid fibroblasts (HSBP) and mouse fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) results in the maintenance of the RB protein in the hypophosphorylated state, consistent with a late G1 arrest site. Although their normal nontransformed counterparts are sensitive to cell cycle arrest mediated by CeReS-18, cell lines lacking a functional RB protein, through either genetic mutation or DNA tumor virus oncoprotein interaction, are less sensitive. The refractory nature of these cells is shown to be independent of specific surface receptors for the inhibitor, and another tumor suppressor gene (p53) does not appear to be involved in the CeReS-18 inhibition of cell proliferation. The requirement for a functional RB protein product, in order for CeReS-18 to mediate cell cycle arrest, is discussed in light of regulatory events associated with density-dependent growth inhibition.

  8. BEACH-domain proteins act together in a cascade to mediate vacuolar protein trafficking and disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ooi-kock; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Tamura, Kentaro; Fuji, Kentaro; Tabata, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shingenobu, Shuji; Yamada, Masashi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Sawa, Shinichiro; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-03-01

    Membrane trafficking to the protein storage vacuole (PSV) is a specialized process in seed plants. However, this trafficking mechanism to PSV is poorly understood. Here, we show that three types of Beige and Chediak-Higashi (BEACH)-domain proteins contribute to both vacuolar protein transport and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). We screened a green fluorescent seed (GFS) library of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in vesicle trafficking and isolated two allelic mutants gfs3 and gfs12 with a defect in seed protein transport to PSV. The gene responsible for the mutant phenotype was found to encode a putative protein belonging to group D of BEACH-domain proteins, which possess kinase domains. Disruption of other BEACH-encoding loci in the gfs12 mutant showed that BEACH homologs acted in a cascading manner for PSV trafficking. The epistatic genetic interactions observed among BEACH homologs were also found in the ETI responses of the gfs12 and gfs12 bchb-1 mutants, which showed elevated avirulent bacterial growth. The GFS12 kinase domain interacted specifically with the pleckstrin homology domain of BchC1. These results suggest that a cascade of multiple BEACH-domain proteins contributes to vacuolar protein transport and plant defense. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An optimized intein-mediated protein ligation approach for the efficient cyclization of cysteine-rich proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasava, Katsiaryna; Freisinger, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Head-to-tail backbone cyclization of proteins is a widely used approach for the improvement of protein stability. One way to obtain cyclic proteins via recombinant expression makes use of engineered Intein tags, which are self-cleaving protein domains. In this approach, pH-induced self-cleavage of the N-terminal Intein tag generates an N-terminal cysteine residue at the target protein, which then attacks in an intramolecular reaction the C-terminal thioester formed by the second C-terminal Intein tag resulting in the release of the cyclic target protein. In the current work we aimed to produce a cyclic analog of the small γ-Ec-1 domain of the wheat metallothionein, which contains six cysteine residues. During the purification process we faced several challenges, among them premature cleavage of one or the other Intein tag resulting in decreasing yields and contamination with linear species. To improve efficiency of the system we applied a number of optimizations such as the introduction of a Tobacco etch virus cleavage site and an additional poly-histidine tag. Our efforts resulted in the production of a cyclic protein in moderate yields without any contamination with linear protein species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Differential activation of CD95-mediated apoptosis related proteins in proximal and distal tubules during rat renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Feng; Tian, He; Zhang, Zhen-Xing

    2016-10-01

    The CD95-mediated apoptotic pathway is the best characterized of the death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. The present study characterized localization and expression of proteins involved in CD95-mediated apoptosis during rat renal development. Kidneys were obtained from embryonic (E) 18 and 20-day-old fetuses and postnatal (P) 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old pups. Immunohistochemical characterization revealed that CD95, FasL and cleaved caspase-3 were strongly expressed in proximal tubules and weakly expressed in distal tubules, but that expression of caspase-8 in distal tubules was stronger than that in proximal tubules. Results from terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays showed that levels of apoptosis in proximal tubules slowly increased after E18, while those of distal tubules slowly decreased after P5. Western blotting demonstrated that expression of CD95, FasL and FADD was very weak during embryonic development, but rapidly increased at P14. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was maintained at high levels after P1, while caspase-8 expression gradually reached a peak at P7. Results from this study reveal that the CD95-mediated apoptotic pathway is a key driver of apoptosis in proximal tubules during late postnatal kidney development in rats and suggest that apoptosis in distal tubules is mediated by a different apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-structural protein 1 of influenza viruses inhibits rapid mRNA degradation mediated by double-stranded RNA-binding protein, staufen1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hana; Ahn, Sang Ho; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2013-07-11

    Although non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza viruses is not essential for virulence, this protein is involved in host-virus interactions, viral replication, and translation. In particular, NS1 is known to interact with the host protein, staufen1 (Stau1). This interaction is important for efficient viral replication. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which NS1 influences the viral life cycle remains obscure. Here, we show using immunoprecipitation and artificial tethering that the N-terminus of NS1, NS1(1-73), interacts with Stau1, blocks the Stau1-Upf1 interaction, and consequently inhibits the efficiency of Stau1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD), but not nonsense-mediatedmRNA decay (NMD). The regulation of SMD efficiency by NS1 may contribute to building a more favorable cellular environment for viral replication. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein expression profiling of inflammatory mediators in human temporal lobe epilepsy reveals co-activation of multiple chemokines and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Anne A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE is a chronic and often treatment-refractory brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures originating from the hippocampus. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying mTLE remain largely unknown. Recent clinical and experimental evidence supports a role of various inflammatory mediators in mTLE. Here, we performed protein expression profiling of 40 inflammatory mediators in surgical resection material from mTLE patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis, and autopsy controls using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay. In mTLE patients we identified 21 upregulated inflammatory mediators, including 10 cytokines and 7 chemokines. Many of these upregulated mediators have not previously been implicated in mTLE (for example, CCL22, IL-7 and IL-25. Comparing the three patient groups, two main hippocampal expression patterns could be distinguished, pattern I (for example, IL-10 and IL-25 showing increased expression in mTLE + HS patients compared to mTLE-HS and controls, and pattern II (for example, CCL4 and IL-7 showing increased expression in both mTLE groups compared to controls. Upregulation of a subset of inflammatory mediators (for example, IL-25 and IL-7 could not only be detected in the hippocampus of mTLE patients, but also in the neocortex. Principle component analysis was used to cluster the inflammatory mediators into several components. Follow-up analyses of the identified components revealed that the three patient groups could be discriminated based on their unique expression profiles. Immunocytochemistry showed that IL-25 IR (pattern I and CCL4 IR (pattern II were localized in astrocytes and microglia, whereas IL-25 IR was also detected in neurons. Our data shows co-activation of multiple inflammatory mediators in hippocampus and neocortex of mTLE patients, indicating activation of multiple pro- and anti-epileptogenic immune pathways in this disease.

  13. MEK Inhibition Leads To Lysosome-Mediated Na+/I- Symporter Protein Degradation In Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Beyer, Sasha; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2013-01-01

    The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide uptake into thyroid follicular cells. NIS-mediated iodide uptake in thyroid cells is the basis for targeted radionuclide imaging and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and their metastases. Furthermore, NIS is expressed in many human breast tumors but not in normal non-lactating breast tissue, suggesting that NIS-mediated radionuclide uptake may also allow the imaging and targeted therapy of breast cancer. However, functional cell surface NIS expression is often low in breast cancer, making it important to uncover signaling pathways that modulate NIS expression at multiple levels, from gene transcription to post-translational processing and cell surface trafficking. In this study, we investigated NIS regulation in breast cancer by MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) signaling, an important cell signaling pathway involved in oncogenic transformation. We found that MEK inhibition decreased NIS protein levels in all-trans retinoic acid (tRA)/hydrocortisone treated MCF-7 cells as well as human breast cancer cells expressing exogenous NIS. The decrease in NIS protein levels by MEK inhibition was not accompanied by a decrease in NIS mRNA or a decrease in NIS mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. NIS protein degradation upon MEK inhibition was prevented by lysosome inhibitors, but not by proteasome inhibitors. Interestingly, NIS protein level was correlated with MEK/ERK activation in human breast tumors from a tissue microarray. Taken together, MEK activation appears to play an important role in maintaining NIS protein stability in human breast cancers. PMID:23404856

  14. A genome-wide screen identifies conserved protein hubs required for cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Christopher P.; D’Ambrosio, Michael V.; Vale, Ronald D.; Simon, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Cadherins and associated catenins provide an important structural interface between neighboring cells, the actin cytoskeleton, and intracellular signaling pathways in a variety of cell types throughout the Metazoa. However, the full inventory of the proteins and pathways required for cadherin-mediated adhesion has not been established. To this end, we completed a genome-wide (∼14,000 genes) ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) screen that targeted Ca2+-dependent adhesion in DE-cadherin–expressing Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells in suspension culture. This novel screen eliminated Ca2+-independent cell–cell adhesion, integrin-based adhesion, cell spreading, and cell migration. We identified 17 interconnected regulatory hubs, based on protein functions and protein–protein interactions that regulate the levels of the core cadherin–catenin complex and coordinate cadherin-mediated cell–cell adhesion. Representative proteins from these hubs were analyzed further in Drosophila oogenesis, using targeted germline RNAi, and adhesion was analyzed in Madin–Darby canine kidney mammalian epithelial cell–cell adhesion. These experiments reveal roles for a diversity of cellular pathways that are required for cadherin function in Metazoa, including cytoskeleton organization, cell–substrate interactions, and nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling. PMID:24446484

  15. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have...... kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors....... recently been elucidated biochemically and genetically. The present study was undertaken to determine whether common signaling components are used by these two distinct classes of receptors. Here we report that the adaptor protein Shc, is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following stimulation...

  16. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Kusch, Angelika [Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin D-13353 (Germany); Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Dumler, Inna, E-mail: dumler.inna@mh-hannover.de [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  17. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marie Barbaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho- lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012. Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein, a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH, which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while

  18. Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and Carbonylated Proteins as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Selected Atherosclerosis-Mediated Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Gryszczyńska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main question of this study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative protein modification shown as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP and carbonylated proteins, expressed as protein carbonyl content (C=O in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA, aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD, and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Design and Methods. The study was carried out in a group of 35 AAA patients and 13 AIOD patients. However, CKD patients were divided into two groups: predialysis (PRE included 50 patients or hemodialysis (HD consisted of 34 patients. AOPP and C=O were measured using colorimetric assay kit, while C-reactive protein concentration was measured by high-sensitivity assay (hsCRP. Results. The concentration of AOPP in both AAA and AIOD groups was higher than in PRE and HD groups according to descending order: AAA~AIOD > HD > PRE. The content of C=O was higher in the PRE group in comparison to AIOD and AAA according to the descending order: PRE~HD > AAA~AIOD. Conclusions. AAA, AIOD, and CKD-related atherosclerosis (PRE and HD contribute to the changes in the formation of AOPP and C=O. They may promote modification of proteins in a different way, probably due to the various factors that influence oxidative stress here.

  19. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated pain and inflammation in a rat model of posterolateral arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kendall; Shah, Jill P; Dalgard, Clifton L; Tsytsikova, Lyubov V; Tipton, Ashley C; Dmitriev, Anton E; Symes, Aviva J

    2016-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a pleiotropic, secreted molecule with diverse effects. The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine fusion). However, elevated post-operative pain in patients treated with BMP-2 has been increasingly reported. Determining whether BMP-2 induces pain directly or whether it induces neuroinflammation, which could lower the threshold for pain, is important for developing therapeutic interventions. We therefore modeled the clinical use of BMP-2 for posterior lumbar fusion by implanting absorbable collagen sponges soaked with either recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) or vehicle above the L4-L5 transverse processes of rat spine. Using microarray analysis we found that implantation of rhBMP-2-soaked absorbable collagen sponges resulted in altered expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes in the adjacent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) showing that implantation of rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponges triggers potent neuroinflammatory responses in the DRG-2. Interestingly, direct BMP-2 treatment of DRG explants resulted in changes in gene expression that were not specifically pro-inflammatory. Rats implanted with rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponges also exhibited a transient change in thermal and mechanical sensitivity indicating that rhBMP-2 applied to the lumbar spine could increase pain sensitivity. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated macrophage infiltration in the DRG and spinal nerve in rats implanted with rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponges or absorbable collagen sponges alone, but not in rats that underwent surgery without implantation of the absorbable collagen sponges suggesting that the sponges contributed to the biological response. Indeed, analysis of DRGs taken from rats implanted with absorbable collagen sponges without rhBMP-2 showed a significant change in gene expression distinct from DRGs from rats undergoing surgery only. Our data indicate that

  20. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosedale, Merrie [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wu, Hong [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Kurtz, C. Lisa [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schmidt, Stephen P. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Adkins, Karissa, E-mail: Karissa.Adkins@pfizer.com [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Harrill, Alison H. [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR72205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  1. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosedale, Merrie; Wu, Hong; Kurtz, C. Lisa; Schmidt, Stephen P.; Adkins, Karissa; Harrill, Alison H.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  2. Identification of alpha interferon-induced envelope mutations of hepatitis C virus in vitro associated with increased viral fitness and interferon resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serre, Stéphanie B N; Krarup, Henrik B; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    is limited. Experimental studies were hampered by lack of HCV culture systems. Using genotype (strain) 1a(H77) and 3a(S52) Core-NS2 JFH1-based recombinants, we aimed at identifying viral correlates of IFN-α resistance in vitro. Long-term culture with IFN-α2b in Huh7.5 cells resulted in viral spread......Alpha interferon (IFN-α) is an essential component of innate antiviral immunity and of treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Resistance to IFN might be important for HCV persistence and failure of IFN-based therapies. Evidence for HCV genetic correlates of IFN resistance...... with acquisition of putative escape mutations in HCV structural and nonstructural proteins. Reverse genetic studies showed that primarily amino acid changes I348T in 1a(H77) E1 and F345V/V414A in 3a(S52) E1/E2 increased viral fitness. Single-cycle assays revealed that I348T and F345V/V414A enhanced viral entry...

  3. Lipid-mediated Wnt protein stabilization enables serum-free culture of human organ stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tüysüz, Nesrin; van Bloois, Louis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839183; van den Brink, Stieneke; Begthel, Harry; Verstegen, Monique M A; Cruz, Luis J; Hui, Lijian; van der Laan, Luc J W; de Jonge, Jeroen; Vries, Robert; Braakman, Eric; Mastrobattista, Enrico|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/228061105; Cornelissen, Jan J; Clevers, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07164282X; Ten Berge, Derk

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signalling proteins are essential for culture of human organ stem cells in organoids, but most Wnt protein formulations are poorly active in serum-free media. Here we show that purified Wnt3a protein is ineffective because it rapidly loses activity in culture media due to its hydrophobic nature,

  4. The impact of RGS and other G-protein regulatory proteins on Gαi-mediated signaling in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrl, John H

    2016-08-15

    Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Signaling downstream of these receptors directs the localization, positioning and homeostatic trafficking of leukocytes; as well as their recruitment to, and their retention at, inflammatory sites. Ligand induced changes in the molecular conformation of chemoattractant receptors results in the engagement of heterotrimeric G-proteins, which promotes α subunits to undergo GTP/GDP exchange. This results in the functional release of βγ subunits from the heterotrimers, thereby activating downstream effector molecules, which initiate leukocyte polarization, gradient sensing, and directional migration. Pertussis toxin ADP ribosylates Gαi subunits and prevents chemoattractant receptors from triggering Gαi nucleotide exchange. The use of pertussis toxin revealed the essential importance of Gαi subunit nucleotide exchange for chemoattractant receptor signaling. More recent studies have identified a range of regulatory mechanisms that target these receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G-proteins, thereby helping to control the magnitude, kinetics, and duration of signaling. A failure in these regulatory pathways can lead to impaired receptor signaling and immunopathology. The analysis of mice with targeted deletions of Gαi isoforms as well as some of these G-protein regulatory proteins is providing insights into their roles in chemoattractant receptor signaling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-08

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  7. Diversity of interferon inducible Mx gene in horses and association of variations with susceptibility vis-à-vis resistance against equine influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuja, Balvinder K; Manuja, Anju; Dahiya, Rajni; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, R C; Gahlot, S K

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is primarily an infection of the upper respiratory tract and is one of the major infectious respiratory diseases of economic importance in equines. Re-emergence of the disease, species jumping by H3N8 virus in canines and possible threat of human pandemic due to the unpredictable nature of the virus have necessitated research on devising strategies for preventing the disease. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) has been reported to confer resistance to Orthomyxo virus infection by modifying cellular functions needed along the viral replication pathway. Polymorphisms and differential antiviral activities of Mx gene have been reported in pigs and chicken. Here we report the diversity of Mx gene, its expression in response to stimulation with interferon (IFN) α/β and their association with EI resistance and susceptibility in Marwari horses. Blood samples were collected from horses declared positive for equine influenza and in contact animals with a history of no clinical signs. Mx gene was amplified by reverse transcription from total RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with IFN α/β using gene specific primers. The amplified gene products from representative samples were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed. Out of a total 24 amino acids substitutions sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) analysis predicted 13 substitutions with functional consequences. Five substitutions (V67A, W123L, E346Y, N347Y, S689N) were observed only in resistant animals. Evolutionary distances based on nucleotide sequences with in equines ranged between 0.3-2.0% and 20-24% with other species. On phylogenetic analysis all equine sequences clustered together while other species formed separate clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CD163-L1 Is an Endocytic Macrophage Protein Strongly Regulated by Mediators in the Inflammatory Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper B; Nielsen, Marianne J; Reichhardt, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    exhibits similarity to CD163 in terms of structure and regulated expression in cultured monocytes but shows clear differences compared with the known CD163 ligand preferences and expression pattern in the pool of tissue macrophages. We postulate that CD163-L1 functions as a scavenger receptor for one......CD163-L1 belongs to the group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family of proteins, where the CD163-L1 gene arose by duplication of the gene encoding the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in late evolution. The current data demonstrate that CD163-L1 is highly expressed and colocalizes with CD163......-phase mediator IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 but is suppressed by the proinflammatory mediators IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α, and LPS/IFN-γ. Furthermore, we show that CD163-L1 is an endocytic receptor, which internalizes independently of cross-linking through a clathrin-mediated pathway. Two cytoplasmic...

  9. A Phosphorylation Tag for Uranyl Mediated Protein Purification and Photo Assisted Tag Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jørgensen, Thomas. J. D.; Nielsen, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    of enzymes available for this purpose. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility of the divalent uranyl ion in a new procedure for protein purification and tag removal. By employment of a GFP (green florescence protein) recombinant protein we show that uranyl binding to a phosphorylated C-terminal tag......Most protein purification procedures include an affinity tag fused to either the N or C-terminal end of the protein of interest as well as a procedure for tag removal. Tag removal is not straightforward and especially tag removal from the C-terminal end is a challenge due to the characteristics...... enables target protein purification from an E. coli extract by immobilized uranyl affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the tag can be efficiently removed by UV-irradiation assisted uranyl photocleavage. We therefore suggest that the divalent uranyl ion (UO22+) may provide a dual function in protein...

  10. Unfoldase-mediated protein translocation through an α-hemolysin nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Jeff; Marks, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Using nanopores to sequence biopolymers was proposed more than a decade ago1. Recent advances in enzyme-based control of DNA translocation2 and in DNA nucleotide resolution using modified biological pores3 have satisfied two technical requirements of a functional nanopore DNA sequencing device. Nanopore sequencing of proteins was also envisioned1. Although proteins have been shown to move through nanopores4, 5, 6, a technique to unfold proteins for processive translocation has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe controlled unfolding and translocation of proteins through the α-hemolysin (α-HL) pore using the AAA+ unfoldase ClpX. Sequence-dependent features of individual engineered proteins were detected during translocation. These results demonstrate that molecular motors can reproducibly drive proteins through a model nanopore—a feature required for protein sequence analysis using this single-molecule technology. PMID:23376966

  11. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lanlan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  12. Inhibition of Hepatitis C virus (HCV Core protein- induced Cell Growth by Non-structural Protein 4A (NS4A is Mediated by Mitochondrial Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Selimović

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a significant health problem facing the world. More than 170 million people are infected with HCV worldwide. HCV encodes a large polyprotein precursor that is processed into at least 10 distinct products including structural (core, E1 and E2 and non-structural (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B. Besides its importance in virus replication, NS4A functions as a cofactor for NS3 and contributes to viral pathogenesis by influencing cellular functions. Here, we investigated the effect of NS4A protein on the growth rate induced by core protein in liver cells. Using our established tetracycline inducible system, we demonstrated the ability of NS4A protein to inhibit core protein-induced cell growth in Hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Induction of both core and NS4A proteins in HepG2- core/NS4A transfectants inhibited core-induced growth advantage in HepG2-core transfectants and blocked NS4A protein-induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2-NS4A transfectants. Using both immune fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis, we confirmed the localization of NS4A protein to the mitochondria in HepG2-NS4A transfectants expressing NS4A protein. Data obtained from flow cytometry analysis, using JC-1 demonstrated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ^ by the expression of NS4A protein in HepG2-NS4A transfectants, but not by the expression of core protein in HepG2-core transfectants. Whereas, the induction of the expression of both core and NS4A proteins in HepG2-core/NS4A transfectants blocked NS4A-induced loss of ΔΨm in HepG2 cells. Taken together, our data suggest an important role for mitochondria in the modulation HCV NS4A-induced inhibition of HCV core-mediated cell growth.

  13. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 protein impairs DNA repair mediated through the inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Sueoka, Naoko; Sato, Akemi; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1, an RNA binding protein, is overexpressed from the early stage of lung cancers; it is evident even in bronchial dysplasia, a premalignant lesion. We evaluated the proteins bound with hnRNP B1 and found that hnRNP B1 interacted with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex, and recombinant hnRNP B1 protein dose-dependently inhibited DNA-PK activity in vitro. To test the effect of hnRNP B1 on DNA repair, we performed comet assay after irradiation, using normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1: reduction of hnRNP B1 treated with siRNA for hnRNP A2/B1 induced faster DNA repair in normal HBE cells. Considering these results, we assume that overexpression of hnRNP B1 occurring in the early stage of carcinogenesis inhibits DNA-PK activity, resulting in subsequent accumulation of erroneous rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks, causing tumor progression

  14. The cricket paralysis virus suppressor inhibits microRNA silencing mediated by the Drosophila Argonaute-2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Besnard-Guérin

    Full Text Available Small RNAs are potent regulators of gene expression. They also act in defense pathways against invading nucleic acids such as transposable elements or viruses. To counteract these defenses, viruses have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs. Plant viruses encoded VSRs interfere with siRNAs or miRNAs by targeting common mediators of these two pathways. In contrast, VSRs identified in insect viruses to date only interfere with the siRNA pathway whose effector Argonaute protein is Argonaute-2 (Ago-2. Although a majority of Drosophila miRNAs exerts their silencing activity through their loading into the Argonaute-1 protein, recent studies highlighted that a fraction of miRNAs can be loaded into Ago-2, thus acting as siRNAs. In light of these recent findings, we re-examined the role of insect VSRs on Ago-2-mediated miRNA silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Using specific reporter systems in cultured Schneider-2 cells and transgenic flies, we showed here that the Cricket Paralysis virus VSR CrPV1-A but not the Flock House virus B2 VSR abolishes silencing by miRNAs loaded into the Ago-2 protein. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that insect VSR have the potential to directly interfere with the miRNA silencing pathway.

  15. SPARC overexpression inhibits cell proliferation in neuroblastoma and is partly mediated by tumor suppressor protein PTEN and AKT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Bhoopathi

    Full Text Available Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC is also known as BM-40 or Osteonectin, a multi-functional protein modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In cancer, SPARC is not only linked with a highly aggressive phenotype, but it also acts as a tumor suppressor. In the present study, we sought to characterize the function of SPARC and its role in sensitizing neuroblastoma cells to radio-therapy. SPARC overexpression in neuroblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Additionally, SPARC overexpression significantly suppressed the activity of AKT and this suppression was accompanied by an increase in the tumor suppressor protein PTEN both in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of neuroblastoma cell radio-sensitivity was achieved by overexpression of SPARC in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm the role of the AKT in proliferation inhibited by SPARC overexpression, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with a plasmid vector carrying myr-AKT. Myr-AKT overexpression reversed SPARC-mediated PTEN and increased proliferation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. PTEN overexpression in parallel with SPARC siRNA resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these results establish SPARC as an effector of AKT-PTEN-mediated inhibition of proliferation in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  17. A novel heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) molecular network mediating responses to stress- and ethanol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Kyle R; Zhao, Yinghong; Baker, Jessica A; Lu, Ye; Yan, Lei; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Hamre, Kristin M; Lu, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic differences mediate individual differences in susceptibility and responses to stress and ethanol, although, the specific molecular pathways that control these responses are not fully understood. Heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) is a molecular chaperone and member of the heat shock protein family that plays an integral role in the stress response and that has been implicated as an ethanol-responsive gene. Therefore, we assessed its role in mediating responses to stress and ethanol across varying genetic backgrounds. The hippocampus is an important mediator of these responses, and thus, was examined in the BXD family of mice in this study. We conducted bioinformatic analyses to dissect genetic factors modulating Hspa8 expression, identify downstream targets of Hspa8, and examined its role. Hspa8 is trans-regulated by a gene or genes on chromosome 14 and is part of a molecular network that regulates stress- and ethanol-related behaviors. To determine additional components of this network, we identified direct or indirect targets of Hspa8 and show that these genes, as predicted, participate in processes such as protein folding and organic substance metabolic processes. Two phenotypes that map to the Hspa8 locus are anxiety-related and numerous other anxiety- and/or ethanol-related behaviors significantly correlate with Hspa8 expression. To more directly assay this relationship, we examined differences in gene expression following exposure to stress or alcohol and showed treatment-related differential expression of Hspa8 and a subset of the members of its network. Our findings suggest that Hspa8 plays a vital role in genetic differences in responses to stress and ethanol and their interactions.

  18. Trafficking of Na,K-ATPase fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein is mediated by protein kinase A or C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Jørgensen, PL

    2003-01-01

    Fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the C-terminal of rat Na,K-ATPase a1-subunit is introduced as a novel procedure for visualizing trafficking of Na,K-pumps in living COS-1 renal cells in response to PKA or PKC stimulation. Stable, functional expression of the fluorescent...... along the plasma membrane of COS cells. In unstimulated COS cells, Na,K-EGFP was also present in lysosomes and in vesicles en route from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, but it was almost absent from recycling endosomes labelled with fluorescent transferrin. After activation of protein...... chimera (Na,K-EGFP) was achieved in COS-1 cells using combined puromycin and ouabain selection procedures. Na,K-pump activities were unchanged after fusion with EGFP, both in basal and regulated states. In confocal laser scanning and fluorescence microscopes, the Na,K-EGFP chimera was distributed mainly...

  19. The differentiation of skeletal muscle cells involves a protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha-mediated C-Src signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Huogen; Shah, Poonam; Ennis, David

    2002-01-01

    with previous reports, PTPalpha positively regulated the activity of the protein-tyrosine kinase Src. Treatment of L6 cells with PP2 or SU6656, specific inhibitors of Src family kinases, and transient transfection of dominant-inhibitory Src inhibited the formation of myotubes and expression of myogenin....... Moreover, enhanced expression of PTPalpha and activation of Src was detected during myogenesis. Together, these data indicate that PTPalpha is involved in the regulation of L6 myoblast growth and skeletal muscle cell differentiation via an Src-mediated signaling pathway....

  20. Transcriptional induction of the heat shock protein B8 mediates the clearance of misfolded proteins responsible for motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Valeria; D'Agostino, Vito G; Cristofani, Riccardo; Rusmini, Paola; Cicardi, Maria E; Messi, Elio; Loffredo, Rosa; Pancher, Michael; Piccolella, Margherita; Galbiati, Mariarita; Meroni, Marco; Cereda, Cristina; Carra, Serena; Provenzani, Alessandro; Poletti, Angelo

    2016-03-10

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are often associated with the presence of misfolded protein inclusions. The chaperone HSPB8 is upregulated in mice, the human brain and muscle structures affected during NDs progression. HSPB8 exerts a potent pro-degradative activity on several misfolded proteins responsible for familial NDs forms. Here, we demonstrated that HSPB8 also counteracts accumulation of aberrantly localized misfolded forms of TDP-43 and its 25 KDa fragment involved in most sporadic cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (sALS) and of Fronto Lateral Temporal Dementia (FLTD). HSPB8 acts with BAG3 and the HSP70/HSC70-CHIP complex enhancing the autophagic removal of misfolded proteins. We performed a high-through put screening (HTS) to find small molecules capable of inducing HSPB8 in neurons for therapeutic purposes. We identified two compounds, colchicine and doxorubicin, that robustly up-regulated HSPB8 expression. Both colchicine and doxorubicin increased the expression of the master regulator of autophagy TFEB, the autophagy linker p62/SQSTM1 and the autophagosome component LC3. In line, both drugs counteracted the accumulation of TDP-43 and TDP-25 misfolded species responsible for motoneuronal death in sALS. Thus, analogs of colchicine and doxorubicin able to induce HSPB8 and with better safety and tolerability may result beneficial in NDs models.

  1. Prion protein paralog doppel protein interacts with alpha-2-macroglobulin: a plausible mechanism for doppel-mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvegnù

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Doppel protein (Dpl is a paralog of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C, together sharing common structural and biochemical properties. Unlike PrP(C, which is abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS, Dpl protein expression is not detectable in the CNS. Interestingly, its ectopic expression in the brain elicits neurodegeneration in transgenic mice. Here, by combining native isoelectric focusing plus non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified two Dpl binding partners: rat alpha-1-inhibitor-3 (alpha(1I(3 and, by sequence homology, alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha(2M, two known plasma metalloproteinase inhibitors. Biochemical investigations excluded the direct interaction of PrP(C with either alpha(1I(3 or alpha(2M. Nevertheless, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed a high affinity binding occurring between PrP(C and Dpl. In light of these findings, we suggest a mechanism for Dpl-induced neurodegeneration in mice expressing Dpl ectopically in the brain, linked to a withdrawal of natural inhibitors of metalloproteinase such as alpha(2M. Interestingly, alpha(2M has been proven to be a susceptibility factor in Alzheimer's disease, and as our findings imply, it may also play a relevant role in other neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases.

  2. Prion protein paralog doppel protein interacts with alpha-2-macroglobulin: a plausible mechanism for doppel-mediated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnù, Stefano; Franciotta, Diego; Sussman, Josh; Bachi, Angela; Zardini, Elisabetta; Torreri, Paola; Govaerts, Cedric; Pizzo, Salvatore; Legname, Giuseppe

    2009-06-18

    Doppel protein (Dpl) is a paralog of the cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C)), together sharing common structural and biochemical properties. Unlike PrP(C), which is abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS), Dpl protein expression is not detectable in the CNS. Interestingly, its ectopic expression in the brain elicits neurodegeneration in transgenic mice. Here, by combining native isoelectric focusing plus non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified two Dpl binding partners: rat alpha-1-inhibitor-3 (alpha(1)I(3)) and, by sequence homology, alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M), two known plasma metalloproteinase inhibitors. Biochemical investigations excluded the direct interaction of PrP(C) with either alpha(1)I(3) or alpha(2)M. Nevertheless, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed a high affinity binding occurring between PrP(C) and Dpl. In light of these findings, we suggest a mechanism for Dpl-induced neurodegeneration in mice expressing Dpl ectopically in the brain, linked to a withdrawal of natural inhibitors of metalloproteinase such as alpha(2)M. Interestingly, alpha(2)M has been proven to be a susceptibility factor in Alzheimer's disease, and as our findings imply, it may also play a relevant role in other neurodegenerative disorders, including prion diseases.

  3. MicroProtein-mediated recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS trimeric complex represses flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Moritz; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Tenai E.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana microProteins, miP1a and miP1b, physically interact with CONSTANS (CO) a potent regulator of flowering time. The miP1a/b-type microProteins evolved in dicotyledonous plants and have an additional carboxy-terminal PF(V/L)FL motif. This motif enables miP1a/b microProteins to interact......MicroProteins are short, single domain proteins that act by sequestering larger, multi-domain proteins into non-functional complexes. MicroProteins have been identified in plants and animals, where they are mostly involved in the regulation of developmental processes. Here we show that two...... with TOPLESS/TOPLESS-RELATED (TPL/TPR) proteins. Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions. Both miP1a and miP1b are expressed in vascular tissue, where CO and FT are active. Genetically...

  4. Identifying the Proteins that Mediate the Ionizing Radiation Resistance of Deinococcus Radiodurans R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, John R

    2010-02-22

    The primary objectives of this proposal was to define the subset of proteins required for the ionizing radiation (IR) resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans R1, characterize the activities of those proteins, and apply what was learned to problems of interest to the Department of Energy.

  5. Fem1b, a proapoptotic protein, mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M Cecilia; Sansom, Owen J; Porecha, Nehal; Raich, Natacha; Du, Liqin; Maher, Joseph F

    2010-02-01

    In the treatment of colon cancer, the development of resistance to apoptosis is a major factor in resistance to therapy. New molecular approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance, such as selectively upregulating proapoptotic proteins, are needed in colon cancer therapy. In a mouse model with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene, reflecting the pathogenesis of most human colon cancers, the gene encoding feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is upregulated in intestinal epithelium following Apc inactivation. Fem1b is a proapoptotic protein that interacts with apoptosis-inducing proteins Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Increasing Fem1b expression induces apoptosis of cancer cells, but effects on colon cancer cells have not been reported. Fem1b is a homolog of feminization-1 (FEM-1), a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is regulated by proteasomal degradation, but whether Fem1b is likewise regulated by proteasomal degradation is unknown. Herein, we found that Fem1b protein is expressed in primary human colon cancer specimens, and in malignant SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Increasing Fem1b expression, by transfection of a Fem1b expression construct, induced apoptosis of these cells. We found that proteasome inhibitor treatment of SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 cells caused upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis. Blockade of Fem1b upregulation with morpholino antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. In conclusion, the proapoptotic protein Fem1b is downregulated by the proteasome in malignant colon cancer cells and mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. Therefore, Fem1b could represent a novel molecular target to overcome apoptosis resistance in therapy of colon cancer.

  6. The expression of COX-2 in VEGF-treated endothelial cells is mediated through protein tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravit Akarasereenont

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase (COX, existing as the COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, which is then further metabolized to various prostaglandins. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been shown to play important roles in inflammation and is upregulated by the prostaglandin E series through COX-2 in several cell types. Here, we have investigated the effects of VEGF on the COX isoform expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The signalling mechanism of the COX isoform expressed in endothelial cells activated with VEGF will be also investigated using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, and protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine. The activity of COX2 was assessed by measuring the production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α in the presence of exogenous arachidonic acids (10 μM, 10 min by enzyme immunoassay. The expression of COX isoform protein was detected by immunoblot using specific antibodies. Untreated HUVEC contained no COX-2 protein. In HUVEC treated with VEGF (0.01-50 ng/ml, COX-2 protein, but not COX-1, and COX activity were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the increased COX-2 protein and activity in response to VEGF (10 ng/ml was inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (0.05-5 μg/ml, but not by the protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine (0.1-10 ng/ml. Thus, the induction of COX-2 by VEGF in endothelial cells was mediated through protein tyrosine kinase, and the uses of specific COX-2 inhibitors in these conditions, in which VEGF was involved, might have a role.

  7. Dinitrosopiperazine-Mediated Phosphorylated-Proteins Are Involved in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP with organ specificity for nasopharyngeal epithelium, is involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC metastasis, though its mechanism is unclear. To reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-induced metastasis, immunoprecipitation was used to identify DNP-mediated phosphoproteins. DNP-mediated NPC cell line (6-10B motility and invasion was confirmed. Twenty-six phosphoproteins were increased at least 1.5-fold following DNP exposure. Changes in the expression levels of selected phosphoproteins were verified by Western-blotting analysis. DNP treatment altered the phosphorylation of ezrin (threonine 567, vimentin (serine 55, stathmin (serine 25 and STAT3 (serine 727. Furthermore, it was shown that DNP-dependent metastasis is mediated in part through ezrin at threonine 567, as DNP-mediated metastasis was decreased when threonine 567 of ezrin was mutated. Strikingly, NPC metastatic tumors exhibited a higher expression of phosphorylated-ezrin at threonine 567 than the primary tumors. These findings provide novel insight into DNP-induced NPC metastasis and may contribute to a better understanding of the metastatic mechanisms of NPC tumors.

  8. Myc-induced proliferation and transformation require Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchard, C.; Marquardt, J.; Brás, A.; Medema, R.H.; Eilers, M.

    2004-01-01

    Myc synergizes with Ras and PI3-kinase in cell transformation, yet the molecular basis for this behavior is poorly understood. We now show that Myc recruits TFIIH, P-TEFb and Mediator to the cyclin D2 and other target promoters, while the PI3-kinase pathway controls formation of the

  9. Estrogen-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekas, Erin; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (17β-estradiol) promotes the survival and proliferation of breast cancer cells and its receptors represent important therapeutic targets. The cellular actions of estrogen are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ as well as the 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). We previously reported that estrogen activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kinase) pathway via GPER, resulting in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) production within the nucleus of breast cancer cells; however, the mechanisms and consequences of this activity remained unclear. MCF7 breast cancer cells were transfected with GFP-fused Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) as a reporter to assess localization in response to estrogen stimulation. Inhibitors of PI3Kinases and EGFR were employed to determine the mechanisms of estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. Receptor knockdown with siRNA and the selective GPER agonist G-1 elucidated the estrogen receptor(s) responsible for estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. The effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators and downregulators (SERMs and SERDs) on FOXO3a in MCF7 cells were also determined. Cell survival (inhibition of apoptosis) was assessed by caspase activation. In the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF7, FOXO3a inactivation occurs on a rapid time scale as a result of GPER, but not ERα, stimulation by estrogen, established by the GPER-selective agonist G-1 and knockdown of GPER and ERα. GPER-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a is effected by the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3Kinase as a result of transactivation of the EGFR. The SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene, as well as the SERD ICI182,780, were active in mediating FOXO3a inactivation in a GPER-dependent manner. Additionally, estrogen-and G-1-mediated stimulation of MCF7 cells results in a decrease in caspase activation under proapoptotic conditions. Our results suggest that non-genomic signaling by GPER contributes

  10. Road to the future of systems biotechnology: CRISPR-Cas-mediated metabolic engineering for recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roointan, Amir; Morowvat, Mohammad Hossein

    The rising potential for CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing has revolutionized our strategies in basic and practical bioengineering research. It provides a predictable and precise method for genome modification in a robust and reproducible fashion. Emergence of systems biotechnology and synthetic biology approaches coupled with CRISPR-Cas technology could change the future of cell factories to possess some new features which have not been found naturally. We have discussed the possibility and versatile potentials of CRISPR-Cas technology for metabolic engineering of a recombinant host for heterologous protein production. We describe the mechanisms involved in this metabolic engineering approach and present the diverse features of its application in biotechnology and protein production.

  11. c-Myb protein interacts with Rcd-1, a component of the CCR4 transcription mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Martin; Siegert, Michaela; Schürmann, André; Sodeik, Beate; Wolfes, Heiner

    2004-06-29

    Transcriptional initiation of eukaryotic genes depends on the cooperative interaction of various transcription factors. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we have identified the murine Rcd-1 protein as a cofactor of the c-myb proto-oncogene product. Rcd-1 is evolutionarily conserved among many species, and moreover the yeast homologue CAF40 is part of the carbon catabolite repressor protein transcriptional mediator thought to be involved in the negative regulation of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Rcd-1 is located mainly in the nucleus, and it interacts with c-Myb both in vitro and in vivo. The activation of the myeloid c-myb-specific mim-1 promoter is repressed by Rcd-1. Interestingly, rcd-1 is an erythropoietin regulated gene, which also represses the action of the AP-1 transcription factor on its target genes.

  12. Olfactory proteins mediating chemical communication in the navel orangeworm moth, Amyelois transitella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Leal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, is the most serious insect pest of almonds and pistachios in California for which environmentally friendly alternative methods of control--like pheromone-based approaches--are highly desirable. Some constituents of the sex pheromone are unstable and could be replaced with parapheromones, which may be designed on the basis of molecular interaction of pheromones and pheromone-detecting olfactory proteins.By analyzing extracts from olfactory and non-olfactory tissues, we identified putative olfactory proteins, obtained their N-terminal amino acid sequences by Edman degradation, and used degenerate primers to clone the corresponding cDNAs by SMART RACE. Additionally, we used degenerate primers based on conserved sequences of known proteins to fish out other candidate olfactory genes. We expressed the gene encoding a newly identified pheromone-binding protein, which was analyzed by circular dichroism, fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and used in a binding assay to assess affinity to pheromone components.We have cloned nine cDNAs encoding olfactory proteins from the navel orangeworm, including two pheromone-binding proteins, two general odorant-binding proteins, one chemosensory protein, one glutathione S-transferase, one antennal binding protein X, one sensory neuron membrane protein, and one odorant receptor. Of these, AtraPBP1 is highly enriched in male antennae. Fluorescence, CD and NMR studies suggest a dramatic pH-dependent conformational change, with high affinity to pheromone constituents at neutral pH and no binding at low pH.

  13. Aspirin-Mediated Acetylation Protects Against Multiple Neurodegenerative Pathologies by Impeding Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Kakraba, Samuel; Alla, Ramani; Mehta, Jawahar L; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2017-12-10

    Many progressive neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease (PD), are characterized by accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. In prospective trials, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) reduced the risk of AD and PD, as well as cardiovascular events and many late-onset cancers. Considering the role played by protein hyperphosphorylation in aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases, and aspirin's known ability to donate acetyl groups, we asked whether aspirin might reduce both phosphorylation and aggregation by acetylating protein targets. Aspirin was substantially more effective than salicylate in reducing or delaying aggregation in human neuroblastoma cells grown in vitro, and in Caenorhabditis elegans models of human neurodegenerative diseases in vivo. Aspirin acetylates many proteins, while reducing phosphorylation, suggesting that acetylation may oppose phosphorylation. Surprisingly, acetylated proteins were largely excluded from compact aggregates. Molecular-dynamic simulations indicate that acetylation of amyloid peptide energetically disfavors its association into dimers and octamers, and oligomers that do form are less compact and stable than those comprising unacetylated peptides. Hyperphosphorylation predisposes certain proteins to aggregate (e.g., tau, α-synuclein, and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 [TDP-43]), and it is a critical pathogenic marker in both cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. We present novel evidence that acetylated proteins are underrepresented in protein aggregates, and that aggregation varies inversely with acetylation propensity after diverse genetic and pharmacologic interventions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aspirin inhibits protein aggregation and the ensuing toxicity of aggregates through its acetyl-donating activity. This mechanism may contribute to the neuro-protective, cardio

  14. Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole by IFNgamma-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRG proteins triggers necrotic cell death.

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    Yang O Zhao

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a natural intracellular protozoal pathogen of mice and other small mammals. After infection, the parasite replicates freely in many cell types (tachyzoite stage before undergoing a phase transition and encysting in brain and muscle (bradyzoite stage. In the mouse, early immune resistance to the tachyzoite stage is mediated by the family of interferon-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRG proteins, but little is known of the nature of this resistance. We reported earlier that IRG proteins accumulate on intracellular vacuoles containing the pathogen, and that the vacuolar membrane subsequently ruptures. In this report, live-cell imaging microscopy has been used to follow this process and its consequences in real time. We show that the rupture of the vacuole is inevitably followed by death of the intracellular parasite, shown by its permeability to cytosolic protein markers. Death of the parasite is followed by the death of the infected cell. The death of the cell has features of pyronecrosis, including membrane permeabilisation and release of the inflammatory protein, HMGB1, but caspase-1 cleavage is not detected. This sequence of events occurs on a large scale only following infection of IFNgamma-induced cells with an avirulent strain of T. gondii, and is reduced by expression of a dominant negative mutant IRG protein. Cells infected by virulent strains rarely undergo necrosis. We did not find autophagy to play any role in the key steps leading to the death of the parasite. We conclude that IRG proteins resist infection by avirulent T. gondii by a novel mechanism involving disruption of the vacuolar membrane, which in turn ultimately leads to the necrotic death of the infected cell.

  15. Distinct pathways mediate the sorting of tail-anchored proteins to the plastid outer envelope.

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    Preetinder K Dhanoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tail-anchored (TA proteins are a distinct class of membrane proteins that are sorted post-translationally to various organelles and function in a number of important cellular processes, including redox reactions, vesicular trafficking and protein translocation. While the molecular targeting signals and pathways responsible for sorting TA proteins to their correct intracellular destinations in yeasts and mammals have begun to be characterized, relatively little is known about TA protein biogenesis in plant cells, especially for those sorted to the plastid outer envelope. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the biogenesis of three plastid TA proteins, including the 33-kDa and 34-kDa GTPases of the translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts (Toc33 and Toc34 and a novel 9-kDa protein of unknown function that we define here as an outer envelope TA protein (OEP9. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that OEP9 utilizes a different sorting pathway than that used by Toc33 and Toc34. For instance, while all three TA proteins interact with the cytosolic OEP chaperone/receptor, AKR2A, the plastid targeting information within OEP9 is distinct from that within Toc33 and Toc34. Toc33 and Toc34 also appear to differ from OEP9 in that their insertion is dependent on themselves and the unique lipid composition of the plastid outer envelope. By contrast, the insertion of OEP9 into the plastid outer envelope occurs in a proteinaceous-dependent, but Toc33/34-independent manner and membrane lipids appear to serve primarily to facilitate normal thermodynamic integration of this TA protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the results provide evidence in support of at least two sorting pathways for plastid TA outer envelope proteins and shed light on not only the complex diversity of pathways involved in the targeting and insertion of proteins into plastids, but also the molecular mechanisms that underlie

  16. The transport of phenylacetic acid across the peroxisomal membrane is mediated by the PaaT protein in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Ullán, Ricardo V; Teijeira, Fernando; Rodríguez-Castro, Raquel; Martín, Juan F

    2013-04-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum, an industrial microorganism used worldwide for penicillin production, is an excellent model to study the biochemistry and the cell biology of enzymes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. The well-known peroxisomal location of the last two steps of penicillin biosynthesis (phenylacetyl-CoA ligase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase) requires the import into the peroxisomes of the intermediate isopenicillin N and the precursors phenylacetic acid and coenzyme A. The mechanisms for the molecular transport of these precursors are still poorly understood. In this work, a search was made, in the genome of P. chrysogenum, in order to find a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) membrane protein homologous to CefT of Acremonium chrysogenum, which is known to confer resistance to phenylacetic acid. The paaT gene was found to encode a MFS membrane protein containing 12 transmembrane spanners and one Pex19p-binding domain for Pex19-mediated targeting to peroxisomal membranes. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the paaT gene caused a clear reduction of benzylpenicillin secretion and increased the sensitivity of P. chrysogenum to the penicillin precursor phenylacetic acid. The opposite behavior was found when paaT was overexpressed from the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter that increases phenylacetic acid resistance and penicillin production. Localization studies by fluorescent laser scanning microscopy using PaaT-DsRed and EGFP-SKL fluorescent fusion proteins clearly showed that the protein was located in the peroxisomal membrane. The results suggested that PaaT is involved in penicillin production, most likely through the translocation of side-chain precursors (phenylacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid) from the cytosol to the peroxisomal lumen across the peroxisomal membrane of P. chrysogenum.

  17. Chemical Genomics Identifies the PERK-Mediated Unfolded Protein Stress Response as a Cellular Target for Influenza Virus Inhibition

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    Sara Landeras-Bueno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses generate annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease with important consequences for human health and the economy. Therefore, a large effort has been devoted to the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs directed to viral targets, as well as to the identification of cellular targets amenable to anti-influenza virus therapy. Here we have addressed the identification of such potential cellular targets by screening collections of drugs approved for human use. We reasoned that screening with a green fluorescent protein-based recombinant replicon system would identify cellular targets involved in virus transcription/replication and/or gene expression and hence address an early stage of virus infection. By using such a strategy, we identified Montelukast (MK as an inhibitor of virus multiplication. MK inhibited virus gene expression but did not alter viral RNA synthesis in vitro or viral RNA accumulation in vivo. The low selectivity index of MK prevented its use as an antiviral, but it was sufficient to identify a new cellular pathway suitable for anti-influenza virus intervention. By deep sequencing of RNA isolated from mock- and virus-infected human cells, treated with MK or left untreated, we showed that it stimulates the PERK-mediated unfolded protein stress response. The phosphorylation of PERK was partly inhibited in virus-infected cells but stimulated in MK-treated cells. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PERK phosphorylation led to increased viral gene expression, while inhibition of PERK phosphatase reduced viral protein synthesis. These results suggest the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as a potential cellular target to modulate influenza virus infection.

  18. Guanylate binding protein 1 is a novel effector of EGFR-driven invasion in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Mukasa, Akitake; Inda, Maria del-Mar; Zhang, Jianhua; Chin, Lynda; Cavenee, Webster; Furnari, Frank

    2011-12-19

    Although GBP1 (guanylate binding protein 1) was among the first interferon-inducible proteins identified, its function is still largely unknown. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by amplification or mutation is one of the most frequent genetic lesions in a variety of human tumors. These include glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which is characterized by independent but interrelated features of extensive invasion into normal brain parenchyma, rapid growth, necrosis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we show that EGFR activation promoted GBP1 expression in GBM cell lines through a signaling pathway involving Src and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, we identified YY1 (Yin Yang 1) as the downstream transcriptional regulator regulating EGFR-driven GBP1 expression. GBP1 was required for EGFR-mediated MMP1 (matrix metalloproteinase 1) expression and glioma cell invasion in vitro. Although deregulation of GBP1 expression did not affect glioma cell proliferation, overexpression of GBP1 enhanced glioma cell invasion through MMP1 induction, which required its C-terminal helical domain and was independent of its GTPase activity. Reducing GBP1 levels by RNA interference in invasive GBM cells also markedly inhibited their ability to infiltrate the brain parenchyma of mice. GBP1 expression was high and positively correlated with EGFR expression in human GBM tumors and cell lines, particularly those of the neural subtype. Together, these findings establish GBP1 as a previously unknown link between EGFR activity and MMP1 expression and nominate it as a novel potential therapeutic target for inhibiting GBM invasion.

  19. Dityrosine, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and radical formation from tyrosine residues on milk proteins with globular and flexible structures as a result of riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Brown, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidative damage to protein Tyr residues has been examined to determine whether protein structure influences competing protein oxidation pathways in single proteins and protein mixtures. EPR studies resulted in the detection of Tyr-derived o-semiquione radicals, with thi......Riboflavin-mediated photo-oxidative damage to protein Tyr residues has been examined to determine whether protein structure influences competing protein oxidation pathways in single proteins and protein mixtures. EPR studies resulted in the detection of Tyr-derived o-semiquione radicals...

  20. The effect of clozapine on mRNA expression for genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors and the protein components of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Sally I; Hu, Ying; Weymer, Jon F; Rizig, Mie; McQuillin, Andrew; Hunt, Stephen P; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2013-08-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is an intracellular trafficking mechanism for packaging cargo, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), into clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). The antipsychotic chlorpromazine inhibits CCV assembly of adaptor protein AP2 whereas clozapine increases serotonin2A receptor internalization. We hypothesized that clozapine alters the expression of CME genes modulating vesicle turnover and GPCR internalization. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were incubated with clozapine (1-20 µmol/l) for 24-72 h. GPCR and CME-related gene mRNA expression was measured using RT-PCR. We quantified changes in the same genes using expression data from a microarray study of mice brains after 12 weeks of treatment with 12 mg/kg/day clozapine. The expression of genes encoding adaptor and clathrin assembly proteins, AP2A2, AP2B1, AP180, CLINT1, HIP1, ITSN2, and PICALM, increased relative to the control in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with 5-10 µmol/l clozapine for 24-72 h. The microarray study showed significantly altered expression of the above CME-related genes, with a marked 641-fold and 17-fold increase in AP180 and the serotonin1A GPCR, respectively. The expression of three serotonergic receptor and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2 (EDG4) GPCR genes was upregulated in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with 5 µmol/l clozapine for 24 h. EDG4 expression was also increased with 10-20 µmol/l clozapine treatment at 48-72 h. Clozapine significantly decreased the expression of β-arrestin, involved in GPCR desensitization, both in vitro and vivo. The changes we report in CME and GPCR mRNAs implicate CCV-mediated internalization of GPCRs and the serotonergic system in clozapine's mechanism of action, which may be useful in the design of more effective and less toxic antipsychotic therapies.

  1. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase (RSK-2 as a central effector molecule in RON receptor tyrosine kinase mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by macrophage-stimulating protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui-Wen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT occurs during cancer cell invasion and malignant metastasis. Features of EMT include spindle-like cell morphology, loss of epithelial cellular markers and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Activation of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase by macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP has been implicated in cellular EMT program; however, the major signaling determinant(s responsible for MSP-induced EMT is unknown. Results The study presented here demonstrates that RSK2, a downstream signaling protein of the Ras-Erk1/2 pathway, is the principal molecule that links MSP-activated RON signaling to complete EMT. Using MDCK cells expressing RON as a model, a spindle-shape based screen was conducted, which identifies RSK2 among various intracellular proteins as a potential signaling molecule responsible for MSP-induced EMT. MSP stimulation dissociated RSK2 with Erk1/2 and promoted RSK2 nuclear translocation. MSP strongly induced RSK2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These effects relied on RON and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, which is significantly potentiated by transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, an EMT-inducing cytokine. Specific RSK inhibitor SL0101 completely prevented MSP-induced RSK phosphorylation, which results in inhibition of MSP-induced spindle-like morphology and suppression of cell migration associated with EMT. In HT-29 cancer cells that barely express RSK2, forced RSK2 expression results in EMT-like phenotype upon MSP stimulation. Moreover, specific siRNA-mediated silencing of RSK2 but not RSK1 in L3.6pl pancreatic cancer cells significantly inhibited MSP-induced EMT-like phenotype and cell migration. Conclusions MSP-induced RSK2 activation is a critical determinant linking RON signaling to cellular EMT program. Inhibition of RSK2 activity may provide a therapeutic opportunity for blocking RON-mediated cancer cell migration and subsequent invasion.

  2. Cleavage of Type I Collagen by Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Enhances Class A Scavenger Receptor Mediated Macrophage Adhesion.

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    Anna Mazur

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological conditions such as fibrosis, inflammation, and tumor progression are associated with modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM. These modifications create ligands that differentially interact with cells to promote responses that drive pathological processes. Within the tumor stroma, fibroblasts are activated and increase the expression of type I collagen. In addition, activated fibroblasts specifically express fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP, a post-prolyl peptidase. Although FAP reportedly cleaves type I collagen and contributes to tumor progression, the specific pathophysiologic role of FAP is not clear. In this study, the possibility that FAP-mediated cleavage of type I collagen modulates macrophage interaction with collagen was examined using macrophage adhesion assays. Our results demonstrate that FAP selectively cleaves type I collagen resulting in increased macrophage adhesion. Increased macrophage adhesion to FAP-cleaved collagen was not affected by inhibiting integrin-mediated interactions, but was abolished in macrophages lacking the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A/CD204. Further, SR-A expressing macrophages localize with activated fibroblasts in breast tumors of MMTV-PyMT mice. Together, these results demonstrate that FAP-cleaved collagen is a substrate for SR-A-dependent macrophage adhesion, and suggest that by modifying the ECM, FAP plays a novel role in mediating communication between activated fibroblasts and macrophages.

  3. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 is a soluble protein mediating blue light-dependent regulation of plant growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin ChenTao; Ahmad, M.; Cashmore, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) is a flavin-type blue type receptor of Arabidopsis thaliana which mediates inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. In the work described in this report it is demonstrated that CRY1 is a soluble protein expressed in both young seedlings grown either in the dark or under light, and in different organs of adult plants. The functional role of CRY1 was further investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CRY1. It is demonstrated that overexpression of CRY1 resulted in hypersensitivity to blue, UV-A, and green light for the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation response. Transgenic plants overexpressing CRY1 also exhibited a dwarf phenotype with reduced size in almost every organ. This was in keeping with the previous observation of reciprocal alterations found in hy4 mutant plants and is consistent with a hypothesis that CRY1 mediates a light-dependent process resulting in a general inhibitory effect on plant growth. In addition, transgenic plants overexpressing CRY1 showed increased anthocyanin accumulation in response to blue, UV-A, and green light in a fluence rate-dependent manner. This increase in anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic plants was shown to be concomitant with increased blue light-induction of CHS gene expression. It is concluded that CRY1 is a photoreceptor mediating blue light-dependent regulation of gene expression in addition to its affect on plant growth. (author)

  4. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

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    Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Aging and Geriatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  5. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. ► Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  6. Splice variants of the forkhead box protein AFX exhibit dominant negative activity and inhibit AFXalpha-mediated tumor cell apoptosis.

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    Eun Jig Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function in the apoptosis-inducing genes is known to facilitate tumorigenesis. AFX (FOXO4, a member of forkhead transcription factors functions as a tumor suppressor and has 2 isoforms, AFXalpha (505 a.a. and AFXzeta (450 a.a.. In human cancer cells, we identified an N-terminally deleted form of AFXalpha (alpha198-505, translated from a downstream start and 2 short N-terminal AFX proteins (90, and 101 a.a. produced by aberrant splicing.We investigated the expression and role of these AFX variants. Cell transduction study revealed that short N-terminal AFX proteins were not stable. Though alpha(198-505 protein expression was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus, alpha(198-505 expressing cells did not show a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediated by PI3 kinase signaling. Whereas, we observed this shuttling in cells expressing either AFXalpha or AFXzeta protein. AFXzeta and alpha(198-505 lost the ability to transactivate BCL6 or suppress cyclin D2 gene expression. These variants did not induce cancer cell death whereas AFXalpha resulted in apoptosis. We found that AFXzeta and alpha(198-505 suppress the AFXalpha stimulation of BCL6 promoter in a dose dependent manner, indicating dominant negative activity. These variants also inhibited AFXalpha induction of apoptosis.Loss of function by aberrant splicing and the dominant negative activity of AFX variants may provide a mechanism for enhanced survival of neoplastic cells.

  7. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Cao, Chuanwang; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee; He, Lin; Xi, Zhiyong; Bian, Guowu; Liu, Nannan

    2015-12-10

    Rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to be involved in the GPCR signal transduction system and regulate many essential physiological processes in organisms. This study, for the first time, revealed that knockdown of the rhodopsin-like GPCR gene in resistant mosquitoes resulted in a reduction of mosquitoes' resistance to permethrin, simultaneously reducing the expression of two cAMP-dependent protein kinase A genes (PKAs) and four resistance related cytochrome P450 genes. The function of rhodopsin-like GPCR was further confirmed using transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, in which the tolerance to permethrin and the expression of Drosophila resistance P450 genes were both increased. The roles of GPCR signaling pathway second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and downstream effectors PKAs in resistance were investigated using cAMP production inhibitor Bupivacaine HCl and the RNAi technique. Inhibition of cAMP production led to significant decreases in both the expression of four resistance P450 genes and two PKA genes and mosquito resistance to permethrin. Knockdown of the PKA genes had shown the similar effects on permethrin resistance and P450 gene expression. Taken together, our studies revealed, for the first time, the role of the GPCR/cAMP/PKA-mediated regulatory pathway governing P450 gene expression and P450-mediated resistance in Culex mosquitoes.

  8. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Cao, Chuanwang; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee; He, Lin; Xi, Zhiyong; Bian, Guowu; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to be involved in the GPCR signal transduction system and regulate many essential physiological processes in organisms. This study, for the first time, revealed that knockdown of the rhodopsin-like GPCR gene in resistant mosquitoes resulted in a reduction of mosquitoes’ resistance to permethrin, simultaneously reducing the expression of two cAMP-dependent protein kinase A genes (PKAs) and four resistance related cytochrome P450 genes. The function of rhodopsin-like GPCR was further confirmed using transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, in which the tolerance to permethrin and the expression of Drosophila resistance P450 genes were both increased. The roles of GPCR signaling pathway second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and downstream effectors PKAs in resistance were investigated using cAMP production inhibitor Bupivacaine HCl and the RNAi technique. Inhibition of cAMP production led to significant decreases in both the expression of four resistance P450 genes and two PKA genes and mosquito resistance to permethrin. Knockdown of the PKA genes had shown the similar effects on permethrin resistance and P450 gene expression. Taken together, our studies revealed, for the first time, the role of the GPCR/cAMP/PKA-mediated regulatory pathway governing P450 gene expression and P450-mediated resistance in Culex mosquitoes. PMID:26656663

  9. Atorvastatin reduces lipid accumulation in the liver by activating protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of perilipin 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; Nan, Yang; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Ren, Bincheng; Sun, Chao; Cao, Kaiyu; Yu, Ming; Feng, Xuyang; Ye, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Statins have been proven to be effective in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, it was reported that statins decreased the hepatic expression of perilipin 5 (Plin5), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, which plays critical roles in regulating lipid accumulation and lipolysis in liver. However, the function and regulation mechanism of Plin5 have not yet been well-established in NAFLD treatment with statins. In this study, we observed that atorvastatin moderately reduced the expression of Plin5 in livers without changing the protein level of Plin5 in the hepatic LD fraction of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Intriguingly, atorvastatin stimulated the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Plin5 and reduced the triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes with overexpression of wide type (Plin5-WT) compared to serine-155 mutant Plin5 (Plin5-S155A). Moreover, PKA-stimulated FA release of purified LDs carrying Plin5-WT but not Plin5-S155A. Glucagon, a PKA activator, stimulated the phosphorylation of Plin5-WT and inhibited its interaction with CGI-58. The results indicated that atorvastatin promoted lipolysis and reduced TG accumulation in the liver by increasing PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Plin5. This new mechanism of lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin might provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Restoring E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion increases PTEN protein level and stability in human breast carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zengxia; Wang Liying; Zhang Wen; Fu Yi; Zhao Hongbo; Hu Yali; Prins, Bram Peter; Zha Xiliang

    2007-01-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a well-characterized tumor suppressor that negatively regulates cell growth and survival. Despite the critical role of PTEN in cell signaling, the mechanisms of its regulation are still under investigation. We reported here that PTEN expression could be controlled by overexpression or knock-down of E-cadherin in several mammary carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that the accumulation of PTEN protein in E-cadherin overexpressing cells was due to increased PTEN protein stability rather than the regulation of its transcription. The proteasome-dependent PTEN degradation pathway was impaired after restoring E-cadherin expression. Moreover, maintenance of E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion was necessary for its regulating PTEN. Altogether, our results suggested that E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion was essential for preventing the proteasome degradation of PTEN, which might explain how breast carcinoma cells which lost cell-cell contact proliferate rapidly and are prone to metastasis

  11. Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jo Halaby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80 has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

  12. PME-1 protects ERK pathway activity from protein phosphatase 2A-mediated inactivation in human malignant glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustinen, Pietri; Junttila, Melissa R.; Vanhatupa, Sari; Sablina, Anna A.; Hector, Melissa E.; Teittinen, Kaisa; Raheem, Olayinka; Ketola, Kirsi; Lin, Shujun; Kast, Juergen; Haapasalo, Hannu; Hahn, William C.; Westermarck, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    ERK/MAPK pathway activity is regulated by the antagonist function of activating kinases and inactivating protein phosphatases. Sustained ERK pathway activity is commonly observed in human malignancies, however the mechanisms by which the pathway is protected from phosphatase-mediated inactivation in the tumor tissue remain obscure. Here we show that methylesterase PME-1-mediated inhibition of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) promotes basal ERK pathway activity, and is required for efficient growth factor response. Mechanistically PME-1 is shown to support ERK pathway signaling upstream of Raf, but downstream of growth factor receptors and PKC. In malignant glioblastoma, PME-1 expression levels correlate with both ERK activity and cell proliferation in vivo. Moreover, PME-1 expression significantly correlates with disease progression in human astrocytic gliomas (N=222). Together, these observations identify PME-1 expression as one mechanism by which ERK pathway activity is maintained in cancer cells, and suggest important functional role for PME-1 in the disease progression of human astrocytic gliomas. PMID:19293187

  13. Effect of a peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C on G-protein-mediated increase in myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity in rabbit arterial skinned muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T.; Suzuki, A.; Watanabe, Y.

    1994-01-01

    1. To investigate the role of protein kinase C in the increase mediated by guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle, the effect of a novel peptide inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC19-36) on Ca(2+)-induced contraction and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation was studied in the presence and absence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) in beta-escin-skinned smooth muscle strips of rabbit mesenteric artery. For comparison, the effects were also observed of PKC19-36 on the action of phorbol 12,13-dibutylate (PDBu, an activator of PKC) on the two Ca(2+)-induced responses. 2. In beta-escin-skinned strips treated with ionomycin, Ca2+ (0.1-3 microM) concentration-dependently produced contraction in parallel with an increase in MLC-phosphorylation. GTP gamma S (10 microM) and PDBu (0.1 microM) each shifted both the Ca(2+)-force and Ca(2+)-MLC-phosphorylation relationships to the left without a significant change in either maximum response. The relationship between force and MLC-phosphorylation was not modified by either GTP gamma S or PDBu, indicating that the sensitivity of MLC-phosphorylation to Ca2+ is enhanced by both GTP gamma S and PDBu. 3. PKC19-36 itself modified neither the contraction nor MLC-phosphorylation induced by Ca2+ but it did block the PDBu-induced enhancement of these two Ca(2+)-induced responses. By contrast, PKC19-36 did not modify the GTP gamma S-induced enhancement of the two Ca(2+)-induced responses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8012712

  14. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration of tobacco leaves with a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plant expression plasmid provides a convenient method for laboratory scale protein production. When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), diffic...

  15. Detection of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation products in the extracellular matrix of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Linton, Stuart M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation is believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. Oxidized lipids, sterols and proteins have been detected in early, intermediate and advanced human lesions at elevated levels. The spectrum of oxidized side-chain products detected on proteins from homogenates of advanced human lesions has...... been interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two oxidative mechanisms, one involving oxygen-derived radicals catalysed by trace transition metal ions, and a second involving chlorinating species (HOCl or Cl2), generated by the haem enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). As MPO is released extracellularly...... for 83-96% of the total oxidized protein side-chain products detected in these plaques. Oxidation of matrix components extracted from healthy artery tissue, and model proteins, with reagent HOCl is shown to give rise to a similar pattern of products to those detected in advanced human lesions...

  16. Theoretical Investigation of the Feasibility of PTD-Mediated Translocation of Proteins Across Artificial Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kharkyanen, Valeriy N

    2006-01-01

    ...: The recent discovery of the ability of protein transduction domains (PTDs) and their synthetic analogues to transport high-molecular weight compounds through biological or artificial membranes is very promising for many applications...

  17. Confinement to organelle-associated inclusion structures mediates asymmetric inheritance of aggregated protein in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokoini, Rachel; Moldavski, Ofer; Nahmias, Yaakov; England, Jeremy L; Schuldiner, Maya; Kaganovich, Daniel

    2012-10-25

    The division of the S. cerevisiae budding yeast, which produces one mother cell and one daughter cell, is asymmetric with respect to aging. Remarkably, the asymmetry of yeast aging coincides with asymmetric inheritance of damaged and aggregated proteins by the mother cell. Here, we show that misfolded proteins are retained in the mother cell by being sequestered in juxtanuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ) and insoluble protein deposit (IPOD) inclusions, which are attached to organelles. Upon exposure to stress, misfolded proteins accumulate in stress foci that must be disaggregated by Hsp104 in order to be degraded or processed to JUNQ and IPOD. Cells that fail to deliver aggregates to an inclusion pass on aggregates to subsequent generations. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Confinement to Organelle-Associated Inclusion Structures Mediates Asymmetric Inheritance of Aggregated Protein in Budding Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Spokoini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The division of the S. cerevisiae budding yeast, which produces one mother cell and one daughter cell, is asymmetric with respect to aging. Remarkably, the asymmetry of yeast aging coincides with asymmetric inheritance of damaged and aggregated proteins by the mother cell. Here, we show that misfolded proteins are retained in the mother cell by being sequestered in juxtanuclear quality control compartment (JUNQ and insoluble protein deposit (IPOD inclusions, which are attached to organelles. Upon exposure to stress, misfolded proteins accumulate in stress foci that must be disaggregated by Hsp104 in order to be degraded or processed to JUNQ and IPOD. Cells that fail to deliver aggregates to an inclusion pass on aggregates to subsequent generations.

  19. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses β-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes β-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPP's suppression of β-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the β-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome degradation does not directly account for the suppression. The possibility that ZnPP induces β-catenin exportation was rejected by the observation that there was no detectable β-catenin protein in the conditioned medium after ZnPP treatment of cancer cells. Further experimentation demonstrated that ZnPP induces lysosome membrane permeabilization, which was reversed by pretreatment with a protein transportation inhibitor cocktail containing Brefeldin A (BFA) and Monensin. More significantly, pretreatment of cancer cells with BFA and Monensin attenuated the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, indicating that the lysosome protein degradation pathway is likely involved in the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Whether there is cross-talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the lysosome pathway that may account for ZnPP-induced β-catenin protein degradation is currently unknown. These findings provide a novel mechanism of ZnPP's anticancer action and reveal a potential new strategy for targeting the β-catenin Wnt signaling pathway for cancer therapy.

  20. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses β-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes β-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPP's suppression of β-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the β-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome degradation does not directly account for the suppression. The possibility that ZnPP induces β-catenin exportation was rejected by the observation that there was no detectable β-catenin protein in the conditioned medium after ZnPP treatment of cancer cells. Further experimentation demonstrated that ZnPP induces lysosome membrane permeabilization, which was reversed by pretreatment with a protein transportation inhibitor cocktail containing Brefeldin A (BFA and Monensin. More significantly, pretreatment of cancer cells with BFA and Monensin attenuated the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, indicating that the lysosome protein degradation pathway is likely involved in the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Whether there is cross-talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the lysosome pathway that may account for ZnPP-induced β-catenin protein degradation is currently unknown. These findings provide a novel mechanism of ZnPP's anticancer action and reveal a potential new strategy for targeting the β-catenin Wnt signaling pathway for cancer therapy.

  1. A baculovirus-mediated strategy for full-length plant virus coat protein expression and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Rocha, Juliana Ribeiro; da Costa, Márcio Hedil Oliveira; Bocca, Anamélia Lorenzetti; Dusi, André Nepomuceno; de Oliveira Resende, Renato; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-08-15

    Garlic production is severely affected by virus infection, causing a decrease in productivity and quality. There are no virus-free cultivars and garlic-infecting viruses are difficult to purify, which make specific antibody production very laborious. Since high quality antisera against plant viruses are important tools for serological detection, we have developed a method to express and purify full-length plant virus coat proteins using baculovirus expression system and insects as bioreactors. In this work, we have fused the full-length coat protein (cp) gene from the Garlic Mite-borne Filamentous Virus (GarMbFV) to the 3'-end of the Polyhedrin (polh) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The recombinant baculovirus was amplified in insect cell culture and the virus was used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Thus, the recombinant fused protein was easily purified from insect cadavers using sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by Western Blotting. Interestingly, amorphous crystals were produced in the cytoplasm of cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the chimeric-protein gene but not in cells infected with the wild type and recombinant virus containing the hexa histidine tagged Polh. Moreover, the chimeric protein was used to immunize rats and generate antibodies against the target protein. The antiserum produced was able to detect plants infected with GarMbFV, which had been initially confirmed by RT-PCR. The expression of a plant virus full-length coat protein fused to the baculovirus Polyhedrin in recombinant baculovirus-infected insects was shown to produce high amounts of the recombinant protein which was easily purified and efficiently used to generate specific antibodies. Therefore, this strategy can potentially be used for the development of plant virus diagnostic kits for those viruses that are difficult to purify, are present in low titers or are present in mix infection in

  2. Template mediated protein self-assembly as a valuable tool in regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, B; Eltohamy, M; Yadavalli, V K; Reis, R L; Kim, H W

    2018-04-11

    The assembly of natural proteinaceous biopolymers into macro-scale architectures is of great importance in synthetic biology, soft-material science and regenerative therapy. The self-assembly of protein tends to be limited due to anisotropic interactions among protein molecules, poor solubility and stability. Here, we introduce a unique platform to self-immobilize diverse proteins (fibrous and globular, positively and negatively charged, low and high molecular weight) using silicon surfaces with pendant -NH 2 groups via a facile one step diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) method. All the experimental proteins (type I collagen, bovine serum albumin and cytochrome C) self-assemble into seaweed-like branched dendritic architectures via classical DLA in the absence of any electrolytes. The notable differences in branching architectures are due to dissimilarities in protein colloidal sub-units, which is typical for each protein type, along with the heterogeneous distribution of surface -NH 2 groups. Fractal analysis of assembled structures is used to explain the underlying route of fractal deposition; which concludes how proteins with different functionality can yield similar assembly. Further, the nano-micro-structured surfaces can be used to provide functional topographical cues to study cellular responses, as demonstrated using rat bone marrow stem cells. The results indicate that the immobilization of proteins via DLA does not affect functionality, instead serving as topographical cues to guide cell morphology. This indicates a promising design strategy at the tissue-material interface and is anticipated to guide future surface modifications. A cost-effective standard templating strategy is therefore proposed for fundamental and applied particle aggregation studies, which can be used at multiple length scales for biomaterial design and surface reformation.

  3. [Role of G protein-mediated signal transduction in molecular pharmacodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, W; Freissmuth, M; Nanoff, C; Selzer, E; Tuisl, E

    1990-10-26

    Hormones, neurotransmitter and autacoid receptors, localized on the plasma membrane, do not interact directly with their respective downstream effector (i.e., an ion channel and/or an enzyme that synthesizes a second messenger), but control their target systems via activation of an intermediary guanine nucleotide binding protein on G protein, which serves as signal transducer. Traffic of these pathways is regulated via a GTP (on)-GDP (off) switch, which is triggered by the receptor. The combination of classical biochemistry and recombinant DNA technology has resulted in the discovery of many members of the G protein family. Receptor desensitization is a main criterion of G protein-coupled receptors with important pharmacological implications. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for the loss of sensitivity that follows against exposure. The process is initiated by uncoupling the receptor from its G protein, which is due to receptor phosphorylation by specific kinases. In the case of the beta-adrenergic receptor, two particular kinases - beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) and protein kinase A--are involved. Further steps of desensitization are receptor sequestration or internalization, an event as rapid and transient as receptor uncoupling, and receptor downregulation, which requires more prolonged agonist exposure. Finally, antagonists are able to induce a receptor-G protein interaction in a reverse manner to agonists. Whereas agonists stimulate both, the GDP dissociation from the G protein and the association of GTP, antagonists markedly decrease GTP association. Moreover, in the turkey erythrocyte adenylyl cyclase system antagonists decrease the GTP-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity almost at basal levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Sea star tenacity mediated by a protein that fragments, then aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Demeuldre, Mélanie; Ladurner, Peter; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, J Herbert; Flammang, Patrick

    2014-04-29

    Sea stars adhere firmly but temporarily to various substrata as a result of underwater efficient adhesive secretions released by their tube feet. Previous studies showed that this material is mainly made up of proteins, which play a key role in its adhesiveness and cohesiveness. Recently, we solubilized the majority of these proteins and obtained 43 de novo-generated peptide sequences by tandem MS. Here, one of these sequences served to recover the full-length sequence of Sea star footprint protein 1 (Sfp1), by RT-PCR and tube foot transcriptome analysis. Sfp1, a large protein of 3,853 aa, is the second most abundant constituent of the secreted adhesive. By using MS and Western blot analyses, we showed that Sfp1 is translated from a single mRNA and then cleaved into four subunits linked together by disulphide bridges in tube foot adhesive cells. The four subunits display specific protein-, carbohydrate-, and metal-binding domains. Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry located Sfp1 in granules stockpiled by one of the two types of adhesive cells responsible for the secretion of the adhesive material. We also demonstrated that Sfp1 makes up the structural scaffold of the adhesive footprint that remains on the substratum after tube foot detachment. Taken together, the results suggest that Sfp1 is a major structural protein involved in footprint cohesion and possibly in adhesive interactions with the tube foot surface. In recombinant form, it could be used for the design of novel sea star-inspired biomaterials.

  5. [Faecal calprotectin as an aid to the diagnosis of non-IgE mediated cow's milk protein allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo Belizón, Carlos; Ortega Páez, Eduardo; Medina Claros, Antonio F; Rodríguez Sánchez, Isabel; Reina González, Ana; Vera Medialdea, Rafael; Ramón Salguero, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the use of faecal calprotectin (FCP) in infants with signs and symptoms of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) for both diagnosis and prediction of clinical response at the time of withdrawal of milk proteins. A one year prospective study was conducted on 82 infants between 1 and 12 months of age in the Eastern area of Málaga-Axarquía, of whom 40 of them had been diagnosed with non-IgE-mediated CMA (with suggestive symptoms and positive response to milk withdrawal), 12 not diagnosed with CMA, and 30 of them were the control group. FCP was measured at three different times: time of diagnosis, and one and three months later. ANOVA for repeated measures, nominal logistic regression and ROC curves were prepared using the SPSS.20 package and Medcalc. Differences between diagnostic and control groups were assessed: there was a statistically significant relationship (p<.0001) between high FCP levels and infants suffering CMA, as well as the levels at time of diagnosis, 1 and 3 months (p <.001). A ROC curve was constructed between FCP levels and diagnosis of CMA, with 138 ug/g, with the best cut-off being with an area under the curve of 0.89. However, it is only 0.68 to predict a clinical response. FCP levels lower than 138ug/g could be useful to rule out non-IgE-mediated CMA diagnosis. Calprotectin is not a good test to predict clinical response to milk withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel peptidoglycan binding protein crucial for PBP1A-mediated cell wall biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Dörr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial cell wall, which is comprised of a mesh of polysaccharide strands crosslinked via peptide bridges (peptidoglycan, PG, is critical for maintenance of cell shape and survival. PG assembly is mediated by a variety of Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBP whose fundamental activities have been characterized in great detail; however, there is limited knowledge of the factors that modulate their activities in different environments or growth phases. In Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, PG synthesis during the transition into stationary phase is primarily mediated by the bifunctional enzyme PBP1A. Here, we screened an ordered V. cholerae transposon library for mutants that are sensitive to growth inhibition by non-canonical D-amino acids (DAA, which prevent growth and maintenance of cell shape in PBP1A-deficient V. cholerae. In addition to PBP1A and its lipoprotein activator LpoA, we found that CsiV, a small periplasmic protein with no previously described function, is essential for growth in the presence of DAA. Deletion of csiV, like deletion of lpoA or the PBP1A-encoding gene mrcA, causes cells to lose their rod shape in the presence of DAA or the beta-lactam antibiotic cefsulodin, and all three mutations are synthetically lethal with deletion of mrcB, which encodes PBP1B, V. cholerae's second key bifunctional PBP. CsiV interacts with LpoA and PG but apparently not with PBP1A, supporting the hypothesis that CsiV promotes LpoA's role as an activator of PBP1A, and thereby modulates V. cholerae PG biogenesis. Finally, the requirement for CsiV in PBP1A-mediated growth of V. cholerae can be overcome either by augmenting PG synthesis or by reducing PG degradation, thereby highlighting the importance of balancing these two processes for bacterial survival.

  7. Nurr1 protein is required for N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated neuronal survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Servitja, Joan-Marc; Badiola, Nahuai; Miñano-Molina, Alfredo J; Fadó, Rut; Saura, Carlos A; Rodríguez-Alvarez, José

    2012-03-30

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation promotes neuronal survival during brain development. Cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) need NMDAR stimulation to survive and develop. These neurons differentiate and mature during its migration from the external granular layer to the internal granular layer, and lack of excitatory inputs triggers their apoptotic death. It is possible to mimic this process in vitro by culturing CGCs in low KCl concentrations (5 mm) in the presence or absence of NMDA. Using this experimental approach, we have obtained whole genome expression profiles after 3 and 8 h of NMDA addition to identify genes involved in NMDA-mediated survival of CGCs. One of the identified genes was Nurr1, a member of the orphan nuclear receptor subfamily Nr4a. Our results report a direct regulation of Nurr1 by CREB after NMDAR stimulation. ChIP assay confirmed CREB binding to Nurr1 promoter, whereas CREB shRNA blocked NMDA-mediated increase in Nurr1 expression. Moreover, we show that Nurr1 is important for NMDAR survival effect. We show that Nurr1 binds to Bdnf promoter IV and that silencing Nurr1 by shRNA leads to a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels and a reduction of NMDA neuroprotective effect. Also, we report that Nurr1 and BDNF show a similar expression pattern during postnatal cerebellar development. Thus, we conclude that Nurr1 is a downstream target of CREB and that it is responsible for the NMDA-mediated increase in BDNF, which is necessary for the NMDA-mediated prosurvival effect on neurons.

  8. Different Stability and Proteasome-Mediated Degradation Rate of SMN Protein Isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Locatelli

    Full Text Available The key pathogenic steps leading to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, a genetic disease characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration, are not fully clarified. The full-length SMN protein (FL-SMN, the main protein product of the disease gene SMN1, plays an established role in the cytoplasm in snRNP biogenesis ultimately leading to mRNA splicing within the nucleus. It is also involved in the mRNA axonal transport. However, to what extent the impairment of these two SMN functions contributes to SMA pathogenesis remains unknown. A shorter SMN isoform, axonal-SMN or a-SMN, with more specific axonal localization, has been discovered, but whether it might act in concert with FL-SMN in SMA pathogenesis is not known. As a first step in defining common or divergent intracellular roles of FL-SMN vs a-SMN proteins, we here characterized the turn-over of both proteins and investigated which pathway contributed to a-SMN degradation. We performed real time western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis in easily controllable in vitro settings. We analyzed co-transfected NSC34 and HeLa cells and cell clones stably expressing both a-SMN and FL-SMN proteins after specific blocking of transcript or protein synthesis and inhibition of known intracellular degradation pathways. Our data indicated that whereas the stability of both FL-SMN and a-SMN transcripts was comparable, the a-SMN protein was characterized by a much shorter half-life than FL-SMN. In addition, as already demonstrated for FL-SMN, the Ub/proteasome pathway played a major role in the a-SMN protein degradation. We hypothesize that the faster degradation rate of a-SMN vs FL-SMN is related to the protection provided by the protein complex in which FL-SMN is assembled. The diverse a-SMN vs FL-SMN C-terminus may dictate different protein interactions and complex formation explaining the different localization and role in the neuronal compartment, and the lower expression and stability of a-SMN.

  9. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  10. Induction of rat hepatic zinc thionein by phorbol ester-mediated protein kinase C pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, S.H.; Funk, A.E.; Brady, F.O.

    1986-05-01

    Metallothionein (MT) exists in rat liver mainly as a zinc protein. The levels of this protein fluctuate in response to a variety of internal and external stimuli. Among these inducers of MT are metals, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and polypeptide hormones. Metals and glucocorticoids are primary inducers of MT, while the others operate either via adenylate cyclase/cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or via phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, diacylglycerol/Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C. The authors have examined the role of the protein kinase C pathway in the induction of MT by using a phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), to activate it. In vivo TPA is a good inducer of Zn/sub 7/-MT with an ED/sub 0.5/ of 26.5 nmoles/kg b.w. Maximal levels reached were about 7..mu..g Zn in MT/g liver, an induction increase of 8 to 10-fold. An inactive compound, 4..beta..-phorbol, and the vehicle (DMSO) did not stimulate the synthesis of Zn/sub 7/-MT. This induction by TPA requires de novo protein synthesis, as demonstrated by a cycloheximide/(/sup 35/S)-cysteine experiment. TPA stimulated Zn incorporation by 8.6-fold and (/sup 35/S)-cysteine incorporation by 4.8-fold during an 11h induction. These increases were blocked 100% by treatment with cycloheximide at -1 and +5h. These experiments have been repeated in cultured hepatocytes, using (/sup 35/S)-cysteine incorporation, slab SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography to quantitate MT levels.

  11. Model of OSBP-Mediated Cholesterol Supply to Aichi Virus RNA Replication Sites Involving Protein-Protein Interactions among Viral Proteins, ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Sasaki, Kumiko; Nagashima, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Koki; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Positive-strand RNA viruses, including picornaviruses, utilize cellular machinery for genome replication. Previously, we reported that each of the 2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB proteins of Aichi virus (AiV), a picornavirus, forms a complex with the Golgi apparatus protein ACBD3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) at viral RNA replication sites (replication organelles [ROs]), enhancing PI4KB-dependent phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) production. Here, we demonstrate AiV hijacking of the cellular cholesterol transport system involving oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), a PI4P-binding cholesterol transfer protein. AiV RNA replication was inhibited by silencing cellular proteins known to be components of this pathway, OSBP, the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAP-A/B), the PI4P-phosphatase SAC1, and PI-transfer protein β. OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1 were present at RNA replication sites. We also found various previously unknown interactions among the AiV proteins (2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB), ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1, and the interactions were suggested to be involved in recruiting the component proteins to AiV ROs. Importantly, the OSBP-2B interaction enabled PI4P-independent recruitment of OSBP to AiV ROs, indicating preferential recruitment of OSBP among PI4P-binding proteins. Protein-protein interaction-based OSBP recruitment has not been reported for other picornaviruses. Cholesterol was accumulated at AiV ROs, and inhibition of OSBP-mediated cholesterol transfer impaired cholesterol accumulation and AiV RNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that AiV-induced vesicle-like structures were close to ER membranes. Altogether, we conclude that AiV directly recruits the cholesterol transport machinery through protein-protein interactions, resulting in formation of membrane contact sites between the ER and AiV ROs and cholesterol supply to the ROs. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize host pathways to modulate the lipid composition of

  12. rDNA Mediated Bioconjugates: Fusion Proteins and their Intended Use in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya-Ozsan, Ayse Goksu; Oner, Ayse Filiz

    2017-01-01

    Protein bioconjugates can be synthesized by using chemical reactions, enzymatic reactions or genetic engineering technologies. Naturally occurred protein fusion event is used on purpose in the development of better biopharmaceuticals by applying genetic engineering methodologies. This review will mainly focus on the types of fusion proteins produced with the use of recombinant DNA technology, by combining genes or parts of genes from the same or different organisms, in order to be used in pharmaceutical applications for several purposes. Main concerns for the development of better biopharmaceuticals include quality, efficacy, safety, immunogenicity and toxicity issues. Extending half-life of the drug to increase patient compliance, targeting the drugs to reduce toxicity, improving the manufacturing environment to reduce the costs and revealing protein interaction technologies to find novel and superior drugs are the main aims of fusion protein production. Here, related tags and examples of fusion methods for different purposes will be explained precisely. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. SNARE-fusion mediated insertion of membrane proteins into native and artificial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Gustav; Brzezinski, Peter; von Ballmoos, Christoph

    2014-07-02

    Membrane proteins carry out functions such as nutrient uptake, ATP synthesis or transmembrane signal transduction. An increasing number of reports indicate that cellular processes are underpinned by regulated interactions between these proteins. Consequently, functional studies of these networks at a molecular level require co-reconstitution of the interacting components. Here, we report a SNARE protein-based method for incorporation of multiple membrane proteins into artificial membrane vesicles of well-defined composition, and for delivery of large water-soluble substrates into these vesicles. The approach is used for in vitro reconstruction of a fully functional bacterial respiratory chain from purified components. Furthermore, the method is used for functional incorporation of the entire F1F0 ATP synthase complex into native bacterial membranes from which this component had been genetically removed. The novel methodology offers a tool to investigate complex interaction networks between membrane-bound proteins at a molecular level, which is expected to generate functional insights into key cellular functions.

  14. Cytokine-Like Protein 1(Cytl1: A Potential Molecular Mediator in Embryo Implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Ai

    Full Text Available Cytokine-like protein 1 (Cytl1, originally described as a protein expressed in CD34+ cells, was recently identified as a functional secreted protein involved in chondrogenesis and cartilage development. However, our knowledge of Cytl1 is still limited. Here, we determined the Cytl1 expression pattern regulated by ovarian hormones at both the mRNA and protein levels. We found that the endometrial expression of Cytl1 in mice was low before or on the first day of gestation, significantly increased during embryo implantation, and then decreased at the end of implantation. We investigated the effects of Cytl1 on endometrial cell proliferation, and the effects on the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF. We also explored the effect of Cytl1 on endometrial adhesion properties in cell-cell adhesion assays. Our findings demonstrated that Cytl1 is an ovarian hormone-dependent protein expressed in the endometrium that enhances the proliferation of HEC-1-A and RL95-2 cells, stimulates endometrial secretion of LIF and HB-EGF, and enhances the adhesion of HEC-1-A and RL95-2 cells to JAR spheroids. This study suggests that Cytl1 plays an active role in the regulation of embryo implantation.

  15. Expression of Cyt-c-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Related Proteins in Rat Renal Proximal Tubules during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Feng; Tian, He; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhen-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis regulates embryogenesis, organ metamorphosis and tissue homeostasis. Mitochondrial signaling is an apoptotic pathway, in which Cyt-c and Apaf-1 are transformed into an apoptosome, which activates procaspase-9 and triggers apoptosis. This study evaluated Cyt-c, Apaf-1 and caspase-9 expression during renal development. Kidneys from embryonic (E) 16-, 18-, and 20-day-old fetuses and postnatal (P) 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old pups were obtained. Immunohistochemical analysis, dual-labeled immunofluorescence, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique assay and Western blot were performed in addition to histological analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that Cyt-c was strongly expressed in proximal and distal tubules (DTs) at all time points. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 were strongly expressed in proximal tubules (PTs) but only weakly expressed in DTs. Dual-labeled immunofluorescence showed that most tubules expressed both Cyt-c and Apaf-1, except for some tubules that only expressed Cyt-c. The TUNEL assay showed a greater percentage of apoptotic cells in PTs compared to DTs. Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 protein expression gradually increased during the embryonic period and peaked during the early postnatal period but apparently declined from P7. Cyt-c protein expression was weak during the embryonic period but obviously increased after P1. This study showed that PTs are more sensitive to apoptosis than DTs during rat renal development, even though both tubule segments contain a large number of mitochondria. Furthermore, Cyt-c-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins play an important role in PTs during the early postnatal kidney development. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Importin α-importin β complex mediated nuclear translocation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Long, Juan; Yi, Yuxin; Xia, Wei

    2017-10-28

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 is a secreted protein that binds to IGFs and modulates IGF actions, as well as regulates cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis independent of IGF. Proper cellular localization is critical for the effective function of most signaling molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the nuclear IGFBP-5 comes from ER-cytosol retro-translocation. In this study, we further investigated the pathway mediating IGFBP-5 nuclear import after it retro-translocation. Importin-α5 was identified as an IGFBP-5-interacting protein with a yeast two-hybrid system, and its interaction with IGFBP-5 was further confirmed by GST pull down and co-immunoprecipitation. Binding affinity of IGFBP-5 and importins were determined by surface plasmon resonance (IGFBP-5/importin-β: K D =2.44e-7, IGFBP-5/importin-α5: K D =3.4e-7). Blocking the importin-α5/importin-β nuclear import pathway using SiRNA or dominant negative impotin-β dramatically inhibited IGFBP-5-EGFP nuclear import, though importin-α5 overexpress does not affect IGFBP-5 nuclear import. Furthermore, nuclear IGFBP-5 was quantified using luciferase report assay. When deleted the IGFBP-5 nuclear localization sequence (NLS), IGFBP-5 ΔNLS loss the ability to translocate into the nucleus and accumulation of IGFBP-5 ΔNLS was visualized in the cytosol. Altogether, our findings provide a substantially evidence showed that the IGFBP-5 nuclear import is mediated by importin-α/importin-β complex, and NLS is critical domain in IGFBP-5 nuclear translocation.

  17. Propofol reduced myocardial contraction of vertebrates partly by mediating the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xinyu; Bo, Qiyu; Meng, Tao; Lei, Zhen; Li, Jingxin; Hou, Yonghao; Yu, Xiaoqian; Yu, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    Propofol inhibits myocardial contraction in a dose dependent manner. The present study is designed to examine the effect of propofol on PKA mediated myocardial contraction in the absence of adrenoreceptor agonist. The contraction of isolated rat heart was measured in the presence or absence of PKA inhibitor H89 or propofol, using a pressure transducer. The levels of cAMP and PKA kinase activity were detected by ELISA. The mRNA and total protein or phosphorylation level of PKA and downstream proteins were tested in the presence or absence of PKA inhibitor H89 or propofol, using RT-PCR, QPCR and western blotting. The phosphorylation level of PKA was examined thoroughly using immunofluorescence and PKA activity non-radioactive detection kit. Propofol induced a dose-dependent negative contractile response on the rat heart. The inhibitory effect of high concentration propofol (50 μM) with 45% decease of control could be partly reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89 (10 μM) and the depressant effect of propofol decreased from 45% to 10%. PKA kinase activity was inhibited by propofol in a dose-dependent manner. Propofol also induced a decrease in phosphorylation of PKA, which was also inhibited by H89, but did not alter the production of cAMP and the mRNA levels of PKA. The downstream proteins of PKA, PLN and RyR2 were phosphorylated to a lesser extent with propofol or H89 than control. These results demonstrated that propofol induced a negative myocardial contractile response partly by mediating the PKA phosphorylation pathway.

  18. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops.

  19. Phosphorylation of the von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL) by protein kinase CK2 reduces its protein stability and affects p53 and HIF-1alpha mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Kietzmann, Thomas; Zimmer, Andreas; Jakupovic, Mirza; Montenarh, Mathias; Götz, Claudia

    2010-10-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene encodes a protein with 213 amino acids, which is known to be part of an E3-ubiquitin ligase targeting the HIF-1alpha transcription factor as well as to form a complex with p53. The VHL protein can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 at serines 33, 38 and 43. However, the role of VHL phosphorylation in the context of p53 and HIF-1alpha regulation remained so far unknown. In the present study we investigated whether phosphorylation of VHL by CK2 might affect the function of p53 and HIF-1alpha. By using 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a CK2-specific inhibitor, as well as a mutant VHL where serines 33, 38 and 43 were replaced by alanines we found that CK2 phosphorylation affected the VHL protein half-life and increased VHL protein stability. Further, we found that inhibition of VHL phosphorylation by CK2 reduced p53 function. In addition, the enhanced levels of VHL due to CK2 inhibition contributed to the down-regulation of HIF-activity and degradation of HIF-1alpha. Thus, these results demonstrate that phosphorylation of VHL by CK2 plays an important role in the regulation of VHL protein stability and may contribute to the survival of tumour cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Truncated Fragment of Src Protein Kinase Generated by Calpain-mediated Cleavage Is a Mediator of Neuronal Death in Excitotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Iqbal; Roulston, Carli L.; Kamaruddin, M. Aizuddin; Chu, Percy W. Y.; Ng, Dominic C. H.; Dusting, Gregory J.; Bjorge, Jeffrey D.; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Fujita, Donald J.; Cheung, Steve N.; Chan, Tung O.; Hill, Andrew F.; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Excitotoxicity resulting from overstimulation of glutamate receptors is a major cause of neuronal death in cerebral ischemic stroke. The overstimulated ionotropic glutamate receptors exert their neurotoxic effects in part by overactivation of calpains, which induce neuronal death by catalyzing limited proteolysis of specific cellular proteins. Here, we report that in cultured cortical neurons and in vivo in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke, the tyrosine kinase Src is cleaved by calpains at a site in the N-terminal unique domain. This generates a truncated Src fragment of ∼52 kDa, which we localized predominantly to the cytosol. A cell membrane-permeable fusion peptide derived from the unique domain of Src prevents calpain from cleaving Src in neurons and protects against excitotoxic neuronal death. To explore the role of the truncated Src fragment in neuronal death, we expressed a recombinant truncated Src fragment in cultured neurons and examined how it affects neuronal survival. Expression of this fragment, which lacks the myristoylation motif and unique domain, was sufficient to induce neuronal death. Furthermore, inactivation of the prosurvival kinase Akt is a key step in its neurotoxic signaling pathway. Because Src maintains neuronal survival, our results implicate calpain cleavage as a molecular switch converting Src from a promoter of cell survival to a mediator of neuronal death in excitotoxicity. Besides unveiling a new pathological action of Src, our discovery of the neurotoxic action of the truncated Src fragment suggests new therapeutic strategies with the potential to minimize brain damage in ischemic stroke. PMID:23400779

  1. Urokinase mediates endothelial cell survival via induction of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prager, Gerald W; Mihaly, Judit; Brunner, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) additionally elicits a whole array of pro-angiogenic responses, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we demonstrate that in endothelial cells uPA also protects against apoptosis by transcriptional up-regulation and partia......Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) additionally elicits a whole array of pro-angiogenic responses, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we demonstrate that in endothelial cells uPA also protects against apoptosis by transcriptional up......-regulation and partially by mRNA stabilization of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, most prominently the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). The antiapoptotic activity of uPA was dependent on its protease activity, the presence of uPA receptor (uPAR) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP...

  2. Cell-mediated reduction of protein and peptide hydroperoxides to reactive free radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Radical attack on proteins in the presence of O(2) gives protein hydroperoxides in high yields. These peroxides are decomposed by transition metal ions, reducing agents, UV light and heat, with the formation of a range of reactive radicals that are capable of initiating further damage. Evidence has....... In this study we have investigated the reduction of peptide and protein hydroperoxides by THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells and it is shown that this process is accompanied by radical formation as detected by EPR spin trapping. The radicals detected, which are similar to those detected from metal-ion catalyzed...... transport system (TPMET) either directly, or indirectly via redox cycling of trace transition metal ions....

  3. Improved intracellular delivery of glucocerebrosidase mediated by the HIV-1 TAT protein transduction domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyun Oh; Luu, Nga; Kaneski, Christine R.; Schiffmann, Raphael; Brady, Roscoe O.; Murray, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Gaucher disease designed to target glucocerebrosidase (GC) to macrophages via mannose-specific endocytosis is very effective in reversing hepatosplenomegaly, and normalizing hematologic parameters but is less effective in improving bone and lung involvement and ineffective in brain. Recombinant GCs containing an in-frame fusion to the HIV-1 trans-activator protein transduction domain (TAT) were expressed in eukaryotic cells in order to obtain active, normally glycosylated GC fusion proteins for enzyme uptake studies. Despite the absence of mannose-specific endocytic receptors on the plasma membranes of various fibroblasts, the recombinant GCs with C-terminal TAT fusions were readily internalized by these cells. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy demonstrated the recombinant TAT-fusion proteins with a mixed endosomal and lysosomal localization. Thus, TAT-modified GCs represent a novel strategy for a new generation of therapeutic enzymes for ERT for Gaucher disease

  4. The protein oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) mediates oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    on the presence and on the concentration of transition metal ions, with copper being more effective than iron. The yields of 8oxodG and 5OHdC increased with DOPA concentration in proteins. Thus PB-DOPA was able to promote further radical-generating events, which then transferred damage to other biomolecules...... of other protein-bound oxidation products. The formation of two oxidation products of DNA, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8oxodG) and 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine (5OHdC), were studied with a novel HPLC using gradient elution and an electrochemical detection method, which allowed the detection of both...

  5. Effects of receptor-mediated endocytosis and tubular protein composition on volume retention in experimental glomerulonephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastner, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Sendeski, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Human glomerulonephritis (GN) is characterized by sustained proteinuria, sodium retention, hypertension, and edema formation. Increasing quantities of filtered protein enter the renal tubule, where they may alter epithelial transport functions. Exaggerated endocytosis and consequent protein...... endocytosis. Mice displayed salt retention and elevated systolic blood pressure when proteinuria had reached 10-15 mg/24 h. Surface expression of proximal Na(+)-coupled transporters and water channels was in part [Na(+)-P(i) cotransporter IIa (NaPi-IIa) and aquaporin-1 (AQP1)] increased by megalin deficiency...... mechanism of channel activation which may involve the action of filtered plasma proteases....

  6. An Impermeant Ganetespib Analog Inhibits Extracellular Hsp90-Mediated Cancer Cell Migration that Involves Lysyl Oxidase 2-like Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, Jessica; Wong, Daniel S.; Burlison, Joseph A.; Ying, Weiwen; Jay, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) activates a number of client proteins outside of cancer cells required for migration and invasion. Therefore, eHsp90 may serve as a novel target for anti-metastatic drugs as its inhibition using impermeant Hsp90 inhibitors would not affect the numerous vital intracellular Hsp90 functions in normal cells. While some eHsp90 clients are known, it is important to establish other proteins that act outside the cell to validate eHsp90 as a drug target to limit cancer spread. Using mass spectrometry we identified two precursor proteins Galectin 3 binding protein (G3BP) and Lysyl oxidase 2-like protein (LOXL2) that associate with eHsp90 in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell conditioned media and confirmed that LOXL2 binds to eHsp90 in immunoprecipitates. We introduce a novel impermeant Hsp90 inhibitor STA-12-7191 derived from ganetespib and show that it is markedly less toxic to cells and can inhibit cancer cell migration in a dose dependent manner. We used STA-12-7191 to test if LOXL2 and G3BP are potential eHsp90 clients. We showed that while LOXL2 can increase wound healing and compensate for STA-12-7191-mediated inhibition of wound closure, addition of G3BP had no affect on this assay. These findings support of role for LOXL2 in eHsp90 stimulated cancer cell migration and provide preliminary evidence for the use of STA-12-7191 to inhibit eHsp90 to limit cancer invasion

  7. An Impermeant Ganetespib Analog Inhibits Extracellular Hsp90-Mediated Cancer Cell Migration that Involves Lysyl Oxidase 2-like Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, Jessica [Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wong, Daniel S. [Department of Developmental Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Cell and Molecular Physiology Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Burlison, Joseph A.; Ying, Weiwen [Synta Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Jay, Daniel G., E-mail: daniel.jay@tufts.edu [Department of Developmental Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Cell and Molecular Physiology Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) activates a number of client proteins outside of cancer cells required for migration and invasion. Therefore, eHsp90 may serve as a novel target for anti-metastatic drugs as its inhibition using impermeant Hsp90 inhibitors would not affect the numerous vital intracellular Hsp90 functions in normal cells. While some eHsp90 clients are known, it is important to establish other proteins that act outside the cell to validate eHsp90 as a drug target to limit cancer spread. Using mass spectrometry we identified two precursor proteins Galectin 3 binding protein (G3BP) and Lysyl oxidase 2-like protein (LOXL2) that associate with eHsp90 in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell conditioned media and confirmed that LOXL2 binds to eHsp90 in immunoprecipitates. We introduce a novel impermeant Hsp90 inhibitor STA-12-7191 derived from ganetespib and show that it is markedly less toxic to cells and can inhibit cancer cell migration in a dose dependent manner. We used STA-12-7191 to test if LOXL2 and G3BP are potential eHsp90 clients. We showed that while LOXL2 can increase wound healing and compensate for STA-12-7191-mediated inhibition of wound closure, addition of G3BP had no affect on this assay. These findings support of role for LOXL2 in eHsp90 stimulated cancer cell migration and provide preliminary evidence for the use of STA-12-7191 to inhibit eHsp90 to limit cancer invasion.

  8. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdaoussi, M; Bergeron, V; Zarrouki, B; Kolic, J; Cantley, J; Fielitz, J; Olson, E N; Prentki, M; Biden, T; MacDonald, P E; Poitout, V

    2012-10-01

    Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gα(q/11) but the signalling cascade activated downstream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40 (-/-) mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes.

  9. IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 associated with mental retardation and autism mediates synapse formation by trans-synaptic interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Yasumura, Misato; Uemura, Takeshi; Lee, Sung-Jin; Ra, Moonjin; Taguchi, Ryo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2011-09-21

    Mental retardation (MR) and autism are highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. IL-1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) is responsible for nonsyndromic MR and is associated with autism. Thus, the elucidation of the functional role of IL1RAPL1 will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of these mental disorders. Here, we showed that knockdown of endogenous IL1RAPL1 in cultured cortical neurons suppressed the accumulation of punctate staining signals for active zone protein Bassoon and decreased the number of dendritic protrusions. Consistently, the expression of IL1RAPL1 in cultured neurons stimulated the accumulation of Bassoon and spinogenesis. The extracellular domain (ECD) of IL1RAPL1 was required and sufficient for the presynaptic differentiation-inducing activity, while both the ECD and cytoplasmic domain were essential for the spinogenic activity. Notably, the synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was specific for excitatory synapses. Furthermore, we identified presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) δ as a major IL1RAPL1-ECD interacting protein by affinity chromatography. IL1RAPL1 interacted selectively with certain forms of PTPδ splice variants carrying mini-exon peptides in Ig-like domains. The synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was abolished in primary neurons from PTPδ knock-out mice. IL1RAPL1 showed robust synaptogenic activity in vivo when transfected into the cortical neurons of wild-type mice but not in PTPδ knock-out mice. These results suggest that IL1RAPL1 mediates synapse formation through trans-synaptic interaction with PTPδ. Our findings raise an intriguing possibility that the impairment of synapse formation may underlie certain forms of MR and autism as a common pathogenic pathway shared by these mental disorders.

  10. The nuclear export protein of H5N1 influenza A viruses recruits Matrix 1 (M1) protein to the viral ribonucleoprotein to mediate nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunotte, Linda; Flies, Joe; Bolte, Hardin; Reuther, Peter; Vreede, Frank; Schwemmle, Martin

    2014-07-18

    In influenza A virus-infected cells, replication and transcription of the viral genome occurs in the nucleus. To be packaged into viral particles at the plasma membrane, encapsidated viral genomes must be exported from the nucleus. Intriguingly, the nuclear export protein (NEP) is involved in both processes. Although NEP stimulates viral RNA synthesis by binding to the viral polymerase, its function during nuclear export implicates interaction with viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-associated M1. The observation that both interactions are mediated by the C-terminal moiety of NEP raised the question whether these two features of NEP are linked functionally. Here we provide evidence that the interaction between M1 and the vRNP depends on the NEP C terminus and its polymerase activity-enhancing property for the nuclear export of vRNPs. This suggests that these features of NEP are linked functionally. Furthermore, our data suggest that the N-terminal domain of NEP interferes with the stability of the vRNP-M1-NEP nuclear export complex, probably mediated by its highly flexible intramolecular interaction with the NEP C terminus. On the basis of our data, we propose a new model for the assembly of the nuclear export complex of Influenza A vRNPs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Lysine Residues Are Not Required for Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of the Auxin/Indole Acidic Acid Protein IAA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Jonathan; Kelley, Dior R; Tam, Raymond; Estelle, Mark; Callis, Judy

    2015-06-01

    indicate that Aux/IAA family members have protein-specific degradation rates and that ubiquitination of Aux/IAAs can occur on multiple types of amino residues to promote rapid auxin-mediated degradation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. 14-3-3 mediates transcriptional regulation by modulating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of tobacco DNA-binding protein phosphatase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, José L; Castelló, María José; Vera, Pablo

    2006-08-11

    Tobacco DBP1 is the founding member of a novel class of plant transcription factors featuring sequence-specific DNA binding and protein phosphatase activity. To understand the mechanisms underlying the function of this family of transcriptional regulators, we have identified the tobacco 14-3-3 isoform G as the first protein interacting with a DBP factor. 14-3-3 recognition involves the N-terminal region of DBP1, which also supports the DNA binding activity attributed to DBP1. The relevance of this interaction is reinforced by its conservation in Arabidopsis plants, where the closest relative of DBP1 in this species also interacts with a homologous 14-3-3 protein through its N-terminal region. Furthermore, we show that in planta 14-3-3 G is directly involved in regulating DBP1 function by promoting nuclear export and subsequent cytoplasmic retention of DBP1 under conditions that in turn alleviate DBP1-mediated repression of target gene expression.

  13. Light-mediated Reversible Modulation of the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway during Cell Differentiation and Xenopus Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vishnu V; Turgeon, Aurora J; Khamo, John S; Mondal, Payel; Sharum, Savanna R; Mei, Wenyan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Kai

    2017-06-15

    Kinase activity is crucial for a plethora of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. During early embryonic development, kinase activity is highly dynamic and widespread across the embryo. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are commonly used to probe kinase activities. Unfortunately, it is challenging to achieve superior spatial and temporal resolution using these strategies. Furthermore, it is not feasible to control the kinase activity in a reversible fashion in live cells and multicellular organisms. Such a limitation remains a bottleneck for achieving a quantitative understanding of kinase activity during development and differentiation. This work presents an optogenetic strategy that takes advantage of a bicistronic system containing photoactivatable proteins Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and the N-terminal domain of cryptochrome-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix (CIBN). Reversible activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is achieved through light-mediated protein translocation in live cells. This approach can be applied to mammalian cell cultures and live vertebrate embryos. This bicistronic system can be generalized to control the activity of other kinases with similar activation mechanisms and can be applied to other model systems.

  14. Repression by an auxin/indole acetic acid protein connects auxin signaling with heat shock factor-mediated seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranco, Raúl; Espinosa, José Manuel; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Almoguera, Concepción; Jordano, Juan

    2010-12-14

    The plant hormone auxin regulates growth and development by modulating the stability of auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins, which in turn repress auxin response factors (ARFs) transcriptional regulators. In transient assays performed in immature sunflower embryos, we observed that the Aux/IAA protein HaIAA27 represses transcriptional activation by HaHSFA9, a heat shock transcription factor (HSF). We also found that HaIAA27 is stabilized in immature sunflower embryos, where we could show bimolecular fluorescence complementation interaction between native forms of HaIAA27 and HaHSFA9. An auxin-resistant form of HaIAA27 was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco seeds, leading to effects consistent with down-regulation of the ortholog HSFA9 gene, effects not seen with the native HaIAA27 form. Repression of HSFs by HaIAA27 is thus likely alleviated by auxin in maturing seeds. We show that HSFs such as HaHSFA9 are targets of Aux/IAA protein repression. Because HaHSFA9 controls a genetic program involved in seed longevity and embryonic desiccation tolerance, our findings would suggest a mechanism by which these processes can be auxin regulated. Aux/IAA-mediated repression involves transcription factors distinct from ARFs. This finding widens interpretation of auxin responses.

  15. Antifolate resistance mediated by the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1 and MRP2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijberg, J. H.; Broxterman, H. J.; Kool, M.; Assaraf, Y. G.; Peters, G. J.; Noordhuis, P.; Scheper, R. J.; Borst, P.; Pinedo, H. M.; Jansen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Transfection of multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) MRP1 and MRP2 in human ovarian carcinoma 2008 cells conferred a marked level of resistance to short-term (1-4 h) exposure to the polyglutamatable antifolates methotrexate (MTX; 21-74-fold), ZD1694 (4-138-fold), and GW1843 (101-156-fold). Evidence

  16. Mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-mediated inhibition of leptin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, I K; Hansen, J A; Andersen, H S

    2005-01-01

    Upon leptin binding, the leptin receptor is activated, leading to stimulation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction cascade. The transient character of the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 suggests the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) as negative regulators of this sign...

  17. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after Agrobacterium infiltration, difficulties arise due to the thin leaf structure. Thick leaved succulents, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Hylotelephium telephium, were tested as alternatives. A xyloglucanase, as well as a xyloglucanase inhibitor protein was successfully produced. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides.

  19. Iron–sulfur cluster exchange reactions mediated by the human Nfu protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Human Nfu is an iron–sulfur cluster protein that has recently been implicated in multiple mitochondrial dysfunctional syndrome (MMDS1). The Nfu family of proteins shares a highly homologous domain that contains a conserved active site consisting of a CXXC motif. There is less functional conservation between bacterial and human Nfu proteins, particularly concerning their Iron–sulfur cluster binding and transfer roles. Herein, we characterize the cluster exchange chemistry of human Nfu and its capacity to bind and transfer a [2Fe–2S] cluster. The mechanism of cluster uptake from a physiologically relevant [2Fe–2S] (GS)4 cluster complex, and extraction of the Nfu-bound iron–sulfur cluster by glutathione are described. Human holo Nfu shows a dimer-tetramer equilibrium with a protein to cluster ratio of 2:1, reflecting the Nfu-bridging [2Fe–2S] cluster. This cluster can be transferred to apo human ferredoxins at relatively fast rates, demonstrating a direct role for human Nfu in the process of [2Fe–2S] cluster trafficking and delivery. PMID:27538573

  20. The unfolded protein response mediates reversible tau phosphorylation induced by metabolic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harg, J.M.; Nölle, A.; Zwart, R.; Boerema, A.S.; van Haastert, E.S.; Strijkstra, A.M.; Hoozemans, J.J.M.; Scheper, W.

    2014-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in neurodegenerative tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) in close connection with early stages of tau pathology. Metabolic disturbances are strongly associated with increased risk for AD and are a potent inducer of the UPR. Here, we

  1. Tempol protects blood proteins and lipids against peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad A; Jaradat, Ahmad Q; Allouh, Mohammed Z

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is characterized by excessive production of various free radicals and reactive species among which, peroxynitrite is most frequently produced in several pathological conditions. Peroxynitrite is the product of the superoxide anion reaction with nitric oxide, which is reported to take place in the intravascular compartment. Several studies have reported that peroxynitrite targets red blood cells, platelets and plasma proteins, and induces various forms of oxidative damage. This in vitro study was designed to further characterize the types of oxidative damage induced in platelets and plasma proteins by peroxynitrite. This study also determined the ability of tempol to protect blood plasma and platelets against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage. The ability of various concentrations of tempol (25, 50, 75, and 100 µM) to antagonize peroxynitrite-induced oxidation was evaluated by measuring the levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances in experimental groups. Exposure of platelets and plasma to 100 µM peroxynitrite resulted in an increased levels of carbonyl groups and lipid peroxidation (P Tempol significantly inhibited carbonyl group formation in plasma and platelet proteins (P tempol significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in both plasma and platelet samples (P tempol has antioxidative properties against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damage in blood plasma and platelets. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Abrantes, Marta; Kok, Jan; de Fatima Silva Lopes, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Two Enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the P-type ATPase EF1400 and the putative SapB protein EF0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. In the present work, we showed that a Zn(2+)-responsive DNA-binding motif (zim) is present in the

  3. A new mode of SAM domain mediated oligomerization observed in the CASKIN2 neuronal scaffolding protein

    KAUST Repository

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2016-08-22

    Background: CASKIN2 is a homolog of CASKIN1, a scaffolding protein that participates in a signaling network with CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine kinase). Despite a high level of homology between CASKIN2 and CASKIN1, CASKIN2 cannot bind CASK due to the absence of a CASK Interaction Domain and consequently, may have evolved undiscovered structural and functional distinctions.

  4. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (MRP2) Mediated Transport of Oxaliplatin-Derived Platinum in Membrane Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Khine; Li, Yan; Paxton, James; McKeage, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The platinum-based anticancer drug oxaliplatin is important clinically in cancer treatment. However, the role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in controlling oxaliplatin membrane transport, in vivo handling, toxicity and therapeutic responses is unclear. In the current study, preparations of MRP2-expressing and control membrane vesicles, containing inside-out orientated vesicles, were used to directly characterise the membrane transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxaliplatin inhibited the ATP-dependent accumulation of the model MRP2 fluorescent probe, 5(6)-carboxy-2,'7'-dichlorofluorescein, in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles. MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles accumulated up to 19-fold more platinum during their incubation with oxaliplatin and ATP as compared to control membrane vesicles and in the absence of ATP. The rate of ATP-dependent MRP2-mediated active transport of oxaliplatin-derived platinum increased non-linearly with increasing oxaliplatin exposure concentration, approaching a plateau value (Vmax) of 2680 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes (95%CI, 2010 to 3360 pmol Pt/mg protein/10 minutes), with the half-maximal platinum accumulation rate (Km) at an oxaliplatin exposure concentration of 301 μM (95% CI, 163 to 438 μM), in accordance with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (r2 = 0.954). MRP2 inhibitors (myricetin and MK571) reduced the ATP-dependent accumulation of oxaliplatin-derived platinum in MRP2-expressing membrane vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner. To identify whether oxaliplatin, or perhaps a degradation product, was the likely substrate for this active transport, HPLC studies were undertaken showing that oxaliplatin degraded slowly in membrane vesicle incubation buffer containing chloride ions and glutathione, with approximately 95% remaining intact after a 10 minute incubation time and a degradation half-life of 2.24 hours (95%CI, 2.08 to 2.43 hours). In

  5. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-26

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV.

  6. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils.

  7. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuehua; Jin, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils.

  8. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 mediates metabolic adaptation in response to lipopolysaccharide in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Shin-ichi; Liu, Wenrui; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ahsan, Md Kaimul; Ramos, Dorys Adriana Lopez; Son, Aoi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Zhang, Li; Masutani, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hajime; Yodoi, Junji

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxin triggers a reorganization of the energy metabolic pathway, including the promotion of fatty acid utilization to adapt to a high energy demand during endotoxemia. However, the factors responsible for the metabolic adaptation and characteristic pathologies resulting from defective utilization fatty acids during endotoxin response have not been fully clarified. The thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2) knockout (TBP-2) mouse is an animal model of fatty acid oxidation disorder. The aim ...

  9. Sorafenib enhances proteasome inhibitor-mediated cytotoxicity via inhibition of unfolded protein response and keratin phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru, E-mail: msrharada@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly resistant to conventional systemic therapies and prognosis for advanced HCC patients remains poor. Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression have identified several potential molecular targets in HCC. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor shown to have survival benefits in advanced HCC. It acts by inhibiting the serine/threonine kinases and the receptor type tyrosine kinases. In preclinical experiments sorafenib had anti-proliferative activity in hepatoma cells and it reduced tumor angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib include its inhibitory effects on protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response (UPR) and keratin phosphorylation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, we show that combined treatment with sorafenib and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) synergistically induced a marked increase in cell death in hepatoma- and hepatocyte-derived cells. These observations may open the way to potentially interesting treatment combinations that may augment the effect of sorafenib, possibly including drugs that promote ER stress. Because sorafenib blocked the cellular defense mechanisms against hepatotoxic injury not only in hepatoma cells but also in hepatocyte-derived cells, we must be careful to avoid severe liver injury. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •We examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of sorafenib in hepatoma cells. •Sorafenib induces cell death via apoptotic and necrotic fashion. •Sorafenib inhibits protein ubiquitination and unfolded protein response. •Autophagy induced by sorafenib may affect its cytotoxicity. •Sorafenib inhibits keratin phosphorylation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation.

  10. Activator ProteinMediates Parathyroid TGF-α Self-Induction in Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2008-01-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-α in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-α activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2α (AP2), an inducer of TGF-α gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-α in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression ...

  11. Protein corona-mediated targeting of nanocarriers to B cells allows redirection of allergic immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Limei; Tenzer, Stefan; Storck, Wiebke; Hobernik, Dominika; Raker, Verena Katherina; Fischer, Karl; Decker, Sandra; Dzionek, Andrzej; Krauthäuser, Susanne; Diken, Mustafa; Nikolaev, Alexej; Maxeiner, Joachim; Schuster, Petra; Kappel, Cinja; Verschoor, Admar; Schild, Hansjörg; Grabbe, Stephan; Bros, Matthias

    2018-01-31

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccines are attractive immunotherapy tools because of their capability to codeliver antigen and adjuvant to antigen-presenting cells. Their cellular distribution and serum protein interaction ("protein corona") after systemic administration and their effect on the functional properties of NPs is poorly understood. We analyzed the relevance of the protein corona on cell type-selective uptake of dextran-coated NPs and determined the outcome of vaccination with NPs that codeliver antigen and adjuvant in disease models of allergy. The role of protein corona constituents for cellular binding/uptake of dextran-coated ferrous nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) was analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. DEX-NPs conjugated with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and immunostimulatory CpG-rich oligodeoxynucleotides were administered to monitor the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses. Therapeutic effects of this DEX-NP vaccine in mouse models of OVA-induced anaphylaxis and allergic asthma were assessed. DEX-NPs triggered lectin-induced complement activation, yielding deposition of activated complement factor 3 on the DEX-NP surface. In the spleen DEX-NPs targeted predominantly B cells through complement receptors 1 and 2. The DEX-NP vaccine elicited much stronger OVA-specific IgG 2a production than coadministered soluble OVA plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. B-cell binding of the DEX-NP vaccine was critical for IgG 2a production. Treatment of OVA-sensitized mice with the DEX-NP vaccine prevented induction of anaphylactic shock and allergic asthma accompanied by IgE inhibition. Opsonization of lectin-coated NPs by activated complement components results in selective B-cell targeting. The intrinsic B-cell targeting property of lectin-coated NPs can be exploited for treatment of allergic immune responses. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Mediate Upregulation of Hypothalamic AT1 Receptors in Heart Failure Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Weiss, Robert M.; Felder, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    In heart failure (HF), angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1-R) expression is upregulated in brain regions regulating sympathetic drive, blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. However, the mechanism by which brain AT1-R are upregulated in HF remains unknown. The present study examined the hypothesis that the angiotensin II (ANG II)-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p44/42, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) contribute to upregulation of the AT1-R in the hypothalamus of rats with HF. AT1-R protein, AT1-R mRNA and AT1-R immunoreactivity increased in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) and the subfornical organ (SFO) of rats with ischemia-induced HF, compared with sham-operated controls. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, JNK, and p38 MAPK also increased in PVN and SFO. A 4-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the AT1-R antagonist losartan decreased AT1-R protein and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, JNK and p38 MAPK in the HF rats. A 4-week ICV infusion of the p44/42 MAPK inhibitor PD98059 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased AT1-R protein and AT1-R immunoreactivity in the PVN and SFO, but the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Treatment with ICV losartan, PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on AT1-R expression by Western blot in sham-operated rats. In untreated HF rats 4 weeks after coronary ligation, a 3-hour ICV infusion of PD98059, SP600125 or losartan reduced AT1-R mRNA in PVN and SFO. These data indicate that MAPK plays an important role in the upregulation of AT1-R in the rat forebrain in heart failure, and suggest that ANG II upregulates its own receptor by this mechanism. PMID:18768402

  13. Increased expression of CD4 molecules on Jurkat cells mediated by human immunodeficiency virus tat protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Koka, P; Yunis, J; Passarelli, A L; Dubey, D P; Faller, D V; Ynis, E J

    1988-01-01

    The tat gene of the human immunodeficiency virus, tat-III, when introduced into T-lymphoblastoid Jurkat cells by a Moloney retroviral recombinant DNA vector expressed high levels of the functional tat protein as measured by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Immunofluorescence analysis with CD4-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that the cell surface levels of the CD4 antigen were increased by 5- to 10-fold in the tat-III-infected Jurkat cells. Cellular cytoplasmic RNA anal...

  14. Minimal mesoscale model for protein-mediated vesiculation in clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj J Agrawal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, the internalization of extracellular cargo via the endocytic machinery is an important regulatory process required for many essential cellular functions. The role of cooperative protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions in the ubiquitous endocytic pathway in mammalian cells, namely the clathrin-dependent endocytosis, remains unresolved. We employ the Helfrich membrane Hamiltonian together with surface evolution methodology to address how the shapes and energetics of vesicular-bud formation in a planar membrane are stabilized by presence of the clathrin-coat assembly. Our results identify a unique dual role for the tubulating protein epsin: multiple epsins localized spatially and orientationally collectively play the role of a curvature inducing capsid; in addition, epsin serves the role of an adapter in binding the clathrin coat to the membrane. Our results also suggest an important role for the clathrin lattice, namely in the spatial- and orientational-templating of epsins. We suggest that there exists a critical size of the coat above which a vesicular bud with a constricted neck resembling a mature vesicle is stabilized. Based on the observed strong dependence of the vesicle diameter on the bending rigidity, we suggest that the variability in bending stiffness due to variations in membrane composition with cell type can explain the experimentally observed variability on the size of clathrin-coated vesicles, which typically range 50-100 nm. Our model also provides estimates for the number of epsins involved in stabilizing a coated vesicle, and without any direct fitting reproduces the experimentally observed shapes of vesicular intermediates as well as their probability distributions quantitatively, in wildtype as well as CLAP IgG injected neuronal cell experiments. We have presented a minimal mesoscale model which quantitatively explains several experimental observations on the process of vesicle nucleation

  15. Nuclear Matrix protein SMAR1 represses HIV-1 LTR mediated transcription through chromatin remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenath, Kadreppa; Pavithra, Lakshminarasimhan; Singh, Sandeep; Sinha, Surajit; Dash, Prasanta K.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Ranga, Udaykumar; Mitra, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Matrix and MARs have been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of host as well as viral genes but their precise role in HIV-1 transcription remains unclear. Here, we show that > 98% of HIV sequences contain consensus MAR element in their promoter. We show that SMAR1 binds to the LTR MAR and reinforces transcriptional silencing by tethering the LTR MAR to nuclear matrix. SMAR1 associated HDAC1-mSin3 corepressor complex is dislodged from the LTR upon cellular activation by PMA/TNFα leading to an increase in the acetylation and a reduction in the trimethylation of histones, associated with the recruitment of RNA Polymerase II on the LTR. Overexpression of SMAR1 lead to reduction in LTR mediated transcription, both in a Tat dependent and independent manner, resulting in a decreased virion production. These results demonstrate the role of SMAR1 in regulating viral transcription by alternative compartmentalization of LTR between the nuclear matrix and chromatin.

  16. The Arabidopsis SWI/SNF protein BAF60 mediates seedling growth control by modulating DNA accessibility

    KAUST Repository

    Jégu, Teddy

    2017-06-15

    Plant adaptive responses to changing environments involve complex molecular interplays between intrinsic and external signals. Whilst much is known on the signaling components mediating diurnal, light, and temperature controls on plant development, their influence on chromatin-based transcriptional controls remains poorly explored.In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BAF60 expression level is regulated in response to light and daily rhythms.These results unveil a short path between a chromatin remodeler and a signaling component to fine-tune plant morphogenesis in response to environmental conditions.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP......60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......-specific IgG antibodies were found more frequently (43.2 versus 13.5%), and the antibody levels were higher in the TFI cases than in the controls (P cases and 58.9% of the controls (P

  18. Membrane-Mediated Oligomerization of G Protein Coupled Receptors and Its Implications for GPCR Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahbauer, Stefan; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2016-01-01

    The dimerization or even oligomerization of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) causes ongoing, controversial debates about its functional role and the coupled biophysical, biochemical or biomedical implications. A continously growing number of studies hints to a relation between oligomerization and function of GPCRs and strengthens the assumption that receptor assembly plays a key role in the regulation of protein function. Additionally, progress in the structural analysis of GPCR-G protein and GPCR-ligand interactions allows to distinguish between actively functional and non-signaling complexes. Recent findings further suggest that the surrounding membrane, i.e., its lipid composition may modulate the preferred dimerization interface and as a result the abundance of distinct dimeric conformations. In this review, the association of GPCRs and the role of the membrane in oligomerization will be discussed. An overview of the different reported oligomeric interfaces is provided and their capability for signaling discussed. The currently available data is summarized with regard to the formation of GPCR oligomers, their structures and dependency on the membrane microenvironment as well as the coupling of oligomerization to receptor function.

  19. Insig proteins mediate feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Matthew R; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J

    2014-01-24

    Enterocytes are the only cell type that must balance the de novo synthesis and absorption of cholesterol, although the coordinate regulation of these processes is not well understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that enterocytes respond to the pharmacological blockade of cholesterol absorption by ramping up de novo sterol synthesis through activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2). Here, we genetically disrupt both Insig1 and Insig2 in the intestine, two closely related proteins that are required for the feedback inhibition of SREBP and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR). This double knock-out was achieved by generating mice with an intestine-specific deletion of Insig1 using Villin-Cre in combination with a germ line deletion of Insig2. Deficiency of both Insigs in enterocytes resulted in constitutive activation of SREBP and HMGR, leading to an 11-fold increase in sterol synthesis in the small intestine and producing lipidosis of the intestinal crypts. The intestine-derived cholesterol accumulated in plasma and liver, leading to secondary feedback inhibition of hepatic SREBP2 activity. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol absorption was unable to further induce the already elevated activities of SREBP-2 or HMGR in Insig-deficient enterocytes. These studies confirm the essential role of Insig proteins in the sterol homeostasis of enterocytes.

  20. 17β-Estradiol inhibits estrogen binding protein-mediated hypha formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakado, Sanae; Kurogane, Rie; Sugita, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most prevalent and clinically important fungal pathogens. The ability to change form depending on environmental stress is an important microbial virulence factor. A survey of compounds that inhibit this morphological change identified various steroids, including 17β-estradiol. Interestingly, C. albicans has proteins capable of binding to steroids, including estrogen binding protein (Ebp1). Estrogens regulate cell differentiation and proliferation in humans through estrogen receptor proteins. To determine whether EBP1 regulates a virulence factor, we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on the morphological transition of C. albicans using an ebp1 deletion mutant. Treatment with 10 μg/mL of 17β-estradiol inhibited hypha formation, whereas its effect on the ebp1 deletion mutant was decreased compared to that on the wild-type and revertant strains. These data suggest a new pathway for the yeast-to-hypha transition via EBP1 in C. albicans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calorimetric Quantification of Cyclodextrin-Mediated Detergent Extraction for Membrane-Protein Reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Martin; Keller, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    For many in vitro studies, purified membrane proteins need to be reconstituted from detergent micelles into lipid bilayers to regain their native structures and functions. Stoichiometric complexation of detergent by cyclodextrin provides a tightly controllable strategy for detergent extraction. Here, we describe a practical approach making use of isothermal titration calorimetry to obtain a complete set of thermodynamic parameters that allows for quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during reconstitution. These parameters include the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent inclusion complex, the critical micellar concentration of the detergent, and the phase boundaries of the lipid/detergent phase diagram. The underlying theoretical framework involves linked equilibria among all pseudophases, as described previously (Textor, Vargas, & Keller, 2015). This chapter focuses on practical aspects of the approach and discusses caveats and calorimetry-specific details of data analysis. With the entire parameter set at hand, exploration of different reconstitution trajectories within the lipid/detergent phase diagram is possible. Together with the straightforward control over the rate of detergent extraction offered by cyclodextrin complexation, this opens the possibility of systematically tuning and optimizing the reconstitution process of membrane proteins. Provided some particular precautions are taken, the approach can be adapted to many other combinations of proteins, lipids, detergents, and cyclodextrins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular insight into IgE-mediated reactions to sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Restani, Patrizia; Fuggetta, Dalia; Alessandri, Claudia; Mari, Adriano; Bernardini, Roberto; Iacono, Iride Dello; Arlorio, Marco; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    Food allergy is becoming a major public health concern in recent times. Several sesame seed allergenic proteins have been identified. However, sensitization toward these proteins does not follow a common and unique pattern of clinical reactivity, as shown by the differential geographic recognition of single proteins. To evaluate the sensitization profiles of 18 Italian individuals who experienced clinical symptoms after sesame seed consumption, including 4 anaphylactic reactions. Using an in vitro approach, we adopted a 2-dimensional electrophoretic technique combined with immunoblotting analyses by using sera from 18 Italian sesame-allergic patients. We showed the prevalent and almost exclusive reactivity of the sesame 11S globulin. We shed light on the active role of the basic subunit of this globulin family. The limited accessibility of this polypeptide chain, unless the interchain disulphide bonds are cleaved, may be one of the reasons for its structural/functional stability and, thus, great potential for induction of IgE reactivity. These results confirmed previous findings on the reactivity of the basic subunit of 11S globulin in various legume species. Moreover, this experimental approach proved to be useful for the noninvasive screening of specific reactivities in sensitized patients. Copyright © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IRE1/bZIP60-mediated unfolded protein response plays distinct roles in plant immunity and abiotic stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A Moreno

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER-mediated protein secretion and quality control have been shown to play an important role in immune responses in both animals and plants. In mammals, the ER membrane-located IRE1 kinase/endoribonuclease, a key regulator of unfolded protein response (UPR, is required for plasma cell development to accommodate massive secretion of immunoglobulins. Plant cells can secrete the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR proteins with antimicrobial activities upon pathogen challenge. However, whether IRE1 plays any role in plant immunity is not known. Arabidopsis thaliana has two copies of IRE1, IRE1a and IRE1b. Here, we show that both IRE1a and IRE1b are transcriptionally induced during chemically-induced ER stress, bacterial pathogen infection and treatment with the immune signal salicylic acid (SA. However, we found that IRE1a plays a predominant role in the secretion of PR proteins upon SA treatment. Consequently, the ire1a mutant plants show enhanced susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen and are deficient in establishing systemic acquired resistance (SAR, whereas ire1b is unaffected in these responses. We further demonstrate that the immune deficiency in ire1a is due to a defect in SA- and pathogen-triggered, IRE1-mediated cytoplasmic splicing of the bZIP60 mRNA, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the expression of UPR-responsive genes. Consistently, IRE1a is preferentially required for bZIP60 splicing upon pathogen infection, while IRE1b plays a major role in bZIP60 processing upon Tunicamycin (Tm-induced stress. We also show that SA-dependent induction of UPR-responsive genes is altered in the bzip60 mutant resulting in a moderate susceptibility to a bacterial pathogen. These results indicate that the IRE1/bZIP60 branch of UPR is a part of the plant response to pathogens for which the two Arabidopsis IRE1 isoforms play only partially overlapping roles and that IRE1 has both bZIP60-dependent and bZIP60-independent

  4. Pain Relief with Wet Cupping Therapy in Rats is Mediated by Heat Shock Protein 70 and ß-Endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subadi, Imam; Nugraha, Boya; Laswati, Hening; Josomuljono, Harjanto

    2017-07-01

    Wet cupping therapy is a complementary therapy in pain management. The mechanism of this therapy, however, needs further elucidation. Cells injured by wet cupping therapy seem to stimulate the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Its benefit in pain reduction could be mediated by the expression of ß-endorphin. This study aimed at determining the correlation between HSP70 and ß-endorphin after wet cupping therapy. Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG; n=8) and treatment (TG; n=8) groups. The rats in both groups were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at the footpad. In the TG, wet cupping therapy was done at the left and right paralumbar regions 48 hours after the CFA injection. Twenty-four hours after therapy, the hot plate test was done to assess pain threshold. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry from the skin subjected to wet cupping therapy was conducted for HSP70 and ß-endorphin. The expression of HSP70 was significantly higher in the keratinocytes of the TG (20.25±3.53; Pcupping therapy was significantly higher in the TG (22.81±6.34 s; P=0.003) than in the CG (11.78±3.56 s). The benefit of wet cupping therapy in terms of pain reduction in rats could be mediated by the expression of HSP70 and ß-endorphin.

  5. Hypothesis: A Role for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Mediating and Relieving MicroRNA-Guided Translational Repression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-guided messenger RNA (mRNA translational repression is believed to be mediated by effector miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP complexes harboring fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Recent studies documented the nucleic acid chaperone properties of FMRP and characterized its role and importance in RNA silencing in mammalian cells. We propose a model in which FMRP could facilitate miRNA assembly on target mRNAs in a process involving recognition of G quartet structures. Functioning within a duplex miRNP, FMRP may also mediate mRNA targeting through a strand exchange mechanism, in which the miRNA* of the duplex is swapped for the mRNA. Furthermore, FMRP may contribute to the relief of miRNA-guided mRNA repression through a reverse strand exchange reaction, possibly initiated by a specific cellular signal, that would liberate the mRNA for translation. Suboptimal utilization of miRNAs may thus account for some of themolecular defects in patients with the fragile X syndrome.

  6. The V0-ATPase mediates apical secretion of exosomes containing Hedgehog-related proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Samuel; Benedetto, Alexandre; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Schwab, Yannick; Labouesse, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Polarized intracellular trafficking in epithelia is critical in development, immunity, and physiology to deliver morphogens, defensins, or ion pumps to the appropriate membrane domain. The mechanisms that control apical trafficking remain poorly defined. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we characterize a novel apical secretion pathway involving multivesicularbodies and the release of exosomes at the apical plasma membrane. By means of two different genetic approaches, we show that the membrane-bound V0 sector of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) acts in this pathway, independent of its contribution to the V-ATPase proton pump activity. Specifically, we identified mutations in the V0 “a” subunit VHA-5 that affect either the V0-specific function or the V0+V1 function of the V-ATPase. These mutations allowed us to establish that the V0 sector mediates secretion of Hedgehog-related proteins. Our data raise the possibility that the V0 sector mediates exosome and morphogen release in mammals. PMID:16785323

  7. The role of phospholipid transfer protein in lipoprotein-mediated neutralization of the procoagulant effect of anionic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslakovic, C; Jauhiainen, M; Ehnholm, C; Dahlbäck, B

    2010-04-01

    Serum has the ability to neutralize the procoagulant properties of anionic liposomes, with transfer of phospholipids (PLs) to both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) mediates transfer of PLs between HDL and other lipoproteins and conversion of HDL into larger and smaller particles. To examine the role of PLTP in the neutralization of procoagulant liposomes. Procoagulant liposomes were incubated with different lipoproteins in the presence or absence of PLTP, and then tested for their ability to stimulate thrombin formation. In the absence of added PLTP, the lipoprotein-enriched fraction, total HDL, HDL(3) and very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) were all able to neutralize the procoagulant properties of the liposomes. In these samples, endogenous PLTP was present, as judged by Western blotting. In contrast, no PLTP was present in LDL, HDL(2) and lipoprotein-deficient serum, all of which displayed no ability to neutralize the procoagulant liposomes. The phospholipid (PL) transfer activity was dependent on both enzyme (PLTP) and PL acceptor (lipoproteins). After treatment of the VHDL fraction with antiserum against PLTP, the neutralization of procoagulant activity was reduced, but could be regained by the addition of active PLTP. The neutralizing activity was dependent on a catalytically active form of PLTP, and addition of a low activity form of PLTP had no effect. In conclusion, PLTP was found to mediate transfer of anionic PLs to HDL and LDL, thereby neutralizing the effect of procoagulant liposomes, resulting in a reduction of procoagulant activity.

  8. Immunomodulatory role of interleukin-10 in visceral leishmaniasis: defective activation of protein kinase C-mediated signal transduction events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Ghosh, S; Jhonson, P L; Bhattacharya, S K; Majumdar, S

    2001-03-01

    Leishmania donovani, an intracellular protozoan parasite, challenges host defense mechanisms by impairing the signal transduction of macrophages. In this study we investigated whether interleukin-10 (IL-10)-mediated alteration of signaling events in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis is associated with macrophage deactivation. Primary in vitro cultures of macrophages infected with leishmanial parasites markedly elevated the endogenous release of IL-10. Treatment with either L. donovani or recombinant IL-10 (rIL-10) inhibited both the activity and expression of the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoform. However, preincubation with neutralizing anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) restored the PKC activity in the parasitized macrophage. Furthermore, we observed that coincubation of macrophages with rIL-10 and L. donovani increased the intracellular parasite burden, which was abrogated by anti-IL-10 MAb. Consistent with these observations, generation of superoxide (O2-) and nitric oxide and the release of murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha were attenuated in response to L. donovani or rIL-10 treatment. On the other hand, preincubation of the infected macrophages with neutralizing anti-IL-10 MAb significantly blocked the inhibition of nitric oxide and murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by the infected macrophages. These findings imply that infection with L. donovani induces endogenous secretion of murine IL-10, which in turn facilitates the intracellular survival of the protozoan and orchestrates several immunomodulatory roles via selective impairment of PKC-mediated signal transduction.

  9. Helicobacter pylori-derived Heat shock protein 60 enhances angiogenesis via a CXCR2-mediated signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Si [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); He, Pei-Juin; Hsu, Wei-Tung [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Shiang [Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chang-Jer [Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Hsiao-Wei [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Chia-Hsiang [Yung-Shin Pharmaceutical Industry Co., Ltd., Tachia, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yiu-Kay [Department of Life Science, Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Nu-Man [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liao, Kuang-Wen, E-mail: kitchhen@yahoo.com.tw [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-25

    Helicobacter pylori is a potent carcinogen associated with gastric cancer malignancy. Recently, H. pylori Heat shock protein 60 (HpHSP60) has been reported to promote cancer development by inducing chronic inflammation and promoting tumor cell migration. This study demonstrates a role for HpHSP60 in angiogenesis, a necessary precursor to tumor growth. We showed that HpHSP60 enhanced cell migration and tube formation, but not cell proliferation, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HpHSP60 also indirectly promoted HUVEC proliferation when HUVECs were co-cultured with supernatants collected from HpHSP60-treated AGS or THP-1 cells. The angiogenic array showed that HpHSP60 dramatically induced THP-1 cells and HUVECs to produce the chemotactic factors IL-8 and GRO. Inhibition of CXCR2, the receptor for IL-8 and GRO, or downstream PLC{beta}2/Ca2+-mediated signaling, significantly abolished HpHSP60-induced tube formation. In contrast, suppression of MAP K or PI3 K signaling did not affect HpHSP60-mediated tubulogenesis. These data suggest that HpHSP60 enhances angiogenesis via CXCR2/PLC{beta}2/Ca2+ signal transduction in endothelial cells.

  10. Multiple interferon stimulated genes synergize with the zinc finger antiviral protein to mediate anti-alphavirus activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophiya Karki

    Full Text Available The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP is a host factor that mediates inhibition of viruses in the Filoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae families. We previously demonstrated that ZAP blocks replication of Sindbis virus (SINV, the prototype Alphavirus in the Togaviridae family at an early step prior to translation of the incoming genome and that synergy between ZAP and one or more interferon stimulated genes (ISGs resulted in maximal inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to identify those ISGs that synergize with ZAP to mediate Alphavirus inhibition. Using a library of lentiviruses individually expressing more than 350 ISGs, we screened for inhibitory activity in interferon defective cells with or without ZAP overexpression. Confirmatory tests of the 23 ISGs demonstrating the largest infection reduction in combination with ZAP revealed that 16 were synergistic. Confirmatory tests of all potentially synergistic ISGs revealed 15 additional ISGs with a statistically significant synergistic effect in combination with ZAP. These 31 ISGs are candidates for further mechanistic studies. The number and diversity of the identified ZAP-synergistic ISGs lead us to speculate that ZAP may play an important role in priming the cell for optimal ISG function.

  11. The TEAD/TEF family protein Scalloped mediates transcriptional output of the Hippo growth-regulatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shian; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Yonggang; Dong, Jixin; Pan, Duojia

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) kinase cascade restricts tissue growth by inactivating the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki), which regulates the expression of target genes such as the cell death inhibitor diap1 by unknown mechanisms. Here we identify the TEAD/TEF family protein Scalloped (Sd) as a DNA-binding transcription factor that partners with Yki to mediate the transcriptional output of the Hpo growth-regulatory pathway. The diap1 (th) locus harbors a minimal Sd-binding Hpo Responsive Element (HRE) that mediates transcriptional regulation by the Hpo pathway. Sd binds directly to Yki, and a Yki missense mutation that abrogates Sd-Yki binding also inactivates Yki function in vivo. We further demonstrate that sd is required for yki-induced tissue overgrowth and target gene expression, and that sd activity is conserved in its mammalian homolog. Our results uncover a heretofore missing link in the Hpo signaling pathway and provide a glimpse of the molecular events on a Hpo-responsive enhancer element.

  12. The warburg effect in leukemia-stroma cocultures is mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling associated with uncoupling protein 2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudio, Ismael; Fiegl, Michael; McQueen, Teresa; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Andreeff, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In 1956, Otto Warburg proposed that the origin of cancer cells was closely linked to a permanent respiratory defect that bypassed the Pasteur effect (i.e., the inhibition of anaerobic fermentation by oxygen). Since then, permanent defects in oxygen consumption that could explain the dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis have not been identified. Here, we show that under normoxic conditions exposure of leukemia cells to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) promotes accumulation of lactate in the culture medium and reduces mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsiM) in both cell types. Notably, the consumption of glucose was not altered in cocultures, suggesting that the accumulation of lactate was the result of reduced pyruvate metabolism. Interestingly, the decrease in DeltaPsiM was mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling in leukemia cells and was accompanied by increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). HL60 cells fail to increase UCP2 expression, are not uncoupled after coculture, and do not exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of UCP2 in OCI-AML3 cells reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and aerobic glycolysis elicited by MSC. Taken together, these data suggest that microenvironment activation of highly conserved mammalian UCPs may facilitate the Warburg effect in the absence of permanent respiratory impairment.

  13. Protein Kinase C-dependent Ubiquitination and Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter CAT-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Bender-Sigel, Julia; Sorkina, Tatiana; Closs, Ellen Ildicho; Sorkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) is responsible for the bulk of the uptake of cationic amino acids in most mammalian cells. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) leads to down-regulation of the cell surface CAT-1. To examine the mechanisms of PKC-induced down-regulation of CAT-1, a functional mutant of CAT-1 (CAT-1-HA-GFP) was generated in which a hemagglutinin antigen (HA) epitope tag was introduced into the second extracellular loop and GFP was attached to the carboxyl terminus. CAT-1-HA-GFP was stably expressed in porcine aorthic endothelial and human epithelial kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Using the HA antibody internalization assay we have demonstrated that PKC-dependent endocytosis was strongly inhibited by siRNA depletion of clathrin heavy chain, indicating that CAT-1-HA-GFP internalization requires clathrin-coated pits. Internalized CAT-1-HA-GFP was accumulated in early, recycling, and late endosomes. PKC activation also resulted in ubiquitination of CAT-1. CAT-1 ubiquitination and endocytosis in phorbol ester-stimulated porcine aorthic endothelial and HEK293 cells were inhibited by siRNA knockdown of NEDD4-2 and NEDD4-1 E3 ubiquitin ligases, respectively. In contrast, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the dopamine transporter was dependent on NEDD4-2 in all cell types tested. Altogether, our data suggest that ubiquitination mediated by NEDD4-2 or NEDD4-1 leading to clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the common mode of regulation of various transporter proteins by PKC. PMID:21212261

  14. Oligonucleotide-mediated gene editing is underestimated in cells expressing mutated green fluorescent protein and is positively associated with target protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disterer, Petra; Papaioannou, Ioannis; Evans, Vanessa C; Simons, J Paul; Owen, James S

    2012-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides (ssODNs) can introduce small, specific sequence alterations into genomes. Potential applications include creating disease-associated mutations in cell lines or animals, functional studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms and, ultimately, clinical therapy by correcting genetic point mutations. Here, we report feasibility studies into realizing this potential by targeting a reporter gene, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP). Three mammalian cell lines, CHO, HEK293T and HepG2, expressing multiple copies of mEGFP were transfected with a 27-mer ssODN capable of restoring fluorescence. Successful cell correction was quantified by flow cytometry. Gene editing in each isogenic cell line, as measured by percentage of green cells, correlated tightly with target protein levels, and thus gene expression. In the total population, 2.5% of CHO-mEGFP cells were successfully edited, although, remarkably, in the highest decile producing mEGFP protein, over 20% of the cells had restored green fluorescence. Gene-edited clones initially selected for green fluorescence lost EGFP expression during cell passaging, which partly reflected G2-phase cycle arrest and perhaps eventual cell death. The major cause, however, was epigenetic down-regulation; incubation with sodium butyrate or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reactivated fluorescent EGFP expression and hence established that the repaired genotype was stable. Our data establish that ssODN-mediated gene editing is underestimated in cultured mammalian cells expressing nonfluorescent mutated EGFP, because of variable expression of this mEGFP target gene in the cell population. This conclusion was endorsed by studies in HEK293T-mEGFP and HepG2-mEGFP cells. We infer that oligonucleotide-directed editing of endogenous genes is feasible, particularly for those that are transcriptionally active. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. LPS-Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Signaling on Expression of Protein S and C4b-Binding Protein in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Hayashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein S (PS, mainly synthesized in hepatocytes and endothelial cells, plays a critical role as a cofactor of anticoagulant activated protein C (APC. PS activity is regulated by C4b-binding protein (C4BP, structurally composed of seven α-chains (C4BPα and a β-chain (C4BPβ. In this paper, based primarily on our previous studies, we review the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced signaling which affects expression of PS and C4BP in the liver. Our in vivo studies in rats showed that after LPS injection, plasma PS levels are significantly decreased, whereas plasma C4BP levels first are transiently decreased after 2 to 12 hours and then significantly increased after 24 hours. LPS decreases PS antigen and mRNA levels in both hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs, and decreases C4BP antigen and both C4BPα and C4BPβ mRNA levels in hepatocytes. Antirat CD14 and antirat Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 antibodies inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation in both hepatocytes and SECs. Furthermore, inhibitors of NFκB and MEK recovered the LPS-induced decreased expression of PS in both cell types and the LPS-induced decreased expression of C4BP in hepatocytes. These data suggest that the LPS-induced decrease in PS expression in hepatocytes and SECs and LPS-induced decrease in C4BP expression in hepatocytes are mediated by MEK/ERK signaling and NFκB activation and that membrane-bound CD14 and TLR-4 are involved in this mechanism.

  16. Copper-mediated oxidative degradation of catecholamines and oxidative damage of protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, P.R.; Harria, M.I.N.; Felix, J.M.; Hoffmann, M.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Degradative oxidation of catecholamines has been a matter of large interest in recent years due to the evidences associating their autoxidation with the etiology of neurotoxic and cardiotoxic processes. In this work we present data on the degradative oxidation of catecholamines of physiological importance: isoproterenol (IP), epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NEP), deoxyepinephrine (DEP) and dopamine (DA). The degradative oxidation of the catecholamines was followed by measurement of spectral changes and oxygen consumption by neutral aqueous solutions. The data show that Cu{sup 2+} strongly accelerated the rate of catecholamine oxidation, following the decreasing order; EP>DEP>IP>NEP>DA. The production of superoxide anion radical during catecholamine oxidation was very slow, even in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}. The ability of IP to induce damages on bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined by measuring the formation of carbonyl-groups in the protein, detected by reduction with tritiated Na BH{sub 4}. The incubation of BSA with IP (50-500{mu}M), in the presence of 100{mu}M Cu{sup 2+} leaded to an increased and dose dependent {sup 3} H-incorporation by the oxidized protein. The production of oxidative damage by IP/Cu{sup 2+} was accompanied by marked BSA fragmentation, detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel dependent (25-400{mu}M IP) des appearance of the original BSA band and appearance of smaller fragments spread in the gel, when incubation has been done in the presence of 100{mu}M Cu{sup 2+}. These results suggest that copper-catalysed oxidative degradation of proteins induced by catecholamines might be critically involved in the toxic action of these molecules

  17. HTLV-1 HBZ Viral Protein: A Key Player in HTLV-1 Mediated Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baratella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is an oncogenic human retrovirus that has infected 10–15 million people worldwide. After a long latency, 3–5% of infected individuals will develop either a severe malignancy of CD4+ T cells, known as Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL or a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system designated Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM/TSP. The precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. Two viral regulatory proteins, Tax-1 and HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ are thought to play a critical role in HTLV-1-associated diseases. Tax-1 is mainly involved in the onset of neoplastic transformation and in elicitation of the host’s inflammatory responses; its expression may be lost during cell clonal proliferation and oncogenesis. Conversely, HBZ remains constantly expressed in all patients with ATL, playing a role in the proliferation and maintenance of leukemic cells. Recent studies have shown that the subcellular distribution of HBZ protein differs in the two pathologies: it is nuclear with a speckled-like pattern in leukemic cells and is cytoplasmic in cells from HAM/TSP patients. Thus, HBZ expression and distribution could be critical in the progression of HTLV-1 infection versus the leukemic state or the inflammatory disease. Here, we reviewed recent findings on the role of HBZ in HTLV-1 related diseases, highlighting the new perspectives open by the possibility of studying the physiologic expression of endogenous protein in primary infected cells.

  18. Solitary BioY Proteins Mediate Biotin Transport into Recombinant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Kirsch, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters form a large group of vitamin uptake systems in prokaryotes. They are composed of highly diverse, substrate-specific, transmembrane proteins (S units), a ubiquitous transmembrane protein (T unit), and homo- or hetero-oligomeric ABC ATPases. Biotin transporters represent a special case of ECF-type systems. The majority of the biotin-specific S units (BioY) is known or predicted to interact with T units and ABC ATPases. About one-third of BioY proteins, however, are encoded in organisms lacking any recognizable T unit. This finding raises the question of whether these BioYs function as transporters in a solitary state, a feature ascribed to certain BioYs in the past. To address this question in living cells, an Escherichia coli K-12 derivative deficient in biotin synthesis and devoid of its endogenous high-affinity biotin transporter was constructed as a reference strain. This organism is particularly suited for this purpose because components of ECF transporters do not naturally occur in E. coli K-12. The double mutant was viable in media containing either high levels of biotin or a precursor of the downstream biosynthetic path. Importantly, it was nonviable on trace levels of biotin. Eight solitary bioY genes of proteobacterial origin were individually expressed in the reference strain. Each of the BioYs conferred biotin uptake activity on the recombinants, which was inferred from uptake assays with [3H]biotin and growth of the cells on trace levels of biotin. The results underscore that solitary BioY transports biotin across the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:23836870

  19. IFN-γ extends the immune functions of Guanylate Binding Proteins to inflammasome-independent antibacterial activities during Francisella novicida infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Wallet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs are interferon-inducible proteins involved in the cell-intrinsic immunity against numerous intracellular pathogens. The molecular mechanisms underlying the potent antibacterial activity of GBPs are still unclear. GBPs have been functionally linked to the NLRP3, the AIM2 and the caspase-11 inflammasomes. Two opposing models are currently proposed to explain the GBPs-inflammasome link: i GBPs would target intracellular bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuoles to increase cytosolic PAMPs release ii GBPs would directly facilitate inflammasome complex assembly. Using Francisella novicida infection, we investigated the functional interactions between GBPs and the inflammasome. GBPs, induced in a type I IFN-dependent manner, are required for the F. novicida-mediated AIM2-inflammasome pathway. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs action is not restricted to the AIM2 inflammasome, but controls in a hierarchical manner the activation of different inflammasomes complexes and apoptotic caspases. IFN-γ induces a quantitative switch in GBPs levels and redirects pyroptotic and apoptotic pathways under the control of GBPs. Furthermore, upon IFN-γ priming, F. novicida-infected macrophages restrict cytosolic bacterial replication in a GBP-dependent and inflammasome-independent manner. Finally, in a mouse model of tularemia, we demonstrate that the inflammasome and the GBPs are two key immune pathways functioning largely independently to control F. novicida infection. Altogether, our results indicate that GBPs are the master effectors of IFN-γ-mediated responses against F. novicida to control antibacterial immune responses in inflammasome-dependent and independent manners.

  20. Protein antigen delivery by gene gun-mediated epidermal antigen incorporation (EAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Ritter, Uwe; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The gene gun technology can not only be employed for efficient transfer of gene vaccines into upper layers of the skin, but also for application of protein antigens. As a tissue rich in professional antigen presenting cells, the skin represents an attractive target for immunizations. In this chapter we present a method for delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin into the skin of mice termed epidermal antigen incorporation and describe in detail how antigen-specific proliferation in draining lymph nodes can be followed by flow cytometry.

  1. A DNA-Mediated Homogeneous Binding Assay for Proteins and Small Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhao; Hejesen, Christian; Kjelstrup, Michael Brøndum

    2014-01-01

    Optical detection of molecular targets typically requires immobilization, separation, or chemical or enzymatic processing. An important exception is aptamers that allow optical detection in solution based on conformational changes. This method, however, requires the laborious selection of aptamers....... The shift occurs upon binding of a protein, for example, an antibody to its target. We demonstrate nanomolar detection of small molecules such as biotin, digoxigenin, vitamin D, and folate, in buffer and in plasma. The method is flexible, and we also show nanomolar detection of the respective antibodies...

  2. Quantitative H2S-mediated protein sulfhydration reveals metabolic reprogramming during the integrated stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing-Huang; Krokowski, Dawid; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Bederman, Ilya; Majumder, Mithu; Parisien, Marc; Diatchenko, Luda; Kabil, Omer; Willard, Belinda; Banerjee, Ruma; Wang, Benlian; Bebek, Gurkan; Evans, Charles R; Fox, Paul L; Gerson, Stanton L; Hoppel, Charles L; Liu, Ming; Arvan, Peter; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2015-11-23

    The sulfhydration of cysteine residues in proteins is an important mechanism involved in diverse biological processes. We have developed a proteomics approach to quantitatively profile the changes of sulfhydrated cysteines in biological systems. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that sulfhydrated cysteines are part of a wide range of biological functions. In pancreatic β cells exposed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated H2S promotes the sulfhydration of enzymes in energy metabolism and stimulates glycolytic flux. We propose that transcriptional and translational reprogramming by the integrated stress response (ISR) in pancreatic β cells is coupled to metabolic alternations triggered by sulfhydration of key enzymes in intermediary metabolism.

  3. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in erythropoiesis by mTORC1-mediated protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yuannyu; Ni, Min; Cao, Hui; Signer, Robert A J; Li, Dan; Li, Mushan; Gu, Zhimin; Hu, Zeping; Dickerson, Kathryn E; Weinberg, Samuel E; Chandel, Navdeep S; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Zhou, Feng; Shao, Zhen; Xu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Advances in genomic profiling present new challenges of explaining how changes in DNA and RNA are translated into proteins linking genotype to phenotype. Here we compare the genome-scale proteomic and transcriptomic changes in human primary haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and erythroid progenitors, and uncover pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis enhanced through post-transcriptional regulation. Mitochondrial factors including TFAM and PHB2 are selectively regulated through protein translation during erythroid specification. Depletion of TFAM in erythroid cells alters intracellular metabolism, leading to elevated histone acetylation, deregulated gene expression, and defective mitochondria and erythropoiesis. Mechanistically, mTORC1 signalling is enhanced to promote translation of mitochondria-associated transcripts through TOP-like motifs. Genetic and pharmacological perturbation of mitochondria or mTORC1 specifically impairs erythropoiesis in vitro and in vivo. Our studies support a mechanism for post-transcriptional control of erythroid mitochondria and may have direct relevance to haematologic defects associated with mitochondrial diseases and ageing.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of modified antifreeze protein gene in strawberry

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    Srisulak Dheeranupattana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum condition for shoot regeneration from leaf explants of strawberry cultivar Tiogar was investigated. It was found that the best regeneration condition was MS medium containing N6-Benzyladenine (BA and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D at concentrations of 1 mg.l-1 and 0.2 mg.l-1, respectively. Antibiotics sensitivity test found that shoot regeneration from leaf explant was inhibited more than 90% at the concentration of kanamycin (Km as low as 5 mg.l-1. The modified gene encoding antifreeze protein isoform HPLC 6 was successfully constructed using codons which were optimally expressed in the strawberry plant. The antifreeze protein genes, naturally in plasmid pSW1 and modified in plasmid BB, were transformed to strawberry leaf explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. The strawberry plants, transformed with both AFP genes, were able to root in MS media containing 50 mg.l-1 Km, while no roots grew from nontransformed plant in this condition. Polymerase chain reaction indicated that the transgenes were integrated in the genome of transformants.

  5. The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Helfer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription activation, is important for E2’s transcription activation activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses demonstrate that P-TEFb is recruited to the actual papillomavirus episomes. We also show that E2’s interaction with cellular chromatin through Brd4 correlates with its papillomavirus transcription activation function since JQ1(+, a bromodomain inhibitor that efficiently dissociates E2-Brd4 complexes from chromatin, potently reduces papillomavirus transcription. Our study identifies a specific function of Brd4 in papillomavirus gene transcription and highlights the potential use of bromodomain inhibitors as a method to disrupt the human papillomavirus (HPV life cycle.

  6. Repression of class I transcription by cadmium is mediated by the protein phosphatase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Le Roux, Gwenaëlle; Ducrot, Cécile; Chédin, Stéphane; Labarre, Jean; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Toxic metals are part of our environment, and undue exposure to them leads to a variety of pathologies. In response, most organisms adapt their metabolism and have evolved systems to limit this toxicity and to acquire tolerance. Ribosome biosynthesis being central for protein synthesis, we analyzed in yeast the effects of a moderate concentration of cadmium (Cd2+) on Pol I transcription that represents >60% of the transcriptional activity of the cells. We show that Cd2+ rapidly and drastically shuts down the expression of the 35S rRNA. Repression does not result from a poisoning of any of the components of the class I transcriptional machinery by Cd2+, but rather involves a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent cellular signaling pathway that targets the formation/dissociation of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex. We also show that Pol I transcription is repressed by other toxic metals, such as Ag+ and Hg2+, which likewise perturb the Pol I–Rrn3 complex, but through PP2A-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our results point to a central role for the Pol I–Rrn3 complex as molecular switch for regulating Pol I transcription in response to toxic metals. PMID:23640330

  7. MRP proteins as potential mediators of heavy metal resistance in zebrafish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Wang, Youhui; Cui, Zongbin

    2011-04-01

    Acquired resistance of mammalian cells to heavy metals is closely relevant to enhanced expression of several multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), but it remains unclear whether MRP proteins confer resistance to heavy metals in zebrafish. In this study, we obtained zebrafish (Danio rerio) fibroblast-like ZF4 cells with resistance to toxic heavy metals after chronic cadmium exposure and selection for 6months. These cadmium-resistant cells (ZF4-Cd) were maintained in 5μM cadmium and displayed cross-resistance to cadmium, mercury, arsenite and arsenate. ZF4-Cd cells remained the resistance to heavy metals after protracted culture in cadmium-free medium. In comparison with ZF4-WT cells, ZF4-Cd cells exhibited accelerated rate of cadmium excretion, enhanced activity of MRP-like transport, elevated expression of abcc2, abcc4 and mt2 genes, and increased content of cellular GSH. Inhibition of MRP-like transport activity, GSH biosynthesis and GST activity significantly attenuated the resistance of ZF4-Cd cells to heavy metals. The results indicate that some of MRP transporters are involved in the efflux of heavy metals conjugated with cellular GSH and thus play crucial roles in heavy metal detoxification of zebrafish cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase B mediates an oxygen-dependent replication switch

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    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph

    2014-01-07

    In the majority of cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by little or no bacterial replication and drug tolerance. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Mtb encodes eleven serine/threonine protein kinases, a family of signaling molecules known to regulate similar replicative adaptations in other bacteria. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in hypoxia. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle - active disease, latency, and reactivation.

  9. Intein-mediated Cre protein assembly for transgene excision in hybrid progeny of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Wang, Lijun; Yang, Chen; Ran, Lingyu; Wen, Mengling; Fu, Xianan; Fan, Di; Luo, Keming

    2016-10-01

    An approach for restoring recombination activity of complementation split-Cre was developed to excise the transgene in hybrid progeny of GM crops. Growing concerns about the biosafety of genetically modified (GM) crops has currently become a limited factor affecting the public acceptance. Several approaches have been developed to generate selectable-marker-gene-free GM crops. However, no strategy was reported to be broadly applicable to hybrid crops. Previous studies have demonstrated that complementation split-Cre recombinase restored recombination activity in transgenic plants. In this study, we found that split-Cre mediated by split-intein Synechocystis sp. DnaE had high recombination efficiency when Cre recombinase was split at Asp232/Asp233 (866 bp). Furthermore, we constructed two plant expression vectors, pCA-NCre-In and pCA-Ic-CCre, containing NCre866-In and Ic-CCre866 fragments, respectively. After transformation, parent lines of transgenic Arabidopsis with one single copy were generated and used for hybridization. The results of GUS staining demonstrated that the recombination activity of split-Cre could be reassembled in these hybrid progeny of transgenic plants through hybridization and the foreign genes flanked by two loxP sites were efficiently excised. Our strategy may provide an effective approach for generating the next generation of GM hybrid crops without biosafety concerns.

  10. Progranulin derived engineered protein Atsttrin suppresses TNF-α-mediated inflammation in intervertebral disc degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Wei, Jianlu; Zhao, Yunpeng; Liu, Yi; Liu, Lian; Cheng, Lei

    2017-12-12

    Atsttrin, an engineered molecule composed of three fragments of progranulin(PGRN), exerts comparable anti-inflammation ability. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is involved in inflammation in which TNF-α plays a key role. This study aims to examine the effect and the mechanism of Atsttrin in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. For this purpose, we took advantage of murine and human intervertebral disc (IVD) and examined the expression of TNF-α in IVD tissues using immunohistochemistry and TNF-α level in peripheral sera by ELISA assay. Moreover, murine IVD was taken to undergo the Safranin O and HE staining. Furthermore, primary human nucleus pulposus cells were used for immunohistochemistry staining, fluorescent staining, Western Blot, ELISA assay and RT-PCR assay. Herein we found TNF-α expression was elevated in intervertebral disc and peripheral sera in patients with IDD. Interestingly, Atsttrin effectively inhibited TNF-α-mediated catabolism in murine disc by ex vivo study. TNF-α-induced inflammatory cytokines were strongly reduced in presence of Atsttrin in primary human disc. Mechanism study indicated Atsttrin protected against intervertebral disc degeneration by inhibiting TNF-α-induced inflammation. These findings show that Atsttrin is a potential molecular target for disc degenerative diseases.

  11. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-α in hepatitis-B-virus X protein-mediated MDR1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hyo-Kyung; Han, Chang Yeob; Cheon, Eun-Pa; Lee, Jaewon; Kang, Keon Wook

    2007-01-01

    The transition from chemotherapy-responsive cancer cells to chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is mainly accompanied by the increased expression of multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1). We found that hepatitis-B-virus X protein (HBx) increases the transcriptional activity and protein level of MDR1 in a hepatoma cell line, H4IIE. In addition, HBx overexpression made H4IIE cells more resistant to verapamil-uptake. HBx stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induced the nuclear translocation of C/EBPβ. Reporter gene analyses showed that HBx increased the reporter activity in the cells transfected with the reporter containing MDR1 gene promoter. Moreover, the luciferase reporter gene activity was significantly inhibited by HIF-1α siRNA but not by overexpression of C/EBP dominant negative mutant. These results imply that HBx increases the MDR1 transporter activity through the transcriptional activation of the MDR1 gene with HIF-1α activation, and suggest HIF-1α for the therapeutic target of HBV-mediated chemoresistance

  12. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy.

  13. Phosphorylation of p62 by AMP-activated protein kinase mediates autophagic cell death in adult hippocampal neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Shinwon; Jeong, Seol-Hwa; Yi, Kyungrim; Chung, Kyung Min; Hong, Caroline Jeeyeon; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2017-08-18

    In the adult brain, programmed death of neural stem cells is considered to be critical for tissue homeostasis and cognitive function and is dysregulated in neurodegeneration. Previously, we have reported that adult rat hippocampal neural (HCN) stem cells undergo autophagic cell death (ACD) following insulin withdrawal. Because the apoptotic capability of the HCN cells was intact, our findings suggested activation of unique molecular mechanisms linking insulin withdrawal to ACD rather than apoptosis. Here, we report that phosphorylation of autophagy-associated protein p62 by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) drives ACD and mitophagy in HCN cells. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK or genetic ablation of the AMPK α2 subunit by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing suppressed ACD, whereas AMPK activation promoted ACD in insulin-deprived HCN cells. We found that following insulin withdrawal AMPK phosphorylated p62 at a novel site, Ser-293/Ser-294 (in rat and human p62, respectively). Phosphorylated p62 translocated to mitochondria and induced mitophagy and ACD. Interestingly, p62 phosphorylation at Ser-293 was not required for staurosporine-induced apoptosis in HCN cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the direct phosphorylation of p62 by AMPK. Our data suggest that AMPK-mediated p62 phosphorylation is an ACD-specific signaling event and provide novel mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms in ACD. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Whitefly-mediated transmission of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite: evidence for betasatellite encapsidation in coat protein of helper begomoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabein, S; Behjatnia, S A Akbar; Anabestani, A; Izadpanah, K

    2013-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) is responsible for symptom expression of a devastating disease of cotton in the Indian subcontinent. CLCuMB depends on helper virus replication-associated protein for its replication and on viral coat protein (CP) for its encapsidation. However, no direct evidence of encapsidation of CLCuMB in viral CP has been available. In the present study, non-viruliferous whiteflies were placed on tomato plants that had been agroinoculated with infectious clones of an Iranian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]) and CLCuMB for an acquisition access period of 72 h and then transferred to healthy tomato seedlings at the 3- to 4-leaf stage. Typical symptoms of TYLCV-[Ab] appeared on inoculated seedlings 30-45 days post-inoculation. The presence of TYLCV-[Ab] and CLCuMB DNAs in symptomatic test plants and viruliferous whiteflies was confirmed by PCR analysis using specific primers and DIG Southern blotting. Furthermore, the possibility of CLCuMB DNA encapsidation in TYLCV-[Ab] CP within infected plants was examined by immunocapture PCR. The results showed that CLCuMB DNA was encapsidated in TYLCV-[Ab] CP. Whitefly-mediated transmission of CLCuMB in the presence of helper virus is additional evidence for encapsidation of CLCuMB by TYLCV-[Ab] CP.

  15. ETO, but not leukemogenic fusion protein AML1/ETO, augments RBP-Jkappa/SHARP-mediated repression of notch target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Daniela; Liefke, Robert; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Borggrefe, Tilman; Oswald, Franz

    2008-05-01

    Notch is a transmembrane receptor that determines cell fates and pattern formation in all animal species. After specific ligand binding, the intracellular part of Notch is cleaved off and translocates to the nucleus, where it targets the DNA binding protein RBP-Jkappa. In the absence of Notch, RBP-Jkappa represses Notch target genes by recruiting a corepressor complex. We and others have previously identified SHARP as one component of this complex. Here, we show that the corepressor ETO as well as the leukemogenic fusion protein AML1/ETO directly interacts with SHARP, that ETO is part of the endogenous RBP-Jkappa-containing corepressor complex, and that ETO is found at Notch target gene promoters. In functional assays, corepressor ETO, but not AML1/ETO, augments SHARP-mediated repression in an histone deacetylase-dependent manner. Furthermore, either the knockdown of ETO or the overexpression of AML1/ETO activates Notch target genes. Therefore, we propose that AML1/ETO can disturb the normal, repressive function of ETO at Notch target genes. This activating (or derepressing) effect of AML1/ETO may contribute to its oncogenic potential in myeloid leukemia.

  16. Potential Mediators between Fibromyalgia and C-Reactive protein: Results from a Large U.S. Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Termeh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Lilly, Christa; Innes, Kim Karen

    2017-07-07

    Fibromyalgia, a potentially debilitating chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology, may be characterized by inflammation. In this study, we investigated the relation of FMS to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large population of adults (18+) and investigated the influence of other factors on this relationship, including BMI, comorbidities, as well as mood and sleep disturbance. Participants were 52,535 Ohio Valley residents (Fibromyalgia n = 1125). All participants completed a comprehensive health survey (2005-2006) part of the C8 Health Project; serum levels of CRP were obtained, as was history of Fibromyalgia physician diagnosis. Logistic and linear regressions were used for this cross-sectional analysis. Mean CRP was higher among participants reporting Fibromyalgia than those without (5.54 ± 9.8 vs.3.75 ± 7.2 mg/L, p Fibromyalgia to serum C-reactive protein may be explained, in part, by BMI and comorbidity. Prospective research is needed to confirm this, and clarify the potential mediating influence of obesity and comorbid conditions on this relationship.

  17. Posttranslational activation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 is mediated by proprotein convertase 6 during decidualization for pregnancy establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sophea; Paule, Sarah; Hardman, Belinda; Li, Ying; Singh, Harmeet; Rainczuk, Adam; Stephens, Andrew N; Nie, Guiying

    2010-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) require major posttranslational modifications to become biologically active. One such key modification is endoproteolytic cleavage of the initially synthesized nonactive precursor protein to release the mature ligand. Here we show in a physiological context of uterine stromal decidualization that BMP2 cleavage is mediated by proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC6). Decidualization is a uterine remodeling event critical for embryo implantation. Deletion or knockdown of either BMP2 or PC6 inhibits decidualization causing implantation failure and female infertility. In this study we provide biochemical and physiological evidence that PC6 proteolytically activates BMP2. We used freshly isolated primary human endometrial stromal cells and demonstrated that PC6 was the sole member of the PC family significantly up-regulated during decidualization. The precursor form of BMP2 was reduced, whereas its active form was increased during decidualization. Inhibition of PC6 activity inhibited decidualization, and this was accompanied by a total blockade of BMP2 activation. Addition of recombinant active BMP2 partially rescued the decidualization arrest caused by PC6 inhibition. PC6 processed BMP2 at the KREKR(282) downward arrow cleavage site, and mutating this site prevented the cleavage. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that the proteolytic activation and thus bioavailability of BMP2 is controlled by PC6.

  18. Calcium phosphate–gold nanoparticles nanocomposite for protein adsorption and mediator-free H2O2 biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qin; Lu Guiju; Bian XiaoJun; Jin Gendi; Wang Wei; Hu Xiaoya; Wang Yang; Yang Zhanjun

    2012-01-01

    This work reports a new method for the preparation and application of a kind of biocompatible calcium phosphate–gold nanoparticles (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 –AuNPs) nanocomposite. UV–vis spectroscopy and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to monitor the formation process of the nanocomposite and to examine the interaction between calcium phosphate and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The nanocomposite has multiple sites and improved conductivity which make it suitable for the binding of proteins to construct electrochemical sensors. Myoglobin (Mb) adsorbed on the nanocomposite retained its native structure which was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Direct electron transfer between the adsorbed Mb and the electrode was observed. Further results demonstrated that the adsorbed Mb has good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H 2 O 2 in the absence of any mediator. Highlights: ► Using gelatin modified gold nanoparticles to prepare needle-like calcium phosphate. ► Calcium phosphate provides multiple sites for protein adsorption. ► Gold nanoparticles act as electron tunneling. ► Myoglobin adsorbed on the material showed direct electrochemistry and good catalysis.

  19. Tomato FK506 Binding Protein 12KD (FKBP12) Mediates the Interaction between Rapamycin and Target of Rapamycin (TOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fangjie; Dong, Pan; Liu, Mei; Xie, Gengxin; Wang, Kai; Zhuo, Fengping; Feng, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling is an important regulator in multiple organisms including yeast, plants, and animals. However, the TOR signaling in plants is much less understood as compared to that in yeast and animals. TOR kinase can be efficiently suppressed by rapamycin in the presence of functional FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) in yeast and animals. In most examined higher plants rapamycin fails to inhibit TOR kinase due to the non-functional FKBP12. Here we find that tomato plants showed obvious growth inhibition when treated with rapamycin and the inhibitory phenotype is similar to suppression of TOR causing by active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) such as KU63794, AZD8055, and Torin1. The chemical genetic assays using TOR inhibitors and heterologous expressing SlFKBP12 in Arabidopsis indicated that the TOR signaling is functional in tomato. The protein gel shifting and TOR inhibitors combination assays showed that SlFKBP12 can mediate the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. Furthermore, comparative expression profile analysis between treatments with rapamycin and KU63794 identified highly overlapped Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) which are involved in many anabolic and catabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, cell wall restructuring, and senescence in tomato. These observations suggest that SlFFBP12 is functional in tomato. The results provided basic information of TOR signaling in tomato, and also some new insights into how TOR controls plant growth and development through reprogramming the transcription profiles.

  20. Cissampelos sympodialis has anti-viral effect inhibiting dengue non-structural viral protein-1 and pro-inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Carvalho Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dengue is the most important viral infection transmitted among humans by arthropod-borne. There are currently no vaccines or specific therapeutical treatment. Therefore, immunomodulatory compounds from plants have been widely examined for their antiviral effects. Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, has scientifically proven to present immunomodulatory activities. Here we assessed the antiviral activity of leaf hydroalcoholic extract, warifteine or methylwarifteine from C. sympodialis in an in vitro dengue virus infection model. The results demonstrated that leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine treatment did not reduce dengue virus-Ag+ hepatocyte (Huh-7 cell rates in present experimental conditions. However, we assessed the potential antiviral effect of leaf hydroalcoholic extract or warifteine/methylwarifteine on dengue virus-infection by the production of inflammatory molecules, TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2. Dengue virus infection enhanced TNF-α, MIF, IL-8 and PGE2 production in infected Huh-7 cells and leaf hydroalcoholic extract but not warifteine/methylwarifteine treatments, significantly reduced these molecules in infected cells. In dengue virus-infected Huh-7 cells, non-structural protein-1 is produced and leaf hydroalcoholic extract significantly inhibited it independently of alkaloids. Our findings imply that leaf hydroalcoholic extract may attenuate dengue virus infection in Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the enhanced of pro-inflammatory mediators and non-structural protein-1 production induce by dengue virus independently of warifteine/methywarifteine its major compound.

  1. TBP-like protein (TLP) interferes with Taspase1-mediated processing of TFIIA and represses TATA box gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidefumi; Isogai, Momoko; Maeda, Ryo; Ura, Kiyoe; Tamura, Taka-Aki

    2015-07-27

    TBP-TFIIA interaction is involved in the potentiation of TATA box-driven promoters. TFIIA activates transcription through stabilization of TATA box-bound TBP. The precursor of TFIIA is subjected to Taspase1-directed processing to generate α and β subunits. Although this processing has been assumed to be required for the promoter activation function of TFIIA, little is known about how the processing is regulated. In this study, we found that TBP-like protein (TLP), which has the highest affinity to TFIIA among known proteins, affects Taspase1-driven processing of TFIIA. TLP interfered with TFIIA processing in vivo and in vitro, and direct binding of TLP to TFIIA was essential for inhibition of the processing. We also showed that TATA box promoters are specifically potentiated by processed TFIIA. Processed TFIIA, but not unprocessed TFIIA, associated with the TATA box. In a TLP-knocked-down condition, not only the amounts of TATA box-bound TFIIA but also those of chromatin-bound TBP were significantly increased, resulting in the stimulation of TATA box-mediated gene expression. Consequently, we suggest that TLP works as a negative regulator of the TFIIA processing and represses TFIIA-governed and TATA-dependent gene expression through preventing TFIIA maturation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Participation of the cell polarity protein PALS1 to T-cell receptor-mediated NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beside their established function in shaping cell architecture, some cell polarity proteins were proposed to participate to lymphocyte migration, homing, scanning, as well as activation following antigen receptor stimulation. Although PALS1 is a central component of the cell polarity network, its expression and function in lymphocytes remains unknown. Here we investigated whether PALS1 is present in T cells and whether it contributes to T Cell-Receptor (TCR-mediated activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining RT-PCR and immunoblot assays, we found that PALS1 is constitutively expressed in human T lymphocytes as well as in Jurkat T cells. siRNA-based knockdown of PALS1 hampered TCR-induced activation and optimal proliferation of lymphocyte. We further provide evidence that PALS1 depletion selectively hindered TCR-driven activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. CONCLUSIONS: The cell polarity protein PALS1 is expressed in T lymphocytes and participates to the optimal activation of NF-κB following TCR stimulation.

  3. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  4. Secreted protein eco-corona mediates uptake and impacts of polystyrene nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Fatima; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-30

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are defined as having at least one external dimension between 1 and 100 nm. Due to their small size, NPs have a large surface area to volume ratio giving them unique characteristics that differ from bulk material of the same chemical composition. As a result these novel materials have found numerous applications in medical and industrial fields with the result that environmental exposure to NPs is increasingly likely. Similarly, increased reliance on plastic, which degrades extremely slowly in the environment, is resulting in increased accumulation of micro-/nano-plastics in fresh and marine waters, whose ecotoxicological impacts are as yet poorly understood. Although NPs are well known to adsorb macromolecules from their environment, forming a biomolecule corona which changes the NP identity and how it interacts with organisms, significantly less research has been performed on the ecological corona (eco-corona). Secretion of biomolecules is a well established predator-prey response in aquatic food chains, raising the question of whether NPs interact with secreted proteins, and the impact of such interaction on NP uptake and ecotoxicity. We report here initial studies, including optimisation of protocols using carboxylic-acid and amino modified spherical polystyrene NPs, to assess interaction of NPs with biomolecules secreted by Daphnia magna and the impact of these interactions on NP uptake, retention and toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Daphnia magna are an important environmental indicator species who may be especially sensitive to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of being filter-feeders. This paper demonstrates for the first time that proteins released by Daphnia magna create an eco-corona around polystyrene NPs which causes heightened uptake of the NPs and consequently increases toxicity. The secreted protein eco-corona also causes the NPs to be less efficiently removed from the gut of D. magna and NPs remaining in the gut of D. magna

  5. Mechanisms of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Spinal Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliu, Elena; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Human and animal studies suggest that estrogens are involved in the processing of nociceptive sensory information and analgesic responses in the central nervous system. Rapid pronociceptive estrogenic effects have been reported, some of which likely involve G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER...... in spinal nociceptive processing. Intrathecal challenging of mice with the GPER agonist G-1 results in pain-related behaviors. GPER antagonism with G15 reduces the G-1-induced response. Electrophysiological recordings from superficial dorsal horn neurons indicate neuronal membrane depolarization with G-1...... application, which is G15 sensitive. In cultured spinal sensory neurons, G-1 increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS accumulation. In the presence of G15, G-1 does not elicit the calcium and ROS responses, confirming specific GPER involvement in this process...

  6. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates interleukin-4-mediated STAT6 signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Brockdorff, Johannes; Lovato, Paola

    2002-01-01

    of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) induces serine phosphorylation of STAT6 and severely inhibits DNA binding of STAT6. In contrast, IL-4-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-1 and STAT6 is not affected, suggesting that PP2A acts downstream of Janus kinases in IL-4 signaling. In conclusion, we...... provide the first evidence that PP2A plays a crucial role in the regulation of STAT6 function....... tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6, which in turn leads to transcription of IL-4-specific genes. In addition, serine phosphorylation of STAT6 has recently been reported. Here we study the functional role of STAT6 serine phosphorylation and the kinases and phosphatases involved. We show that inhibition...

  7. Bacteroidales Secreted Antimicrobial Proteins Target Surface Molecules Necessary for Gut Colonization and Mediate Competition In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Roelofs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that human gut Bacteroidales species secrete antimicrobial proteins (BSAPs, and we characterized in vitro the first such BSAP produced by Bacteroides fragilis. In this study, we identified a second potent BSAP produced by the ubiquitous and abundant human gut species Bacteroides uniformis. The two BSAPs contain a membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF domain but share very little sequence similarity. We identified the target molecules of BSAP-sensitive cells and showed that each BSAP targets a different class of surface molecule: BSAP-1 targets an outer membrane protein of sensitive B. fragilis strains, and BSAP-2 targets the O-antigen glycan of lipopolysaccharide (LPS of sensitive B. uniformis strains. Species-wide genomic and phenotypic analyses of B. fragilis and B. uniformis showed that BSAP-producing strains circumvent killing by synthesizing an orthologous nontargeted surface molecule. The BSAP genes are adjacent to the gene(s encoding their target replacements, suggesting coacquisition. Using a gnotobiotic mouse competitive-colonization model, we found that the BSAP surface targets are important for colonization of the mammalian gut, thereby explaining why they are maintained in sensitive strains and why they were replaced rather than deleted in BSAP-producing strains. Using isogenic BSAP-producing, -sensitive, and -resistant strains, we show that a BSAP-producing strain outcompetes a sensitive strain but not a resistant strain in the mammalian gut. Human gut metagenomic datasets reveal that BSAP-1-sensitive strains do not cooccur with BSAP-1-producing strains in human gut microbiotas, further supporting the idea that BSAPs are important competitive factors with relevance to the strain-level composition of the human gut microbiota.

  8. Activator protein 2alpha mediates parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction in secondary hyperparathyroidi