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Sample records for interfering elements

  1. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. The strongest spectral lines of stable elements with other interfering elements in compiled and plotted version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Weitkamp, C.

    1977-01-01

    The strongest spectra lines of the 85 stable chemical elements have been compiled and plotted along with lines from other elements that may interfere in applications like spectroscopic multielement analysis. For each line a wavelength range of +- 0.25 A.U. around the line of interest has been considered. The tables contain the wavelength, intensity and assignment to an ionization state of the emitting atom, the plots visualize the lines with a doppler broadening corresponding to 8,000 K. (orig.) [de

  3. Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence determination of interfering elements rubidium and uranium by profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sangita; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.; Misra, N. L.

    2018-06-01

    Systematic studies to assess the analytical parameters obtained in the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) determinations of interfering elements Rb and U using profile fitting are reported in the present manuscript. The X-ray lines Rb Kα and U Lα having serious spectral interference (ΔE = 218 eV), have been used as analytical lines. The intensities of these X-ray lines have been assessed using profile fitting. In order to compare the analytical results of Rb determinations in presence of U, with and without U excitation, synchrotron radiation was tuned to energy just above and below the U Labs edge. This approach shall excite both Rb Kα and U Lα simultaneously and Rb Kα selectively. Finally, the samples were also analyzed with a laboratory based TXRF spectrometer. The analytical results obtained in all these conditions were comparable. The authenticity of the results was assessed by analyzing U with respect to Rb in Rb2U(SO4)3, a standard reference material for U. The average precision obtained for TXRF determinations was below 3% (RSD, n = 3, 1σ) and the percent deviation of TXRF values from the expected values calculated on the basis of sample preparation was within 3%.

  4. The use of tetracycline as complexing agent for the separation of interfering elements during uranium activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrauskas, R.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for uranium separation, when its determination could not be performed by non-destructive neutron activation analysis due to the presence of interfering elements. Th, Zn, Na, Ta, Fe, W, Mo, Ag and the lanthanides were considered interferents because some of these elements, via (n, γ) reactions, form the same radioisotopes produced in the fission of 235 U, or radioisotopes that emit gamma-rays with energies close to the ones emitted by 239 Np or by the fission products of 235 U. Besides they could form radioisotopes whose Compton continuum makes difficult the detection of the gamma-rays of 239 Np and the fission products of 235 U. The separation method is based on the extraction of uranium from the interfering elements using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. Adequate conditions for the separation were studied and extraction curves of uranium and interferents were obtained separately and in the presence of a solution of uranium ore from the IAEA. Separation of uranium from Na, Ag and Zn was achieved with a single extraction operation and by controlling the pH of the aqueous phase. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was used as masking agent for uranium separation from Fe, Th and lanthanides. For other elements, the separation was partial, meaning that about 11% of W, 32% of Mo and 5% of Ta were extracted together with uranium after two extraction operations (extraction and washing). Chemical separation presented a recovery of 97% for uranium. After separation an aliquot of organic phase containing uranium was irradiated for uranium and isotopic ratio 235 U/ 238 U determinations. This method was applied in the analysis of the following ores: standard S-7 (pitchblende) provided by IAEA, monazite and an ore called 'goianita' from the state of Goias (GO, Brazil). The accuracy and precision of results were discussed, and the isotopic ratio results indicated that the ores analysed present an isotopic abundance of natural uranium. (Author

  5. Separation of interfering elements in the neutron activation analysis of lanthanides in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical procedure has been developed for the separation of U, Th, Fe, Sc, Na,Ta, and Mo which interfere in the neutron activation analysis of the lanthanide elements in geological materials. This procedure is based on the solvent extraction of interferents using a solution of tetracycline in benzyl alcohol. The lanthanide elements remaining in the aqueous phase are coprecipitated on calcium oxalate or ferric hydroxide for irradiation and subsequent determination by gamma ray spectrometry. The chemical separation procedure was applied in the analysis of lanthanides in two international geological reference materials GSP-1 (USGS), GS-N (CRPG) and in the analysis of a volcanic rock from Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. The sensitivities for all the lanthanides were determined. (author) [pt

  6. Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Ordogh, M.

    1978-06-01

    Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32 P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 10 2 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

  7. Interfering elements in activation analysis. Study of instrumental analysis possibilities for the groups: Sc-Zn, Hg-Se and As-Sb-Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Atalla, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups Sc-Zn, Hg-Se and As-Sb-Br represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis, since the energy values of the gamma-ray photopeaks of the radioisotopes of these elements formed by thermal neutron activation are very closely located in the spectrum. A study is presented of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique. For this purpose, artificial mixtures of the interfering elements, in varying proportions, were prepared. Radiochemical separations procedures for the above mentioned elements were also studied by means of tracers. (Author) [pt

  8. Alcohol dysregulates corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH promoter activity by interfering with the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB. In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter.

  9. The 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides of bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA harbor cis-acting elements required for both negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Liao

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the negative-strand [(--strand] complement of the ∼30 kilobase, positive-strand [(+-strand] coronaviral genome is a necessary early step for genome replication. The identification of cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses, however, has been hampered due to insufficiencies in the techniques used to detect the (--strand RNA species. Here, we employed a method of head-to-tail ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to detect and quantitate the synthesis of bovine coronavirus (BCoV defective interfering (DI RNA (- strands. Furthermore, using the aforementioned techniques along with Northern blot assay, we specifically defined the cis-acting RNA elements within the 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides (nts which function in the synthesis of (-- or (+-strand BCoV DI RNA. The major findings are as follows: (i nts from -5 to -39 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are the cis-acting elements responsible for (--strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, (ii nts from -3 to -34 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are cis-acting elements required for (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, and (iii the nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1 is important, but not critical, for both (-- and (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis. These results demonstrate that the 3'-terminal 55 nts in BCoV DI RNA harbor cis-acting RNA elements required for both (-- and (+-strand DI RNA synthesis and extend our knowledge on the mechanisms of coronavirus replication. The method of head-to-tail ligation and qRT-PCR employed in the study may also be applied to identify other cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses.

  10. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  11. A simple chemical method for the separation of phosphorus interfering the trace element determinations by neutron activation analysis in high doped silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagler, H.; Flachowsky, J.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most available method for the determination of trace elements, but in the case of P-doped silicon wafers the 32 P-activity interferes the gamma spectrometry. It is not possible to determine the trace elements without chemical manipulations. On the other hand, time consuming chemical separations should be avoided. Therefore, a simple and rapid P-separation method has to be developed, in which the following twelve trace elements should be taken into consideration: Ag, As, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Na, Sb, W, and Zn. After acid oxidative dissolution of the activated sample, P is present as phosphate ion. The phosphate ion is removed by precipitation as BiPO 4 . (author)

  12. Interfering Satellite RNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV, the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of interfering satBaMV and BaMV. Like other satRNAs, satBaMV mimics the secondary structures of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs of BaMV as a molecular pretender. However, a conserved apical hairpin stem loop (AHSL in the 5′-UTR of satBaMV was found as the key determinant for downregulating BaMV replication. In particular, two unique nucleotides (C60 and C83 in the AHSL of satBaMVs determine the satBaMV interference ability by competing for the replication machinery. Thus, transgenic plants expressing interfering satBaMV could confer resistance to BaMV, and interfering satBaMV could be used as biological-control agent. Unlike two major anti-viral mechanisms, RNA silencing and salicylic acid-mediated immunity, our findings in plants by in vivo competition assay and RNA deep sequencing suggested replication competition is involved in this transgenic satBaMV-mediated BaMV interference. We propose how a single nucleotide of satBaMV can make a great change in BaMV pathogenicity and the underlying mechanism.

  13. Control over interfering memories in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Penolazzi, Barbara; Libardi, Arianna; Genovese, Aldo; Castelli, Luigi; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that patients suffering from either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit abnormal performance in the ability to control cognitive interference in response selection. We assessed the status of cognitive control in episodic memory by addressing the ability to inhibit interfering memories. To this end, we used the retrieval-practice paradigm, which allows for measuring both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of memory practice. The latter phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), is thought to reflect an adaptive inhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing competition in memory retrieval. Twenty-seven healthy controls and 27 patients suffering from eating disorders (either AN or BN) performed a retrieval-practice paradigm and a control task addressing general reactivity and filled a self-report questionnaire on impulsivity. No differences between patients and healthy controls were observed for the beneficial effects of practice. The same pattern also emerged for RIF. However, when patients with AN and BN were analyzed separately, a clear dissociation emerged: patients with AN displayed no hint of RIF, whereas patients with BN showed an intact memory suppression performance. No group differences emerged in the control task. Our findings suggest a specific impairment in the ability to suppress interfering memories in patients with AN, thus extending current evidence of cognitive control deficits in AN to episodic memory.

  14. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  15. Associative Interference in Pavlovian Conditioning: A Function of Similarity Between the Interfering and Target Associative Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Amundson, Jeffrey C.; Miller, Ralph R.

    2008-01-01

    Three lever-press suppression studies were conducted with water-deprived rats to investigate the role of similarity in proactive interference within first-order Pavlovian conditioning. Experiments 1a and 1b assessed the influence of stimulus complexity in proactive interference. Both experiments found greater interference when the interfering cue and target cue were composed of the same number of elements. Experiment 2 assessed the influence of context similarity in proactive interference and...

  16. Partial Polarization in Interfered Plasmon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martínez Vara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the polarization features for plasmon fields generated by the interference between two elemental surface plasmon modes, obtaining a set of Stokes parameters which allows establishing a parallelism with the traditional polarization model. With the analysis presented, we find the corresponding coherence matrix for plasmon fields incorporating to the plasmon optics the study of partial polarization effects.

  17. Pulmonary administration of small interfering RNA : The route to go?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, Mitchel; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), which is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, researchers have been studying the therapeutic potential of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to treat diseases that are characterized by excessive gene expression. Excessive gene

  18. (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective inhibition of specific gene by adenoassociated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of small interfering RNA. ... To perform functional tests on siRNA, which was expressed by the viral vector, recombinant AAVs, coding for siRNA against exogenous gene, EGFP, and endogenous gene, p53, were established and ...

  19. MAP Detector for Flash Memory Without Accessing the Interfering Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yassine, Hachem; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    the latency cost of accessing the interfering cells. Specifically, we exploit the fact that adjacent cells have common interferers by modeling the system as an appropriate hidden Markov model. Then we use the sum-product (message-passing) algorithm to compute the marginal posterior probabilities of the stored...

  20. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  1. Selection of peptides interfering with protein-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, Annette; Hagemann, Urs B; Mattay, Dinah; Räuber, Christina; Müller, Kristian M; Arndt, Katja M

    2009-01-01

    Cell physiology depends on a fine-tuned network of protein-protein interactions, and misguided interactions are often associated with various diseases. Consequently, peptides, which are able to specifically interfere with such adventitious interactions, are of high interest for analytical as well as medical purposes. One of the most abundant protein interaction domains is the coiled-coil motif, and thus provides a premier target. Coiled coils, which consist of two or more alpha-helices wrapped around each other, have one of the simplest interaction interfaces, yet they are able to confer highly specific homo- and heterotypic interactions involved in virtually any cellular process. While there are several ways to generate interfering peptides, the combination of library design with a powerful selection system seems to be one of the most effective and promising approaches. This chapter guides through all steps of such a process, starting with library options and cloning, detailing suitable selection techniques and ending with purification for further down-stream characterization. Such generated peptides will function as versatile tools to interfere with the natural function of their targets thereby illuminating their down-stream signaling and, in general, promoting understanding of factors leading to specificity and stability in protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, peptides interfering with medically relevant proteins might become important diagnostics and therapeutics.

  2. Defective interfering particles in monolayer-propagated Newcastle disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, J.M.; Simon, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) serially passaged in chick embryo fibroblasts (M-NDV) gives rise to defective interfering (NDV-DI) particles, while NDV passaged in embryonated eggs (E-NDV) does not. Co-infection with these particles and infectious virions results in a 99 percent reduction in yield. Interference is not due to interferon or to prevention of absorption of infectious virions and is specific for NDV. The particles mediating interference sediment at the same velocity as infectious virions. The accumulation of NDV-DI particles in monolayers but not in eggs may be a consequence of the fact that M-NDV virions are larger and probably contain more RNA, or it may reflect differences in NDV replicative processes in eggs and monolayers, or both

  3. A self-interfering clock as a "which path" witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Yair; Zhou, Zhifan; Machluf, Shimon; Rohrlich, Daniel; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-09-11

    In Einstein's general theory of relativity, time depends locally on gravity; in standard quantum theory, time is global-all clocks "tick" uniformly. We demonstrate a new tool for investigating time in the overlap of these two theories: a self-interfering clock, comprising two atomic spin states. We prepare the clock in a spatial superposition of quantum wave packets, which evolve coherently along two paths into a stable interference pattern. If we make the clock wave packets "tick" at different rates, to simulate a gravitational time lag, the clock time along each path yields "which path" information, degrading the pattern's visibility. In contrast, in standard interferometry, time cannot yield "which path" information. This proof-of-principle experiment may have implications for the study of time and general relativity and their impact on fundamental effects such as decoherence and the emergence of a classical world. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Molecular Basis for the Immunostimulatory Potency of Small Interfering RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouldy Sioud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs represent a new class of antigene agents, which has emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomics and might serve as a potent therapeutic approach. However, several studies have showed that they could trigger several bystander effects, including immune activation and inhibition of unintended target genes. Although activation of innate immunity by siRNAs might be beneficial for therapy in some instances, uncontrolled activation can be toxic, and is therefore a major challenging problem. Interestingly, replacement of uridines in siRNA sequences with their 2′-modified counterparts abrogated siRNA bystander effects. Here we highlight these important findings that are expected to facilitate the rational design of siRNAs that avoid the induction of bystander effects.

  5. High molecular somatostatin, an interfering factor in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, F.; Schneider, E.; Baumann, H.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclic Tyr 1 -somatostatin (Tyr 1 -SRIF) is radioiodinated by the lactoperoxidase method. Purification is achieved by Sephadex G-25 adsorption chromatography. Specific anti-SRIF serum (FA1) has been raised in rabbits. A dose response curve is obtained in the range of 5 - 5,000 pg per tube using an antiserum dilution of 1:2,000. There is little cross-reaction with linear somatostatin and none with ocytocin, (lys-, arg-) vasopressin, valinomycin, polymyxin, insulin, glucagon, human growth hormone (hGH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). For recovery tests, extraction procedures are necessary. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and polyacrylamide-disc-electrophoresis (Disc-PAGE) are performed to identify the presumed high molecular 125 I-Tyr 1 -SRIF associate. This high molecular associate may represent an interfering factor in the radioimmunoassay for cyclic SRIF. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. Memory interfering effects of chlordiazepoxide on consummatory successive negative contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A; Glueck, Amanda C; Daniel, Alan M; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A; White, Michelle M; Papini, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Long-Evans rats downshifted from 32% to 4% sucrose solution exhibit lower consummatory behavior during downshift trials than rats exposed only to 4% sucrose. In Experiment 1, this effect, called consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), was attenuated by administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5mg/kg, ip) before the second downshift trial (Trial 12), but was not affected when CDP was administered before the first downshift trial (Trial 11). In Experiment 2, CDP administered after Trial 11 actually enhanced the cSNC effect on Trial 12. This posttrial effect of CDP was reduced by delayed administration (Experiment 3). This CDP effect was not present in the absence of incentive downshift (Experiments 4-5), or when animals were tested with the preshift incentive (Experiment 6) or after complete recovery from cSNC (Experiment 7). The posttrial CDP effect was observed after an 8-day interval between Trials 11 and 12 (Experiment 8) and when administered after Trial 12, rather than Trial 11 (Experiment 9). Experiment 10 extended the effect to Wistar rats. Because CDP is a memory interfering drug, it was hypothesized that its posttrial administration interferes with the consolidation of the memory of the downshifted incentive, thus prolonging the mismatch between expected (32% sucrose) and obtained (4% sucrose) incentives that leads to the cSNC effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ROW (Right-of-Way) interfering construction activities management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosito, Roberta; Oliveira, Marisa; Lima, Shirley [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A significant portion of pipeline failures occurs due to external damage. This includes third party right of way (ROW) encroachment, which shall be identified and avoided. However, injuries caused by known and planned activities do happen. Construction of crossing or sharing ROW pipelines, crossing roads and bridges, neighboring buildings and excavations of any kind might put existing pipelines in risk. This paper presents how the TRANSPETRO ROW Interfering Construction Activities Management Program is implemented by a regional ROW maintenance department responsible for more than 3,000 km of pipelines, mostly in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states. This program is based on a TRANSPETRO procedure that was written after the publication of the Official Order number 125 of ANP (Oil, Gas and Biofuel Brazilian National Agency). Tasks from design review and approval to field construction supervision are performed by the staff responsible for the routine patrols and maintenance management. The ability of foreseeing risky activities is improved by expertise gained from day-to-day work on site. (author)

  8. A mathematical solution for the parameters of three interfering resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Shen, C. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multiple-solution problem in determining the parameters of three interfering resonances from a fit to an experimentally measured distribution is considered from a mathematical viewpoint. It is shown that there are four numerical solutions for a fit with three coherent Breit-Wigner functions. Although explicit analytical formulae cannot be derived in this case, we provide some constraint equations between the four solutions. For the cases of nonrelativistic and relativistic Breit-Wigner forms of amplitude functions, a numerical method is provided to derive the other solutions from that already obtained, based on the obtained constraint equations. In real experimental measurements with more complicated amplitude forms similar to Breit-Wigner functions, the same method can be deduced and performed to get numerical solutions. The good agreement between the solutions found using this mathematical method and those directly from the fit verifies the correctness of the constraint equations and mathematical methodology used. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11575017, 11761141009), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856701) and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  9. Small interfering RNA delivery through positively charged polymer nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoni, Luca; Cesana, Alberto; Moscatelli, Davide; Ferrari, Raffaele; Morbidelli, Massimo; Lupi, Monica; Falcetta, Francesca; Ubezio, Paolo; D’Incalci, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is receiving increasing attention with regard to the treatment of many genetic diseases, both acquired and hereditary, such as cancer and diabetes. Being a high molecular weight (MW) polyanion, siRNA is not able to cross a cell membrane, and in addition it is unstable in physiological conditions. Accordingly, a biocompatible nanocarrier able to deliver siRNA into cells is needed. In this work, we synthesized biocompatible positively charged nanoparticles (NPs) following a two-step process that involves ring opening polymerization (ROP) and emulsion free radical polymerization (EFRP). Firstly, we proved the possibility of fine tuning the NPs’ characteristics (e.g. size and surface charge) by changing the synthetic process parameters. Then the capability in loading and delivering undamaged siRNA into a cancer cell cytoplasm has been shown. This latter process occurs through the biodegradation of the polymer constituting the NPs, whose kinetics can be tuned by adjusting the polymer’s MW. Finally, the ability of NPs to carry siRNA inside the cells in order to inhibit their target gene has been demonstrated using green flourescent protein positive cells. (paper)

  10. Peptides Interfering 3A Protein Dimerization Decrease FMDV Multiplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González-Magaldi

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3A is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV replication. FMDV 3A can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2 that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. In this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. The dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the two hydrophobic α-helices, α12, impaired in vitro dimer formation of a peptide containing the two α-helices, this effect being higher with peptide α12. To assess the effect of dimer inhibition in cultured cells, the interfering peptides were N-terminally fused to a heptaarginine (R7 sequence to favor their intracellular translocation. Thus, when fused to R7, interference peptides (100 μM were able to inhibit dimerization of transiently expressed 3A, the higher inhibitions being found with peptides α1 and α12. The 3A dimerization impairment exerted by the peptides correlated with significant, specific reductions in the viral yield recovered from peptide-treated FMDV infected cells. In this case, α2 was the only peptide producing significant reductions at concentrations lower than 100 μM. Thus, dimer interface peptides constitute a tool to understand the structure-function relationship of this viral protein and point to 3A dimerization as a potential antiviral target.

  11. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  12. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  13. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  14. Prevalence of interfering substances with point-of-care glucose testing in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, John H; Mason, Debra; Barnes, Deborah L; Kollins, Jerry

    2009-01-15

    This study determined the prevalence of interfering substances with a glucometer using the glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone method of point-of-care glucose testing (POCGT) and identified the percentage of patients with orders for an insulin product during the interference time interval. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all inpatients with biochemically-identified interfering substances over a 12-month period. The interfering substance report identified all patients with serum uric acid concentrations greater than 10 mg/dL, hematocrit less than 20% or greater than 55%, serum total bilirubin concentrations greater than 20 mg/dL, serum acetaminophen concentrations greater than 8 mg/dL, and serum triglyceride concentrations greater than 5000 mg/dL. Of 6885 hospital admissions during the 12-month study period, 84 patients (1.2%) were identified as having interfering substances. Interfering substances were identified an average mean +/- S.D. of 4.88 +/- 15.56 days following hospital admission. Two patients had interfering substances identified in the emergency department before hospital admission. Five patients (four with total bilirubin and one with uric acid) had initial concentrations below the interference threshold. These concentrations increased during hospitalization to high enough levels to cause interference with POCGT. Since the average length of stay for the identified patients was 10.49 days, an average of 17% of the hospital stay was impacted by an interfering substance. Substances remained at interfering concentrations until the time of discharge in 30% of the patients. Over a 12-month period, interfering substance were identified in1.2% of patients admitted to a hospital. Thirty-six percent of those patients had an active order for an insulin product during the interference time interval.

  15. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  16. Intratracheal Administration of Small Interfering RNA Targeting Fas Reduces Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Costamagna, Andrea; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Civiletti, Federica; Vizio, Barbara; Bosco, Ornella; Martin Conte, Erica L; Frati, Giacomo; Delsedime, Luisa; Lupia, Enrico; Fanelli, Vito; Ranieri, V Marco

    2016-08-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury is the main cause of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Fas-mediated apoptosis is one of the pathologic mechanisms involved in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We hypothesized that the inhibition of Fas gene expression in lungs by intratracheal administration of small interfering RNA could reduce lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in an ex vivo model reproducing the procedural sequence of lung transplantation. Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. C57/BL6 mice weighing 28-30 g. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in lungs isolated from mice, 48 hours after treatment with intratracheal small interfering RNA targeting Fas, control small interfering RNA, or vehicle. Isolated lungs were exposed to 6 hours of cold ischemia (4°C), followed by 2 hours of warm (37°C) reperfusion with a solution containing 10% of fresh whole blood and mechanical ventilation with constant low driving pressure. Fas gene expression was significantly silenced at the level of messenger RNA and protein after ischemia-reperfusion in lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas compared with lungs treated with control small interfering RNA or vehicle. Silencing of Fas gene expression resulted in reduced edema formation (bronchoalveolar lavage protein concentration and lung histology) and improvement in lung compliance. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of pulmonary cell apoptosis of lungs treated with small interfering RNA targeting Fas, which did not affect cytokine release and neutrophil infiltration. Fas expression silencing in the lung by small interfering RNA is effective against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This approach represents a potential innovative strategy of organ preservation before lung transplantation.

  17. Quantification of analytes affected by relevant interfering signals under quality controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J.N.; Santos, Julia R.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of organic contaminants or residues in biological samples is frequently affected by the presence of compounds producing interfering instrumental signals. This feature is responsible for the higher complexity and cost of these analyses and/or by a significant reduction of the number of studied analytes in a multi-analyte method. This work presents a methodology to estimate the impact of the interfering compounds on the quality of the analysis of complex samples, based on separative instrumental methods of analysis, aiming at supporting the inclusion of analytes affected by interfering compounds in the list of compounds analysed in the studied samples. The proposed methodology involves the study of the magnitude of the signal produced by the interfering compounds in the analysed matrix, and is applicable to analytical systems affected by interfering compounds with varying concentration in the studied matrix. The proposed methodology is based on the comparison of the signals from a representative number of examples of the studied matrix, in order to estimate the impact of the presence of such compounds on the measurement quality. The treatment of the chromatographic signals necessary to collect these data can be easily performed considering algorithms of subtraction of chromatographic signals available in most of the analytical instrumentation software. The subtraction of the interfering compounds signal from the sample signal allows the compensation of the interfering effect irrespective of the relative magnitude of the interfering and analyte signals, supporting the applicability of the same model of the method performance for a broader concentration range. The quantification of the measurement uncertainty was performed using the differential approach, which allows the estimation of the contribution of the presence of the interfering compounds to the quality of the measurement. The proposed methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of

  18. Quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ure, A.M.; Bacon, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental details are given of the quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry. The effects of interfering species, and corrections that can be applied, are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Evaluation of locked nucleic acid-modified small interfering RNA in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, Olaf R.; Baas, Frank; de Wissel, Marit B.; Fluiter, Kees

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference has become widely used as an experimental tool to study gene function. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) may have great potential for the treatment of diseases. Recently, it was shown that siRNA can be used to mediate gene silencing in mouse models. Locally administered

  20. 36 CFR 261.3 - Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer, volunteer, or human resource program enrollee or giving false report to a Forest officer. 261.3... General Prohibitions § 261.3 Interfering with a Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program..., intimidating, or intentionally interfering with any Forest officer, volunteer, or human resource program...

  1. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  2. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  3. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  4. Detecting and Eliminating Interfering Organic Compounds in Waters Analyzed for Isotopic Composition by Crds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, B. A.; Hsiao, G. S.; Rella, C.

    2010-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy based CRDS technology for isotopic analysis of δD and δ18O directly from liquid water has greatly increased the number and type of liquid samples analyzed. This increase has also revealed a previously unrecognized sample contamination problem. Recently West[1] and Brand[2] identified samples containing ethanol, methanol, plant extracts and other organic compounds analyzed by CRDS and other spectroscopy based techniques as yielding erroneous results for δD and δ18O (especially δD) due to spectroscopic interference. Not all organic compounds generate interference. Thus, identifying which samples are contaminated by which organic compounds is of key importance for data credibility and correction. To address this problem a new approach in the form of a software suite, ChemCorrect™, has been developed. A chemometrics component uses a spectral library of water isotopologues and interfering organic compounds to best fit the measured spectra. The best fit values provide a quantitative assay of the actual concentrations of the various species and are then evaluated to generate a visual flag indicating samples affected by organic contamination. Laboratory testing of samples spiked with known quantities of interfering organic compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and terpenes was performed. The software correctly flagged and identified type of contamination for all the spiked samples without any false positives. Furthermore the reported values were a linear function of actual concentration with an R^2>0.99 even for samples which contained multiple organic compounds. Further testing was carried out against a range of industrial chemical compounds which can contaminate ground water as well as a variety of plant derived waters and juices which were also analyzed by IRMS. The excellent results obtained give good insight into which organic compounds cause interference and which classes of plants are likely to contain interfering compounds. Finally

  5. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  6. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  7. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  8. Incorporation of osteogenic and angiogenic small interfering RNAs into chitosan sponge for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sen Jia,1,* Xinjie Yang,1,* Wen Song,2,* Lei Wang,1 Kaixiu Fang,3 Zhiqiang Hu,1,4 Zihui Yang,1 Chun Shan,1 Delin Lei,1 Bin Lu1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, 3Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology, No 113 Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed to this paper equally and are considered to be joint first authors Abstract: Engineered bone substitutes are being extensively explored in response to growing demand. However, the angiogenesis that occurs during bone formation is often overlooked in scaffold design. In this novel study, we incorporated two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, ie, small interfering RNA targets casein kinase 2 interaction protein 1 (siCkip-1 and small interfering RNA targets soluble VEGF receptor 1 (siFlt-1, which can promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, into a chitosan sponge. This scaffold could maintain siRNAs for over 2 weeks in neutral phosphate-buffered saline and degraded rapidly in the presence of lysozyme. The chitosan sponge with siCkip-1 and siFlt-1 in vitro bioactivity was investigated using mesenchymal stem cells. Target genes were significantly suppressed, and osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly upregulated. Alizarin Red staining revealed that mineralization of the extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced by dual transfection. Further analysis by immunofluorescence confirmed that the siRNA-modified scaffold simultaneously improved the expression of osteocalcin and von Willebrand factor. In vivo testing in a skull critical-size defect model showed marked bone regeneration in rats treated with siCkip-1 and siFlt-1. In conclusion, chitosan sponge containing osteogenic and

  9. Interfície gràfica per WPKG - distribució de programari

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Morant, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Interfície gràfica per a la gestió del programari de lliure accés per a la distribució de programari WPKG (wpkg.org). Arquitectura MVC en un entorn J2EE6 utilitzant JSF2, JPA2 i EJB 3.1. Interfaz gráfica para la gestión del software de libre acceso para la distribución de software WPKG (wpkg.org). Arquitectura MVC en un entorno J2EE6 utilizando JSF2, JPA2 y EJB 3.1.

  10. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  11. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas, E-mail: Sven.Zacharias@ul.ie [University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  12. Experimental quantum teleportation and multiphoton entanglement via interfering narrowband photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Zhang Han; Peng Chengzhi; Chen Zengbing; Bao Xiaohui; Chen Shuai; Pan Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a realization of synchronization-free quantum teleportation and narrowband three-photon entanglement through interfering narrowband photon sources. Since both the single-photon and the entangled photon pair utilized are completely autonomous, it removes the requirement of high-demanding synchronization techniques in long-distance quantum communication with pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources. The frequency linewidth of the three-photon entanglement realized is on the order of several MHz, which matches the requirement of atomic ensemble based quantum memories. Such a narrowband multiphoton source will have applications in some advanced quantum communication protocols and linear optical quantum computation.

  13. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  14. R-matrix study of ionization in barium via two-photon interfering routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, M.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Lecomte, J. M.; Millet, M.; Lyras, A.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of part of the experimental data reported by Wang, Chen and Elliott [1,3] who studied in barium coherent control through two-color resonant interfering paths is reported. Dynamics of the two-color photoionization process, described as an adiabatic process in the rotating wave approximation, is governed by the coherent excitation of the 6s6p and 6s7p 1 P 1 intermediate states. Interference effects are found to play a minor role. The required atomic parameters are obtained from a theoretical approach based on a combination of jj-coupled eigenchannel R-matrix and Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory

  15. Combinatorial delivery of small interfering RNAs reduces RNAi efficacy by selective incorporation into RISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanotto, Daniela; Sakurai, Kumi; Lingeman, Robert; Li, Haitang; Shively, Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Soifer, Harris; Gatignol, Anne; Riggs, Arthur; Rossi, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both synthetic siRNAs and expressed shRNAs compete against each other and with the endogenous microRNAs for transport and for incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The same siRNA sequences do not display competition when expressed from a microRNA backbone. We also show that TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) is one of the sensors for selection and incorporation of the guide sequence of interfering RNAs. These findings reveal that combinatorial siRNA approaches can be problematic and have important implications for the methodology of expression and use of therapeutic interfering RNAs. PMID:17660190

  16. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  17. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  18. Advances in targeted delivery of small interfering RNA using simple bioconjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer; Kjems, Jørgen; Sorensen, Kristine Rothaus

    2014-01-01

    with a targeting moiety, in a simple bioconjugate construct. We discuss the use of different types of targeting moieties, as well as the different conjugation strategies employed for preparing these bioconjugate constructs that deliver the siRNA to target cells. We focus especially on the in-built or passive......Introduction: Development of drugs based on RNA interference by small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been progressing slowly due to a number of challenges associated with the in vivo behavior of siRNA. A central problem is controlling siRNA delivery to specific cell types. Here, we review existing...... literature on one type of strategy for solving the issue of cell-specific delivery of siRNA, namely delivering the siRNA as part of simple bioconjugate constructs. Areas covered: This review presents current experience from strategies aimed at targeting siRNA to specific cell types, by associating the siRNA...

  19. Elimination of eight interfering radioisotopes in the determination of uranium by activation analysis with epithermic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requejo, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    The total or parcial elimination interfering radioisotopes in activation analysis of uranium by epithermic neutrons, has been made. It was possible to determine uranium, after chemical separation, from samples of organic and mineral matrixes, which had mercury, selenium, bromine, antimony, gold, barium, molybden and tungsten. Mineral samples were analysed giving results between 0.2 to 5.0 ppm of uranium. The same mineral were ground in agate mortar and in tungsten carbide mill. In the first sample is has been found 0.2277 +- -+ 0.0474 ppm U. The second which had tungsten, at level of 150 ppm, after radiochemical separation, it has been found 0.2465+- -+0.0326 ppm U. These results are considered statistically the same [pt

  20. Interfering Effect of Black Tea Consumption on Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer by CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Ali Abdul Hussein S; Tawfeeq, Ekhlas F

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to determine the possible effects of black tea consumption on the level of CA 19-9 antigen in the human body. The level of CA 19-9 was measured in 270 healthy individuals who consumed heavy amounts of black tea. About 43.3 % of involved individuals were revealed to have elevated levels of CA 19-9. Males with high values of CA 19-9 represented the greatest number of involved individuals. The cutoff value of high levels of CA 19-9 in all individuals was ranged 69-105 U/ml. Consuming heavy amounts of black tea could be considered an important interfering factor that affects the levels of CA 19-9. The cutoff or predictive value of CA 19-9 in heavy-consuming people of black tea was determined.

  1. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo (Abelmoschus esculentus na região do Médio Vale do Rio Doce, em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, entre maio e outubro de 2007. Utilizaram-se sementes do quiabo Santa Cruz-47, semeadas no espaçamento de 0,25 x 1 m. Foram estabelecidos diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura, variando entre zero e 120 dias após a emergência (DAE. Foram avaliados 12 tratamentos, correspondendo a diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura: capina após a emergência a partir dos 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; capina após a emergência até os 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100 dias; além de duas testemunhas com capina, ou não capinadas, ambas por 120 dias. Determinou-se o número de frutos por planta e o rendimento (produtividade, bem como os valores em dias para período anterior à interferência (PAI, período crítico de prevenção da interferência (PCPI e período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI, considerando 5% de perdas. A partir das espécies encontradas na área experimental, avaliou-se também, em vasos, isoladamente ou em competição com o quiabeiro, a capacidade competitiva das principais plantas daninhas. Com base nos resultados, verificou-se que o PAI estimado foi de 25 DAE, indicando a época de início das capinas. Para o PCPI, o período observado foi de 75 dias, indicando PTPI de 100 DAE. Entre as plantas daninhas presentes, Eleusine indica apresentou maior capacidade competitiva sobre a cultura.An experiment was carried out under field conditions in Médio Vale do Rio Doce-MG, from May to October, 2007, to establish periods of weed interference in Abelmoschus esculentus crop. 'Santa Cruz-47' seeds were sown in a 0.25 x 1.0 m spacing, and weed control times varied from 0 to 120 days after emergence (DAE. Number of fruit per plant and yield as well as values in days

  2. Identification of Four New agr Quorum Sensing-Interfering Cyclodepsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kjaerulff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During our search for new natural products from the marine environment, we discovered a wide range of cyclic peptides from a marine Photobacterium, closely related to P. halotolerans. The chemical fingerprint of the bacterium showed primarily non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS-like compounds, including the known pyrrothine antibiotic holomycin and a wide range of peptides, from diketopiperazines to cyclodepsipeptides of 500–900 Da. Purification of components from the pellet fraction led to the isolation and structure elucidation of four new cyclodepsipeptides, ngercheumicin F, G, H, and I. The ngercheumicins interfered with expression of virulence genes known to be controlled by the agr quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, although to a lesser extent than the previously described solonamides from the same strain of Photobacterium.

  3. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF ANDALIN, AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR INTERFERING WITH CUTICLE DEPOSITION, AGAINST MOSQUITO LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N REHIMI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Andalin, a benzoylphenylurea (BPU derivative, was evaluated on Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae. Treatment was made on newly 3rd- and 4th instar larvae for 24 h. The compound exhibited insecticidal activity and mortality occured after earlier inhibition of their development or by their inability to complete their ecdysis. Treatment resulted in a significant larvicidal effect and in a inhibition of adult emergence. Moreover, the compound disturbed growth and development since several morphological types and an increase in the duration of larval stage were observed. Histological study conducted on 4th instar larval integument, showed that Andalin caused a significant reduction in the thickness of cuticles secreted compared to controls. Thus, Andalin prevent molting in C. pipiens by interfering with cuticle deposition confirming the primary mode of action of this BPU insecticide.

  4. Two narrow bandwidth photons interfering in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuyuan; Shi Baosen; Lu Xiaosong; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have analysed in detail the quantum interference of the degenerate narrowband two-photon state by using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, in which an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium is placed in one of two interfering beams. Our results clearly show that it is possible to coherently keep the quantum state at a single photon level in the EIT process, especially when the transparent window of the EIT medium is much larger than the bandwidth of the single photon. This shows that the EIT medium is possibly a kind of memory or repeater for the narrowband photons in the areas of quantum communication and quantum computer. This kind of experiment is feasible within the current technology

  5. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  6. Characterization of a defective interfering RNA that contains a mosaic of a plant viral genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, T.J.; Jackson, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since then, we have also discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a virus structurally related to TBSV. We proposed a thorough characterization of this unique class of symptom modulating RNAs with the overall objective of identifying viral RNA nucleotide, sequences involved in such fundamental processes as virus replication and encapsidation as well as the degree of symptom expression resulting from the viral-DI-host interaction. The proposed research focused on the molecular characterization of the DI RNAs and the helper virus. We had demonstrated that the DIs were collinear deletion mutants of the genome of a cherry strain of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). We had also shown that these low molecular weight RNAs interfered with the helper plant virus and modulated disease expression by preventing the development of a lethal necrotic disease in susceptible host plants. We also suggested that by exploring the mechanisms associated with the symptom attenuation effect, we might be able to devise novel strategies useful for engineering viral disease resistance.

  7. Study of criterion for assuring the effectiveness of cathodic protection of buried steel pipelines being interfered with alternative current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Jiang, G.; Qiu, Y.; Tang, H. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, G.; Jin, X.; Xiang, Z. [Huazhong Natural Gas Subsidiary of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Z. [Dwell Company Limited, PetroChina Engineering Company, Ltd, Beijing (China)

    2012-06-15

    Interference of alternative current (AC) on corrosion of X65 steel was investigated in soil. It was observed that the unfavorable effect of interfering AC was able to be effectively inhibited by increasing the direct current density of the cathodic protection (CP) system. A clear correlation was established between the CP current density and the tolerable AC current density. This led to a new criterion for assuring the effectiveness of CP of buried pipelines being interfered with AC. Field experimental results on a buried pipeline running below a 500 kV transmission line showed that the criterion could satisfactorily predict the risk of AC interfering on the CP system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelina Miele,1,* Gian Paolo Spinelli,2,* Ermanno Miele,3 Enzo Di Fabrizio,3,6 Elisabetta Ferretti,4 Silverio Tomao,2 Alberto Gulino,1,5 1Department of Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, 4Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 5Center for Life Nanoscience, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy, 6BIONEM lab, University of Magna Graecia, Campus S. Venuta, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current

  9. A novel albumin nanocomplex containing both small interfering RNA and gold nanorods for synergetic anticancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ha; Hwang, Hai-Jin; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au nanorods per BSA complex and were successively functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-ErbB-2 antibodies to facilitate active targeting. The synergetic therapeutic activity originating from the two components effectively induced cell death (~80% reduction in viability compared with control cells) in target breast cancer cells after a single dose of laser irradiation. Intracellular SREB nanocomplex decomposition by proteolytic enzymes resulted in simultaneous RNA interference and thermal ablation, thus leading to apoptosis in the targeted cancer cells. Moreover, these therapeutic effects were sustained for approximately 72 hours. The intrinsic biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and potent in vitro anticancer properties of these SREB nanocomplexes indicate that they have great therapeutic potential for in vivo targeted cancer therapy, in addition to other areas of nanomedicine.Therapeutic nanocomplexes have been extensively developed for the effective treatment of aggressive cancers because of their outstanding versatility, easy manipulation, and low cytotoxicity. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a novel bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanocomplex harboring both Bcl-2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) and gold (Au) nanorods (siRNA and rods encapsulated in BSA; SREB) with the aim of developing a targeted breast cancer therapeutic. The SREB complexes contained 2 × 105 siRNA molecules and eight Au

  10. Reconstituted influenza virus envelopes as an efficient carrier system for cellular delivery of small-interfering RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J; Holtrop, M; Wilschut, J; Huckriede, A

    Application of RNA interference for in vivo evaluation of gene function or for therapeutic interventions has been hampered by a lack of suitable delivery methods for small interfering RNA ( siRNA). Here, we present reconstituted viral envelopes (virosomes) derived from influenza virus as suitable

  11. Effective plasmid DNA and small interfering RNA delivery to diseased human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, H; Schmutzler, M; Christodoulides, M; Kim, K S; Schubert-Unkmeir, A

    2012-01-01

    Expression of exogenous DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro is significantly affected by the particular delivery system utilized. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency of plasmid DNA and siRNA into human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and meningioma cells, which constitute the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, a target of meningitis-causing pathogens. Chemical transfection methods and various lipofection reagents including Lipofectamin™, FuGene™, or jetPRIME®, as well as physical transfection methods and electroporation techniques were applied. To monitor the transfection efficiencies, HBMEC and meningioma cells were transfected with the reporter plasmid pTagGFP2-actin vector, and efficiency of transfection was estimated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We established protocols based on electroporation using Cell Line Nucleofector® Kit V with the Amaxa® Nucleofector® II system from Lonza and the Neon® Transfection system from Invitrogen resulting in up to 41 and 82% green fluorescent protein-positive HBMEC, respectively. Optimal transfection solutions, pulse programs and length were evaluated. We furthermore demonstrated that lipofection is an efficient method to transfect meningioma cells with a transfection efficiency of about 81%. Finally, we applied the successful electroporation protocols to deliver synthetic siRNA to HBMEC and analyzed the role of the actin-binding protein cortactin in Neisseria meningitidis pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Development of a software tool and criteria evaluation for efficient design of small interfering RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Aparna; Srivastava, Sonam; Garg, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The developed tool predicted siRNA constructs with better thermodynamic stability and total score based on positional and other criteria. → Off-target silencing below score 30 were observed for the best siRNA constructs for different genes. → Immunostimulation and cytotoxicity motifs considered and penalized in the developed tool. → Both positional and compositional criteria were observed to be important. -- Abstract: RNA interference can be used as a tool for gene silencing mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNA). The critical step in effective and specific RNAi processing is the selection of suitable constructs. Major design criteria, i.e., Reynolds's design rules, thermodynamic stability, internal repeats, immunostimulatory motifs were emphasized and implemented in the siRNA design tool. The tool provides thermodynamic stability score, GC content and a total score based on other design criteria in the output. The viability of the tool was established with different datasets. In general, the siRNA constructs produced by the tool had better thermodynamic score and positional properties. Comparable thermodynamic scores and better total scores were observed with the existing tools. Moreover, the results generated had comparable off-target silencing effect. Criteria evaluations with additional criteria were achieved in WEKA.

  13. Ligand-targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs to malignant cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mini; Kularatne, Sumith A; Qi, Longwu; Kleindl, Paul; Leamon, Christopher P; Hansen, Michael J; Low, Philip S

    2009-09-01

    Potential clinical applications of small interfering RNA (siRNA) are hampered primarily by delivery issues. We have successfully addressed the delivery problems associated with off-site targeting of highly toxic chemotherapeutic agents by attaching the drugs to tumor-specific ligands that will carry the attached cargo into the desired cancer cell. Indeed, several such tumor-targeted drugs are currently undergoing human clinical trials. We now show that efficient targeting of siRNA to malignant cells and tissues can be achieved by covalent conjugation of small-molecular-weight, high-affinity ligands, such as folic acid and DUPA (2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)-ureido] pentanedioic acid), to siRNA. The former ligand binds a folate receptor that is overexpressed on a variety of cancers, whereas the latter ligand binds to prostate-specific membrane antigen that is overexpressed specifically on prostate cancers and the neovasculature of all solid tumors. Using these ligands, we show remarkable receptor-mediated targeting of siRNA to cancer tissues in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  15. Efficient inhibition of the formation of joint adhesions by ERK2 small interfering RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fengfeng; Ruan, Hongjiang; Fan, Cunyi; Zeng, Bingfang; Wang, Chunyang; Wang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 play very important roles in fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. These processes lead to the formation of joint adhesions through the SMAD and MAPK pathways, in which extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)2 is considered to be crucial. Based on these theories, we examined the effects of a lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ERK2 on the suppression of joint adhesion formation in vivo. The effects were assessed in vivo from different aspects including the adhesion score, histology and joint contracture angle. We found that the adhesions in the ERK2 siRNA group became soft and weak, and were easily stretched. Accordingly, the flexion contracture angles in the ERK2 siRNA group were also reduced (P < 0.05 compared with the control group). The animals appeared healthy, with no signs of impaired wound healing. In conclusion, local delivery of a lentivirus-mediated siRNA targeting ERK2 can ameliorate joint adhesion formation effectively and safely.

  16. Interfering with free recall of words: Detrimental effects of phonological competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Myra A; Wammes, Jeffrey D; Priselac, Sandra; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-09-01

    We examined the effect of different distracting tasks, performed concurrently during memory retrieval, on recall of a list of words. By manipulating the type of material and processing (semantic, orthographic, and phonological) required in the distracting task, and comparing the magnitude of memory interference produced, we aimed to infer the kind of representation upon which retrieval of words depends. In Experiment 1, identifying odd digits concurrently during free recall disrupted memory, relative to a full attention condition, when the numbers were presented orthographically (e.g. nineteen), but not numerically (e.g. 19). In Experiment 2, a distracting task that required phonological-based decisions to either word or picture material produced large, but equivalent effects on recall of words. In Experiment 3, phonological-based decisions to pictures in a distracting task disrupted recall more than when the same pictures required semantically-based size estimations. In Experiment 4, a distracting task that required syllable decisions to line drawings interfered significantly with recall, while an equally difficult semantically-based color-decision task about the same line drawings, did not. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the degree of memory interference experienced during recall of words depends primarily on whether the distracting task competes for phonological representations or processes, and less on competition for semantic or orthographic or material-specific representations or processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amides are excellent mimics of phosphate internucleoside linkages and are well tolerated in short interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Selvam, Chelliah; Lunstad, Benjamin D; Pallan, Pradeep S; Haas, Amanda; Leake, Devin; Egli, Martin; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an important tool in functional genomics and has an intriguing therapeutic potential. However, the current design of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is not optimal for in vivo applications. Non-ionic phosphate backbone modifications may have the potential to improve the properties of siRNAs, but are little explored in RNAi technologies. Using X-ray crystallography and RNAi activity assays, the present study demonstrates that 3'-CH2-CO-NH-5' amides are excellent replacements for phosphodiester internucleoside linkages in RNA. The crystal structure shows that amide-modified RNA forms a typical A-form duplex. The amide carbonyl group points into the major groove and assumes an orientation that is similar to the P-OP2 bond in the phosphate linkage. Amide linkages are well hydrated by tandem waters linking the carbonyl group and adjacent phosphate oxygens. Amides are tolerated at internal positions of both the guide and passenger strand of siRNAs and may increase the silencing activity when placed near the 5'-end of the passenger strand. As a result, an siRNA containing eight amide linkages is more active than the unmodified control. The results suggest that RNAi may tolerate even more extensive amide modification, which may be useful for optimization of siRNAs for in vivo applications. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Protection against lethal Marburg virus infection mediated by lipid encapsulated small interfering RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursic-Bedoya, Raul; Mire, Chad E; Robbins, Marjorie; Geisbert, Joan B; Judge, Adam; MacLachlan, Ian; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-02-15

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection causes severe morbidity and mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Currently, there are no licensed therapeutics available for treating MARV infection. Here, we present the in vitro development and in vivo evaluation of lipid-encapsulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of MARV infection. The activity of anti-MARV siRNAs was assessed using dual luciferase reporter assays followed by in vitro testing against live virus. Lead candidates were tested in lethal guinea pig models of 3 different MARV strains (Angola, Ci67, Ravn). Treatment resulted in 60%-100% survival of guinea pigs infected with MARV. Although treatment with siRNA targeting other MARV messenger RNA (mRNA) had a beneficial effect, targeting the MARV NP mRNA resulted in the highest survival rates. NP-718m siRNA in lipid nanoparticles provided 100% protection against MARV strains Angola and Ci67, and 60% against Ravn. A cocktail containing NP-718m and NP-143m provided 100% protection against MARV Ravn. These data show protective efficacy against the most pathogenic Angola strain of MARV. Further development of the lipid nanoparticle technology has the potential to yield effective treatments for MARV infection.

  19. Short interfering RNAs targeting a vampire-bat related rabies virus phosphoprotein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient and specific gene knockdown by small interfering RNAs produced in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linfeng; Jin, Jingmin; Deighan, Padraig; Kiner, Evgeny; McReynolds, Larry; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an indispensable tool to investigate gene function in eukaryotic cells1,2 and may be used for therapeutic purposes to knockdown genes implicated in disease3. Thus far, most synthetic siRNAs have been produced by chemical synthesis. Here we present a method to produce highly potent siRNAs in E. coli. This method relies on ectopic expression of p19, a siRNA-binding protein found in a plant RNA virus4, 5. When expressed in E. coli, p19 stabilizes ~21 nt siRNA-like species produced by bacterial RNase III. Transfection of mammalian cells with siRNAs, generated in bacteria expressing p19 and a hairpin RNA encoding 200 or more nucleotides of a target gene, at low nanomolar concentrations reproducibly knocks down gene expression by ~90% without immunogenicity or off-target effects. Because bacterially produced siRNAs contain multiple sequences against a target gene, they may be especially useful for suppressing polymorphic cellular or viral genes. PMID:23475073

  1. Antifibrotic effects of Smad4 small interfering RNAs in injured skeletal muscle after acute contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, J; Chen, S; Zhang, Q; Chen, S

    2011-10-01

    Muscle injuries are common musculoskeletal problems encountered in sports medicine clinics. In this study, we examined the effect of lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Smad4 on the suppression of the fibrosis in injured skeletal muscles. We found that Smad4-siRNA could efficiently knock down the expression of Smad4 in the C2C12 myoblast cells and in the contunded mice gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of mRNA level of Smad4 decreased to 11% and 49% compared to the control group, respectively, and the expression of protein level decreased to 13% and 57% respectively. Moreover, the lentivirus-mediated siRNA was stably transfected only into the skeletal muscle and not into the liver of the animals. In contunded mice gastrocnemius, the collagenous and vimentin-positive area in the Smad4 siRNA group reduced to 36% and 37% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the scrambled Smad4 siRNA-injected mice and PBS control-injected mice, the muscle function of the mice injected with lentivirus-mediated Smad4 siRNA improved in terms of both fast-twitch and tetanic strength (P<0.05). The results suggest that the gene therapy of inhibiting Smad4 by lentivirus-mediated siRNA could be a useful approach to prevent scar tissue formation and improve the function of injured skeletal muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Amides are excellent mimics of phosphate internucleoside linkages and are well tolerated in short interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Selvam, Chelliah; Lunstad, Benjamin D.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Haas, Amanda; Leake, Devin; Egli, Martin; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has become an important tool in functional genomics and has an intriguing therapeutic potential. However, the current design of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is not optimal for in vivo applications. Non-ionic phosphate backbone modifications may have the potential to improve the properties of siRNAs, but are little explored in RNAi technologies. Using X-ray crystallography and RNAi activity assays, the present study demonstrates that 3′-CH2-CO-NH-5′ amides are excellent replacements for phosphodiester internucleoside linkages in RNA. The crystal structure shows that amide-modified RNA forms a typical A-form duplex. The amide carbonyl group points into the major groove and assumes an orientation that is similar to the P–OP2 bond in the phosphate linkage. Amide linkages are well hydrated by tandem waters linking the carbonyl group and adjacent phosphate oxygens. Amides are tolerated at internal positions of both the guide and passenger strand of siRNAs and may increase the silencing activity when placed near the 5′-end of the passenger strand. As a result, an siRNA containing eight amide linkages is more active than the unmodified control. The results suggest that RNAi may tolerate even more extensive amide modification, which may be useful for optimization of siRNAs for in vivo applications. PMID:24813446

  3. Rosiglitazone Inhibits Adrenocortical Cancer Cell Proliferation by Interfering with the IGF-IR Intracellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luconi Michaela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone (RGZ, a thiazolidinedione ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, has been recently described as possessing antitumoral properties. We investigated RGZ effect on cell proliferation in two cell line models (SW13 and H295R of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC and its interaction with the signaling pathways of the activated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR. We demonstrate a high expression of IGF-IR in the two cell lines and in ACC. Cell proliferation is stimulated by IGF-I in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is inhibited by RGZ. The analysis of the main intracellular signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K-Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 cascades reveals that RGZ rapidly interferes with the Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation which mediates IGF-I stimulated proliferation. In conclusion, our results suggest that RGZ exerts an inhibitory effect on human ACC cell proliferation by interfering with the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways downstream of the activated IGF-IR.

  4. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  5. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  6. Fangchinoline inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wan

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. However, the emergence of drug resistance has resulted in the failure of treatments in large numbers of patients and thus necessitates the development of new classes of anti-HIV drugs. In this study, more than 200 plant-derived small-molecule compounds were evaluated in a cell-based HIV-1 antiviral screen, resulting in the identification of a novel HIV-1 inhibitor (fangchinoline. Fangchinoline, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae, exhibited antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains NL4-3, LAI and BaL in MT-4 and PM1 cells with a 50% effective concentration ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 µM. Mechanism-of-action studies showed that fangchinoline did not exhibit measurable antiviral activity in TZM-b1 cells but did inhibit the production of infectious virions in HIV-1 cDNA transfected 293T cells, which suggests that the compound targets a late event in infection cycle. Furthermore, the antiviral effect of fangchinoline seems to be HIV-1 envelope-dependent, as the production of infectious HIV-1 particles packaged with a heterologous envelope, the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein, was unaffected by fangchinoline. Western blot analysis of HIV envelope proteins expressed in transfected 293T cells and in isolated virions showed that fangchinoline inhibited HIV-1 gp160 processing, resulting in reduced envelope glycoprotein incorporation into nascent virions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that fangchinoline inhibits HIV-1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing. Fangchinoline may serve as a starting point for developing a new HIV-1 therapeutic approach.

  7. Delivery of small interfering RNA for inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis by hypoxia and serum deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung-Woo; Hartle, Lauren; Son, Sun Mi; Yang, Fan; Goldberg, Michael; Xu, Qiaobing; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) for anti-angiogenic or pro-apoptotic factors in endothelial cells (ECs) has great potential for the treatment of ischemic diseases by promoting angiogenesis or inhibiting apoptosis. Here, we report the utility of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in inhibiting EC apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). siRNA was designed and synthesized targeting tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured under in vitro hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions to simulate in vivo ischemic conditions. Two days after liposomal delivery of siRNA targeting TNFR-1 and SHP-1, significant silencing of each target (TNFR-1; 76.5% and SHP-1; 97.2%) was detected. Under serum-deprived hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions, TNF-α expression in HUVECs increased relative to normoxic (20% oxygen) and serum-containing conditions. Despite enhanced TNF-α expression, suppression of TNFR-1 or SHP-1 by siRNA delivery not only enhanced expression of angiogenic factors (KDR/Flk-1 and eNOS) and anti-apoptotic factor (Bcl-xL) but also reduced expression of a pro-apoptotic factor (Bax). Transfection of TNFR-1 or SHP-1 siRNA significantly decreased the HUVEC apoptosis while significantly enhancing HUVEC proliferation and capillary formation. The present study demonstrates that TNFR-1 and SHP-1 may be useful targets for the treatment of myocardial or hindlimb ischemia

  8. Defective-interfering particles of the human parvovirus adeno-associated virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, C.A.; Myers, M.W.; Risin, D.L.; Carter, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously shown that adeno-associated virus (AAV) grown in KB cells with a helper adenovirus, produced several classes of particles defined by their buoyant density in CsCl. The predominant density classes were referred to as AAV(1.45), AAV(1.41), AAV (1.35), and AAV(1.32), respectively, where the density of the particle was written in the parentheses. The AAV(1.45) and AAV(1.41) particles which contained standard genomes were the only infectious AAV these infectious AAV particles exhibited autointerference. The ligh-density AAV(1.35) and (1.32) particles contained aberrant (deleted and/or snap-back) genomes. We report here experiments which show that the light-density AAV particles were noninfectious but interfered with the replication of AAV(1.41). The interference was intracellular and resulted in inhibition of synthesis of standard (14.5S) AAV genomes. In some cases there was also a concomitant increase in synthesis of aberrant, shorter AAV DNA. The inhibitory activity of the light-density particles was abolished by uv irradiation. These results show that the population of light AAV particles contained DI particles. The observed autointerference of AAV(1.45) or AAV(1.41) virus is postulated to be due to AAV DI particles. Replication of AAV DI genomes appeared to require the presence of replicating, standard AAV genomes. This is interpreted to mean that progeny strand replication of AAV requires an AAV-specified product, presumably the AAV capsid protein. In contrast to standard, infectious AAV, the AAV DI particles alone do not inhibit replication of the helper adenovirus

  9. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-10-28

    The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes is able to reduce immune responses, cytotoxicity, and other side effects caused by viral vectors in clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-recognition mechanism between skin and suckers prevents octopus arms from interfering with each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W; Hochner, Binyamin

    2014-06-02

    Controlling movements of flexible arms is a challenging task for the octopus because of the virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) [1, 2]. Octopuses simplify this control by using stereotypical motion patterns that reduce the DOFs, in the control space, to a workable few [2]. These movements are triggered by the brain and are generated by motor programs embedded in the peripheral neuromuscular system of the arm [3-5]. The hundreds of suckers along each arm have a tendency to stick to almost any object they contact [6-9]. The existence of this reflex could pose significant problems with unplanned interactions between the arms if not appropriately managed. This problem is likely to be accentuated because it is accepted that octopuses are "not aware of their arms" [10-14]. Here we report of a self-recognition mechanism that has a novel role in motor control, restraining the arms from interfering with each other. We show that the suckers of amputated arms never attach to octopus skin because a chemical in the skin inhibits the attachment reflex of the suckers. The peripheral mechanism appears to be overridden by central control because, in contrast to amputated arms, behaving octopuses sometime grab amputated arms. Surprisingly, octopuses seem to identify their own amputated arms, as they treat arms of other octopuses like food more often than their own. This self-recognition mechanism is a novel peripheral component in the embodied organization of the adaptive interactions between the octopus's brain, body, and environment [15, 16]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adipose tissue conditioned media support macrophage lipid-droplet biogenesis by interfering with autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechor, Sapir; Nachmias, Dikla; Elia, Natalie; Haim, Yulia; Vatarescu, Maayan; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Gericke, Martin; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Las, Guy; Rudich, Assaf

    2017-09-01

    Obesity promotes the biogenesis of adipose tissue (AT) foam cells (FC), which contribute to AT insulin resistance. Autophagy, an evolutionarily-conserved house-keeping process, was implicated in cellular lipid handling by either feeding and/or degrading lipid-droplets (LDs). We hypothesized that beyond phagocytosis of dead adipocytes, AT-FC biogenesis is supported by the AT microenvironment by regulating autophagy. Non-polarized ("M0") RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to AT conditioned media (AT-CM) exhibited a markedly enhanced LDs biogenesis rate compared to control cells (8.3 Vs 0.3 LDs/cells/h, p<0.005). Autophagic flux was decreased by AT-CM, and fluorescently following autophagosomes over time revealed ~20% decline in new autophagic vesicles' formation rate, and 60-70% decrease in autophagosomal growth rate, without marked alternations in the acidic lysosomal compartment. Suppressing autophagy by either targeting autophagosome formation (pharmacologically, with 3-methyladenine or genetically, with Atg12±Atg7-siRNA), decreased the rate of LD formation induced by oleic acid. Conversely, interfering with late autophago-lysosomal function, either pharmacologically with bafilomycin-A1, chloroquine or leupeptin, enhanced LD formation in macrophages without affecting LD degradation rate. Similarly enhanced LD biogenesis rate was induced by siRNA targeting Lamp-1 or the V-ATPase. Collectively, we propose that secreted products from AT interrupt late autophagosome maturation in macrophages, supporting enhanced LDs biogenesis and AT-FC formation, thereby contributing to AT dysfunction in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Thamara Figueiredo; Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Oliveira, Aline Rafaella Cardoso; Souza, Carolina de Santana; Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4), as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v) for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae) and 1.03% (fed larvae). Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae), 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0%) promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates that caution

  13. Schinus terebinthifolius Leaf Extract Causes Midgut Damage, Interfering with Survival and Development of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamara Figueiredo Procópio

    Full Text Available In this study, a leaf extract from Schinus terebinthifolius was evaluated for effects on survival, development, and midgut of A. aegypti fourth instar larvae (L4, as well as for toxic effect on Artemia salina. Leaf extract was obtained using 0.15 M NaCl and evaluated for phytochemical composition and lectin activity. Early L4 larvae were incubated with the extract (0.3-1.35%, w/v for 8 days, in presence or absence of food. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins, heterosid and aglycone flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, traces of steroids, and lectin activity were detected in the extract, which killed the larvae at an LC50 of 0.62% (unfed larvae and 1.03% (fed larvae. Further, the larvae incubated with the extract reacted by eliminating the gut content. No larvae reached the pupal stage in treatments at concentrations between 0.5% and 1.35%, while in the control (fed larvae, 61.7% of individuals emerged as adults. The extract (1.0% promoted intense disorganization of larval midgut epithelium, including deformation and hypertrophy of cells, disruption of microvilli, and vacuolization of cytoplasms, affecting digestive, enteroendocrine, regenerative, and proliferating cells. In addition, cells with fragmented DNA were observed. Separation of extract components by solid phase extraction revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids are involved in larvicidal effect of the extract, being the first most efficient in a short time after larvae treatment. The lectin present in the extract was isolated, but did not show deleterious effects on larvae. The extract and cinnamic acid derivatives were toxic to A. salina nauplii, while the flavonoids showed low toxicity. S. terebinthifolius leaf extract caused damage to the midgut of A. aegypti larvae, interfering with survival and development. The larvicidal effect of the extract can be attributed to cinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The data obtained using A. salina indicates

  14. Factors interfering with the accuracy of five blood glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hong; Zhang, Guo-jun; Kang, Xi-xiong; Yuan, Hui; Lv, Yan-wei; Wang, Wen-wen; Randall, Rollins

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in China. Glucose control is very important in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of five glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals with a reference method, in the absence and presence of various factors that may interfere with the meters. Within-run precision of the meters was evaluated include Roche Accu-Chek Inform®, Abbott Precision PCx FreeStyle®, Bayer Contour®, J&J LifeScan SureStep Flexx®, and Nova Biomedical StatStrip®. The interference of hematocrit level, maltose, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, galactose, dopamine, and uric acid were tested in three levels of blood glucose, namely low, medium, and high concentrations. Accuracy (bias) of the meters and analytical interference by various factors were evaluated by comparing results obtained in whole blood specimens with those in plasma samples of the whole blood specimens run on the reference method. Impact of oxygen tension on above five blood glucose meters was detected. Precision was acceptable and slightly different between meters. There were no significant differences in the measurements between the meters and the reference method. The hematocrit level significantly interfered with all meters, except StatStrip. Measurements were affected to varying degrees by different substances at different glucose levels, e.g. acetaminophen and ascorbic acid (Freestyle), maltose and galactose (FreeStyle, Accu-Chek), uric acid (FreeStyle, Bayer Contour), and dopamine (Bayer Contour). The measurements with the five meters showed a good correlation with the plasma hexokinase reference method, but most were affected by the hematocrit level. Some meters also showed marked interference by other substances. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Detection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by mass spectrometry procedures in doping controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Delahaut, Philippe; Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Uncovering manipulation of athletic performance via small interfering (si)RNA is an emerging field in sports drug testing. Due to the potential to principally knock down every target gene in the organism by means of the RNA interference pathway, this facet of gene doping has become a realistic scenario. In the present study, two distinct model siRNAs comprising 21 nucleotides were designed as double strands which were perfect counterparts to a sequence of the respective messenger RNA coding the muscle regulator myostatin of Rattus norvegicus. Several modified nucleotides were introduced in both the sense and the antisense strand comprising phosphothioates, 2'-O-methylation, 2'-fluoro-nucleotides, locked nucleic acids and a cholesterol tag at the 3'-end. The model siRNAs were applied to rats at 1 mg/kg (i.v.) and blood as well as urine samples were collected. After isolation of the RNA by means of a RNA purification kit, the target analytes were detected by liquid chromatography - high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Analytes were detected as modified nucleotides after alkaline hydrolysis, as intact oligonucleotide strands (top-down) and by means of denaturing SDS-PAGE analysis. The gel-separated siRNA was further subjected to in-gel hydrolysis with different RNases and subsequent identification of the fragments by untargeted LC-HRMS analysis (bottom-up, 'experimental RNomics'). Combining the results of all approaches, the identification of several 3'-truncated urinary metabolites was accomplished and target analytes were detected up to 24 h after a single administration. Simultaneously collected blood samples yielded no promising results. The methods were validated and found fit-for-purpose for doping controls. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Interferência de plantas daninhas no cultivo da melancia Weeds interference periods in watermelon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de G Maciel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da melancia é uma atividade explorada regionalmente, sendo uma das mais importantes fontes de renda familiar de pequenos municípios do médio Paranapanema, onde mudanças significativas no processo produtivo são atualmente constatadas, passando de mão-de-obra intensiva para uso de tecnologias promissoras, como é o caso do manejo de plantas daninhas. Um experimento foi conduzido no município de Oscar Bressani (SP, em área de produção comercial, com objetivo de estudar a interferência de plantas daninhas, no cultivo da melancia, na safra 2002/2003. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições, representadas por parcelas com área útil de 18 m², contendo quatro plantas de melancia e infestação prevalecente das espécies Sidaspp, Brachiaria humidicola, Commelina benghalensise Portulaca oleracea. A infestação das plantas daninhas foi estimada através de amostragens aleatórias das parcelas utilizando-se quadro vazado de ferro com 0,5 m de lado. Os tratamentos constaram de testemunhas capinadas e sem capina e diferentes épocas de controle da infestação, de forma que a cultura foi mantida na presença ou ausência das plantas daninhas até 7; 14; 28; 56 e 63 dias após a sua emergência (DAE. A ocorrência do período inicial de convivência possível maior que o período final estabeleceu o Período Crítico de Prevenção da Interferência do 9º ao 13º dias (PCPI= 9-13 DAE. A redução média da produtividade em função da interferência das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da melancia foi de 41,4%. As características diâmetro e espessura da casca dos frutos também foram influenciadas pela convivência com a infestação durante todo o ciclo com decréscimos, de 7,9% e 23,3%, respectivamente, em média, ao contrário do comprimento e diâmetro de ramas e do ºBrix da polpa dos frutos, onde não foram constatadas diferenças significativas.Water melon

  17. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  18. Functional specialization of the small interfering RNA pathway in response to virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Trindade Marques

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, post-transcriptional gene silencing occurs when exogenous or endogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2 in association with a dsRNA-binding protein (dsRBP cofactor called Loquacious (Loqs-PD. siRNAs are then loaded onto Argonaute-2 (Ago2 by the action of Dcr-2 with another dsRBP cofactor called R2D2. Loaded Ago2 executes the destruction of target RNAs that have sequence complementarity to siRNAs. Although Dcr-2, R2D2, and Ago2 are essential for innate antiviral defense, the mechanism of virus-derived siRNA (vsiRNA biogenesis and viral target inhibition remains unclear. Here, we characterize the response mechanism mediated by siRNAs against two different RNA viruses that infect Drosophila. In both cases, we show that vsiRNAs are generated by Dcr-2 processing of dsRNA formed during viral genome replication and, to a lesser extent, viral transcription. These vsiRNAs seem to preferentially target viral polyadenylated RNA to inhibit viral replication. Loqs-PD is completely dispensable for silencing of the viruses, in contrast to its role in silencing endogenous targets. Biogenesis of vsiRNAs is independent of both Loqs-PD and R2D2. R2D2, however, is required for sorting and loading of vsiRNAs onto Ago2 and inhibition of viral RNA expression. Direct injection of viral RNA into Drosophila results in replication that is also independent of Loqs-PD. This suggests that triggering of the antiviral pathway is not related to viral mode of entry but recognition of intrinsic features of virus RNA. Our results indicate the existence of a vsiRNA pathway that is separate from the endogenous siRNA pathway and is specifically triggered by virus RNA. We speculate that this unique framework might be necessary for a prompt and efficient antiviral response.

  19. Rapid delivery of small interfering RNA by biosurfactant MEL-A-containing liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. ► MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes can efficiently and rapidly deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm. ► Rapid delivery of siRNA is due to the membrane fusion between liposomes and plasma membrane. -- Abstract: The downregulation of gene expression by RNA interference holds great potential for genetic analysis and gene therapy. However, a more efficient delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the target cells is required for wide fields such as cell biology, physiology, and clinical application. Non-viral vectors are stronger candidates than viral vectors because they are safer and easier to prepare. We have previously used a new method for gene transfection by combining cationic liposomes with the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A). The novel MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes rapidly delivered DNA (plasmids and oligonucleotides) into the cytosol and nucleus through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane, and consequently, enhanced the gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we determined the efficiency of MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes for siRNA delivery. We observed that exogenous and endogenous protein expression was suppressed by approximately 60% at 24 h after brief (30 min) incubation of target cells with MEL-A-containing cationic liposome/siRNA complexes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that suppression of protein expression was caused by rapid siRNA delivery into the cytosol. We found that the MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes directly delivered siRNA into the cytoplasm by the membrane fusion in addition to endocytotic pathway whereas Lipofectamine™ RNAiMax delivered siRNA only by the endocytotic pathway. It seems that the ability to rapidly and directly deliver siRNA into the cytosol using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes is able to reduce immune responses, cytotoxicity, and other side effects caused by

  20. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro, E-mail: soovro@yahoo.ca

    2013-06-01

    the treatments of breast cancer drugs. • Breast cancer drugs induce vasoconstriction by interfering with NO pathway. • NO donors, cGMP analogs rescue breast cancer drug induced endothelial dysfunctions.

  1. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2013-01-01

    the treatments of breast cancer drugs. • Breast cancer drugs induce vasoconstriction by interfering with NO pathway. • NO donors, cGMP analogs rescue breast cancer drug induced endothelial dysfunctions

  2. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  3. Las actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje y su corrección: una propuesta desde la Pedagogía Attitudes interfering in learning and their correction: a proposal from the Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Vallejo Portuondo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se expone acerca de la función de las actitudes en el proceso de aprendizaje y particularmente de aquellas con direccionalidad negativa, a las cuales el autor de este trabajo identifica como actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje, pues su connotación desfavorable conduce en muchos casos al fracaso académico y a la deserción universitaria. También se explica, con un enfoque determinista sistémico, el mecanismo de formación de las actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje y se establece una clasificación propiciadora de una atención mucho más precisa por parte del docente que domina la estrategia pedagógica instituida para su corrección, la cual está diseñada por el autor con los elementos teóricos y prácticos necesarios. Se impone que los profesores y en especial los universitarios, apliquen los conocimientos y técnicas para corregir las actitudes interferentes hacia el aprendizaje, con el fin de lograr egresados más competentes.The role of attitudes in the learning process is stated, particularly of those with negative directionality, which the author of this work identifies as attitudes interfering in learning, because their unfavorable connotation leads in many cases to the academic failure and college dropout. It is also explained with a systemic deterministic approach the formation mechanism of attitudes interfering in learning, and established a classification for a more precise attention from the teacher who dominates the pedagogic strategy instituted for their correction, which is designed by the author with the necessary theoretical and practical elements. It is required that teachers and especially those from the university apply the knowledge and techniques to correct attitudes interfering in learning with the purpose of achieving more competent graduates.

  4. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi Weed interference in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata. A semeadura do feijão-caupi cultivar BR 16 foi realizada em julho de 2007, no sistema de plantio convencional. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos constituídos de períodos de controle ou convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura. No primeiro grupo, a cultura permaneceu livre da interferência das plantas daninhas, por meio de capinas, nos períodos de: 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 e 0-60 (colheita. No segundo grupo, a cultura permaneceu sob a interferência desde a emergência até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI foi de 11 a 35 dias após a emergência da cultura. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu o estande final, o número de vagens por planta e o rendimento de grãos do feijão-caupi em até 90%.This work aimed to determine the periods of weed interference in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, sown under the conventional system in July 2007. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks, with the treatments consisting of periods of control or intercropping of the weeds with the crop. In the first group, the bean crop remained free of weed interference in the periods 0-09, 0-18, 0-27, 0-36, 0-45 and 0-60 (harvest. .In the second group, the bean crop remained under interference from the time of emergence up to the same periods previously described. The critical period of weed interference prevention (CPIP was from 11 to 35 days after crop emergence. Weed interference reduced the final stand, number of pods per plant, and grain yield up to 90%.

  5. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  6. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  7. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  8. Desarrollo de panuveítis por tuberculosis en paciente con esclerosis múltiple tratado con interferón beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Echevarría Lucas

    2016-09-01

    Los linfocitos CD4+ T, leucocitos, macrófagos y granulocitos, con la producción de sus mediadores interferón gamma, IL-12 o TNF-α son fundamentales para controlar al Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Por ello, antes de introducir Interferón beta 1b, convendría realizar técnicas de screening, como la prueba de Mantoux o el interferon gamma release assay–(quantiferon-TB para detectar posibles tuberculosis latentes potencialmente activables.

  9. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  10. Interfering line in trace analysis by X-ray spectrometry: Radiative auger satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kuniko; Kawai, Jun.

    1994-01-01

    Strong characteristic X-ray lines (e.g. Kα and Kβ) are accompanied by broad low-energy satellites caused by the radiative Auger effect (RAE). In order to prove how the RAE satellites interfere the analysis of minor elements, low-energy side spectra of Ca and Ti Kβ, and Ca-Fe Kα were measured. The obtained RAE intensities are summarized together with published experimental and theoretical data. The integrated intensities of satellites due to K → MM, K → LM and K → LL RAE relative to that of Kα are determined to be of the order of 0.01-0.1%. This warns that the neglecting of the RAE satellites will introduce a serious error in trace analysis. (author)

  11. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  12. Endogenous MCM7 microRNA cluster as a novel platform to multiplex small interfering and nucleolar RNAs for combinational HIV-1 gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Janet; Zhang, Jane; Li, Haitang; Ouellet, Dominique L; DiGiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

    2012-11-01

    Combinational therapy with small RNA inhibitory agents against multiple viral targets allows efficient inhibition of viral production by controlling gene expression at critical time points. Here we explore combinations of different classes of therapeutic anti-HIV-1 RNAs expressed from within the context of an intronic MCM7 (minichromosome maintenance complex component-7) platform that naturally harbors 3 microRNAs (miRNAs). We replaced the endogenous miRNAs with anti-HIV small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting HIV-1 tat and rev messages that function to induce post-transcriptional gene silencing by the RNA interference pathway, a nucleolar-localizing RNA ribozyme that targets the conserved U5 region of HIV-1 transcripts for degradation, and finally nucleolar trans-activation response (TAR) and Rev-binding element (RBE) RNA decoys designed to sequester HIV-1 Tat and Rev proteins inside the nucleolus. We demonstrate the versatility of the MCM7 platform in expressing and efficiently processing the siRNAs as miRNA mimics along with nucleolar small RNAs. Furthermore, three of the combinatorial constructs tested potently suppressed viral replication during a 1-month HIV challenge, with greater than 5-log inhibition compared with untransduced, HIV-1-infected CEM T lymphocytes. One of the most effective constructs contains an anti-HIV siRNA combined with a nucleolar-localizing U5 ribozyme and TAR decoy. This represents the first efficacious example of combining Drosha-processed siRNAs with small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP)-processed nucleolar RNA chimeras from a single intron platform for effective inhibition of viral replication. Moreover, we demonstrated enrichment/selection for cells expressing levels of the antiviral RNAs that provide optimal inhibition under the selective pressure of HIV. The combinations of si/snoRNAs represent a new paradigm for combinatorial RNA-based gene therapy applications.

  13. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  14. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  15. Perilipin-2 Deletion Impairs Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Interfering with Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) Activation and Altering the Hepatic Lipidome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Andrew E.; Bales, Elise; Orlicky, David J.; McManaman, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Perilipin-2 (PLIN2) is a constitutively associated cytoplasmic lipid droplet coat protein that has been implicated in fatty liver formation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice with or without whole-body deletion of perilipin-2 (Plin2-null) were fed either Western or control diets for 30 weeks. Perilipin-2 deletion prevents obesity and insulin resistance in Western diet-fed mice and dramatically reduces hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in mice fed Western or control diets. Gene and protein expression studies reveal that PLIN2 deletion suppressed SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 target genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways in livers of mice on either diet. GC-MS lipidomics demonstrate that this reduction correlated with profound alterations in the hepatic lipidome with significant reductions in both desaturation and elongation of hepatic neutral lipid species. To examine the possibility that lipidomic actions of PLIN2 deletion contribute to suppression of SREBP activation, we isolated endoplasmic reticulum membrane fractions from long-term Western diet-fed wild type (WT) and Plin2-null mice. Lipidomic analyses reveal that endoplasmic reticulum membranes from Plin2-null mice are markedly enriched in ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which others have shown inhibit SREBP activation and de novo lipogenesis. Our results identify PLIN2 as a determinant of global changes in the hepatic lipidome and suggest the hypothesis that these actions contribute to SREBP-regulated de novo lipogenesis involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27679530

  16. Perilipin-2 Deletion Impairs Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Interfering with Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Protein (SREBP) Activation and Altering the Hepatic Lipidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Andrew E; Bales, Elise; Orlicky, David J; McManaman, James L

    2016-11-11

    Perilipin-2 (PLIN2) is a constitutively associated cytoplasmic lipid droplet coat protein that has been implicated in fatty liver formation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice with or without whole-body deletion of perilipin-2 (Plin2-null) were fed either Western or control diets for 30 weeks. Perilipin-2 deletion prevents obesity and insulin resistance in Western diet-fed mice and dramatically reduces hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in mice fed Western or control diets. Gene and protein expression studies reveal that PLIN2 deletion suppressed SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 target genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways in livers of mice on either diet. GC-MS lipidomics demonstrate that this reduction correlated with profound alterations in the hepatic lipidome with significant reductions in both desaturation and elongation of hepatic neutral lipid species. To examine the possibility that lipidomic actions of PLIN2 deletion contribute to suppression of SREBP activation, we isolated endoplasmic reticulum membrane fractions from long-term Western diet-fed wild type (WT) and Plin2-null mice. Lipidomic analyses reveal that endoplasmic reticulum membranes from Plin2-null mice are markedly enriched in ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which others have shown inhibit SREBP activation and de novo lipogenesis. Our results identify PLIN2 as a determinant of global changes in the hepatic lipidome and suggest the hypothesis that these actions contribute to SREBP-regulated de novo lipogenesis involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura da cenoura (Daucus carota Weed interference on carrot crop (Daucus carota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Coelho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma importante hortaliça no Brasil, cuja produtividade pode ser muito reduzida devido à interferência de plantas daninhas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar efeitos de períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cenoura cultivar "Brasília" e na comunidade de plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de períodos crescentes de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas. A comunidade de plantas daninhas foi avaliada quanto a número de indivíduos, matéria seca acumulada e frequência de ocorrência das espécies, e a cultura, quanto à produtividade comercial. As principais plantas daninhas foram Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica e Lepidium virginicum. A presença da comunidade de plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura pode acarretar perdas de 94% na produtividade, evidenciando alta suscetibilidade da cenoura à interferência das plantas daninhas. Contudo, não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, e um único controle das plantas daninhas, entre 22 e 31 dias após a semeadura, foi suficiente para garantir a produção da cultura.Carrot is an important horticultural crop in Brazil, and its productivity may be highly reduced due to weed interference. This study evaluated the effects of weed coexistence periods on carrot cultivar 'Brasilia' yield and on the weed community. The treatments were constituted of increasing weed coexistence periods or weed-free periods. The weed community was evaluated based on number of individuals, dry matter accumulation, and frequency of occurrence; while the crop was evaluated based on marketable productivity. The main weeds were Ageratum conyzoides, Digitaria nuda, Eleusine indica, and Lepidium virginicum. The presence of the weed community throughout the crop season can cause yield losses of 94%, showing high susceptibility of the carrot crop to weed interference. However, there was no critical period for

  19. Una aproximació ontològica de la interfície d’Internet i les implicacions en el disseny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Morera Vidal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La seva estructura d'Internet no és uniforme ni ordenada en el sentit de “prevista”, sinó que més aviat és adaptable i caòtica. El punt de contacte entre l’emissor i el receptor final de la informació digital és la interfície. La forma habitual de la interfície és la de pantalla.La interfície no ofereix una connexió neutre en cap de les dues direccions de la comunicació a la xarxa. El control de l’aparença de la interfície condicionarà aquesta comunicació. En un mitjà sincrètic com Internet, el disseny de la interfície té influència en el desplaçament dels centres de poder.

  20. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. A small interfering RNA screen of genes involved in DNA repair identifies tumor-specific radiosensitization by POLQ knockdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, Geoff S; Prevo, Remko; Lee, Yin-Fai

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of radiotherapy treatment could be significantly improved if tumor cells could be rendered more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) without altering the sensitivity of normal tissues. However, many of the key therapeutically exploitable mechanisms that determine intrinsic tumor...... radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B......) and irradiated normal tissue cells (MRC5). Using gammaH2AX foci at 24 hours after IR, we identified several genes, such as BRCA2, Lig IV, and XRCC5, whose knockdown is known to cause increased cell radiosensitivity, thereby validating the primary screening end point. In addition, we identified POLQ (DNA...

  2. [Interfering effects of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and lingustrazine on mm-LDL activating BKCa in ECV304 cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Zheng, Y F; Qu, J H; Bao, G H

    2001-08-01

    To observe the action of minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) on BKCa in ECV304 cell and the interfering effects of radix salviae miltiorrhizae extract powder 764-3 (30 micrograms/ml) and lingustrazine (200 micrograms/ml) on this action. The cell-attached configuration of patch clamp technique was applied. mm-LDL (100 micrograms/ml) potentiated the activity of BKCa in ECV304. While 764-3 and lingustrazine abolished it. mm-LDL acted on vascular endothelial cell ECV304 could rapidly activate the activity of BKCa and might result in the increase of electro-chemical gradient for the resting Ca2+ influx, thus resting cytoplasmic concentration of calcium could be elevated and endothelial dysfunction would be induced. 764-3 and lingustrazine might have the protective action through decreasing the activity of BKCa.

  3. CRISPR transcript processing: a mechanism for generating a large number of small interfering RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevic Marko

    2012-07-01

    orders of magnitude increase of crRNAs upon cas overexpression. A crucial ingredient of this large increase is fast non-specific degradation by an unspecified nuclease, which suggests that a yet unidentified nuclease(s is a major control element of CRISPR response. Transcriptional regulation may be another important control mechanism, as it can either increase the amount of generated pre-crRNA, or alter the level of cas gene activity. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Mikhail Gelfand, Eugene Koonin and L Aravind.

  4. Characterization of a defective interfering RNA that contains a mosaic of a plant viral genome. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, T.J.; Jackson, A.O.

    1991-12-31

    Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since then, we have also discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a virus structurally related to TBSV. We proposed a thorough characterization of this unique class of symptom modulating RNAs with the overall objective of identifying viral RNA nucleotide, sequences involved in such fundamental processes as virus replication and encapsidation as well as the degree of symptom expression resulting from the viral-DI-host interaction. The proposed research focused on the molecular characterization of the DI RNAs and the helper virus. We had demonstrated that the DIs were collinear deletion mutants of the genome of a cherry strain of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). We had also shown that these low molecular weight RNAs interfered with the helper plant virus and modulated disease expression by preventing the development of a lethal necrotic disease in susceptible host plants. We also suggested that by exploring the mechanisms associated with the symptom attenuation effect, we might be able to devise novel strategies useful for engineering viral disease resistance.

  5. Efectos adversos del tratamiento con interferón alfa-2b humano recombinante y rivabirina en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C

    OpenAIRE

    Mulet Pérez, Agustín; Pullés Labadié, Menelio; Gámez Escalona, Martha; Mulet Gámez, Agustín; Díaz Santos, Oscar; Infante Velázquez, Mirtha

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el tratamiento de la hepatitis crónica C continúa siendo un reto. La combinación que mejores resultados ha demostrado, es la de interferón con ribavirina, pero puede originar efectos adversos con dificultades para la adherencia al tratamiento que en ocasiones, incluso, obligan a suspenderlo. OBJETIVO: identificar las reacciones adversas del tratamiento de la combinación de interferón con ribavirina. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de una serie de 13 pacientes con hepatitis crónic...

  6. Characterization of molecular and elemental impurities in tungsten hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streusand, B.J.; Yost, V.E.; Govorchin, S.W.; Fry, R.C.; Padula, F.J.; Hughes, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of WF 6 is a very difficult process because of the reactivity of the compound, the low detection limits required by its use in semiconductor processing, and by the presence of large amounts of tungsten in the analyte. It is not possible to perform elemental analysis with low detection limits directly on WF 6 or on hydrolyzed WF 6 . However, it is possible to remove the interfering tungsten by physical and chemical separation techniques. This paper discusses how the analysis of molecular impurities in WF 6 may be accomplished directly in the gas phase by infrared spectroscopy and by gas chromatography

  7. Small Interfering RNA Pathway Modulates Initial Viral Infection in Midgut Epithelium of Insect after Ingestion of Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hanhong; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Mao, Qianzhuo; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2016-01-15

    Numerous viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by insect vectors. Persistent viruses establish their initial infection in the midgut epithelium, from where they disseminate to the midgut visceral muscles. Although propagation of viruses in insect vectors can be controlled by the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral pathway, whether the siRNA pathway can control viral dissemination from the midgut epithelium is unknown. Infection by a rice virus (Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus [SRBSDV]) of its incompetent vector (the small brown planthopper [SBPH]) is restricted to the midgut epithelium. Here, we show that the siRNA pathway is triggered by SRBSDV infection in continuously cultured cells derived from the SBPH and in the midgut of the intact insect. Knockdown of the expression of the core component Dicer-2 of the siRNA pathway by RNA interference strongly increased the ability of SRBSDV to propagate in continuously cultured SBPH cells and in the midgut epithelium, allowing viral titers in the midgut epithelium to reach the threshold (1.99 × 10(9) copies of the SRBSDV P10 gene/μg of midgut RNA) needed for viral dissemination into the SBPH midgut muscles. Our results thus represent the first elucidation of the threshold for viral dissemination from the insect midgut epithelium. Silencing of Dicer-2 further facilitated the transmission of SRBSDV into rice plants by SBPHs. Taken together, our results reveal the new finding that the siRNA pathway can control the initial infection of the insect midgut epithelium by a virus, which finally affects the competence of the virus's vector. Many viral pathogens that cause significant global health and agricultural problems are transmitted via insect vectors. The first bottleneck in viral infection, the midgut epithelium, is a principal determinant of the ability of an insect species to transmit a virus. Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is restricted exclusively to the midgut epithelium of an

  8. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing

  9. Sensitization of human carcinoma cells to alkylating agents by small interfering RNA suppression of 3-alkyladenine-DNA glycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Johanna; Duncan, Tod; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2005-11-15

    One of the major cytotoxic lesions generated by alkylating agents is DNA 3-alkyladenine, which can be excised by 3-alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG). Inhibition of AAG may therefore result in increased cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. To investigate this possibility, we have examined the role of AAG in protecting human tumor cells against such agents. Plasmids that express small interfering RNAs targeted to two different regions of AAG mRNA were transfected into HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and A2780-SCA ovarian carcinoma cells. Stable derivatives of both cell types with low AAG protein levels were sensitized to alkylating agents. Two HeLa cell lines with AAG protein levels reduced by at least 80% to 90% displayed a 5- to 10-fold increase in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, and the chemotherapeutic drugs temozolomide and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. These cells showed no increase in sensitivity to UV light or ionizing radiation. After treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, AAG knockdown HeLa cells were delayed in S phase but accumulated in G2-M. Our data support the hypothesis that ablation of AAG activity in human tumor cells may provide a useful strategy to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutic regimens that include alkylating agents.

  10. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. An unusual cysteine VL87 affects the antibody fragment conformations without interfering with the disulfide bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Carolina; Aguilar, María Fernanda; Garay, A Sergio; Herrera, Fernando E; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Oggero, Marcos; Rodrigues, Daniel E

    2017-10-01

    The Cys residues are almost perfectly conserved in all antibodies. They contribute significantly to the antibody fragment stability. The relevance of two natural contiguous Cys residues of an anti-recombinant human-follicle stimulation hormone (rhFSH) in a format of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) was studied. This scFv contains 5 Cys residues: V H 22 and V H 92 in the variable heavy chain (V H ) and V L 23, V L 87 and V L 88 in the variable light chain (V L ). The influence of two unusual contiguous Cys at positions V L 87 and V L 88 was studied by considering the wild type fragment and mutant variants: V L -C88S, V L -C87S, V L -C87Y. The analysis was carried out using antigen-binding ability measurement by indirect specific ELISA and a detailed molecular modeling that comprises homology methods, long molecular dynamics simulations and docking. We found that V L -C87 affected the antibody fragment stability without interfering with the disulfide bond formation. The effect of mutating the V L -C87 by a usual residue at this position like Tyr caused distant structural changes at the V H region that confers a higher mobility to the V H -CDR2 and V H -CDR3 loops improving the scFv binding to the antigen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of small interfering RNAs to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Mirmalek-Sani, S.-H.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Oreffo, R.O.C.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in functional genomics and offers innovative approaches in the development of novel therapeutics. Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a unique cell source for tissue engineering/regeneration strategies. The current study examined the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) against human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to suppress adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells. Adipogenesis was investigated using cellular and biochemical analysis. Transient transfection with PPARγ-siRNA using a liposomal-based strategy resulted in a significant inhibition of adipogenesis in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells, compared to controls (cell, liposomal and negative siRNA). The inhibitory effect of PPARγ-siRNA was supported by testing human PPARγ mRNA and adipogenic associated genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 as well as examination of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP 3 ) expression, an adipocyte-specific marker. The current studies indicate that PPARγ-siRNA is a useful tool to study adipogenesis in human cells, with potential applications both therapeutic and in the elucidation of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the modulation of cell differentiation in human mesenchymal cells

  13. Yeast as a model host to study replication and recombination of defective interfering RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panavas, Tadas; Nagy, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) RNA associated with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a plus-strand RNA virus, requires p33 and p92 proteins of TBSV or the related Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), for replication in plants. To test if DI RNA can replicate in a model host, we coexpressed TBSV DI RNA and p33/p92 of CNV in yeast. We show evidence for replication of DI RNA in yeast, including (i) dependence on p33 and p92 for DI replication; (ii) presence of active CNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in isolated membrane-containing preparations; (iii) increasing amount of DI RNA(+) over time; (iv) accumulation of (-)stranded DI RNA; (v) presence of correct 5' and 3' ends in DI RNA; (vi) inhibition of replication by mutations in the replication enhancer; and (vii) evolution of DI RNA over time, as shown by sequence heterogeneity. We also produced evidence supporting the occurrence of DI RNA recombinants in yeast. In summary, development of yeast as a host for replication of TBSV DI RNA will facilitate studies on the roles of viral and host proteins in replication/recombination

  14. Cyclosporin A inhibits the propagation of influenza virus by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Harazaki, Kazuhiro; Inase, Naohiko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a global public health problem that causes a serious respiratory disease. Influenza virus frequently undergoes amino acid substitutions, which result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To control influenza viruses that are resistant to currently available drugs, it is essential to develop new antiviral drugs with a novel molecular target. Here, we report that cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the propagation of influenza virus in A549 cells by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle. CsA did not affect adsorption, internalization, viral RNA replication, or synthesis of viral proteins in A549 cells, but inhibited the step(s) after viral protein synthesis, such as assembly or budding. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the expression of the major CsA targets, namely cyclophilin A (CypA), cyclophilin B (CypB), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), did not inhibit influenza virus propagation. These results suggest that CsA inhibits virus propagation by mechanism(s) independent of the inhibition of the function of CypA, CypB, and Pgp. CsA may target an unknown molecule that works as a positive regulator in the propagation of influenza virus. Our findings would contribute to the development of a novel anti-influenza virus therapy and clarification of the regulatory mechanism of influenza virus multiplication.

  15. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  16. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus inhibits wound healing by interfering with host defense and repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Athanasios N; Economopoulou, Matina; Orlova, Valeria V; Sobke, Astrid; Schneider, Darius; Weber, Holger; Augustin, Hellmut G; Eming, Sabine A; Schubert, Uwe; Linn, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter P; Hussain, Muzaffar; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Herrmann, Mathias; Preissner, Klaus T; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2006-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen interfering with host-cell functions. Impaired wound healing is often observed in S aureus-infected wounds, yet, the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we identify the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of S aureus to be responsible for impaired wound healing. In a mouse wound-healing model wound closure was inhibited in the presence of wild-type S aureus and this effect was reversible when the wounds were incubated with an isogenic Eap-deficient strain. Isolated Eap also delayed wound closure. In the presence of Eap, recruitment of inflammatory cells to the wound site as well as neovascularization of the wound were prevented. In vitro, Eap significantly reduced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent leukocyte-endothelial interactions and diminished the consequent activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) in leukocytes associated with a decrease in expression of tissue factor. Moreover, Eap blocked alphav-integrin-mediated endothelial-cell migration and capillary tube formation, and neovascularization in matrigels in vivo. Collectively, the potent anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of Eap provide an underlying mechanism that may explain the impaired wound healing in S aureus-infected wounds. Eap may also serve as a lead compound for new anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic therapies in several pathologies.

  17. Effect of interfering reactions on the determination of iodine-129 concentrations in the enviroment by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filistovich, V.; Nedvetskajte, T.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the interfering reactions sup(235)U(n, f) sup(129)In(n, γ)sup(130)I, sup(128)Te(n, γ)sup(129)Te, sup(129)Te(Tsub(1/2)sup(βsup(-))=69.6 min) sup(129)I(n, γ)sup(130)I and sup(127)I(3n, γ)sup(130)I on the measurements by the activation analysis method of the background sup(129)I concentrations in the environment has been investigated. The calculations have shown that these reactions may result in considerable errors. A pretreatment of samples before their irradiation in a reactor is therefore needed. It is recommended to use the destructive distillation method. A nomogram is given with the help of which it is possible to determine the optimal time for the sample irradiation in the reactor after the sup(127)I concentrations have bee nevaluated in the samples, because the considerable amount of the sup(129)I can be generated from the sup(127)I by the triple neutron capture

  18. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  19. Silencing of SARS-CoV spike gene by small interfering RNA in HEK 293T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhaoling; Zhao Ping; Zhang Xiaolian; Yu Jianguo; Cao Mingmei; Zhao Lanjuan; Luan Jie; Qi Zhongtian

    2004-01-01

    Two candidate small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) corresponding to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike gene were designed and in vitro transcribed to explore the possibility of silencing SARS-CoV S gene. The plasmid pEGFP-optS, which contains the codon-optimized SARS-CoV S gene and expresses spike-EGFP fusion protein (S-EGFP) as silencing target and expressing reporter, was transfected with siRNAs into HEK 293T cells. At various time points of posttransfection, the levels of S-EGFP expression and amounts of spike mRNA transcript were detected by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, Western blot, and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The results showed that the cells transfected with pEGFP-optS expressed S-EGFP fusion protein at a higher level compared with those transfected with pEGFP-S, which contains wildtype SARS-CoV spike gene sequence. The green fluorescence, mean fluorescence intensity, and SARS-CoV S RNA transcripts were found significantly reduced, and the expression of SARS-CoV S glycoprotein was strongly inhibited in those cells co-transfected with either EGFP- or S-specific siRNAs. Our findings demonstrated that the S-specific siRNAs used in this study were able to specifically and effectively inhibit SARS-CoV S glycoprotein expression in cultured cells through blocking the accumulation of S mRNA, which may provide an approach for studies on the functions of SARS-CoV S gene and development of novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV

  20. Cloned defective interfering influenza virus protects ferrets from pandemic 2009 influenza A virus and allows protective immunity to be established.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J Dimmock

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1. Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes.

  1. Therapeutic effects of protein kinase N3 small interfering RNA and doxorubicin combination therapy on liver and lung metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Takuto; Nakamura, Mari; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Onishi, Hiraku

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that suppression of protein kinase N3 (PKN3) expression in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells results in the inhibition of tumor progression and lymph node metastasis formation. The present study investigated whether combination therapy of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against PKN3 and doxorubicin (DXR) could increase therapeutic efficacy against liver and lung metastases. In vitro transfection of PKN3 siRNA into PKN3-positive MDA-MB-231, LLC, and Colon 26 cells and PKN3-negative MCF-7 cells did not inhibit cell growth and did not increase sensitivity to DXR. However, following in vivo treatment, PKN3 siRNA suppressed the growth of liver MDA-MB-231 and lung LLC and MCF-7 metastases, although combination therapy with DXR did not increase the therapeutic efficacy. By contrast, in liver MCF-7 metastases, PKN3 siRNA or DXR alone did not exhibit significant inhibition of tumor growth, but their combination significantly improved therapeutic efficacy. Treatment of liver MDA-MB-231 metastases with PKN3 siRNA induced a change in vasculature structure via suppression of PKN3 mRNA expression. PKN3 siRNA may induce antitumor effects in lung and liver metastases by suppression of PKN3 expression in stroma cells, such as endothelial cells. From these findings, PKN3 siRNA alone or in combination with DXR may reduce the tumor growth of liver and lung metastases regardless of PKN3 expression in tumor cells. PMID:29098022

  2. Non-healing foot ulcers in diabetic patients: general and local interfering conditions and management options with advanced wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccioli, Luigi; Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Ruotolo, Valeria; Giurato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Medical knowledge about wound management has improved as recent studies have investigated the healing process and its biochemical background. Despite this, foot ulcers remain an important clinical problem, often resulting in costly, prolonged treatment. A non-healing ulcer is also a strong risk factor for major amputation. Many factors can interfere with wound healing, including the patient's general health status (i.e., nutritional condition indicated by albumin levels) or drugs such as steroids that can interfere with normal healing. Diabetic complications (i.e., renal insufficiency) may delay healing and account for higher amputation rates observed in diabetic patients under dialysis treatment. Wound environment (e.g., presence of neuropathy, ischaemia, and infection) may significantly influence healing by interfering with the physiological healing cascade and adding local release of factors that may worsen the wound. The timely and well-orchestrated release of factors regulating the healing process, observed in acute wounds, is impaired in non-healing wounds that are blocked in a chronic inflammatory phase without progressing to healing. This chronic phase is characterised by elevated protease activity (EPA) of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and serine proteases (e.g., human neutrophil elastase) that interfere with collagen synthesis, as well as growth factor release and action. EPA (mainly MMP 9, MMP-8 and elastase) and inflammatory factors present in the wound bed (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFa) account for the catabolic state of non-healing ulcers. The availability of wound dressings that modulate EPA has added new therapeutic options for treating non-healing ulcers. The literature confirms advantages obtained by reducing protease activity in the wound bed, with better outcomes achieved by using these dressings compared with traditional ones. New technologies also allow a physician to know the status of the wound bed environment, particularly EPA, in a clinical

  3. Mecanismos efectores del interferón gamma contra la infección por Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Gómez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondiies un protozoario parásito de desarrollo intracelular. La enfermedad humana producida por T: gondii es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal y en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. En esta reseña, se revisan los conocimientos actuales sobre los mecanismos efectores del interferón gamma (IFN y, la principal citocina protectora contra Igondii, incluyendo los resultados que hemos obtenido en un modelo de infección in vifro de células humanas monocitarias (THPI. El IFN y protege las células humanas contra T gondii por mecanismos diferentes a aquéllos con los que protege las células de ratón. En el modelo de infección de célulasTHP1, el IFN y protege por dos mecanismos independientes. Un primer efecto es la reducción del porcentaje de células parasitadas, el cual está ligado a una disminución de la actividad PLA, parasitaria y celular. Se trata de un nuevo mecanismo efector del IFN y contra la infección toxoplásmica, diferente a los mecanismos parasiticidas y parasitostáticos previamente descritos. Un segundo efecto ocurre por interrupción del crecimiento parasitario intracelular a través de la activación de la enzima indoleamina-oxigenasa que degrada el triptófano, lo que constituye un efecto parasitostático. Contrariamente a lo que ocurre en el modelo de infección de células monocitarias de ratón, la producción de óxido nítrico (NO no juega un papel determinante en los monocitos humanos.

  4. Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo Periods of weed interference in okra crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.S Bachega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Poucas pesquisas têm sido realizadas sobre interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do quiabo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar os períodos de interferência da comunidade infestante no quiabeiro. Um experimento de campo foi conduzido sob dois grupos de tratamentos, mantendo períodos crescentes de 0 (testemunha, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91 e 105 dias após a emergência da cultura (DAE, com e sem controle das plantas daninhas. As plantas daninhas com maior importância relativa foram Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides e Eleusine indica. A convivência do quiabeiro com as plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo de cultivo reduziu a produtividade da cultura em 95%. O período anterior à interferência foi de 57 DAE, enquanto o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 14 DAE. Não houve período crítico de prevenção à interferência, sendo um único controle das plantas daninhas entre 14 e 57 DAE suficiente para prevenir a interferência na cultura do quiabo.Few research works have been carried out on weed interference in okra crop. The aim of this study was to estimate the periods of weed interference in okra crop. Thus, a field trial was carried out under two groups of treatments, using increased periods of 0 (check, 7, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 63, 77, 91, and 105 days after crop emergence (DAE with weed control and without weed control. Weeds with highest relative importance were Portulaca oleracea, Nicandra physaloides, and Eleusine indica. Coexistence of okra crop and weeds throughout the season reduced crop yield by 95%. The period before interference was 57 DAE, while total period of interference prevention was 14 DAE. There was no critical period of interference prevention, with a single weed control between 14 and 57 DAE being sufficient for interference prevention in okra crop.

  5. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  6. Comparing artificial neural networks, general linear models and support vector machines in building predictive models for small interfering RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A McQuisten

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous short interfering RNAs (siRNAs induce a gene knockdown effect in cells by interacting with naturally occurring RNA processing machinery. However not all siRNAs induce this effect equally. Several heterogeneous kinds of machine learning techniques and feature sets have been applied to modeling siRNAs and their abilities to induce knockdown. There is some growing agreement to which techniques produce maximally predictive models and yet there is little consensus for methods to compare among predictive models. Also, there are few comparative studies that address what the effect of choosing learning technique, feature set or cross validation approach has on finding and discriminating among predictive models.Three learning techniques were used to develop predictive models for effective siRNA sequences including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, General Linear Models (GLMs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs. Five feature mapping methods were also used to generate models of siRNA activities. The 2 factors of learning technique and feature mapping were evaluated by complete 3x5 factorial ANOVA. Overall, both learning techniques and feature mapping contributed significantly to the observed variance in predictive models, but to differing degrees for precision and accuracy as well as across different kinds and levels of model cross-validation.The methods presented here provide a robust statistical framework to compare among models developed under distinct learning techniques and feature sets for siRNAs. Further comparisons among current or future modeling approaches should apply these or other suitable statistically equivalent methods to critically evaluate the performance of proposed models. ANN and GLM techniques tend to be more sensitive to the inclusion of noisy features, but the SVM technique is more robust under large numbers of features for measures of model precision and accuracy. Features found to result in maximally predictive models are

  7. On-line gas chromatographic studies of rutherfordium (Element 104), hahnium (Element 105), and homologs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadkhodayan, B.

    1993-05-01

    Gas-phase isothermal chromatogaphy is a method by which volatile compounds of different chemical elements can be separated according to their volatilities. The technique, coupled with theoretical modeling of the processes occurring in the chromatogaphy column, provides accurate determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g., adsorption enthalpies) for compounds of elements, such as the transactinides, which can only be produced on an atom-at-a-time basis. In addition, the chemical selectivity of the isothermal chromatogaphy technique provides the decontamination from interfering activities necessary for the determination of the nuclear decay properties of isotopes of the transactinide elements. Volatility measurements were performed on chloride species of Rf and its group 4 homologs, Zr and Hf, as well as Ha and its group 5 homologs, Nb and Ta. Adsorption enthalpies were calculated for all species using a Monte Carlo code simulation based on a microscopic model for gas thermochromatography in open columns with laminar flow of the carrier gas. Preliminary results are presented for Zr- and Nb-bromides

  8. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  9. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  10. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  11. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  12. Estudo de revisão sobre a interferência de hipoglicemiantes orais no exame químico de urina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Machado Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A diabetes mellitus (DM é uma doença que vem aumentando exponencialmente nos últimos anos de vida dos indivíduos, e uma opção de tratamento farmacológico é feito através dos hipoglicemiantes orais (HO. Em virtude de serem substâncias amplamente utilizadas e terem como principal via de excreção a urinária, este tratamento pode provocar variações nos resultados dos parâmetros urinários. Portanto, este estudo tem a finalidade de avaliar a interferência causada pelo uso de hipoglicemiantes no exame de urina. Para esta investigação, foi feita uma pesquisa bibliográfica em diferentes bases de dados, selecionando os artigos pertinentes ao tema: diabetes, interferências laboratoriais e tratamento farmacológico. Os HO podem ser classificados em três grupos de acordo com o mecanismo de ação: estimuladores de insulinas pelo pâncreas, como sulfoniluréias e metiglinidas; as sensibilizadoras de insulina, são as biguanidas, as tiazolidinedionas e as redutoras da absorção de carboidratos, que são as inibidoras da alfa-glicosidase. O exame de urina é uma ferramenta complementar no controle da DM devido a sua fácil coleta e baixo custo. As classes de hipoglicemiantes orais identificados como potencialmente interferentes no exame de urina foram as biguanidas (metformina e as sulfoniluréias (tobultamida, tolazamida, glicazida, clorpropramida. Resultam em interferência nos parâmetros densidade, proteínas, glicose, cetonas e bilirrubinas, levando a um diagnóstico inadequado e um tratamento insatisfatório gerando prejuízos ao bem estar do paciente.

  13. Determinación paramétrica de los ejes de rotación de las articulaciones interfalángicas de los dedos

    OpenAIRE

    Jarque Bou, Néstor; Sancho-Bru, Joaquin L.; Vergara Monedero, Margarita; Pérez González, Antonio; Roda Sales, Alba; Mestre Vicent, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en el XXI Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Mecánica, celebrado en Elche en Noviembre de 2016. Los ejes de rotación de las articulaciones interfalángicas de los dedos son aproximadamente paralelos a los pliegues de flexión. Sin embargo, los modelos biomecánicos y ergonómicos existentes suelen considerar ejes de rotación paralelos entre sí y perpendiculares a los ejes longitudinales de las falanges. Recientemente se han utilizado técnicas de resonancia magnéti...

  14. A Multifunctional Envelope-Type Nano Device Containing a pH-Sensitive Cationic Lipid for Efficient Delivery of Short Interfering RNA to Hepatocytes In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yusuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kohara, Michinori

    2016-01-01

    Various types of nanoparticles have been developed with the intent of efficiently delivering short interfering RNA (siRNA) to hepatocytes to date. To achieve efficient SiRNA delivery, various aspects of the delivery processes and physical properties need to be considered. We recently developed an original lipid nanoparticle, a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) containing YSK05, a pH-sensitive cationic lipid (YSK05-MEND). The YSK05-MEND with SiRNA in its formulation showed hepatocyte-specific uptake and robust gene silencing in hepatocytes after intravenous administration. Here, we describe the procedure used in the preparation and characterization method of the YSK05-MEND.

  15. Interferência e estudo fitossociológico da comunidade infestante na cultura da beterraba transplantada = Interference and phytosociological study of weed communities on transplanted beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo fitossociológico e a determinação dos períodos críticos de interferência da comunidade infestante na cultura da beterraba transplantada. Os tratamentos consistiram em períodos semanais crescentes de convivênciae de controle da comunidade infestante, a partir da segunda semana após o transplante das mudas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio do número de indivíduos e da massa seca acumulada correspondente, para cada população de planta daninha e período avaliado. A cultura foi colhida 91 dias após o transplante das mudas, quando se avaliou o diâmetro transversal e a produtividade comercial das raízes. As principais plantas daninhas encontradas foram Amaranthus viridis, Coronopus didymus, Galinsoga parviflora, Nicandraphysaloides e Solanum americanum. As populações encontradas apresentaram alta similaridade entre si. O período anterior à interferência e o período total de prevenção à interferência foram 51 e 35 dias após o transplante das mudas, respectivamente. A produção da beterraba mantida no limpo foi 44,92 t ha-1, e a redução devido à interferência das plantas daninhas por todo o ciclo foi mais de 70%.The objective of this research was to study the phytosociological andcritical interference periods of weed communities on transplanted beets. The treatments consisted of increasing weekly weedy/weed-free periods, starting at the second week after seedling transplanting. The weed community was evaluated based on the number ofindividuals and their corresponding accumulated dry mass, for each weed population and evaluated period. The beets were harvested 91 days after transplanting, followed by evaluation of the cross-sectional diameter and marketable yield. The weed communitieswere composed mainly of Amaranthus viridis, Coronopus didymus, Galinsoga parviflora, Nicandra physaloides and Solanum americanum, and the populations were very similar. The period before weed

  16. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolini,L.W.; Carvalho,L.B.; Cruz,M.B.; Alves,P.L.C.A.; Cecílio Filho,A.B.

    2010-01-01

    A beterraba (Beta vulgaris), importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP,...

  17. Costo-efectividad del tratamiento con interferón beta en pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado de alto riesgo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfonso Zarco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En 85 % de los pacientes con esclerosis múltiple se presenta como manifestación inicial un primer evento desmielinizante o síndrome clínico aislado. En estos casos, el tratamiento con interferón beta retrasa hasta dos años la progresión a esclerosis múltiple. Sin embargo, en Colombia este medicamento es costoso. Objetivo. Determinar si el tratamiento del síndrome clínico aislado con interferón beta es costo-efectivo al retrasar la esclerosis múltiple en dos años. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis de costo-efectividad empleando un árbol de decisiones basado en la perspectiva del paciente y la sociedad. A partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura y de conceptos de expertos se definieron las diversas probabilidades. Los costos de la enfermedad se calcularon por medio de la revisión de historias y la aplicación de encuestas a los pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. Para controlar la incertidumbre se realizó un análisis de sensibilidad mediante una simulación de Monte Carlo con mil pacientes. Resultados. El costo del tratamiento con interferón sobrepasa los Col$ 95’000.000 (US$ 50.000 por paciente durante los dos años. Aproximadamente, 80 % corresponde a los costos del medicamento. El costo de la recaída se acerca a Col$ 39’139.200 (US$ 21.744, y los costos indirectos corresponden a Col$ 10’958.400 (US$ 6.088. La tasa representativa del mercado fue de Col$ 1.800. Con el tratamiento se ganan sólo 0,06 años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD adicionales. La razón de costo-efectividad ‘incremental’ (sic. supera el umbral, incluso en el análisis de sensibilidad. Conclusión. La administración de interferón beta en pacientes con síndrome clínico aislado de alto riesgo en los primeros dos años no es costo-efectiva en Colombia.

  18. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Yoan Antonio; Arús Soler, Enrique; López Saura, Pedro; Nodarse Cuní, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales...

  19. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  20. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  1. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  2. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  3. The slicer activity of ARGONAUTE1 is required specifically for the phasing, not production, of trans-acting short interfering RNAs in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arribas Hernandez, Laura; Marchais, Antonin; Poulsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) mediates posttranscriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAS (siRNAs). AGO1-catalyzed RNA cleavage (slicing) represses miRNA targets, but current models also highlight the roles of slicing in formation of siRNAs and siRNA-AGO1 complexes. miRNA-guided s......ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) mediates posttranscriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAS (siRNAs). AGO1-catalyzed RNA cleavage (slicing) represses miRNA targets, but current models also highlight the roles of slicing in formation of siRNAs and siRNA-AGO1 complexes. mi...... is required for assembly of active AGO1-siRNA complexes in vivo, and many AGO1-bound siRNAs are trimmed in the absence of slicer activity. Remarkably, seedlings defective in AGO1 slicer activity produce abundant siRNAs from tasiRNA loci in vivo. These siRNAs depend on RDR6 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3...

  4. L’anàlisi de mediació a través de la macro/interfície Process per a SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Fernández Muñoz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El procediment de mediació simple, o també anomenat anàlisi d’efectes directes i indirectes, està dissenyat per analitzar l’efecte d’una variable mediadora en la relació entre una variable independent o explicativa i una altra de dependent o explicada. Process és una interfície aplicada a SPSS que permet fer aquests procediments d’una manera senzilla i ràpida. L’objectiu d’aquest article és explicar de forma clara i amena com es fa una anàlisi de mediació simple amb Process, interfície/macro per a SPSS, que permeti a qualsevol investigador iniciar-se en els procediments de mediació, àmpliament estesos sobretot en ciències socials. Els resultats obtinguts mostren clarament l’existència d’un efecte indirecte sobre la satisfacció amb la formació en línia mediat a través de les actituds cap a la formació. L’ús d'aquesta eina permet de manera ràpida i amb una fàcil interpretació l’aplicació de models de mediació i la comprovació de diferents proves un cop han estat recollides les dades.

  5. FIA-automated system used to electrochemically measure nitrite and its interfering chemicals through a 1-2 DAB / Au electrode: gain of sensitivity at upper potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F. L.; dos Santos Filho, S. G.; Fontes, M. B. A.

    2013-03-01

    The measurement of nitrite and its interfering-chemicals (paracetamol, ascorbic acid and uric acid) was performed employing a Flow-injection Analysis (FIA) system, which was automated using solenoid valves and air-pump. It is very important to quantify nitrite from river water, food and biologic fluids due to its antibacterial capacity in moderated concentrations, or its toxicity for human health even at low concentrations (> 20 μmol L-1 in blood fluids). Electrodes of the electrochemical planar sensor were defined by silk-screen technology. The measuring electrode was made from gold paste covered with 1-2 cis Diaminobenzene (DAB), which allowed good selectivity, linearity, repeatability, stability and optimized gain of sensitivity at 0.5 VAg/AgCl Nafion®117 (6.93 μA mol-1 L mm-2) compared to 0.3 VAg/AgCl Nafion® 117. The reference electrode was obtained from silver/palladium paste modified with chloride and covered with Nafion® 117. The auxiliary electrode was made from platinum paste. It was noteworthy that nitrite response adds to the response of the studied interfering-chemicals and it is predominant for concentrations lower than 175 μmol L-1.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Electro-Fenton Process (EFP in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in the Presence of Cyanide, as an Interfering Agent, from Synthetic Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Rahmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromium (VI is a hazardous pollutant that enters into the environment through different industrial wastewater. Therefore, Choice a suitable method for removal of the pollutant before discharging into the environment is necessary. The aim of this work was performance evaluation of Electro-Fenton process (EFP in removal of hexavalent chromium in the presence of cyanide, as an interfering agent, from synthetic wastewaters. Methods: In this experimental study, a reactor with 1 L useful volume and 4 electrodes made ​​of iron was used. pH, initial concentration of  chromium (VI, voltage, hydrogen peroxide and cyanide concentration, as an interfering agent, were investigated in order to determine the process efficiency. Results: Results reveals that the considered parameters were affected on the efficiency of the process. In optimum condition, pH=3 and voltage=20 V, initial concentration=100 mg/L, concentration of hydrogen peroxide=50 mL/L the maximum efficiency was reached up to 97%. Cyanide Presence, in the same condition, reduced the efficiency under 50 % and also, the efficiency was decreased by changing the parameters level from optimum condition. Conclusion: Results indicate the proper efficiency of chromium (VI by EFP process; however presence of other pollutants such as cyanide can cause efficiency decrease which must be considered in the process application.

  7. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas em algodoeiro de fibra colorida 'BRS Safira' Weeds interference periods in naturally colored cotton 'BRS Safira'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleibson Dionízio Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho, identificar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas no algodoeiro de fibra colorida (BRS Safira, bem como avaliar a comunidade infestante nesta cultura. O experimento foi realizado no município de Missão Velha, CE, região do Cariri, na safra 2007/2008. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: modalidades de competição (com e sem competição de plantas daninhas e período de interferência das plantas daninhas. A comunidade infestante foi avaliada por meio de dois índices fitossociológicos (Dominância relativa e Importância relativa. Os períodos iniciais de controle ou de convivência após a emergência da cultura foram 0-20; 0-40; 0-60; 0-80 dias após a emergência (DAE e 0-colheita. Os períodos de interferência foram determinados considerando-se perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; realizando-se análise de regressão pelo modelo sigmoidal de Boltzman, utilizando-se os dados de produtividade para cada modalidade de competição. Dentre as 21 espécies observadas na comunidade infestante, destacaram-se: Richardia grandiflora, Amaranthus deflexus, Eleusine indica, Merremia aegyptia, Eragrotis pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus e Waltheria indica. Os períodos críticos anteriores à interferência foram, respectivamente, 8; 14 e 20 DAE, para perdas na produtividade de 2; 5 e 10%; e os períodos críticos de prevenção a interferências, foram, respectivamente, 100; 82 e 60 dias.This study aimed to determine the late-season presence of weeds in reddish brown cotton (cultivar BRS Safira and the critical times for removing weeds. The experiment was carried out in the area of Embrapa in Missão Velha-CE, Brazil, located at 7º42'07" S latitude and 39º24'18" WGr. longitude, during the 2007/2008 season. The treatments consisted of two control groups: weed-free crop during the initial period after crop emergency

  8. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  9. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  10. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  11. Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3β-CREB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg−1 d−1, intragastrically were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg−1 d−1, subcutaneously injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurofilament light chain (NF-L. Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism. The GTS treatments reversed the corticosterone-induced changes in mRNA levels of BDNF and NF-L, and protein levels of BDNF NF-L, phosphor-cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133, and phosphor-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser9 in the hippocampus. These findings imply that the effect of GTS on corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior may be mediated partly through interfering with hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and reversing decrease of some plasticity-related proteins.

  12. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  13. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  14. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  15. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  16. Interfering removal in samples with high amounts of dissolved solids for the determination of arsenic and selenium by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegario, Amauri A.; Gomes, Ana Carla F.; Pellegrinotti, Daniel C.; Gine, Maria F.; Krug, Francisco J.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2002-01-01

    A matrix separation flow system coupled with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is proposed to remove Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Na + and K + major cations from samples containing high amounts of totally dissolved solids, using solid-liquid phases in flow system. This system is assembled with a 1.25 mL column of AG50W-X8 resin (in protonated form) and manual commutator, allowed the separation, addition of internal standard and subsequently a 40 μL aliquot of the eluate was deposited in the reflector support, dried in a furnace for 12 hours at 60 ± 5 deg C and analysed by TXRF. All the procedure is carried out in about 90 s and 0.5 mL of sample are required. The proposed approach was applied for determination of As and Se in plant material and sea water samples. When comparing with direct analysis (without separation), a reduction of 2 to 6 times on the limits of detection for these elements was attained. The accuracy of this methodology was satisfactory for As and Se in sea water and Se in rice certified samples. This procedure could be also used for Pb interference removal in the determination of As by X-ray fluorescence. (author)

  17. Predicting competitive adsorption behavior of major toxic anionic elements onto activated alumina: A speciation-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Tingzhi; Guan Xiaohong; Tang Yulin; Gu Guowei; Wang Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    Toxic anionic elements such as arsenic, selenium, and vanadium often co-exist in groundwater. These elements may impact each other when adsorption methods are used to remove them. In this study, we investigated the competitive adsorption behavior of As(V), Se(IV), and V(V) onto activated alumina under different pH and surface loading conditions. Results indicated that these anionic elements interfered with each other during adsorption. A speciation-based model was developed to quantify the competitive adsorption behavior of these elements. This model could predict the adsorption data well over the pH range of 1.5-12 for various surface loading conditions, using the same set of adsorption constants obtained from single-sorbate systems. This model has great implications in accurately predicting the field capacity of activated alumina under various local water quality conditions when multiple competitive anionic elements are present.

  18. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  19. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  20. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  1. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  2. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  3. Interferência de ferro na dosagem de boro no solo com azometina-H em soluções extratoras ácidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Gilvan Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de métodos que permitam a extração do boro para avaliação da fertilidade do solo para a recomendação de adubação é importante, devido aos baixos teores de boro e aos altos teores de Fe na maioria dos solos brasileiros. A extração com água quente, método-referência, é trabalhosa e apresenta dificuldades operacionais. Por outro lado, soluções de CaCl2 5 mmol/L e BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L são usadas com sucesso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a eficiência do ácido tioglicólico na eliminação da interferência do Fe na dosagem de B do solo com azometina-H, após extrações com soluções ácidas de Mehlich-1 e HCl (50 e 100 mmol/L. Dosagem com azometina-H, com e sem ácido tioglicólico, foram feitas para oito solos de Minas Gerais e dois solos do Mato Grosso do Sul. Foi utilizada como referência, a extração com BaCl2.2H2O 5 mmol/L, com aquecimento em forno de microondas e dosagem com azometina-H; a determinação de B com azometina-H em extratos originados de soluções ácidas sofre forte interferência do Fe. A adição do ácido tioglicólico não remove esta interferência. A coloração do complexo B-azometina-H fica menos estável com a adição do ácido tioglicólico na dosagem do boro.

  4. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.

  5. Elimination of matrix effect in quantitative analysis of elements using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, R.V.

    1973-07-01

    The emission-transmission method of Leroux and Mahmud, an experimental technique for compensating matrix effects in photon excited X-ray fluorescence analysis, was used to determine the concentration of lead and antimony in pellets of galalith. The effect of interfering elements was studied by adding various concentrations of mercury and tin to the respective pellets. To illustrate possible environmental applications, a number of pellets was prepared from leaves of almond trees located in different regions of Rio de Janeiro. Lead concentrations were determined for the dried leaf material and showed values ranging from 50 to 145 parts per million [pt

  6. A new method for true quantitative elemental imaging using PIXE and the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C G [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Churms, C L; Pilcher, J V [National Accelerator Centre, Faure (South Africa)

    1994-12-31

    Traditional methods for X-ray imaging using PIXE and the Proton Microprobe have used a simple gate set on an X-ray peak in a spectrum from a Si(Li) detector to provide an image of the distribution of an element. This method can produce artefacts in images, due to overlapping X-ray lines from interfering elements, charge collection tails on peaks, background variation, Si escape peaks and pileup, all of which can render images misleading or qualitative at best. To address this problem, a matrix transform method has been developed at the CSIRO which not only eliminates most artefacts, but can be implemented on-line. The method has been applied to study trace gold distribution in a complex gold bearing ore from Fiji , and more recently has been installed for direct on-line elemental imaging at the NAC in South Africa. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  7. A new method for true quantitative elemental imaging using PIXE and the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Churms, C.L.; Pilcher, J.V. [National Accelerator Centre, Faure (South Africa)

    1993-12-31

    Traditional methods for X-ray imaging using PIXE and the Proton Microprobe have used a simple gate set on an X-ray peak in a spectrum from a Si(Li) detector to provide an image of the distribution of an element. This method can produce artefacts in images, due to overlapping X-ray lines from interfering elements, charge collection tails on peaks, background variation, Si escape peaks and pileup, all of which can render images misleading or qualitative at best. To address this problem, a matrix transform method has been developed at the CSIRO which not only eliminates most artefacts, but can be implemented on-line. The method has been applied to study trace gold distribution in a complex gold bearing ore from Fiji , and more recently has been installed for direct on-line elemental imaging at the NAC in South Africa. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Estudo da corrosão por interferência de corrente alternada em estruturas enterradas e desenvolvimento de metodologia para sua detecção

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Eduardo Abud Filho

    2015-01-01

    Dutos metálicos revestidos, enterrados e protegidos catodicamente, quando são instalados nas proximidades de linhas de transmissão e distribuição de energia elétrica, vêm apresentando problemas de corrosão, sendo esta atribuída às interferências de corrente alternada dispersas no solo. São muitos os critérios propostos na literatura para verificar se um duto está ou não sujeito a esse tipo de problema, mas tais critérios são contraditórios e ineficientes, uma vez que não levam em conta parâme...

  9. Interferência do ácido ascórbico na dosagem glicêmica - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.722

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Cardoso Barbosa; Tania Cristina Andrade

    2009-01-01

    Sabe-se que exames laboratoriais estão sujeitos a fatores interferentes. A literatura científica cita interferência do ácido ascórbico em dosagens que envolvam oxirredução, como a glicêmica. Devido a isto, buscou-se avaliar o efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre a dosagem glicêmica em dois tipos de soro controle submetidos a diferentes concentrações de ácido ascórbico, variando de 2,5 a 100 mg/dL. Utilizou-se um soro controle com valores normais de glicemia e outro com valores patológicos. Observo...

  10. Silencing of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by small interfering RNA enhances the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward staurosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Min; Park, Sin Young; Shin, Seoung Woo; Kil, In Sup; Yang, Eun Sun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2009-02-01

    Staurosporine induces the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important causative role in apoptotic cell death. Recently, it was demonstrated that the control of cellular redox balance and the defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. The present report shows that silencing of IDPc expression in HeLa cells greatly enhances apoptosis induced by staurosporine. Transfection of HeLa cells with an IDPc small interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly decreased activity of IDPc, enhancing the susceptibility of staurosporine-induced apoptosis reflected by DNA fragmentation, cellular redox status and the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins. These results indicate that IDPc may play an important role in regulating the apoptosis induced by staurosporine and the sensitizing effect of IDPc siRNA on the apoptotic cell death of HeLa cells offers the possibility of developing a modifier of cancer chemotherapy.

  11. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite in the intercuspal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslam, A; Riise, C

    1983-05-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite, were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results show that, during maximal and submaximal bite an occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position is able to disturb the almost symmetric pattern of muscular activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles. Further, the level of muscular activity during maximal bite decreased significantly in all muscles studied. In some subjects, the decrease of muscular activity could still be observed one week after insertion of the interfering contact. After eliminating the interference, the muscular co-ordination pattern improved and the level of muscular activity increased significantly.

  12. [Small interfering RNA-mediated COX-2 gene silencing enhances chemosensitivity of KB/VCR cells by suppressing MDR-1 gene expression and P-glycoprotein activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xianchao; Li, Weizhong

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated COX-2 gene silencing in enhancing the chemosensitivity of KB/VCR cell lines. KB/VCR cells were trasnfected with COX-2 siRNA were examined for expressions of COX-2 and MDR-1 mRNAs with RT-PCR and for Rho-123 accumulation using flow cytometry. MTT assay was used to analyze the proliferation of the transfected KB/VCR cells. Compared with the negative and blank control groups, COX-2 siRNA transfection resulted in significant growth inhibition of KB/VCR cells exposed to vincristine (PKB/VCR cells. COX-2 gene silencing can enhance the chemosensitivity of KB/VCR cells to vincristine, the mechanism of which may involve down-regulated MDR-1 gene expression and inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity.

  13. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  14. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  16. Elemental diffusion in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Georges; Montmerle, Thierry

    1977-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the origin of the elements in the universe. The scheme of nucleosynthesis is kept to explain the stellar generation of helium, carbon, etc... from the initial hydrogen; but a nonlinear theory is then elaborated to account for the anomalous abundances which were observed. The chemical elements would diffuse throughout the outer layers of a star under the action of the opposite forces of gravitation and radiation. This theory, with completing the nucleosynthesis, would contribute to give a consistent scheme of the elemental origin and abundances [fr

  17. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  18. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  19. 2. Transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of sample collection, sample storage, sample procedures and radioanalytical procedures for transuranic elements in marine environment are reviewed and recommended. Alpha spectrometry and scintillation techniques are used for measurement of isotopic content. Separation processes for samples are described

  20. Heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Heavy element research activities in metallurgy and ceramics during 1976 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reviewed. Topics include: microstructure, properties and alloy design; ceramic alloy program; high resolution and high voltage electron microscopy; and powder metallurgy

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  3. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  4. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  5. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  6. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  7. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  8. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  9. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  11. Root anatomy and element distribution vary between two Salix caprea isolates with different Cd accumulation capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaculík, Marek; Konlechner, Cornelia; Langer, Ingrid; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Puschenreiter, Markus; Lux, Alexander; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the influence of toxic elements on root anatomy and element distribution is still limited. This study describes anatomical responses, metal accumulation and element distribution of rooted cuttings of Salix caprea after exposure to Cd and/or Zn. Differences in the development of apoplastic barriers and tissue organization in roots between two distinct S. caprea isolates with divergent Cd uptake and accumulation capacities in leaves might reflect an adaptive predisposition based on different natural origins. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that Cd and Zn interfered with the distribution of elements in a tissue- and isolate-specific manner. Zinc, Ca, Mg, Na and Si were enriched in the peripheral bark, K and S in the phloem and Cd in both vascular tissues. Si levels were lower in the superior Cd translocator. Since the cuttings originated from stocks isolated from polluted and unpolluted sites we probably uncovered different strategies against toxic elements. - Highlights: ► We describe responses in roots of S. caprea exposed to Cd and Zn. ► Apoplastic barrier development varied among isolates from differently polluted sites. ► EDX analyses revealed variations of element distributions in root tissues. ► Si weight% was lower in the isolate with a higher Cd translocation capacity. ► S. caprea isolates possessed different strategies to respond to Cd and Zn. - S. caprea altered element distribution and translocation, apoplastic barrier development and root anatomy upon Cd and/or Zn exposure.

  12. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  15. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  16. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura de cebola (Allium cepa transplantada Periods of weed interference with transplanted onion crop (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Soares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de períodos de convivência (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após o transplantio de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas sobre a produtividade de quatro cultivares de cebola (Mercedes, Granex 33, Superex e Serrana, em sistema de transplantio de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em Jaboticabal-SP, de abril a outubro de 2000, utilizando delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 4 x 8. As principais populações de plantas daninhas no final dos períodos de convivência foram de Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus e Cyperus rotundus. Os cultivares Mercedes (2,90 kgm-2 e Granex 33 (2,64 kgm-2 foram os mais produtivos, independentemente da interferência das plantas daninhas. A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante os primeiros 98 dias reduziu a produtividade da cebola em 95% e o peso médio de bulbos em 91%. O período anterior à interferência (PAI foi de 42 dias, não havendo diferença entre os cultivares de cebola.This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of weed coexistence periods (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting on the productivity of four onion cultivars (Mercedez, Granex 33, Superex and Serrana. The experiment was installed in Jaboticabal - SP - Brazil, from April to October 2000, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, in a factorial design 4 x 8. The main weed populations at the end of the coexistence periods were Coronopus didymus, Amaranthus hybridus and Cyperus rotundus. The cultivars Mercedez (2.90 kg m-2 and Granex-33 (2.64 kg m-2 were the most productive, under the conditions of weed interference.Weed interference during the first 98 days reduced production weight around 95% and the average weight of bulbs was reduced by 91%. For all the cultivars, weed coexistence the during the first 42 days after transplanting did not reduce the total

  17. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  18. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  19. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  20. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  1. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  2. In vivo efficacy and off-target effects of locked nucleic acid (LNA) and unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) modified siRNA and small internally segmented interfering RNA (sisiRNA) in mice bearing human tumor xenografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, O. R. F.; Vreijling, Jeroen; Wengel, Suzy L.; Wengel, Jesper; Zhou, Chuanzheng; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Baas, Frank; Fluiter, Kees

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is hampered by poor uptake by tissues and instability in circulation. In addition, off-target effects pose a significant additional problem for therapeutic use of siRNA. Chemical modifications of siRNA have been reported to increase stability and

  3. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  4. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  5. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  6. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  7. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  8. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  9. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  10. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  11. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  13. Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Hyejun; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Emilio; Smith, Bryan R.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Kino, Gordon S.; Solgaard, Olav; Kaspar, Roger L.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

  14. Interferência e naturalidade no par português-espanhol: línguas próximas, contraste e ensino de tradução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Macedo de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, fruto de nossa pesquisa de mestrado, temos como objetivo refletir sobre a proximidade entre o português e o espanhol e seus efeitos para a tradução. Para tanto, discutiremos os conceitos de interferência e de naturalidade e observaremos como estes se apresentam na análise de nosso corpus de estudo, composto por traduções de uma receita e outras duas atividades relacionadas a tal gênero textual. Buscaremos demonstrar como esse trabalho encontra eco em nossa prática atual, na coordenação do projeto de extensão “Laboratório de Tradução da Unila”, realizado na Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana (Unila. Por fim, apontaremos para a necessidade de que pesquisas que tenham como base a comparação entre essas duas línguas sejam utilizadas no ensino e na prática da tradução.

  15. Amide linkages mimic phosphates in RNA interactions with proteins and are well tolerated in the guide strand of short interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Hardcastle, Travis; Cheruiyot, Samwel K; Pallan, Pradeep S; Kennedy, Scott D; Egli, Martin; Kelley, Melissa L; Smith, Anja van Brabant; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-08-21

    While the use of RNA interference (RNAi) in molecular biology and functional genomics is a well-established technology, in vivo applications of synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) require chemical modifications. We recently found that amides as non-ionic replacements for phosphodiesters may be useful modifications for optimization of siRNAs. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of systematic replacement of a single phosphate with an amide linkage throughout the guide strand of siRNAs. The results show that amides are surprisingly well tolerated in the seed and central regions of the guide strand and increase the silencing activity when placed between nucleosides 10 and 12, at the catalytic site of Argonaute. A potential explanation is provided by the first crystal structure of an amide-modified RNA-DNA with Bacillus halodurans RNase H1. The structure reveals how small changes in both RNA and protein conformation allow the amide to establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these alternative binding modes may compensate for interactions lost due to the absence of a phosphodiester moiety. Our results suggest that an amide can mimic important hydrogen bonding interactions with proteins required for RNAi activity and may be a promising modification for optimization of biological properties of siRNAs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupin, Michalina; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Ryszard; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  17. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin, Michalina; Sobczak, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Ryszard; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-05-01

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  18. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells.

  19. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  20. Amide linkages mimic phosphates in RNA interactions with proteins and are well tolerated in the guide strand of short interfering RNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutisya, Daniel; Hardcastle, Travis; Cheruiyot, Samwel K.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Kennedy, Scott D.; Egli, Martin; Kelley, Melissa L.; Smith, Anja van Brabant; Rozners, Eriks

    2017-06-27

    While the use of RNA interference (RNAi) in molecular biology and functional genomics is a well-established technology, in vivo applications of synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) require chemical modifications. We recently found that amides as non-ionic replacements for phosphodiesters may be useful modifications for optimization of siRNAs. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of systematic replacement of a single phosphate with an amide linkage throughout the guide strand of siRNAs. The results show that amides are surprisingly well tolerated in the seed and central regions of the guide strand and increase the silencing activity when placed between nucleosides 10 and 12, at the catalytic site of Argonaute. A potential explanation is provided by the first crystal structure of an amide-modified RNA–DNA with Bacillus halodurans RNase H1. The structure reveals how small changes in both RNA and protein conformation allow the amide to establish hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that these alternative binding modes may compensate for interactions lost due to the absence of a phosphodiester moiety. Our results suggest that an amide can mimic important hydrogen bonding interactions with proteins required for RNAi activity and may be a promising modification for optimization of biological properties of siRNAs.

  1. The system with zwitterionic lactose-based surfactant for complexation and delivery of small interfering ribonucleic acid—A structural and spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skupin, Michalina [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Sobczak, Krzysztof [Department of Gene Expression, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Zieliński, Ryszard [Department of Technology and Instrumental Analysis, Faculty of Commodity Science, Poznań University of Economics, al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań (Poland); Kozak, Maciej, E-mail: mkozak@amu.edu.pl [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Joint SAXS Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-05-23

    Systems suitable for the effective preparation of complexes with siRNA (small interfering RNA) are at the center of interest in the area of research work on the delivery of the RNA-based drugs (RNA-therapeutics). This article presents results of a study on the structural effects associated with siRNA complexation by a surfactant comprising a lactose group (N-(3-propanesulfone)-N-dodecyl-amino-beta-D-lactose hydrochloride, LA12). The double stranded siRNA oligomer (21 base pairs) used in this study is responsible for silencing a gene that can be important in the therapy of myotonic dystrophy type 1. The obtained siRNA/LA12 lipoplexes were studied using the methods of small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility tests. Lipoplexes form in solution stable lamellar or cubic phases. The surfactant selected for the study shows much lower cytotoxicity and good complexation abilities of siRNA than dicationic or polycationic surfactants.

  2. Topical Anti-Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Small Interfering RNA with Functional Peptides Containing Sericin-Based Hydrogel for Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Kanazawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The small interfering RNA (siRNA is suggested to offer a novel means of treating atopic dermatitis (AD because it allows the specific silencing of genes related to AD pathogenesis. In our previous study, we found that siRNA targeted against RelA, an important nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB subdomain, with functional peptides, showed therapeutic effects in a mouse model of AD. In the present study, to develop a topical skin application against AD, we prepared a hydrogel containing anti-RelA siRNA and functional peptides and determined the intradermal permeation and the anti-AD effects in an AD mouse model. We selected the silk protein, sericin (SC, which is a versatile biocompatible biomaterial to prepare hydrogel as an aqueous gel base. We found that the siRNA was more widely delivered to the site of application in AD-induced ear skin of mice after topical application via the hydrogel containing functional peptides than via the preparation without functional peptides. In addition, the ear thickness and clinical skin severity of the AD-induced mice treated with hydrogel containing anti-RelA siRNA with functional peptides improved more than that of mice treated with the preparation formulated with negative siRNA.

  3. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  4. Determination of trace elements by neutron activation analysis using dinonylnaphtalene sulfonic acid as a preconcentrating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.H.; Chen, P.Y.; Tseng, C.L.; Yeh, S.J.; Weng, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    Dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HD) has been used as a preconcentrating agent to enrich trace metal ions and to separate the interfering elements such as Na, K, Cl and Br, which normally exist in the natural aqueous systems. Experiments were performed by extracting the ions in the aqueous medium with HD in n-hexane and subsequently backextracted into a minimal volume of acid solution. Factors influencing the extraction efficiency of the ions of interest were investigated. The preconcentration technique has been successfully applied to the determination by neutron activation analysis of trace elements in natural water and biological materials. Both short-lived nuclides (Mg, Al, Ca, Mn) and long-lived nuclides (Sm, Eu, Zn, La, Cr, Sc, Fe, Co) in the ppb-level concentrations were determined. (T.G.)

  5. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  6. Nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, J S; Coffing, L F

    1979-04-05

    The fuel element with circular cross-section for BWR and PWR consists of a core surrounded by a compound jacket container where there is a gap between the core and jacket during operation in the reactor. The core consists of U, Pu, Th compounds and mixtures of these. The compound jacket consists of zircaloy 2 or 4. In order to for example prevent the corrosion of the compound jacket, its inner surface has a metal barrier with smaller neutron absorbers than the jacket material in the form of a zirconium sponge. The zirconium of this metal barrier has impurities of various elements in the order of magnitude of 1000 to 5000 ppm. The oxygen content is in the range of 200 to 1200 ppm and the thickness of the metal barrier is 1-30% of the thickness of the jacket.

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  10. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  11. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  15. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  17. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  18. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  19. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  20. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  1. Elements of quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Information introduces the reader to the fascinating field of quantum information processing, which lives on the interface between computer science, physics, mathematics, and engineering. This interdisciplinary branch of science thrives on the use of quantum mechanics as a resource for high potential modern applications. With its wide coverage of experiments, applications, and specialized topics - all written by renowned experts - Elements of Quantum Information provides and indispensable, up-to-date account of the state of the art of this rapidly advancing field and takes the reader straight up to the frontiers of current research. The articles have first appeared as a special issue of the journal 'Fortschritte der Physik / Progress of Physics'. Since then, they have been carefully updated. The book will be an inspiring source of information and insight for anyone researching and specializing in experiments and theory of quantum information. Topics addressed in Elements of Quantum Information include - Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics - Segmented Paul Traps - Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microtraps, Optical Lattices, and on Atom Chips - Rydberg Gases - Factorization of Numbers with Physical Systems - Entanglement of Continuous Variables - NMR and Solid State Quantum Computation - Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Machines - Complexity Theory - Quantum Crytography. (orig.)

  2. Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.

  3. Study of Superheavy Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond 208 Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island were made in recent years. (Author)

  4. Probabilistic finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Wing, Kam Liu

    1987-01-01

    In the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), finite element methods have been efficiently combined with second-order perturbation techniques to provide an effective method for informing the designer of the range of response which is likely in a given problem. The designer must provide as input the statistical character of the input variables, such as yield strength, load magnitude, and Young's modulus, by specifying their mean values and their variances. The output then consists of the mean response and the variance in the response. Thus the designer is given a much broader picture of the predicted performance than with simply a single response curve. These methods are applicable to a wide class of problems, provided that the scale of randomness is not too large and the probabilistic density functions possess decaying tails. By incorporating the computational techniques we have developed in the past 3 years for efficiency, the probabilistic finite element methods are capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Sample results for an elastic-plastic ten-bar structure and an elastic-plastic plane continuum with a circular hole subject to cyclic loadings with the yield stress on the random field are given.

  5. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements. (topical review)

  6. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930's, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs

  7. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nicole J.; Krentz, Christine E.; Könemann, Tobias; Han, Taewon T.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF), such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer), for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015). We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT) plus 3 standard deviations (σ) of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that raising the

  8. S-Carvone Suppresses Cellulase-Induced Capsidiol Production in Nicotiana tabacum by Interfering with Protein Isoprenylation1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchelmann, Alexandre; Gastaldo, Clément; Veinante, Mickaël; Zeng, Ying; Heintz, Dimitri; Tritsch, Denis; Schaller, Hubert; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J.; Hemmerlin, Andréa

    2014-01-01

    S-Carvone has been described as a negative regulator of mevalonic acid (MVA) production by interfering with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) activity, a key player in isoprenoid biosynthesis. The impact of this monoterpene on the production of capsidiol in Nicotiana tabacum, an assumed MVA-derived sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin produced in response to elicitation by cellulase, was investigated. As expected, capsidiol production, as well as early stages of elicitation such as hydrogen peroxide production or stimulation of 5-epi-aristolochene synthase activity, were repressed. Despite the lack of capsidiol synthesis, apparent HMGR activity was boosted. Feeding experiments using (1-13C)Glc followed by analysis of labeling patterns by 13C-NMR, confirmed an MVA-dependent biosynthesis; however, treatments with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of the MVA-independent 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) isoprenoid pathway, unexpectedly down-regulated the biosynthesis of this sesquiterpene as well. We postulated that S-carvone does not directly inhibit the production of MVA by inactivating HMGR, but possibly targets an MEP-derived isoprenoid involved in the early steps of the elicitation process. A new model is proposed in which the monoterpene blocks an MEP pathway–dependent protein geranylgeranylation necessary for the signaling cascade. The production of capsidiol was inhibited when plants were treated with some inhibitors of protein prenylation or by further monoterpenes. Moreover, S-carvone hindered isoprenylation of a prenylable GFP indicator protein expressed in N. tabacum cell lines, which can be chemically complemented with geranylgeraniol. The model was further validated using N. tabacum cell extracts or recombinant N. tabacum protein prenyltransferases expressed in Escherichia coli. Our study endorsed a reevaluation of the effect of S-carvone on plant isoprenoid metabolism. PMID:24367019

  9. Arabidopsis RNASE THREE LIKE2 Modulates the Expression of Protein-Coding Genes via 24-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA-Directed DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Hachet, Mélanie; Shamandi, Nahid; Comella, Pascale; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    RNaseIII enzymes catalyze the cleavage of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and have diverse functions in RNA maturation. Arabidopsis thaliana RNASE THREE LIKE2 (RTL2), which carries one RNaseIII and two dsRNA binding (DRB) domains, is a unique Arabidopsis RNaseIII enzyme resembling the budding yeast small interfering RNA (siRNA)-producing Dcr1 enzyme. Here, we show that RTL2 modulates the production of a subset of small RNAs and that this activity depends on both its RNaseIII and DRB domains. However, the mode of action of RTL2 differs from that of Dcr1. Whereas Dcr1 directly cleaves dsRNAs into 23-nucleotide siRNAs, RTL2 likely cleaves dsRNAs into longer molecules, which are subsequently processed into small RNAs by the DICER-LIKE enzymes. Depending on the dsRNA considered, RTL2-mediated maturation either improves (RTL2-dependent loci) or reduces (RTL2-sensitive loci) the production of small RNAs. Because the vast majority of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to transposons and intergenic regions producing 24-nucleotide siRNAs that guide DNA methylation, RTL2 depletion modifies DNA methylation in these regions. Nevertheless, 13% of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to protein-coding genes. We show that changes in 24-nucleotide siRNA levels also affect DNA methylation levels at such loci and inversely correlate with mRNA steady state levels, thus implicating RTL2 in the regulation of protein-coding gene expression. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinically unrecognized pulmonary aspiration during gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation: A potential pitfall interfering the performance of 18F-FDG PET for cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Te-Chun; Wu, Yu-Chin; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Wang, Chih-Hsiu; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Sun, Shung-Shung; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We found several cases with unexpected pulmonary abnormalities on the 18 F-FDG PET scan after the gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation during a compact health check-up course, interfering the interpretations of 18 F-FDG PET scan for cancer screening. The current studies aimed to analyze the incidence and the clinical relevance of this pulmonary finding. Materials and methods: From June to December 2009, 127 subjects undergoing the sequential gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation and 18 F-FDG PET scan within 48 h as part of routine health check-up were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The incidence of abnormal pulmonary findings and their SUV max of FDG were calculated and correlated with the clinical manifestations. Results: Five subjects had abnormal 18 F-FDG PET findings but pulmonary symptoms were only found in 2. The SUV max did not seem to reflect the severity of pulmonary symptoms or the need of intervention. Although the incidence of unrecognized pulmonary aspiration featuring inflammation detected by the 18 F-FDG PET scan was high (3.94%, 5/127), the incidence of events needed intervention remained low (0.79%, 1/127), similar to those previously reported literatures. Conclusions: Although higher incidence of pulmonary aspiration in this study, it probably reflects the better sensitivity of 18 F-FDG PET for inflammation. The low incidence of clinical events needed intervention may still reflect the safety of sedation used for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Proper arrangement of the sequential examinations if subjects need both gastrointestinal endoscopy with sedation and 18 F-FDG PET is important to reduce the interference degrading the performance of 18 F-FDG PET in cancer screening, diagnosis or staging.

  11. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1{alpha} reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, Adrian [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fleischer, Markus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Plathow, Christian [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vordermark, Dirk [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-04-15

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1{alpha} expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1{alpha} siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1{alpha}. HIF-1{alpha} protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O{sub 2} (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1{alpha}-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O{sub 2} as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  12. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs and their effect on virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-qing

    2014-12-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are silencing signals in plants. Virus-resistant transgenic rootstocks developed through siRNA-mediated gene silencing may enhance virus resistance of nontransgenic scions via siRNAs transported from the transgenic rootstocks. However, convincing evidence of rootstock-to-scion movement of siRNAs of exogenous genes in woody plants is still lacking. To determine whether exogenous siRNAs can be transferred, nontransgenic sweet cherry (scions) was grafted on transgenic cherry rootstocks (TRs), which was transformed with an RNA interference (RNAi) vector expressing short hairpin RNAs of the genomic RNA3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA). Small RNA sequencing was conducted using bud tissues of TRs and those of grafted (rootstock/scion) trees, locating at about 1.2 m above the graft unions. Comparison of the siRNA profiles revealed that the PNRSV-hpRNA was efficient in producing siRNAs and eliminating PNRSV in the TRs. Furthermore, our study confirmed, for the first time, the long-distance (1.2 m) transfer of PNRSV-hpRNA-derived siRNAs from the transgenic rootstock to the nontransgenic scion in woody plants. Inoculation of nontransgenic scions with PNRSV revealed that the transferred siRNAs enhanced PNRSV resistance of the scions grafted on the TRs. Collectively, these findings provide the foundation for 'using transgenic rootstocks to produce products of nontransgenic scions in fruit trees'. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification and molecular characterization of a trans-acting small interfering RNA producing locus regulating leaf rust responsive gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Summi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Jha, Shailendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    A novel leaf rust responsive ta-siRNA-producing locus was identified in wheat showing similarity to 28S rRNA and generated four differentially expressing ta-siRNAs by phasing which targeted stress responsive genes. Trans-acting-small interfering RNAs (Ta-siRNAs) are plant specific molecules generally involved in development and are also stress responsive. Ta-siRNAs identified in wheat till date are all responsive to abiotic stress only. Wheat cultivation is severely affected by rusts and leaf rust particularly affects grain filling. This study reports a novel ta-siRNA producing locus (TAS) in wheat which is a segment of 28S ribosomal RNA but shows differential expression during leaf rust infestation. Four small RNA libraries prepared from wheat Near Isogenic Lines were treated with leaf rust pathogen and compared with untreated controls. A TAS with the ability to generate four ta-siRNAs by phasing events was identified along with the microRNA TamiR16 as the phase initiator. The targets of the ta-siRNAs included α-gliadin, leucine rich repeat, trans-membrane proteins, glutathione-S-transferase, and fatty acid desaturase among others, which are either stress responsive genes or are essential for normal growth and development of plants. Expression of the TAS, its generated ta-siRNAs, and their target genes were profiled at five different time points after pathogen inoculation of susceptible and resistant wheat isolines and compared with mock-inoculated controls. Comparative analysis of expression unveiled differential and reciprocal relationship as well as discrete patterns between susceptible and resistant isolines. The expression profiles of the target genes of the identified ta-siRNAs advocate more towards effector triggered susceptibility favouring pathogenesis. The study helps in discerning the functions of wheat genes regulated by ta-siRNAs in response to leaf rust.

  14. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1α reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, Adrian; Fleischer, Markus; Wuerzburg Univ.; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Vordermark, Dirk; Halle-Wittenberg Univ.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1α expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1α siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O 2 (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1α-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O 2 as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1α-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1α-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1α-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1α-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  15. Small interfering RNA targeted to stem-loop II of the 5' untranslated region effectively inhibits expression of six HCV genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dash Srikanta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiviral action of interferon alpha targets the 5' untranslated region (UTR used by hepatitis C virus (HCV to translate protein by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES mechanism. Although this sequence is highly conserved among different clinical strains, approximately half of chronically infected hepatitis C patients do not respond to interferon therapy. Therefore, development of small interfering RNA (siRNA targeted to the 5'UTR to inhibit IRES mediated translation may represent an alternative approach that could circumvent the problem of interferon resistance. Results Four different plasmid constructs were prepared for intracellular delivery of siRNAs targeting the stem loop II-III of HCV 5' UTR. The effect of siRNA production on IRES mediated translation was investigated using chimeric clones between the gene for green fluorescence protein (GFP and IRES sequences of six different HCV genotypes. The siRNA targeted to stem loop II effectively mediated degradation of HCV IRES mRNA and inhibited GFP expression in the case of six different HCV genotypes, where as siRNAs targeted to stem loop III did not. Furthermore, intracytoplasmic expression of siRNA into transfected Huh-7 cells efficiently degraded HCV genomic RNA and inhibited core protein expression from infectious full-length infectious clones HCV 1a and HCV 1b strains. Conclusion These in vitro studies suggest that siRNA targeted to stem-loop II is highly effective inhibiting IRES mediated translation of the major genotypes of HCV. Stem-loop II siRNA may be a good target for developing an intracellular immunization strategy based antiviral therapy to inhibit hepatitis C virus strains that are not inhibited by interferon.

  16. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivyna Pau Ni Bong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05. NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05. Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01. Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM.

  17. Use of short interfering RNA delivered by cationic liposomes to enable efficient down-regulation of PTPN22 gene in human T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Perri

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease are T cell-dependent autoimmune endocrinopathies. The standard substitutive administration of the deficient hormones does not halt the autoimmune process; therefore, development of immunotherapies aiming to preserve the residual hormonal cells, is of crucial importance. PTPN22 C1858T mutation encoding for the R620W lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase variant, plays a potential pathophysiological role in autoimmunity. The PTPN22 encoded protein Lyp is a negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor signaling; R620W variant, leading to a gain of function with paradoxical reduced T cell activation, may represent a valid therapeutic target. We aimed to develop novel wild type PTPN22 short interfering RNA duplexes (siRNA and optimize their delivery into Jurkat T cells and PBMC by using liposomal carriers. Conformational stability, size and polydispersion of siRNA in lipoplexes was measured by CD spectroscopy and DLS. Lipoplexes internalization and toxicity evaluation was assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Their effect on Lyp expression was evaluated by means of Western Blot and confocal microscopy. Functional assays through engagement of TCR signaling were established to evaluate biological consequences of down-modulation. Both Jurkat T cells and PBMC were efficiently transfected by stable custom lipoplexes. Jurkat T cell morphology and proliferation was not affected. Lipoplexes incorporation was visualized in CD3+ but also in CD3- peripheral blood immunotypes without signs of toxicity, damage or apoptosis. Efficacy in affecting Lyp protein expression was demonstrated in both transfected Jurkat T cells and PBMC. Moreover, impairment of Lyp inhibitory activity was revealed by increase of IL-2 secretion in culture supernatants of PBMC following anti-CD3/CD28 T cell receptor-driven stimulation. The results of our study open the pathway to future trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases based

  18. Insights into the therapeutic potential of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α small interfering RNA in malignant melanoma delivered via folate-decorated cationic liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhongjian Chen,1,* Tianpeng Zhang,2,* Baojian Wu,2 Xingwang Zhang2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Dermatology Hospital, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Gangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Malignant melanoma (MM represents the most dangerous form of skin cancer, and its incidence is expected to rise in the coming time. However, therapy for MM is limited by low topical drug concentration and multidrug resistance. This article aimed to develop folate-decorated cationic liposomes (fc-LPs for hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α small interfering (siRNA delivery, and to evaluate the potential of such siRNA/liposome complexes in MM therapy. HIF-1α siRNA-loaded fc-LPs (siRNA-fc-LPs were prepared by a film hydration method followed by siRNA incubation. Folate decoration of liposomes was achieved by incorporation of folate/oleic acid-diacylated oligochitosans. The resulting siRNA-fc-LPs were 95.3 nm in size with a ζ potential of 2.41 mV. The liposomal vectors exhibited excellent loading capacity and protective effect toward siRNA. The in vitro cell transfection efficiency was almost parallel to the commercially available Lipofectamine™ 2000. Moreover, the anti-melanoma activity of HIF-1α siRNA was significantly enhanced through fc-LPs. Western blot analysis and apoptosis test demonstrated that siRNA-fc-LPs substantially reduced the production of HIF-1α-associated protein and induced the apoptosis of hypoxia-tolerant melanoma cells. Our designed liposomal vectors might be applicable as siRNA delivery vehicle to systemically or topically treat MM. Keywords: malignant melanoma, HIF-1α siRNA, chitosan, cationic liposomes, gene therapy

  19. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ivyna Pau Ni; Ng, Ching Ching; Fakiruddin, Shaik Kamal; Lim, Moon Nian; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the fprotein expression in unctions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. In contrast, little is known about the function of LYST in cancer. The expression of LYST is shown to affect lysosomal size, granule size, and autophagy in human cells. In this study, the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of NAMPT and LYST on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells. Transfection efficiencies were determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay. The NAMPT protein expression in siRNA-treated cells was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that NAMPT and LYST were successfully knockdown by siRNA transfection (p < 0.05). NAMPT or LYST gene silencing significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in RPMI 8226 cells (p < 0.05). Silencing of NAMPT gene also decreased NAMPT protein levels (p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that NAMPT and LYST play pivotal roles in the molecular pathogenesis of MM. This is the first report describing the possible functions of LYST in myelomagenesis and its potential role as a therapeutic target in MM. PMID:27754828

  20. Small interfering RNA targeted to IGF-IR delays tumor growth and induces proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphanie Durfort

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and its type I receptor (IGF-IR play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD. Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- α and IFN-γ. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2'-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines.

  1. Depletion of polycistronic transcripts using short interfering RNAs: cDNA synthesis method affects levels of non-targeted genes determined by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Jennifer E; Groves, Ian J; Pett, Mark R; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-05-21

    Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are often used to deplete viral polycistronic transcripts, such as those encoded by human papillomavirus (HPV). There are conflicting data in the literature concerning how siRNAs targeting one HPV gene can affect levels of other genes in the polycistronic transcripts. We hypothesised that the conflict might be partly explained by the method of cDNA synthesis used prior to transcript quantification. We treated HPV16-positive cervical keratinocytes with siRNAs targeting the HPV16 E7 gene and used quantitative PCR to compare transcript levels of E7 with those of E6 and E2, viral genes located upstream and downstream of the target site respectively. We compared our findings from cDNA generated using oligo-dT primers alone with those from cDNA generated using a combination of random hexamer and oligo-dT primers. Our data show that when polycistronic transcripts are targeted by siRNAs, there is a period when untranslatable cleaved mRNA upstream of the siRNA binding site remains detectable by PCR, if cDNA is generated using random hexamer primers. Such false indications of mRNA abundance are avoided using oligo-dT primers. The period corresponds to the time taken for siRNA activity and degradation of the cleaved transcripts. Genes downstream of the siRNA binding site are detectable during this interval, regardless of how the cDNA is generated. These data emphasise the importance of the cDNA synthesis method used when measuring transcript abundance following siRNA depletion of polycistronic transcripts. They provide a partial explanation for erroneous reports suggesting that siRNAs targeting HPV E7 can have gene-specific effects.

  2. Elements of social action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant analytical advantages, the author prefers social action as initial sociological concept in the relation to social phenomenon. Its basic elements are: actors, subjects and tools, needs and interests, values and norms, positions and roles. Actors set in motion and unify the rest of elements, guide to the magic triangle of sociology (movement, change, order, reaffirm actor paradigm to systemic paradigm. Subjects and tools materialize an action and its overestimate results in technological determinism or (by means of property as institutional appropriation of nature in the (unclassed historical type of society. Needs and interests are the basis of person's motivation and starting point for depth analysis of sociability. The expansion of legitimate interests circle develops techniques of normative regulation. Values and norms guide to institutional-organizational, positions to vertical and roles to horizontal structure. Values give the meaning to the action as well as to human existence, they are orientations of motivate system of personality but also basic aspect of society. As abstractions, values are latent background of norms and they tell to us what to do, and norms how to do something. Norms are specified instructions for suitable behavior Without normative order, not to be possible the satisfying of needs and the conciliation of interests. Riches, power and prestige are components of social position, and legal status is the determination of rights and obligations of the position. Roles are normative expectation of behavior. Toward kinds of sanctions roles are classified. Roles but also other elements of social action are starting point for sociological analysis of legal norms and institutes. On the other side, the observation of legal component of social actions enriches, strengths and precises sociological analysis of them.

  3. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  4. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepfer, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

  5. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  8. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  9. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  10. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  11. Optical Finite Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.

    1986-01-01

    A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.

  12. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  14. Heavy-element nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements and theoretical studies of nuclear properties, together with new astronomical data on the growth of heavy-element abundances during the early history of the Galaxy, now provide a clearer picture of where in nature the elements heavier than iron are produced by rapid (r-process) and show (s-process) neutron capture reactions. The nuclear data suggest that the r-process involves a high-neutron-density beta-flow equilibrium environment and that the s-process may have occurred at a temperature and neutron density consistent with a 13 C(α,n) 16 0 neutron source. The astronomical data, when compared with simple galactic chemical evolution modes, suggests that the r-process is associated with type II supernovae and that the neutron source must be manufactured by the star. Low-mass type II supernovae are proposed as the most important contributors to the r-process. A 13 C neutron source in intermediate-mass stars is proposed for the s-process. 64 refs., 7 figs

  15. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention is of a nuclear fuel element which comprises a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof, and an elongated composite cladding container comprising a zirconium alloy tube containing constituents other than zirconium in an amount greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and an undeformed metal barrier of moderate purity zirconium bonded to the inside surface of the alloy tube. The container encloses the core so as to leave a gap between the container and the core during use in a nuclear reactor. The metal barrier is of moderate purity zirconium with an impurity level on a weight basis of at least 1000ppm and less than 5000ppm. Impurity levels of specific elements are given. Variations of the invention are also specified. The composite cladding reduces chemical interaction, minimizes localized stress and strain corrosion and reduces the likelihood of a splitting failure in the zirconium alloy tube. Other benefits are claimed. (U.K.)

  16. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  17. Joining elements of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining together at least two silicon carbide elements (e.g.in forming a heat exchanger) is described, comprising subjecting to sufficiently non-oxidizing atmosphere and sufficiently high temperature, material placed in space between the elements. The material consists of silicon carbide particles, carbon and/or a precursor of carbon, and silicon, such that it forms a joint joining together at least two silicon carbide elements. At least one of the elements may contain silicon. (author)

  18. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  19. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  20. More than 40% of those not taking antiseizure medication with recent seizures reported that epilepsy or its treatment interfered with their recent activities, 2010 and 2013 US National Health Interview Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2016-09-01

    From the combined 2010 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys, we estimated US national age-standardized prevalence of adults with active epilepsy who reported that a nervous system/sensory organ condition caused a limitation (e.g., walking; memory; or physical, mental, or emotional problems) and, separately, that epilepsy interfered with their activities (e.g., working, schooling, or socializing) during the 30days preceding the survey. Sixty-one percent of adults who took antiseizure medication and had recent seizures and 51% of those who took medication and had no seizures reported having limitations caused by a nervous system/sensory organ condition. Sixty-two percent of adults who took antiseizure medication and had recent seizures and 20% of those who took medication and had no seizures reported that epilepsy or its treatment interfered with their recent activities. Forty-one percent of those who did not take medication and had recent seizures also reported that epilepsy interfered with their activities. To reduce activity limitations in people with epilepsy, health and social service providers can ensure that adequate policies and practices that promote access to high quality care and social participation are in effect in organizations and communities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon', V.V.; Kobets, A.F.; Shvetsov, V.A.; Sivokon', L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  2. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  3. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  4. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  5. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  7. Finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, M.R.; Williamson, R.; Masson, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems. While FEM is commonly used to solve solid mechanics equations, it can be applied to a large range of BVPs from many different fields. FEM has been used for reactor fuels modelling for many years. It is most often used for fuel performance modelling at the pellet and pin scale, however, it has also been used to investigate properties of the fuel material, such as thermal conductivity and fission gas release. Recently, the United Stated Department Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation Program has begun using FEM as the basis of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT Project that is developing a multi-dimensional, multi-physics fuel performance capability that is massively parallel and will use multi-scale material models to provide a truly predictive modelling capability. (authors)

  8. Heavy-element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The status is reported of studies on the solid-state chemistry of the actinides and lanthanides, spectroscopy of actinide compounds, and dynamic chemical description of actinide elements in solution. Phase studies were done on Rb 2 UO 4 , K 2 UO 4 , Li 2 UO 4 , and Es 2 U 2 O 7 . The lithium neptunate (VI) system was investigated and the existence of Li 2 NpO 4 was established. In oxidation-reduction studies it was shown that Am(III) can be electrolytically oxidized to Am(IV) in strong H 3 PO 4 , but Cf(III) and Pr(III) do not oxidize. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of thin films of NpBr 3 was investigated. (U.S.)

  9. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  10. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  11. Molecular-Targeted Immunotherapeutic Strategy for Melanoma via Dual-Targeting Nanoparticles Delivering Small Interfering RNA to Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuan; Qiao, Sha; Dai, Yanfeng; Xu, Guoqiang; Dai, Bolei; Lu, Lisen; Yu, Xiang; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-09-26

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. Targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs to the tumor-promoting M2-like TAMs is challenging. Here, we developed M2-like TAM dual-targeting nanoparticles (M2NPs), whose structure and function were controlled by α-peptide (a scavenger receptor B type 1 (SR-B1) targeting peptide) linked with M2pep (an M2 macrophage binding peptide). By loading anti-colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (anti-CSF-1R) small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the M2NPs, we developed a molecular-targeted immunotherapeutic approach to specifically block the survival signal of M2-like TAMs and deplete them from melanoma tumors. We confirmed the validity of SR-B1 for M2-like TAM targeting and demonstrated the synergistic effect of the two targeting units (α-peptide and M2pep) in the fusion peptide (α-M2pep). After being administered to tumor-bearing mice, M2NPs had higher affinity to M2-like TAMs than to tissue-resident macrophages in liver, spleen, and lung. Compared with control treatment groups, M2NP-based siRNA delivery resulted in a dramatic elimination of M2-like TAMs (52%), decreased tumor size (87%), and prolonged survival. Additionally, this molecular-targeted strategy inhibited immunosuppressive IL-10 and TGF-β production and increased immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-γ) expression and CD8 + T cell infiltration (2.9-fold) in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, the siRNA-carrying M2NPs down-regulated expression of the exhaustion markers (PD-1 and Tim-3) on the infiltrating CD8 + T cells and stimulated their IFN-γ secretion (6.2-fold), indicating the restoration of T cell immune function. Thus, the dual-targeting property of M2NPs combined with RNA interference provides a potential strategy of molecular-targeted cancer immunotherapy for clinical application.

  12. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  13. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel; Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo; Pleli, Thomas; Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Piiper, Albrecht; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D 1 encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E 2 synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on different Hu

  14. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schädel, M

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of transactinide or superheavy elements has reached element 108. Preparations are under way to leap to element 112 and beyond. The current status of this atom-at-a-time chemical research and its future perspectives are reviewed from an experimental point of view together with some of the interesting results from n -rich nuclides near and at the N=162 neutron shell. Experimental techniques and important results enlightening typical chemical properties of elements 104 through 108 are presented in an exemplary way. From the results of these experiments it is justified to place these elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements in to groups 4 through 8, respectively. However, mainly due to the influence of relativistic effects, it is no longer possible to deduce detailed chemical properties of these superheavy elements simply from this position.

  15. Transplutonium elements - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.; Jadhav, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    The report surveys reported work on the discovery of transplutonium elements and their production through various methods like bombardment of heavy elements with charged ions, successive neutron captures on heavy elements in reactors and multiple neutron captures by heavy elements during nuclear explosions. Estimated yields of transplutonium elements in special targets irradiated in reactors, and also as byproducts from spent power reactor fuels are quoted. Various chemical procedures adopted for recovery of these elements from irradiated target and also from power reactor fuel reprocessing streams are described. A brief survey of shielded facilities available at various centres for transplutonium programmes is also included. Major uses of some of these heavy elements are described. (author)

  16. EAF optimal managing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) is an important and complex aggregate. We present elements of EAF operating efficiency. The reliability of the EAF is mainly determined by electric circuit reliability and especially of the transformator of the furnace. This due to the fact that, in an electric steel plant, the objective „24 tapping/day” involves. Due to the complexity of the process, the EAF operation needs a computer usage and, in his componence, it must have two independent calculation units (UC1) and (UC2). Based on these two input sets (Σi1) and ((Σi2), the calculation unit (UC1) builds the general operation procedure based on mathematical methods. For that purpose, there are used the results of the 5 mathematical methods: the mathematical model to write-off the function objective (M.F.O.); the mathematical model of calculating the charge (M.C.C.); the mathematical model of conducting the effective melt (M.C.M.); the mathematical model of reheating the charge (M.R.C.); the mathematical model of blasting the reactive dusts (M.B.R.D.).

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  18. Neutron absorbing element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron absorbing element of a neutron shielding member used for an LMFBR type reactor. The inside of a fuel can sealed at both of the upper and the lower ends thereof with plugs is partitioned into an upper and a lower chambers by an intermediate plug. A discharging hole is disposed at the upper end plug, which is in communication with the outside. A communication tube is disposed at the intermediate end plug and it is in communication with the lower chamber containing B 4 C pellets. A cylindrical support member having three porous plugs connected in series is disposed at the lower surface of the discharging hole provided at the upper end plug. Further, the end of the discharging hole is sealed with high temperature solder and He atmosphere is present at the inside of the fuel can. With such a constitution, the supporting differential pressure of the porous plugs can be made greater while discharging He gases generated from B 4 C to the outside. Further, the porous plugs can be surely wetted by coolants. Accordingly, it is possible to increase life time and shorten the size. (I.N.)

  19. Chemistry of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The half-wave amalgamation potential of No (element 102) was determined. Studies on the preparation and properties of Cf are reported; previously reported results on Es were confirmed. The heat of solution of Bk was measured. Spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies of Es-253 bromides are reported. Salicylate complexes with Sm(III), Am(III), Th(IV), and U(IV)O 2 were prepared; crystal data are given. Results of studies on the effect of secondary bonds on the strength of O double bond Np double bond O bonds are reported. The M series x rays of Np were measured. Anomalous spin--orbit splitting of the 4f level in the actinide series is reported. Progress is reported in studies on the Cf oxide system for oxygen pressures up to 760 mm and temperatures between 25 and 1000 0 C, as well as structural parameters of transplutonium oxysulfates and oxysulfides and actinide and lanthanide hydroxides. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of 253 Es 2+ was observed in the cubic monocrystal hosts BaF 2 and SrCl 2

  20. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental Study of Elements Promoting Mixing in Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis; Delmastro, Dario

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a thermal tracing technique is used to measure the increase of the mixing between subchannels in the presence of different mixing elements.As representative elements a spacer, a spacer with mixing vanes and turbulence promoter buttons were considered.The performance of these elements was evaluated by studying the behavior of a thermal trace in each case.Also the pressure drop for each case is presented.The results present a qualitative and quantitative guide for the application of each one of these appendages in future nuclear elements

  2. Interferência por RNA: uma nova alternativa para terapia nas doenças reumáticas RNA interference: a new alternative for rheumatic diseases therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Regine de França

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A interferência por RNA (RNAi é um mecanismo de silenciamento gênico pós-transcricional conservado durante a evolução. Esse mecanismo, recentemente descrito, é mediado por pequenos RNAs de fita dupla (dsRNAs capazes de reconhecer especificamente uma sequência de mRNA-alvo e mediar sua clivagem ou repressão traducional. O emprego da RNAi como uma ferramenta de terapia gênica tem sido muito estudado, especialmente em infecções virais, câncer, desordens genéticas herdadas, doenças cardiovasculares e mesmo em doenças reumáticas. Aliados aos dados do genoma humano, os conhecimentos do silenciamento gênico mediado por RNAi podem permitir a determinação funcional de praticamente qualquer gene expresso em uma célula e sua implicação para o funcionamento e homeostase celular. Vários estudos terapêuticos in vitro e in vivo em modelos de doenças autoimunes vêm sendo realizados com resultados encorajadores. As vias de quebra de tolerância e inflamação são alvos potenciais para terapia com RNAi em doenças inflamatórias e autoimunes. Nesta revisão vamos recordar os princípios básicos da RNAi e discutir os aspectos que levaram ao desenvolvimento de propostas terapêuticas baseadas em RNAi, começando pelos estudos in vitro de desenvolvimento de ferramentas e identificação de alvos, chegando até os estudos pré-clínicos de disponibilização da droga in vivo, e testes em células humanas e modelos animais de doenças autoimunes. Por fim, vamos revisar os últimos avanços da experiência clínica da terapia com RNAiRNA interference (RNAi is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism preserved during evolution. This mechanism, recently described, is mediated by small double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs that can specifically recognize a target mRNA sequence and mediate its cleavage or translational repression. The use of RNAi as a tool for gene therapy has been extensively studied, especially in viral infections, cancer

  3. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic

  4. Interferência de plantas concorrentes em arroz irrigado modificada por métodos culturais Interference of concurrent plants in flooded rice modified by cultural methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Fleck

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A otimização de um programa de controle de plantas daninhas depende da previsão precoce e confiável do impacto destas sobre o rendimento da cultura. Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar os efeitos de cultivares e de arranjos de plantas na perda de rendimento de grãos em arroz irrigado e identificar a variável explicativa que proporcione melhor ajuste ao modelo testado. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em campo, na estação estival de crescimento 2000/01. Os tratamentos constaram de três cultivares de arroz (BRS-38 Ligeirinho, IRGA 417 e BR-IRGA 409, dois espaçamentos entre linhas (15 e 25 cm e populações (dez e seis níveis para o primeiro e segundo experimentos, respectivamente do cultivar de arroz EEA 406, simulando infestação de arroz-vermelho. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o modelo de regressão não-linear da hipérbole retangular, ajustado de modo independente para os três fatores estudados. Os resultados do primeiro experimento foram utilizados para avaliar o ajuste dos dados ao modelo e os do segundo para validar o modelo obtido no primeiro experimento. O cultivar IRGA 417 apresentou maior habilidade competitiva com o cultivar simulador de arroz-vermelho do que os outros dois. A redução no espaçamento entre linhas aumentou a habilidade competitiva dos cultivares de arroz em relação ao cultivar concorrente. O modelo da hipérbole retangular foi apropriado para estimar perdas de rendimento de grãos de arroz irrigado por interferência de plantas concorrentes. A variável explicativa área foliar do cultivar EEA 406, em geral, apresentou equivalência à população de plantas como variável independente no modelo matemático testado.The optimization of a weed control program depends on early and reliable prediction of the impact of weeds on crop yield. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of rice cultivars and plant arrangements on flooded rice grain yield loss and to identify the explicative

  5. Analog elements for transuranic chemistries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The analytical technique for measuring trace concentrations of the analog rare earth elements has been refined for optimal detection. The technique has been used to determine the rare earth concentrations in a series of geological and biological materials, including samples harvested from controlled lysimeter investigations. These studies have demonstrated that any of the trivalent rare earth elements may be used as analog elements for the trivalent transuranics, americium and curium

  6. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Perfect your photos and images with this "focused" guide to the latest version of Photoshop Elements For most of us, the professional-level Photoshop is overkill for our needs. Amateur photographers and photo enthusiasts turn to Photoshop Elements for a powerful but simpler way to edit and retouch their snapshots. Photoshop Elements 10 For Dummies, fully updated and revised for the latest release of this software product, helps you navigate Elements to create, edit, fix, share, and organize the high-quality images you desire. Full color pages bring the techniques to life and make taking great

  7. Rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  8. Períodos de interferência de Brachiaria plantaginea na cultura do milho na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul Interference periods of Brachiaria plantaginea in corn crops in Southern Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os períodos de convivência das espécies daninhas têm grande influência no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas. Desse modo, objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de competição, anterior à interferência (PAI, o crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI e o período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI de B. plantaginea sobre a cultura do milho na Região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no sistema de cultivo convencional com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em manter a cultura do milho na presença e ausência de B. plantaginea por 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias após a emergência (DAE da cultura. B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes do solo, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. Foram amostradas e analisadas 10 plantas de milho em cada unidade experimental, com vistas à avaliação da altura de plantas e da inserção da espiga (cm, do comprimento de espigas (cm, do número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira e número de grãos por espiga, além da produtividade de grãos, que foi determinada pela colheita de três linhas centrais da área útil em cada unidade experimental. Considerando 5% de tolerância na redução da produção, conclui-se que o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI foi de 27 DAE; o período que antecede a interferência (PAI, de 11 DAE; e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI, de 11 a 27 DAE.Weed control period have great influence on plant growth and crop productivity. The objective of this work was to determine the competition periods, both previous to interference and critical interference prevention of B. plantaginea on corn crop in Southern Rio Grande do Sul. The trial was conducted in a completely randomized block design, under conventional tillage system, with four replications. The treatments consisted of maintaining

  9. Rack for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gordon, C.B.; Robison, A.; Clark, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed spent fuel elements. Each fuel element is supported at the lower end thereof by a respective support that rests on the floor of the spent fuel pool for a nuclear power plant. An open rack frame is employed as an upright support for the enclosures containing the spent fuel elements. Legs at the lower corners of the frame rest on the floor of the pool to support the frame. In one exemplary embodiment, the support for the fuel element is in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base is supported by legs. In another exemplary embodiment, each fuel element is supported on the pool floor by a self-adjusting support in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base rests on a ball or swivel joint for self-alignment. The lower four corners of the frame are supported by legs adjustable in height for leveling the frame. Each adjustable frame leg is in the form of a base resting on the pool floor and the base supports a threaded post. The threaded post adjustably engages a threaded column on which rests the lower end of the frame. 16 claims, 14 figures

  10. Thermal insulation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovcak, P.; Pec, V.; Pitonak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The claim of the invention concerns thermal insulation of fuel elements heated for measurement of uranium fuel physical properties. For this, layers of aluminium film and of glass fibre are wound onto the inner tube of the element cladding. The space between the inner and the outer tubes is evacuated and the tubes are spaced using spacer wires. (M.S.)

  11. On symmetric pyramidal finite elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, L.; Davies, K. B.; Yuan, K.; Křížek, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, 1-2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 1492-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : mesh generation * finite element method * composite elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.108, year: 2004

  12. Fluid element in SAP IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.; Akkas, N.

    1979-01-01

    In previous studies a fluid element is incorporated in the widely used general purpose finite element program SAPIV. This type of problem is of interest in the design of nuclear components involving geometric complexities and nonlinearities. The elasticity matrix of a general-purpose finite element program is modified in such a way that it becomes possible to idealize fluid as a structural finite element with zero shear modulus and a given bulk modules. Using the modified version of SAPIV, several solid-fluid interactions problems are solved. The numerical solutions are compared with the available analytical solutions. They are shown to be in reasonable aggrement. It is also shown that by solving an exterior-fluid interaction problem, the pressure wave propagation in the acoustic medium can be solved with the same approach. In this study, two of the problem not studied in the previous work will be presented. These problems are namely the effects of the link elements used at solid-fluid interfaces and of the concentrated loads on the response of the fluid medium. Truss elements are used as the link elements. After these investigations, it is decided that general purpose finite element programs with slight modifications can be used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactor plants. By this procedure it is possible to handle two-dimensional plane strain and tridimensional axisymmetric problems of this type. (orig.)

  13. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  14. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  15. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  16. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo; Kronbichler, Martin; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Today's large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Efeito do espaçamento entre fileiras de amendoim rasteiro na interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura Effect of peanut crop row spacing on weed interference in the culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da redução do espaçamento entre fileiras nos períodos de interferência e na produtividade do amendoim rasteiro (Arachis hypogaea. O experimento foi instalado no município de Jaboticabal-SP. Os tratamentos constaram de dois espaçamentos entre fileiras (80 e 90 cm, divididos em dois grupos. No primeiro, as plantas daninhas foram controladas desde a emergência até 0 (interferência constante, 30, 45, 60, 82, 97 e 112 dias depois. No segundo, as plantas daninhas conviveram com a cultura pelos mesmos períodos do grupo anterior. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área foram Digitaria sp., Xanthium strumarium, Acanthospermum hispidum e Cenchrus echinatus. Para uma perda tolerável de 5% de produtividade, o período crítico de prevenção à interferência foi dos 27 aos 76 e dos 35 aos 96 dias após a emergência para os espaçamentos de 80 e 90 cm, respectivamente; a queda de produtividade das parcelas mantidas com interferência de plantas daninhas em relação àquelas no limpo foi superior a 80%, independentemente do espaçamento.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of reducing the spacing between rows in periods of weed interference and peanut (Arachis hypogaea yield. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, Brazil. Treatments consisted of two row spacings (80 to 90 cm, divided into two groups. In the first group, the weeds were controlled since emergence up to 0 (constant interference, 30, 45, 60, 82, 97 and 112 days. In the second group, the weeds were allowed to grow with the peanut culture during the same periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with treatments in split-plots, with four repetitions. The main weeds in the area were Digitaria sp., Xanthium strumarium, Acanthospermum hispidum and Cenchrus

  19. Quantificação da interferência do cliente em projetos de grande porte : um método de modelagem utilizando dinâmica dos sistemas

    OpenAIRE

    Enger, Eric Rangel

    2010-01-01

    A Dinâmica dos Sistemas vem expandindo seu leque de aplicações por diversas áreas do conhecimento humano, dentre as quais está a Administração de Empresas. Este trabalho mostra que esta disciplina pode ser utilizada como uma ferramenta que fornece subsídios para negociações post mortem de projetos de grande porte. Dentro deste âmbito, o ponto principal é avaliar qual foi a influência do comportamento do cliente no resultado final do projeto. Interferências do tipo: ingerê...

  20. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez; Enrique Arús Soler; Pedro López Saura; Hugo Nodarse Cuní

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales...

  1. Algunas variables clínicas y de laboratorio en pacientes adultos con leucemia mieloide crónica tratados con interferón alfa recombinante + citosina arabinósido

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Martínez, Edgardo; Díaz Durán, Carmen Virginia; Ávila Cabrera, Onel; Hernández Padrón, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis Ramón; Izquierdo Cano, Lisset; Amor Vigil, Ana María; Lavaut Sánchez, Kalia; Espinosa Estrada, Edgardo; Wade Mateo, Maura; Estrada del Cueto, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    La leucemia mieloide crónica del adulto es la hemopatía maligna más frecuente dentro de los síndromes mieloproliferativos. En un estudio retrospectivo longitudinal realizado entre enero de 1985 y diciembre de 2009, se evaluaron 46 pacientes en fase crónica atendidos en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología. Todos recibieron tratamiento inicial citorreductor y posteriormente interferón ? recombinante (INF?r) + citosina arabinósido. El 41,0 % de los enfermos presentó un índice pronóstico de...

  2. Recent developments in automated determinations of trace level concentrations of elements and on-line fractionations schemes exploiting the micro-sequential injection - lab-on-valve approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao

    2006-01-01

    The determination of trace level concentrations of elements, such as metal species, in complex matrices by atomic absorption or emission spectrometric methods often require appropriate pretreatments comprising separation of the analyte from interfering constituents and analyte preconcentration...... are presented as based on the exploitation of micro-sequential injection (μSI-LOV) using hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bead materials. The examples given comprise the presentation of a universal approach for SPE-assays, front-end speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in a fully automated and enclosed set...

  3. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Coffea arabica Weed effect on the initial growth of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.T. Fialho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da interferência de plantas daninhas, em diferentes densidades de infestação, sobre o crescimento de plantas jovens de café arábica. Mudas de café, cultivar Mundo Novo, foram transplantadas, no estádio de quatro a cinco pares de folhas completamente expandidas, para vasos com capacidade de 25 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 4; o primeiro fator foi composto por espécies de plantas daninhas (Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea e Mucuna aterrima, e o segundo, por densidades dessas espécies (zero, dois, quatro e seis plantas por vaso, com quatro repetições. O plantio das espécies daninhas foi realizado 60 dias após o transplantio do café (0 DAT. Nesta data e no dia do encerramento do experimento, aos 90 DAT, determinaram-se a altura, a área foliar e o diâmetro do caule da planta de café, para cálculo do incremento dessas variáveis. Aos 90 DAT, determinou-se a matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular do café e das plantas daninhas e a densidade radicular do café. Utilizando esses resultados, estimou-se a razão de massa foliar, razão de massa caulinar, razão de massa radicular, razão de área foliar e a razão sistema radicular/parte aérea das plantas de café. A espécie M. aterrima foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, a área foliar, a matéria seca do caule e das folhas e o diâmetro do caule do café. Entre as gramíneas, B. plantaginea foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e densidade radicular do café. Ocorreu relação negativa entre a densidade de plantas daninhas e as variáveis de crescimento e com a razão de massa radicular e razão sistema radicular/parte aérea.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of weeds on the growth of young Arabica coffee plants, at different densities of infestation

  4. Platinum-group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.; Parks, Heather L.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and social events. The United States net import reliance as a percentage of apparent consumption is about 90 percent.PGEs have many industrial applications. They are used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrous oxide emissions in automobile exhaust. The chemical industry requires platinum or platinum-rhodium alloys to manufacture nitric oxide, which is the raw material used to manufacture explosives, fertilizers, and nitric acid. In the petrochemical industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce aromatic compounds and high-octane gasoline. Alloys of PGEs are exceptionally hard and durable, making them the best known coating for industrial crucibles used in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic materials. PGEs are used by the glass manufacturing industry in the production of fiberglass and flat-panel and liquid crystal displays. In the electronics industry, PGEs are used in computer hard disks, hybridized integrated circuits, and multilayer ceramic capacitors.Aside from their industrial applications, PGEs are used in such other fields as health, consumer goods, and finance. Platinum, for example, is used in medical implants, such as pacemakers, and PGEs are used in cancer-fighting drugs. Platinum alloys are an ideal choice for jewelry because of their white color, strength, and resistance to tarnish. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the form of coins and bars are also used as investment commodities, and various financial instruments based on the value of these PGEs are traded on major exchanges

  5. Chemistry of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the chemical properties of the elements at the uppermost end of the periodic table are discussed. Some historical perspective is given, but major emphasis is on recent studies. Isotopes of these elements are short-lived and, therefore, must be studied near the site of production. They must be produced with charged-particle beams at accelerators rather than via neutron capture. The use of radioactive heavy actinide targets is often required and the number of atoms produced is so small that any chemistry to be performed must be done on an ''atom-at-a-time'' basis. Furthermore, a knowledge of their nuclear properties is required in order to identify and detect them. To date, both gas and aqueous phase properties of elements as heavy as element 104 (rutherfordium) and element 105 (hahnium) have been investigated, even though their longest-lived known isotopes have half-lives of only 65 and 35 seconds, respectively. The experimental results show that their chemical properties cannot be simply extrapolated from the known properties of their lighter homologs in the periodic table, emphasizing the importance of obtaining additional experimental information for the heaviest elements to compare with predictions and help assess the influence of relativistic effects. The feasibility of the extension of chemical studies to still heavier elements is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Hydrogen in CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Manzer, A.M.; Surette, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Unirradiated and irradiated CANDU fuel cladding was tested to compare the role of stress-corrosion cracking and of hydrogen in the development of fuel defects. The results of the tests are compared with information on fuel performance in-reactor. The role of hydriding (deuteriding) from the coolant and from the fuel element inside is discussed, and the control of 'hydrogen gas' content in the element is confirmed as essential for defect-free fuel performance. Finally, implications for fuel element design are discussed. (author)

  7. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  8. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.

    1983-01-01

    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.) [de

  9. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Yoshida, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  10. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  11. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book analyzes finite element theory as applied to computational fluid mechanics. It includes a chapter on using the heat conduction equation to expose the essence of finite element theory, including higher-order accuracy and convergence in a common knowledge framework. Another chapter generalizes the algorithm to extend application to the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. Other chapters are concerned with the analysis of a specific fluids mechanics problem class, including theory and applications. Some of the topics covered include finite element theory for linear mechanics; potential flow; weighted residuals/galerkin finite element theory; inviscid and convection dominated flows; boundary layers; parabolic three-dimensional flows; and viscous and rotational flows

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, D.M.; Bevilacqua, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fuel elements of each fuel element group are separated from each other by means of a multitude of thin, intersecting plates in the from of grid strips. Flow deflectors near the surface of the fuel elements are used in order to make the coolant flow more turbulent. They are designed as vanes and arranged at a distance on the grid strips. Each deflector vane has two arms stretching in opposite directions, each one into a neighbouring channel. In outward direction, the deflector vanes are converging. The strips with the vanes can be put on the supporting grid of the fuel elements. The vane structure can be reinforced by providing distortions in the strip material near the vanes. (DG) [de

  13. Elemental ABAREX -- a user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    ELEMENTAL ABAREX is an extended version of the spherical optical-statistical model code ABAREX, designed for the interpretation of neutron interactions with elemental targets consisting of up to ten isotopes. The contributions from each of the isotopes of the element are explicitly dealt with, and combined for comparison with the elemental observables. Calculations and statistical fitting of experimental data are considered. The code is written in FORTRAN-77 and arranged for use on the IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), but it should operate effectively on a number of other systems, particularly VAX/VMS and IBM work stations. Effort is taken to make the code user friendly. With this document a reasonably skilled individual should become fluent with the use of the code in a brief period of time

  14. The evolution of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is believed that only the lightest elements, hydrogen and helium, were created during the 'Big Bang' origin of the Universe and that all heavier elements were synthesized by nuclear reactions in stars, the interstellar medium and possibly in 'little bangs' in the nuclei of galaxies. The composition of the interstellar medium has evolved through enrichment by processed material shed by evolving stars and the composition of the Solar System reflects that of the interstellar medium at the time of its formation. Differentiation processes during the evolution of the Solar System and individual planets account for the different compositions of the Sun and the planets. The measurement of the abundance distribution of the elements has become a very powerful tool in the elucidation of the evolution of the Solar System, stars and the Galaxy. This review attempts to trace the formation of the elements in stars and their subsequent evolution. (author)

  15. Environmental research on actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers

  16. Electromagnetic matrix elements in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Moinester, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Some simple symmetry relations between matrix elements of electromagnetic operators are investigated. The implications are discussed for experiments to study hyperon radiative transitions and polarizabilities and form factors. (orig.)

  17. Programming the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, I M; Margetts, L

    2013-01-01

    Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c

  18. Pipeline robots with elastic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matuliauskas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article constructions of the pipeline robots with elastic elements are reviewed and the scheme of new original construction is presented. The mathematical models of a robot with one-dimensional vibration exciter with two degrees of freedom were developed and the equations of movement were formed and written. The mathematical model of the pipeline robot with circular elements is formed and its motion equations are presented.

  19. ELEMENTS OF SAFETY IN PARAGLIDING

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Mekinc; Katarina Mušič

    2016-01-01

    Paragliding is an opportunity for tourism development, depending on what position the sport has place in the local community, the restrictions for paragliders and the safety components of the region. The paper explores the phenomenon of paragliding and safety elements in the Upper Soča region, one of ten best paragliding sites in the world (Placestoseeinyourlifetime, 2015). The purpose of the research is to analyse the safety elements, the development and the risk of paragliding.The goals of ...

  20. Fuel element box inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortmayer, R.M.; Pick, W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for inspecting the outer geometry of a long fuel element box by measuring the surface contours over its longitudinal crossection and along its length by sensors. These are kept in a sledge which can be moved along the fuel element guide in a slot guide. The measurement signals reach an evaluation device outside the longitudinal box. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Nuclear fuel elements and assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shozo; Maki, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the attainment of the uranium enrichment or gadolinia enrichment of a pellet filled in a fuel element. Constitution: The axial length of a pellet filled in a fuel element is set to predetermined sizes according to the uranium enrichment factor, gadolinia enrichment or their combination. Thus, the uranium enrichment factor or gadolinia enrichment can be identified by attaining the axial length of the pellet by using such a pellt. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel element splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing nuclear fuel from a clad fuel element. The fuel element is power driven past laser beams which simultaneously cut the cladding lengthwise into at least two longitudinal pieces. The axially cut lengths of cladding are then separated, causing the nuclear fuel contained therein to drop into a receptacle for later disposition. The cut lengths of cladding comprise nuclear waste which is disposed of in a suitable manner. 6 claims, 10 drawing figures

  3. Phase diagrams of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the elements is presented, with graphs of the experimentally determined solid-solid phase boundaries and melting curves. Comments, including theoretical discussion, are provided for each diagram. The crystal structure of each solid phase is identified and discussed. This work is aimed at encouraging further experimental and theoretical research on phase transitions in the elements

  4. Nuclear chemistry of transactinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The current status on the nuclear chemistry studies of transactinide elements is reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions is briefly discussed, and nuclear properties on the stability of transactinides are presented. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements 104, 105 and 106, and a typical experimental technique used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base are introduced. (author)

  5. Chemistry of the transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1995-01-01

    The experimentally known chemical properties of the transactinide elements 104 and 105, and the experimental techniques used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base, are reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions and the specific aspects of chemical separations with single atoms is briefly discussed. The chemical properties of the first two transactinide elements are compared with the lighter element homologs in group 4 and 5 of the Periodic Table and with the expected behaviour obtained from most recent atomic and molecular calculations which take the increasingly strong relativistic effect into account. Elements 104 and 105 behave as transactinide elements and, in general, exhibit properties characteristic of their position in group 4 and 5 of the Periodic Table. However, surprising deviations of the chemical properties from expectations based on simple extrapolations have been observed. It is shown that the chemical properties of the heaviest elements cannot reliably be predicted by simple extrapolations. Prospects to extend our chemical knowledge at the top end of the Periodic Table are discussed. (orig.)

  6. New elements - approaching Z=114

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, S.

    1998-03-01

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of α-α correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small α-, β- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross-sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical super heavy elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 208 Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. (orig.)

  7. Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been

  8. Brain trace elements and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques de

    1999-01-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process

  9. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  10. Interferência de caruru-de-mancha sobre características de crescimento e produção da beterraba Slender amaranth interference in table beet growth and production characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.W. Marcolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A beterraba (Beta vulgaris, importante hortaliça cultivada no Brasil, é muito suscetível à interferência de plantas daninhas, sendo Amaranthus viridis uma das principais espécies encontradas em áreas de horticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta da beterraba à competição com diferentes densidades de A. viridis, por meio da avaliação de características de crescimento e produção da cultura. Um experimento em caixas, com área útil de 0,25 m², foi conduzido em Jaboticabal-SP, Brasil, mantendo-se constante oito plantas por caixa de beterraba em convivência com 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 plantas por caixa de A. viridis. A cultura da beterraba foi muito suscetível à interferência imposta por plantas de A. viridis, tendo sua área foliar, número de folhas, massa seca de folhas, diâmetro médio da raiz e massa fresca de raízes significativamente reduzidos mesmo em baixas densidades populacionais da planta daninha; a massa fresca de raízes foi a mais sensível à interferência.Table beet (Beta vulgaris, an important vegetable cultivated in Brazil, is very susceptible to weed interference, with Amaranthus viridis being one of the main species found in horticultural areas. The objective of this research was to study the response of table beet to competition at different densities of A. viridis, based on evaluation of crop growth and production characteristics. An experiment was carried out in 0.25 m² pots in Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil, with 8 table beet plants per pot kept in constant coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 plants per pot of A. viridis. The table beet crop was very susceptible to interference of A. viridis, with its leaf area, number of leaves, leaf dry mass, root mean diameter and root fresh mass being significantly reduced even under low weed densities, with root fresh mass being the most sensitive to interference.

  11. Tiroiditis autoinmune inducida por interferón en pacientes con infección por virus de la hepatitis C. Interferon-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió por elevación asintomática de la alanino aminotransferasa (ALT. El paciente negó ser bebedor crónico de alcohol. Se hizo el diagnóstico serológico de infección activa por hepatitis C y la biopsia de hígado reveló inflamación crónica activa. Con estos resultados, se inició tratamiento con interferón-alfa y ribavirina. Durante el tratamiento de 48 semanas, el paciente presentó anticuerpos antitiroideos positivos con variaciones en sus niveles de tirotropina (TSH y hormonas tiroideas. En el seguimiento postratamiento, el paciente continuó con hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. La tiroiditis autoinmune es una complicación frecuente del uso de interferón en pacientes con hepatitis C. En algunos casos se presenta como hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. Se debe evaluar la función tiroidea y los anticuerpos antitiroideos antes y durante el tratamiento con interferón.A 43 year old man presented with asymptomatic elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and no relevant past history. The patient denied being a chronic alcohol drinker. Work-up revealed an active hepatitis C, and liver biopsy showed active inflammation. Treatment was started with interferon-alfa and ribavirin. During the 48 weeks of treatment, the patient developed positive thyroid antibodies with varying level of thyrotropin (TSH and thyroid hormones. At follow-up after treatment, the patient continued with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common complication of using interferon in patients with hepatitis C. In some cases, it is presented as hyperthyroidism because of Graves’ disease. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies should be evaluated before and during treatment with interferon.

  12. Utilidad de los ensayos de liberación de interferón gamma para la detección de tuberculosis en población pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo de liberación de interferón gamma es un método novedoso para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis aunque su utilidad es incierta en población pediátrica. Objetivo: examinar la utilidad diagnóstica del QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G®, uno de los ensayos de liberación de interferón gamma comerciales, en población pediátrica del Estado de Sonora, México. Materiales y métodos: estudio transversal con 160 menores de 19 años de edad, en un hospital de Sonora, México. Se compararon tres grupos, uno de pacientes con tuberculosis activa, otro con tuberculosis latente y uno más de controles hospitalizados. Los criterios de Stegen-Toledo fueron el estándar empleado. Se usó regresión logística multivariada para evaluar la asociación entre el QFT-G® y los predictores seleccionados. Resultados: la sensibilidad del QFT-G® en la tuberculosis activa fue de 76.9% y la especificidad de 90.3%. Para la tuberculosis latente la sensibilidad fue 25.0% y la especificidad de 98.6%. El QFT-G® mostró una concordancia moderada (K = 0.574 con el estándar. También mostró asociación con la radiografía de tórax sugestiva de tuberculosis (razón de momios ajustada 4.37, IC 95%: 1.42, 13.42 y con el hecho de ser caso de tuberculosis pulmonar (razón de momios ajustada 6.15, IC 95%: 1.90, 19.92. Conclusión: el ensayo de liberación de interferón gamma es un método útil para diagnosticar tuberculosis activa y puede emplearse para descartar tuberculosis latente en población pediátrica.

  13. Fuel element tomography by gammametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.; Pineira, T.

    1982-03-01

    As from transversal gamma determinations of a cylindrical fuel element, the TOMOGAM program reconstitutes the distribution of fission products in a section. This direct, fast and non destructive method, makes it possible to have access to the behaviour of the fuel at any time: - the soluble fission products in the matrix represent the fuel itself and the distribution of the fissions, - the migrating elements inform on the temperature reached in accordance with the permitted powers, - the volatile nuclides build up in particular points where physical-chemical phenomena of fuel-cladding interaction are liable to corrode the latter. Hence, gamma spectrometry extends its possibilities of analysis relative to the performance of reactor elements [fr

  14. Physical model of Nernst element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    1998-08-01

    Generation of electric power by the Nernst effect is a new application of a semiconductor. A key point of this proposal is to find materials with a high thermomagnetic figure-of-merit, which are called Nernst elements. In order to find candidates of the Nernst element, a physical model to describe its transport phenomena is needed. As the first model, we began with a parabolic two-band model in classical statistics. According to this model, we selected InSb as candidates of the Nernst element and measured their transport coefficients in magnetic fields up to 4 Tesla within a temperature region from 270 K to 330 K. In this region, we calculated transport coefficients numerically by our physical model. For InSb, experimental data are coincident with theoretical values in strong magnetic field. (author)

  15. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  16. Marine oligotrophy and element biogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    1999-01-01

    A biogeochemical model has been developed that explains the inverse and non-linear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. This study identified other elements with comparable accumulatory behaviours to Po-210 in phytoplankton, seston and zooplankton, that are proposed to be critical to its enhanced environmental levels under oligotrophy. Field investigation in the Gulf of Papua showed that four of these a priori identified elements viz Cd, Co, Pb and Mn, as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced biological productivity, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility of oligotrophic systems to contamination from particle-reactive elements. (author)

  17. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A FREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the stairs and to compare the finite element ana ... tual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. ..... due to its close relation of output with the propo .... flights. It is best not to consider any open well when .... thermodynamics of solids.

  18. Organic chemistry of elemental phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, V A; Budnikova, Yulia H; Sinyashin, Oleg G

    2005-01-01

    The principal achievements and the modern trends in the development of the chemistry of elemental phosphorus are analysed, described systematically and generalised. The possibilities and advantages of the preparation of organophosphorus compounds directly from white phosphorus are demonstrated. Attention is focused on the activation and transformation of elemental phosphorus in the coordination sphere of transition metal complexes. The mechanisms of the reactions of white phosphorus with nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents are discussed. Electrochemical approaches to the synthesis of organic phosphorus derivatives based on white phosphorus are considered.

  19. Status of transuranium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the production, storage, and distribution center for the heavy-element research program of the US Department of Energy since 1966. During the past four years, annual production rates of transcurium elements have been relatively stable, averaging 34 mg of 249 Bk, 369 mg of 252 Cf, 1.4 mg of 253 Es, and 0.7 pg of 257 Fm. The extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment have allowed continual updating of the plant to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  1. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  2. Quality assurance of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerber, J.

    1980-01-01

    The quality assurance activities for reactor fuel elements are based on a quality assurance system which implies the requirements resulting from the specifications, regulations of the authorities, national standards and international rules and regulations. The quality assurance related to production of reactor fuel will be shown for PWR fuel elements in all typical fabrication steps as conversion into UO 2 -powder, pelletizing, rodmanufacture and assembling. A wide range of destructive and nondestructive techniques is applied. Quality assurance is not only verified by testing techniques but also by process monitoring by means of parameter control in production and testing procedures. (RW)

  3. Elements of spatial data quality

    CERN Document Server

    Guptill, SC

    1995-01-01

    Elements of Spatial Data Quality outlines the need and suggests potential categories for the content of a comprehensive statement of data quality that must be imbedded in the metadata that accompanies the transfer of a digital spatial data file or is available in a separate metadata catalog. Members of the International Cartographic Association's Commission on Spatial Data Quality have identified seven elements of data quality: positional accuracy, attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, lineage, semantic accuracy and temporal information. In the book the authors describe: compo

  4. Chemistry of the heaviest elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1992-08-01

    The experimentally known chemical properties of elements 103,104, and 105, and the experimental techniques to obtain these properties on a one-atom- at-a-time base, are summarized. The chemical properties are compared with the lighter group 3,4 and 5 homologs and with the expected behaviour as obtained from theoretical calculations. In this transition region from the last actinide element to the beginning of the transactinide series one may expect to find evidence for increasingly strong relativistic effects altering the chemical behaviour. (orig.)

  5. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PECINGINA OLIMPIA-MIOARA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of finite element method is analytical when solutions can not be applied for deeper study analyzes static, dynamic or other types of requirements in different points of the structures .In practice it is necessary to know the behavior of the structure or certain parts components of the machine under the influence of certain factors static and dynamic . The application of finite element in the optimization of components leads to economic growth , to increase reliability and durability organs studied, thus the machine itself.

  6. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  7. Trace elements in human pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabrocki, E.L.; Greco, J.; Graham, L.A.; Kaplan, E.; Rubnitz, M.E.; Oester, Y.T.; Brar, S.; Gustafson, P.S.; Nelson, D.M.; Molinari, F.; Moore, C.E.; Kanabrocki, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine several trace elements in human pituitaries from adult subjects aged 42 to 83 years who had died of ischemic heart disease, carcinoma and cirrhosis of the liver. None of these subjects suffered from mental disease. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Se, Br, Cr, Hg, Cs and Co in dried tissue showed no correlation with the diseases, and the results may therefore be representative of the general population. These elements may play a very fundamental role in pituitary function. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  9. Finite elements of nonlinear continua

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, John Tinsley

    1972-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate and graduate students, this text extends applications of the finite element method from linear problems in elastic structures to a broad class of practical, nonlinear problems in continuum mechanics. It treats both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view.The text reviews the thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method, and then brings them together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of these models are analyzed, along with the numerical s

  10. Períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol em Rondônia Periods of weed interference in sunflower crop in Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran da S. Alves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar os períodos de interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do girassol e seus efeitos sobre o diâmetro do capítulo, teor de óleo, rendimento de óleo e produtividade. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 5, sendo os fatores: cultivares (Embrapa 122 e Hélio 358, modalidade de competição (na presença e na ausência de plantas daninhas e períodos de convivência ou controle das plantas daninhas da emergência aos 15, 30, 45, 60 e 110 dias. As variáveis mensuradas foram diâmetro de capítulo, teor de óleo, rendimento de óleo e produtividade. As plantas daninhas interferem negativamente no diâmetro do capítulo, produtividade e rendimento de óleo, mas o convívio com as mesmas aumentou o teor de óleo das sementes, além de reduzir em 76,83 e 92,68% a produtividade dos cultivares Embrapa 122 e Hélio 358, respectivamente. Admitindo-se uma perda de 10% na produtividade, o período anterior à interferência (PAI, o período total de prevenção a interferência (PTPI e o período crítico de prevenção e interferência (PCPI para a cultivar Embrapa 122 foram de 16; 37 e 21 dias, respectivamente. Para o híbrido Hélio 358 o PAI, o PTPI e o PCPI foram de 24; 43 e 19 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this study was to determine the periods of weed interference in sunflower cultivation, and its effects on the head diameter, oil content, oil yield and its productivity. The experimental design was in the randomized blocks with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 2 x 2 x 5, with the following factors: cultivar (Embrapa 122 and Hélio 358, modality of competition (in the presence and absence of weeds and periods of coexistence and control of weed from the emergence until the 15, 30, 45, 60 and 110 days. The measured variables were head diameter, oil content, oil

  11. Estudo da interferência de diferentes dietas nutricionais sobre as ações antiinflamatória e analgésica do Etoricoxib (Arcóxia®)

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchetti, érica Silva

    2006-01-01

    O etoricoxib (Arcóxia®) um medicamento novo posicionado para liderar a próxima geração de inibidores seletivos de COX-2 é um coxib de segunda geração potente e de ação rápida sendo motivo atualmente de muitos ensaios clínicos É o mais seletivo de COX-2 de todos os coxibs O objetivo deste estudo foi estudar em modelos in vivo a interferência sobre a atividade antiinflamatória e analgésica do etoricoxib antiinflamatório inibidor seletivo de COX-2 associado a diferentes tipos de dietas nutricion...

  12. Mixed Element Formulation for the Finite Element-Boundary Integral Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meese, J; Kempel, L. C; Schneider, S. W

    2006-01-01

    A mixed element approach using right hexahedral elements and right prism elements for the finite element-boundary integral method is presented and discussed for the study of planar cavity-backed antennas...

  13. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  14. 2. Methods of elemental analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The principles of activation analysis are outlined including the preparation of samples and reference materials, the choice of suitable activation sources, interfering effects, detection of radiation emitted and analysis of mixtures of emitters, and the potential of activation analysis in various fields of science and technology. The principles of X-ray fluorescence analysis and the associated instrumentation are also dealt with, and examples of applications are given. Described are also the physical nature of the Moessbauer effect, Moessbauer sources and spectrometers, and the applicability of this effect in physical research and in the investigation of iron-containing materials. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 20 figs., 90 refs

  15. Interferência entre espécies de planta daninha e duas cultivares de feijoeiro em duas épocas de semeadura Interference between weed species and two bean cultivars in two times of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Arrobas Martins Barroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de feijão, mas a interferência das plantas daninhas pode causar reduções de produtividade entre 15% e 80%, devido a fatores como cultivar de feijoeiro e espécies de plantas daninhas presentes na área. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de seis espécies de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento e a produtividade de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, em duas safras. Observou-se que as plantas eudicotiledôneas causam maior interferência na cultura, principalmente Amaranthus viridis e Raphanus raphanistrum. Todas causam perdas na produção do feijoeiro, exceto Eleusine indica, a menos competitiva. A cultivar ´Rubi´ é mais produtiva e mais competitiva que a ´Carioca´, e a maior produtividade é atingida na safra da seca. A escolha da cultivar e da data correta para a semeadura podem ser estratégias de manejo no controle de invasoras.Brazil is the world's largest producer of bean, but weed interference can cause yield losses between 15 to 80% due several factors such as bean cultivar and weed species in the area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weed species on growth and productivity of two bean cultivars, in two sowing seasons. It was observed that the dicot plants cause more interference in the crop, especially Amaranthus viridis and Raphanus raphanistrum. All cause losses in bean yield except Eleusine indica that was less competitive. The ´Rubi´ bean cultivar is more productive and competitive than ´Carioca´, and the higher production is achieved during the drought sowing season. The choice of cultivar and correct season for sowing may be management strategy as in weeds control.

  16. Environmental research on actinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  17. Extrachromosomal genetic elements in Micrococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micrococci are Gram-positive G + C-rich, nonmotile, nonspore-forming actinomycetous bacteria. Micrococcus comprises ten members, with Micrococcus luteus being the type species. Representatives of the genus play important roles in the biodegradation of xenobiotics, bioremediation processes, production of biotechnologically important enzymes or bioactive compounds, as test strains in biological assays for lysozyme and antibiotics, and as infective agents in immunocompromised humans. The first description of plasmids dates back approximately 28 years, when several extrachromosomal elements ranging in size from 1.5 to 30.2 kb were found in Micrococcus luteus. Up to the present, a number of circular plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance, the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, and osmotolerance are known, as well as cryptic elements with unidentified functions. Here, we review the Micrococcus extrachromosomal traits reported thus far including phages and the only quite recently described large linear extrachromosomal genetic elements, termed linear plasmids, which range in size from 75 kb (pJD12) to 110 kb (pLMA1) and which confer putative advantageous capabilities, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances (inferred from sequence analyses and curing experiments). The role of the extrachromosomal elements for the frequently proven ecological and biotechnological versatility of the genus will be addressed as well as their potential for the development and use as genetic tools.

  18. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  19. Fuel element database: developer handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2004-09-01

    The fuel elements database which was developed for Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities is described. The software uses standards like HTML, PHP and SQL. For the standard installation freely available software packages such as MySQL database or the PHP interpreter from Apache Software Foundation and Java Script were used. (nevyjel)

  20. FOIL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1963-07-16

    A method of making a foil-type fuel element is described. A foil of fuel metal is perforated in; regular design and sheets of cladding metal are placed on both sides. The cladding metal sheets are then spot-welded to each other through the perforations, and the edges sealed. (AEC)

  1. Experimental search for superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieloch, A.

    2008-12-01

    This work reports on the experimental search for superheavy elements (SHE). Two types of approaches for SHE production are studied i.e. '' cold '' fusion mechanism and massive transfer mechanism. First mechanism was studied in normal and inverse kinematics, by using Wien filter at the GANIL facility. The production of SHE elements with Z 106 and 108 is reported while negative results on the synthesis of SHE elements with Z 114 and 118 was received. The other approach i.e. reactions induced by heavy ion projectiles (e.g. 172 Yb, 197 Au) on fissile target nuclei (e.g. 238 U, 232 Th) at near Coulomb barrier incident energies was studied by using superconducting solenoid installed Texas A(and)M University. Preliminary results for the reaction 197 Au(7.5 MeV/u) - 232 Th are presented where three cases of the possible candidates for SHE elements were found. A dedicated detection setup for such studies is discussed and the detailed data analysis is presented. Detection of alpha and spontaneous fission radioactive decays is used to unambiguously identify the atomic number of SHE. Special statistical analysis for a very low detected number of α decays is applied to check consistency of the αradioactive chains. (author)

  2. Automatic welding of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, J.

    1958-01-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [fr

  3. Treatment of incorporated transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.

    1978-01-01

    The text of this report and its tables and figures provide basic information on the decorporation of transuranium elements as well as an insight into the more general principles, trends and interactions. The detailed tables and the exhaustive list of important references should enable the reader to make his own conclusions in a minimum of time

  4. Pyrochemical properties of actinides elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The present status of research works on pyrochemical processing is introduced in view of: 1) the process concept; 2) R and D progress; 3) new experimental facilities in NUCEF. Basic laboratory studies with rare-earth elements have almost been completed and hot tests with americium have been started at the TRU-HITEC facility in NUCEF. (author)

  5. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  6. Fixation and separation of the elements thorium and uranium using anion exchange resins in nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korgaonkar, V.

    1967-10-01

    The exchange of thorium and uranium between a strong base anion resin and a mixed water + ethanol solvent containing nitrate ions is studied. It is assumed that in the resin the thorium and uranium are fixed in the form of the complexes Th(NO 3 ) 6 2- and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 2- in solution these elements are present in the form of complexes having the general formula: Th(NO 3 ) 6-n n-2 and UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4-n n-2 It has been possible to deduce a law for the changes in the partition functions of thorium and uranium as a function of the concentrations of the various species in solution and of the complexing ion NO 3 . From this has been deduced the optimum operational conditions for separating a mixture of these two elements. Finally, in these conditions, the influence of a few interfering ions has been studied: Ba, Bi, Ce, La, Mo, Pb, Zr. The method proposed can be used either as a preparation, or for the dosage of thorium by a quantitative separation. (author) [fr

  7. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days

  8. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days.

  9. Investigations of multiple backscattering and albedos of 1.12 MeV gamma photons in elements and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    The energy and intensity distributions of multiple backscattering of 1.12 MeV gamma photons emerging from targets of elements and alloys are observed as a function of thickness and atomic number (Z) of the target. The numbers of these multiply backscattered events show an increase with increase in target thickness, and then saturate for a particular thickness of the target called saturation thickness (depth). The saturation thickness decreases with increasing atomic number and varies as e -Z . The multiple backscattering, an interfering background noise in Compton profile, has been successfully used to assign the 'effective atomic number' to alloys. Monte Carlo calculations also support the present experimental results. The number, energy and dose albedos are also found to be saturating for the same thickness where the numbers of multiply backscattered events saturate.

  10. Experimental investigations of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons in elements and binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Manpreet; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2008-01-01

    The energy, intensity and angular distributions of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons, emerging from targets of pure elements and binary alloys, are observed as a function of target thickness in reflection and transmission geometries. The observed spectra recorded by a properly shielded NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, in addition to singly scattered events, consist of photons scattered more than once for thick targets. To extract the contribution of multiply scattered photons from the measured spectra, a singly scattered distribution is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events increase with increase in target thickness, and saturate for a particular thickness called saturation thickness. The saturation thickness decreases with increasing atomic number. The multiple scattering, an interfering background noise in Compton profiles and Compton cross-section measurements, has been successfully used as a new technique to assign the 'effective atomic number' to binary alloys. Monte Carlo calculations support the present experimental results

  11. Automatic welding of fuel elements; Soudure automatique des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briola, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The welding process depends on the type of fuel element, the can material and the number of cartridges to be welded: - inert-gas welding (used for G2 and the 1. set of EL3), - inert atmosphere arc welding (used for welding uranium and zirconium), - electronic welding (used for the 2. set of EL3 and the tank of Proserpine). (author) [French] Suivant le type d'element combustible, le materiau de gaine et l'importance de la serie a fabriquer, le soudeur dispose des differents procedes examines dans cette communication: - soudure classique a l'arc sous gaz inerte (utilisee pour G2 et le premier jeu EL3), - soudure en atmosphere complete d'argon (utilisee pour la soudure d'uranium et de zirconium), - soudure electronique (utilisee pourdeuxieme jeu EL3 et la cuve de Proserpine). (auteur)

  12. Superheavy-element spectroscopy: Correlations along element 115 decay chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, D.; Forsberg, U.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Golubev, P.; Fahlander, C.

    2016-05-01

    Following a brief summary of the region of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory, data on more than hundred α-decay chains associated with the production of element 115 are combined to investigate time and energy correlations along the observed decay chains. Several of these are analysed using a new method for statistical assessments of lifetimes in sets of decay chains.

  13. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  14. Reliability-Based Optimization of Structural Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In this paper structural elements from an optimization point of view are considered, i.e. only the geometry of a structural element is optimized. Reliability modelling of the structural element is discussed both from an element point of view and from a system point of view. The optimization...

  15. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  16. CERCA's fuel elements instrumentation manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbonnier, G.; Jarousse, C.; Pin, T.; Febvre, M.; Colomb, P.

    2005-01-01

    When research and test reactors wish to further understand the Fuel Elements behavior when operating as well as mastering their irradiation conditions, operators carry out neutron and thermo hydraulic analysis. For thermal calculation, the codes used have to be preliminary validated, at least in the range of the reactor safety operational limits. When some further investigations are requested either by safety authorities or for its own reactor needs, instrumented tools are the ultimate solution for providing representative measurements. Such measurements can be conducted for validating thermal calculation codes, at nominal operating condition as well as during transients ones, or for providing numerous and useful data in the frame of a new products qualification program. CERCA, with many years of experience for implanting thermocouples in various products design, states in this poster his manufacturing background on instrumented elements, plates or targets. (author)

  17. Automation of finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Korelc, Jože

    2016-01-01

    New finite elements are needed as well in research as in industry environments for the development of virtual prediction techniques. The design and implementation of novel finite elements for specific purposes is a tedious and time consuming task, especially for nonlinear formulations. The automation of this process can help to speed up this process considerably since the generation of the final computer code can be accelerated by order of several magnitudes. This book provides the reader with the required knowledge needed to employ modern automatic tools like AceGen within solid mechanics in a successful way. It covers the range from the theoretical background, algorithmic treatments to many different applications. The book is written for advanced students in the engineering field and for researchers in educational and industrial environments.

  18. Transuranic elements and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1974-01-01

    The contamination of oceans and marine life by transuranic elements (elements of atomic number greater than 92) is the main concern of this paper. Wastes of three different types, low-level, intermediate-level, and high-level, are considered. Fallout of Pu and other transuranics is discussed as it affects marine biogeochemistry and geochemistry. Different paths of absorption or uptake under various conditions of release are pointed out in some detail. The transfer of radioactivity to mammals from marine sources is considered in some detail. Waste disposal practices at Windscale are reviewed. It is concluded that the problems associated with transuranic wastes in oceans and marine life are very complex. Monitoring of waste release and uptake is concluded to not be enough. Each situation of release of transuranics to the environment should be treated as an experiment and milked for all the information that it can reveal. The tremendous expenditure of money and manpower necessary for such an undertaking is stressed

  19. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  20. Finite elements methods in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Eslami, M Reza

    2014-01-01

    This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...

  1. Chemistry of the transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis and decay of elements in the upper end of periodic table (z=104 to 111) are described. In view of very short half-life of about 1 s, the production of the transactinide isotopes and their transport to the separation and detection chamber are to be necessarily carried out employing fast and reliable techniques. Advances in microchemical separation techniques such as OLGA-II, HEVI, ARCA-II and SISAK, coupled to sensitive detection methods enable the detection of these heavier transactinide elements at atomic level. Their position in the periodic table and similarities, if any, with the corresponding lighter homologs are discussed based on their predicted and observed chemical behaviour. (author). 70 refs., 15 figs

  2. Solid Lubricated Rolling Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-15

    lubricant into uneven patches of varnish . This varnish , along with the file-like action of the exposed ball carbides on the relatively softer races, can...its structure. Fluorine , one of the most reactive elements, reacts with graphite without combustion from about 790’F to 1022°F, forming a grey-colored...to allow for molding and machining after molding. 0 Method 2 (Hughes) Impregnating these dense weaves with a Thermid 600 polyimide varnish

  3. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  4. Grid for a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention has one or more corrugations formed in the surface of a fuel element grid for a nuclear reactor. Not only does the corrugation enhance the strength of the grid plate in which it is formed, but it also provides a simple and convenient means for regulating the reactor coolant pressure drop through an appropriate choice of the corrugation depth

  5. Blade-element/momentum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....

  6. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  7. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  8. Fast breeder fuel element development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Muehling, G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the papers which have been presented during a seminar ''Fast Breeder Fuel Element Development'' held on November 15/16, 1982 at KfK. The papers give a survey of the status, of the obtained results and of the necessary work, which still has to be done in the frame of various development programmes for fast breeder fuel elements. In detail the following items were covered by the presentations: - the requirements and boundary conditions for the design of fuel pins and elements both for the reference concept of the SNR 300 core and for the large, commercial breeder type of the future (presentation 1,2 and 6); - the fabrication, properties and characterization of various mixed oxide fuel types (presentations 3,4 and 5); - the operational fuel pin behaviour, limits of different design concepts and possible mechanism for fuel pin failures (presentations (7 and 8); - the situation of cladding- and wrapper materials development especially with respect to the high burn-up values of commercial reactors (presentations 9 and 10); - the results of the irradiation experiments performed under steady-state and non-stationary operational conditions and with failed fuel pins (presentations 11, 12, 13 and 14). (orig./RW) [de

  9. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  10. Root uptake of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of elements by plant roots is one of the important pathways of entry of many elements into the food chain of man. Data are cited showing plutonium concentration ratios, plant/soil, ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -3 . Concentration ratios for americium range from 10 -7 to 10 +1 . Limited experiments with curium and neptunium indicate that root uptake of curium is similar to that of americium and that plant uptake of neptunium is substantially larger than that of curium and americium. The extreme ranges of concentration ratios cited for plutonium and americium are due to a number of causes. Experimental conditions such as very intensive cropping will lead to abnormally high concentration ratios. In some experiments, addition of chelating agents markedly increased plant root uptake of transuranic elements. Particle size and composition of the source material influenced uptake of the transuranics by plants. Translocation within the plant, and soil factors such as pH and organic matter content, all affect concentration ratios

  11. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Shohei

    1987-01-01

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3 He- 4 He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Group theoretical classification of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, V.M.; Kulakov, V.I.; Rumer, Y.B.; Fet, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The method of classification of chemical elements, based on group symmetry principles, is compared with element properties. Elements are considered to be states of a single quantum system, the atomic structure being ignored. Elements treated as states of the system, break down into successively diminishing subsystems, big and small multiplets. The theory, being a group classification, does not describe in detail any of element properties, but leads to a unified qualitative description of all of them simultaneously

  13. Influência da adubação nitrogenada sobre a interferência de plantas daninhas em feijoeiro Period of weed interference in bean with nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Nunes Bressanin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A competição entre plantas daninhas e o feijoeiro, principalmente por nutrientes do meio, é de extrema importância, por seu efeito na perda de produtividade da cultura. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada sobre a extensão do período anterior à interferência (PAI, período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI e período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI das plantas daninhas na cultura do feijoeiro cultivar 'Rubi'. A semeadura foi realizada no sistema convencional e o ensaio foi instalado em duas áreas simultâneas, tendo, em apenas uma, sido realizada adubação nitrogenada de cobertura. Dentro de cada área foram aplicados 14 tratamentos, que constaram de dois grupos; primeiro: a cultura permaneceu livre de interferência das plantas daninhas, da emergência até 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 dias; segundo: a cultura permaneceu sob interferência, da semeadura até os mesmos períodos descritos anteriormente. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Raphanus raphanistrum apresentou maior importância relativa, nas duas áreas, principalmente pelo acúmulo de matéria seca, seguido de Amaranthus deflexus. Não houve comportamento diferenciado, em relação à diversidade e à equitatividade das populações de plantas daninhas, em resposta à adubação. Na área sem uso de N em cobertura, o PAI ocorreu aos 18 dias após a emergência (DAE da cultura e o PTPI ocorreu até os 24 DAE, resultando em PCPI dos 18 aos 24 DAE; nessa área, houve redução de 58% da produção da cultura. Na área onde foi realizada a adubação nitrogenada de cobertura, o PAI ocorreu aos 38 DAE da cultura e o PTPI ocorreu aos19 DAE; nessa área, houve redução de 56% da produção da cultura. Portanto, a adubação nitrogenada de cobertura aumentou a produtividade da cultura e a favoreceu competitivamente em relação às plantas daninhas

  14. Adobe Photoshop Elements 10 unleash the hidden performance of Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Galer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Master the most powerful photo editing tools and techniques that Elements has to offer! Using step-by-step projects, Mark Galer will have you creating stunning images in no time at all. Whether you want to create impressive, seamless montages, optimize your photos for perfect print quality, or simply enhance your images for maximum impact, Maximum Performance will give you the skills and know-how you need to create professional quality results. Featured projects teach you how to work with multilayered 16 bit/channel files, as well as convert to black and white using Adobe Camera Raw, create

  15. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, Stan Gerald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the

  16. Interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predominância de Ipomoea hederifolia na cana-soca Interference of a weed community with predominance of Ipomoea hederifolia on sugar cane ratton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.B. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos recentes da flora de plantas daninhas associada à cultura da cana-de-açúcar apontaram Ipomoea hederifolia como uma das espécies mais importantes. Em virtude disso, objetivou-se determinar o potencial de redução da produtividade da cana-de-açúcar e da qualidade do caldo em resposta à interferência de uma comunidade de plantas daninhas com predomínio de I. hederifolia, bem como o período anterior à interferência (PAI. Foi instalado um experimento em Pitangueiras, SP, em que constituíram tratamentos nove períodos crescentes de convivência das plantas daninhas com a cultura (0, 16, 30, 44, 69, 97, 135, 160, 188 e 229 dias após o cultivo e adubação e início da brotação - DAB. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cada tratamento em quatro repetições. Concluiu-se que o potencial de redução do número final de colmos e de produtividade foi de 34% e 46%, respectivamente. O PAI foi do início da brotação e se estendeu por 33 dias. Com o aumento do período de convivência com a comunidade infestante, houve antecipação do processo de maturação dos colmos, cujo caldo tendeu a apresentar maior valor de açúcar total recuperável (ATR. Com a redução de produtividade devido à interferência, o valor de ATR ha-1 tendeu a ser negativamente afetado.Recent surveys on weed community associated with sugar cane have pointed Ipomoea hederifolia as one of the most important species. Thus, this work aimed to determine the potential for reducing the productivity and quality of sugar cane in response to weed community interference with a predominance of I. hederifolia, and the period prior to interference (PPI. An assay was installed in Pitangueiras , Brazil, with the treatments consisting of nine periods of coexistence of the weeds with the culture (0, 16, 30, 44, 69,97, 135, 160,188 and 229 days after cultivation and fertilization and days after sprouting. The experiments were arranged in a

  17. Efeitos do contínuo de níveis de interferência contextual na aprendizagem do "putt" do golfe Effects of a contextual interference continuum on golf putting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A estruturação da prática motora é uma variável de aprendizagem muito estudada na área de Controle Motor e Aprendizagem, sendo, neste âmbito, o efeito de Interferência Contextual um dos pressupostos teóricos mais investigados (TANI, 2005. Tendo como suporte a hipótese de PORTER e MAGILL (2004, 2005, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o grupo com prática num contínuo de níveis Interferência Contextual alcançava melhores resultados na aprendizagem do "putt", do golfe, comparativamente com os grupos de prática por blocos, em séries e aleatória. Participaram voluntariamente 48 estudantes (24 de cada gênero do ensino superior com 21,2 ± 1,4 anos de idade, todos destros e inexperientes. Na fase de aquisição foram realizados 126 ensaios de "putt" às distâncias de 2, 2,75 e 3,5 metros do buraco. Vinte e quatro horas depois ocorreu a fase de retenção e o teste de tranferência. Na fase de retenção foram praticados 30 ensaios de forma aleatória. O teste de tranferência consistiu em 20 ensaios, 10 ensaios a 2,5 metros e 10 ensaios a 2,5 metros com 10 graus de desvio face ao centro do buraco. A análise dos resultados demonstra que não existem diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre grupos. O efeito do incremento de Interferência Contextual não foi verificado neste estudo.The purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference (CI effect on learning a golf putting task. PORTER and MAGILL (2004, 2005 conducted studies where they applied a new concept of practice: the contextual interference continuum. The hypothesis is that practicing with gradual increases of CI will lead to better performance on retention and transfer tests that both the blocked and random groups. Forty undergraduate students (N = 48 were randomly assigned to one of four groups: blocked, serial, random, or increasing CI practice schedule. Participants were inexperienced with the task and were blinded to the purpose of the

  18. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales o definitivas de esta terapia. MÉTODOS: estudio de farmacovigilancia cuya serie estuvo conformada por 122 pacientes con hepatitis crónica C atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología desde mayo de 2001 hasta mayo de 2006. Se utilizó interferón alfa 2b recombinante (3 millones de unidades 3 veces por semana más ribavirina (1 000 o 1 200 mg diarios en dependencia del peso corporal durante 48 semanas. RESULTADOS: el 88,5 % del total de casos presentó efectos adversos; de ellos el 79,5 % correspondió al síndrome seudogripal, seguido de manifestaciones hematológicas, neuropsiquiátricas, gastrointestinales, entre otras menos frecuentes. El 6,6 % de la serie presentó salidas temporales del tratamiento por efecto adverso distinto de la anemia y 4 pacientes, salidas definitivas del estudio, tres por anemia hemolítica severa y uno con hipertiroidismo no controlable. CONCLUSIONES: la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina resulta segura, donde el mayor número de casos presentó síndrome seudogripal como efecto adverso más frecuente. Las manifestaciones hematológicas asociadas a las salidas definitivas del estudio permitieron recomendar seguimiento estricto de la hemoglobina y profundizar en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los principales efectos adversos presentes en otros sistemas y asociados a esta terapia.INTRODUCTION: chronic hepatitis C has reached the category of pandemic. The hepatitis C virus is the

  19. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented

  20. Element-by-element parallel spectral-element methods for 3-D teleseismic wave modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shaolin

    2017-09-28

    The development of an efficient algorithm for teleseismic wave field modeling is valuable for calculating the gradients of the misfit function (termed misfit gradients) or Fréchet derivatives when the teleseismic waveform is used for adjoint tomography. Here, we introduce an element-by-element parallel spectral-element method (EBE-SEM) for the efficient modeling of teleseismic wave field propagation in a reduced geology model. Under the plane-wave assumption, the frequency-wavenumber (FK) technique is implemented to compute the boundary wave field used to construct the boundary condition of the teleseismic wave incidence. To reduce the memory required for the storage of the boundary wave field for the incidence boundary condition, a strategy is introduced to efficiently store the boundary wave field on the model boundary. The perfectly matched layers absorbing boundary condition (PML ABC) is formulated using the EBE-SEM to absorb the scattered wave field from the model interior. The misfit gradient can easily be constructed in each time step during the calculation of the adjoint wave field. Three synthetic examples demonstrate the validity of the EBE-SEM for use in teleseismic wave field modeling and the misfit gradient calculation.

  1. Período de interferência de plantas daninhas em mandioca (Manihot esculenta no noroeste do Paraná Period of weed interference in cassava (Manihot esculenta in northwestern Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Biffe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mandioca é uma exploração agrícola importante no Estado do Paraná. No entanto, há limitadas informações relacionadas à interferência das plantas daninhas nessa cultura. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI na cultura da mandioca (variedade Fécula Branca, nas condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná. O experimento foi dividido em dois grupos de tratamentos: com períodos crescentes na presença de plantas daninhas (PAI; e com períodos crescentes na ausência de plantas daninhas (PTPI. Foram identificadas as espécies de plantas daninhas e densidades de infestação na área e calculada a importância relativa (IR, avaliando-se também o estande da cultura e a produtividade de raízes comerciais. As principais plantas daninhas presentes na área e que apresentaram os maiores valores de IR foram Cenchrus echinatus e Brachiaria decumbens. Aceitando-se uma tolerância de redução de produtividade de 5%, o PAI ajustado foi de 18 dias após o plantio da cultura, e o PTPI, de 100 dias. Concluiu-se que o PCPI da cultura para as condições edafoclimáticas do noroeste do Paraná situa-se entre 18 e 100 dias após o plantio.Although cassava is a major agribusiness crop in Paraná, technical information related to weed interference in this crop is limited. This work aimed to evaluate the critical period of weed interference (PCPI in cassava (var. Fécula Branca, for local climate and soil under northwestern Paraná conditions. The experiment was constituted of two groups: the first with increasing periods of weed interference (PAI and the second with increasing periods without weed interference (PTPI. Main weed species in the area were identified and accounted for densities and relative importance (RI during the cycle; crop stand and commercial root yield were also evaluated. The highest RI values were found for Cenchrus echinatus and Brachiaria decumbens. Considering a

  2. Experiencia con las reacciones adversas asociadas con el interferón alfa 2b recombinante en hematología Experience with the adverse reactions associated with recombinant alpha 2b interferon in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Brito Pascual

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El interferón alfa 2b es una citoquina con actividad antiviral, antiproliferativa e inmunomoduladora que ha demostrado ser eficaz para el tratamiento de enfermedades virales y neoplásicas. El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de describir la frecuencia de las reacciones adversas asociada con la administración de Heberon alfa R (interferón alfa 2b recombinante en enfermedades hematológicas. Se analizaron las características de base de los pacientes, así como la frecuencia, intensidad y relación de causalidad de los eventos reportados. Los eventos adversos más frecuentes fueron las manifestaciones del síndrome gripal que incluyó fiebre, escalofrío, astenia, mialgias, anorexia y cefalea. Estas manifestaciones son transitorias y responden al tratamiento con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos. La mayoría de los eventos fueron de intensidad leve a moderada y no requirieron la suspensión del tratamiento. En conclusión, el Heberon alfa R es un fármaco relativamente seguro para el tratamiento de trastornos hematológicosAlpha 2b interferon is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulator activity that has proved to be efficient for the treatment of viral and neoplastic diseases, This paper is aimed at describing the frequency of adverse reactions associated with the administration of alpha R Heberon (recombinant alpha 2b interferon in hematological diseases. The basic characteristics of the patients, as well as the frequency, intensity and causality relation of the reported events were analyzed. The most common adverse effects were the manifestations of the gripal syndrome that included fever, chills, astenia, myalgia, anorexia and headache. These manifestations are transitory and respond to the treatment with non-steroideal antiinflammatory drugs. Most of the events were from mild to moderate intensity and did not require the suspension of the treatment. To conclude, alpha R Heberon is a relatively safe drug

  3. Adubação e o período anterior à interferência das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim Effect of fertilization on weeds and on the period before weed interference in the peanut culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Yamauti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da adubação sobre a comunidade infestante e sobre o período anterior à interferência (PAI das plantas daninhas na cultura do amendoim, cv. IAC Runner 886, em sistema convencional. Os períodos de convivência estudados foram: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55 e 126 dias após a emergência (DAE, totalizando oito tratamentos, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em dois níveis de adubação: 0 e 150 kg ha-1 da formulação 00-20-20 (N-P-K. A adubação não alterou a composição da comunidade infestante, destacando-se Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleraceae e Sida rhombifolia como as espécies de maior importância relativa. Contudo, a densidade de plantas daninhas foi maior na área não adubada, mas sem afetar de modo diferenciado a massa seca acumulada por elas. O cultivar de amendoim IAC Runner 886 pode conviver com essa comunidade com e sem adubação por até 15 e 17 DAE (PAI, respectivamente, sem sofrer perdas significativas na produção. A interferência das plantas daninhas reduziu entre 31 e 34% a produtividade do amendoim para as áreas sem adubação e com adubação, respectivamente.This experiment was carried out to study the effect of fertilization on weed community and on the period before weed interference (PBI in peanut culture, IAC Runner 886, under a conventional till system. The weed control periods studied were: 0, 7, 15, 20, 30, 45, 55, and 126 days after emergence (DAE, totaling eight treatments, arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications and two levels of fertilization (0 and 150 kg ha-1 of formulation 00-20-20 (N-P-K. Fertilization did not affect the weed community, with the species Cyperus rotundus, Eleusine indica, Indigofera hirsuta, Portulaca oleracea and Sida rhombifolia being the most prominent at all levels of fertilization. However, weed density was higher in the non- fertilized

  4. Weed interference in sweet pepper in no-tillage and conventional planting systems = Períodos de interferência de plantas daninhas na cultura do pimentão nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Xavier Lins Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is evaluate the periods of weeds interference on yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., cultivated in no-tillage and conventional systems. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in randomized blocks of a distributed split plots with four replications design. The no-tillage and conventional systems were evaluated in plots and subplots, during the seven periods of control and coexistence among sweet peppers and weeds: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 and 0–112 days after transplanting (DAT. Before weeding and harvest time, they were evaluated species, density and dry mass of weeds. In the sweet peppers crops, diameter, length, number, average fruit weight and yield were evaluated. It was observed less weeds in no-tillage than conventional system. Without competitors, these weet peppers productivity was 69.57% less in conventional than no-tillage system. The critical period of weeds interference was from 19 to 95 DAT in no-tillage system and from 11 to 100 DAT in convention tillage = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os períodos de interferências das plantas daninhas no pimentão (Capsicum annum L., cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto (SPD e convencional (SPC. Para isso, foi realizado um experimento em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, distribuídas no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. O SPD e o SPC foram avaliados nas parcelas, e nas subparcelas, os sete períodos de controle e convivência entre as plantas daninhas e o pimentão: 0; 0–14; 0–28; 0–49; 0–70; 0–91 e 0–112 dias após transplantio (DAT. Antes de cada capina e na ocasião da colheita, foram avaliadas as espécies, a densidade e a matéria seca das plantas daninhas. Na cultura do pimentão foram avaliados diâmetro, comprimento, número, peso médio dos frutos e produtividade. Verificou-se menor incidência de plantas daninhas no SPD em relação ao SPC. Quando mantida livre da competição com as

  5. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  6. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  7. Fuel element for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a fuel element for nuclear reactors with fuel rods and control rod guide tubes, where the control rod guide tubes are provided with flat projections projecting inwards, in the form of local deformations of the guide tube wall, in order to reduce the radial play between the control rod concerned and the guide tube, and to improve control rod movement. This should ensure that wear on the guide tubes is largely prevented which would be caused by lateral vibration of the control rods in the guide tubes, induced by the flow of coolant. (orig.) [de

  8. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Finite Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Metzler. Con/ ugte rapdent solution of a finite element elastic problem with high Poson rato without scaling and once with the global stiffness matrix K...nonzero c, that makes u(0) = 1. According to the linear, small deflection theory of the membrane the central displacement given to the membrane is not... theory is possible based on the approximations (l-y 2 )t = +y’ 2 +y𔃾 , (1-y𔃼)’ 1-y’ 2 - y" (6) that change eq. (5) to V𔃺) = , [yŖ(1 + y") - Qy𔃼

  10. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ELEMENTS IN MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOCARIU Liliana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial design represents an important 20th century phenomenon, which contributed to the spectacular development of human society. There are a lot of domains in which the insertion of the industrial design methods and theories is extremely necessary, becoming common practice. Marketing uses industrial design elements in order to draw up advertisements for products, to develop logos or packaging with all its attached factors, to organise promotional sales with the view of penetrating a certain market or of appealing to a large number of consumers.

  11. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction (explaining the special interest of the London Borough of Brent, as forming part of the route for transportation of irradiated fuel elements); nuclear power (with special reference to transport of spent fuel and radioactive wastes); the flask aspect (design, safety regulations, criticisms, tests, etc.); the accident aspect (working manual for rail staff, train formation, responsibility, postulated accident situations); the emergency arrangements aspect; the monitoring aspect (health and safety reports); legislation; contingency plans; radiation - relevant background information. (U.K.)

  12. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  13. Platinum-group element mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewaldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the geological processes responsible for the abnormal enrichment of the platinum-group elements (PGE) in the mineralized layers of the Bushveld Complex. Questions asked are: what processes caused enrichment of the Bushveld magma in the PGE ; by what processes were these PGE concentrated in the mineralized layers ; was contamination of the Bushveld magma from external sources important in the formation of the PGE enriched layers ; what are the effects of fractional crystallization on the PGE ratios

  14. Low aperture magnetic elements measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.A.; Mikhajlichenko, A.A.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Seryj, A.A.; Shil'tsev, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Two new methods of magnetic field measurements in low aperture elements are discussed. The first method uses thin magnetoresistive bismuth wire and the second-strained wire with AC. Principles of measuring used in the last technique are different from well known SLAC method of vibrating wire. Results of testing 0.38 T/mm quadrupole and VLEPP final focus test 3 T/mm lens are presented. Brief comparing of the lens axis determination precision of these methods is also discussed. 4 refs.; 8 figs

  15. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 0 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (DG) [de

  16. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (orig.)

  17. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  18. Fluidic Elements based on Coanda Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin OLIVOTTO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains first some definitions and classifications regarding the fluidic elements. Thegeneral current status is presented, nominating the main specific elements based on the Coanda effect developedspecially in Romania. In particularly the development of an original bistable element using industrial compressedair at industrial pressure supply is presented. The function of this element is based on the controlled attachmentof the main jet at a curved wall through the Coanda effect. The methods used for particular calculation andexperiments are nominated. The main application of these elements was to develop a specific execution element:a fluidic step–by-step motor based on the Coanda effect.

  19. Unified fuel elements development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Stetsky, Y.; Dobrikova, I.

    1998-01-01

    Square cross-section rod type fuel elements have been developed for russian pool-type research reactors. new fuel elements can replace the large nomenclature of tubular fuel elements with around, square and hexahedral cross-sections and to solve a problem of enrichment reduction. the fuel assembly designs with rod type fuel elements have been developed. The overall dimensions of existing the assemblies are preserved in this one. the experimental-industrial fabricating process of fuel elements, based on a joint extrusion method has been developed. The fabricating process has been tested in laboratory conditions, 150 experimental fuel element samples of the various sizes were produced. (author)

  20. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  1. Modeling and Characterization of Capacitive Elements With Tissue as Dielectric Material for Wireless Powering of Neural Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Reza; Marefat, Fatemeh; Sodagar, Amir M; Mohseni, Pedram

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the modeling and characterization of capacitive elements with tissue as the dielectric material, representing the core building block of a capacitive link for wireless power transfer to neural implants. Each capacitive element consists of two parallel plates that are aligned around the tissue layer and incorporate a grounded, guarded, capacitive pad to mitigate the adverse effect of stray capacitances and shield the plates from external interfering electric fields. The plates are also coated with a biocompatible, insulating, coating layer on the inner side of each plate in contact with the tissue. A comprehensive circuit model is presented that accounts for the effect of the coating layers and is validated by measurements of the equivalent capacitance as well as impedance magnitude/phase of the parallel plates over a wide frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. Using insulating coating layers of Parylene-C at a thickness of and Parylene-N at a thickness of deposited on two sets of parallel plates with different sizes and shapes of the guarded pad, our modeling and characterization results accurately capture the effect of the thickness and electrical properties of the coating layers on the behavior of the capacitive elements over frequency and with different tissues.

  2. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  3. ELEMENTS OF SAFETY IN PARAGLIDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mekinc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paragliding is an opportunity for tourism development, depending on what position the sport has place in the local community, the restrictions for paragliders and the safety components of the region. The paper explores the phenomenon of paragliding and safety elements in the Upper Soča region, one of ten best paragliding sites in the world (Placestoseeinyourlifetime, 2015. The purpose of the research is to analyse the safety elements, the development and the risk of paragliding.The goals of the research are to propose solutions in order to improve the safety conditions for paragliding and to make suggestions on the further development of paragliding within the framework of tourism in the Upper Soča destination. According to the interviewees, paragliding is becoming safer from year to year. This is also supported with the ever-growing numbers of pilots, and on the other hand, the number of accidents that do not follow the same trend. The identified causes for the accidents are human errors or weather conditions. The statistical data confirmed the paragliding in the Upper Soča region, with its unique geographical location, has a positive impact on local tourism and its development. The results of the study are useful for paragliders, local tourism stakeholders, researchers of sport tourism, as well to municipalities in the Upper Soča region.

  4. Transuranic elements in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1975-04-01

    Transuranic elements are present in marine environments as a result of worldwide fallout, close-in fallout, the SNAP-9A burnup, pipeline disposal of reprocessing wastes, neutron capture by uranium in one-pass cooling-water reactors and the B-52 crash in Thule, Greenland. Distributions and movements of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs from these introductions in the Atlantic Ocean are being studied partly because the transuranic elements themselves are geochemically interesting, partly because they appear to serve as tracers for specific oceanographic processes, and partly because of concern that man is faced with the problem of disposal of rapidly increasing amounts of transuranics as radioactive waste, and that we must be able, soon, to predict the fates and the effects of those amounts that reach the coastal waters or the deep oceans. Plutonium and americium are widely distributed in the oceans as a result of man's activities. Both appear to be more mobile than expected, and Pu shows little behavior in these environments that had been predicted from laboratory studies. Although their associations with biological material seem to be most striking for rooted plants or Sargassum, it is too premature to dismiss the possibility of their being a real hazard to marine life

  5. Cosmic Feast of the Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; García-Rojas, J.

    2017-11-01

    In the past few decades most of our understanding of the history and chemical evolution of galaxies has been guided by the study of their stars and gaseous nebulae. Nebulae, thanks to their bright emission lines, are especially useful tracers of chemical elements from the very center to the outskirts of galaxies. In order to pin down the chemical abundances in nebulae, we must rely on careful analysis of emission lines combined with detailed models of the microscopic physical processes inside nebulae and state-of-the-art atomic data. Another important piece of the puzzle is the interplay between galaxy evolution and the activity of their central engines either as optical AGNs or radio jets. Last but not least, let us not forget the huge population of lineless, retired galaxies ionized by hot low-mass evolved stars: after nuclear and star formation activity quiets down, retired galaxies are the natural consequence of galaxy evolution. Grażyna Stasińska has made important contributions to each and every one of those aspects. This conference is to honor her work. We invite you to take part and share the latest news on this cosmic feast that transmutes chemical species, the onward journey of elements inside and outside galaxies either as lonely atoms or gregarious molecules and crystals, and their recycling in stars, which starts the cosmic feast all over again.

  6. Radioactive elements in Pennsylvania waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    The first recognition of radioactive elements in natural waters dates back many years, but interest has accelerated in recent years with the advent of concern about the health effects of radioactivity. At the present time, extensive monitoring of public water supplies for radioactive substances is mandated by federal and state law, and monitoring near nuclear facilities is required by federal regulations, so that a great deal of information is accumulating on the amount and distribution of radioactivity in natural waters. These results reveal that small amounts of radioactive elements are universally present in natural waters, and that the concentration vary over an appreciable range as a result of natural processes and human activities. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the origin, behavior, abundance and hazard of the main radioactive species in Pennsylvania surface and ground waters. This treatment is intended to provide background to the interested reader in comprehending questions such as the hazard of radon in homes with private wells and pollution related to the nuclear power cycle

  7. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  8. Element by element review of their atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiser, H.S.; Holden, N.E.; Bievre, P. de

    1984-01-01

    The IUPAC 'standard' atomic weights of the terrestrially occurring chemical elements are individually reviewed tracing changes during the past 25 years. Emphasized is the relevant published scientific evidence which in each case constitutes the basis for the expert judgment by the responsible IUPAC Commission. It biennially reports on, recommends, and tabulates the best values of these atomic weights with an implied judgment of their individual reliability. In the introductory part of this Review the history of atomic-weight determinations is sketched. The IUPAC leadership in this data-evaluation project is described as it benefits science, technology, and trade. The remaining experimental uncertainties and natural variabilities are discussed. The treatment of abnormal materials is explained. The principal techniques for determining atomic weights are outlined. The effects of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides are characterized in their essentials. (author)

  9. Recovery of trans-plutonium elements; Recuperation des elements transplutoniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espie, J Y; Poncet, B; Simon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The object of this work is to study the recovery of americium and curium from the fission-product solution obtained from the processing of irradiated fuel elements made of natural metallic uranium alloyed with aluminium, iron and silicon; these elements have been subjected to an average irradiation of 4000 MW days/ton in a gas-graphite type reactor having a thermal power of 3.7 MW/ton of uranium. The process used consists of 3 extraction cycles and one americium-curium separation: - 1) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: extraction of actinides and lanthanides; elimination of fission products; - 2) extraction cycle in 8 per cent D2EHPA: decontamination from the fission products, decontamination of actinides from lanthanides; - 3) extraction cycle in 40 per cent TBP: separation of the complexing agent and concentration of the actinides; - 4) americium-curium separation by precipitation. (authors) [French] Cette etude a pour objet, la recuperation de l'americium et du curium de la solution de produits de fission provenant du traitement de combustibles irradies a base d'uranium naturel metallique allie a l'aluminium, le fer, et le silicium, et ayant subi une irradiation moyenne de 4000 MWj/t dans une pile du type graphite-gaz, dont la puissance thermique est de 3.7 MW/t d'uranium. Le procede utilise comprend 3 cycles d'extraction et une separation americium-curium: - 1. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: extraction des actinides et des lanthanides, elimination des produits de fission; - 2. cycle d'extraction dans le D2EHPA a 8 pour cent: decontamination en produits de fission, decontamination des actinides en lanthanides; - 3. cycle d'extraction dans le TBP a 40 pour cent: separation du complexant et concentration des actinides; - 4. separation americium-curium par precipitation. (auteurs)

  10. Finite element and boundary element applications in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    Although this book is one of the Oxford Texts in Applied and Engineering Mathematics, we may think of it as a physics book. It explains how to solve the problem of quantum mechanics using the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). Many examples analysing actual problems are also shown. As for the ratio of the number of pages of FEM and BEM, the former occupies about 80%. This is, however, reasonable reflecting the flexibility of FEM. Although many explanations of FEM and BEM exist, most are written using special mathematical expressions and numerical computation fields. However, this book is written in the 'language of physicists' throughout. I think that it is very readable and easy to understand for physicists. In the derivation of FEM and the argument on calculation accuracy, the action integral and a variation principle are used consistently. In the numerical computation of matrices, such as simultaneous equations and eigen value problems, a description of important points is also fully given. Moreover, the practical problems which become important in the electron device design field and the condensed matter physics field are dealt with as example computations, so that this book is very practical and applicable. It is characteristic and interesting that FEM is applied to solve the Schroedinger and Poisson equations consistently, and to the solution of the Ginzburg--Landau equation in superconductivity. BEM is applied to treat electric field enhancements due to surface plasmon excitations at metallic surfaces. A number of references are cited at the end of all the chapters, and this is very helpful. The description of quantum mechanics is also made appropriately and the actual application of quantum mechanics in condensed matter physics can also be surveyed. In the appendices, the mathematical foundation, such as numerical quadrature formulae and Green's functions, is conveniently described. I recommend this book to those who need to

  11. Avaliação da interferência do ácido ascórbico na detecção da glicosúria Evaluation of ascorbic acid interference in the detection of glycosuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Murilo Fernandes Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O ácido ascórbico (vitamina C é comumente ingerido como suplemento vitamínico. É uma vitamina hidrossolúvel, excretada pela urina e pode interferir nos ensaios laboratoriais, como nas reações de oxirredução para detecção da glicosúria. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a interferência do ácido ascórbico na detecção de glicosúria pelo método de química seca por meio do uso de tiras reagentes. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Amostras de urina foram avaliadas no analisador da marca Clinitek Atlas (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., EUA. Foram selecionadas quatro amostras de urina com diferentes concentrações de glicose: 100 mg/dl, 250 mg/dl, 500 mg/dl e 1.000 mg/dl. Para cada concentração de glicose foram criadas cinco alíquotas, adicionando-se uma solução de ácido ascórbico 200 mg/dl, suficiente para obter uma concentração final de ácido ascórbico de 20 mg/dl no primeiro tubo, de 50 mg/dl no segundo tubo, de 270 mg/dl no terceiro tubo, de 1.000 mg/dl no quarto tubo e de 2.000 mg/dl no quinto tubo. Após essa adição, as amostras foram novamente avaliadas no analisador Clinitek Atlas. RESULTADOS: Nas amostras com concentração de 20 mg/dl de ácido, não se evidenciou interferência. Nas concentrações iguais e acima de 50 mg/dl, a interferência do ácido ascórbico se fez presente, sendo que o fato foi caracterizado pelos resultados falso negativos para detecção da glicose urinária. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram a interferência do ácido ascórbico no método da química seca (tiras reagentes, subestimando o nível de glicose urinária.INTRODUCTION: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is commonly used as a vitamin supplement. It is a water soluble vitamin, which is excreted through urine and may interfere in laboratory tests as well as redox reactions for urinary glucose detection. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess ascorbic acid interference in glycosuria detection by dry chemistry

  12. Análise sobre a interferência antrópica na origem dos campos do Núcleo Curucutu, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Francischetti Garcia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar a importância da interferência antrópica na origem dos campos situados junto da crista da Serra do Mar, no município de São Paulo, realizou-se levantamento em diversas fontes de dados históricos que abrangessem a região, especialmente sob o aspecto de atividades econômicas, expansão urbana e vias de comunicação, como possíveis fatores de impacto sobre a vegetação. Verificou-se que a atividade de carvoarias, em meados do século XX, constituiu-se no principal fator de degradação local. Essa atividade, contudo, não é suficiente para explicar a ocorrência de campos no local, embora, possivelmente, tenha retardado a substituição natural dos campos por matas. Discute-se a importância da flora do Núcleo Curucutu para medidas de resgate histórico da flora do município de São Paulo.

  13. Use of analog elements to predict the equilibrium and behavior of transuranic elements in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Several naturally-occurring elements with chemical properties similar to those of selected transuranic elements have been chosen and are being examined as potential predictors of transuranic geochemical behaviors. This approach may allow the estimation of the long-term behaviors of transuranic elements in the environment by analyses of the steady-state behaviors of their analog elements. The elements receiving principal attention are the transuranics Am and Cm and their proposed lanthanide element analog Nd

  14. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The samples were analysed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. (EDXRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for up to 10 elements. It was found that 66% of the ..... coefficients between the various crustal elements Ca, Ti, Mn, ...

  15. Fuel elements of research reactors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongmao; Chen Dianshan; Tan Jiaqiu

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of design, fabrication of fuel elements for research reactors in China, emphasis is placed on the technology of fuel elements for the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor (HFETR). (author)

  16. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  18. Apparatus for locating defective nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    An ultrasonic search unit for locating defective fuel elements within a fuel assembly used in a water cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The unit is capable of freely traversing the restricted spaces between the fuel elements

  19. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics.......Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  20. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with techno......Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...

  1. Structural modeling techniques by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Jin; Kim, Geung Hwan; Ju, Gwan Jeong

    1991-01-01

    This book includes introduction table of contents chapter 1 finite element idealization introduction summary of the finite element method equilibrium and compatibility in the finite element solution degrees of freedom symmetry and anti symmetry modeling guidelines local analysis example references chapter 2 static analysis structural geometry finite element models analysis procedure modeling guidelines references chapter 3 dynamic analysis models for dynamic analysis dynamic analysis procedures modeling guidelines and modeling guidelines.

  2. Bounded elements in Locally C*-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Harti, Rachid

    2001-09-01

    In order to get more useful information about Locally C*-algebras, we introduce in this paper the notion of bounded elements. First, we study the connection between bounded elements and spectrally bounded elements. Some structural results of Locally C*-algebras are established in Theorems 1 , 2 and 3. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 3, we give a characterization of the connected component of the identity in the group of unitary elements for a Locally C*-algebra. (author)

  3. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  4. Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  6. Interfering Waves of Adaptation Promote Spatial Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental problem of asexual adaptation is that beneficial substitutions are not efficiently accumulated in large populations: Beneficial mutations often go extinct because they compete with one another in going to fixation. It has been argued that such clonal interference may have led...... to the evolution of sex and recombination in well-mixed populations. Here, we study clonal interference, and mechanisms of its mitigation, in an evolutionary model of spatially structured populations with uniform selection pressure. Clonal interference is much more prevalent with spatial structure than without......, due to the slow wave-like spread of beneficial mutations through space. We find that the adaptation speed of asexuals saturates when the linear habitat size exceeds a characteristic interference length, which becomes shorter with smaller migration and larger mutation rate. The limiting speed...

  7. Estado laico e interferência religiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n2p279 O artigo analisa diferentes discursos que, neste momento, estão sendo formulados sobre a religião na esfera pública. Não se falará nele da religião ou das religiões, mas da maneira na qual esses temas são percebidos e discutidos na opinião pública ocidental, em particular europeia, pois essa discussão tem algo relevante para a discussão sobre o papel da religião na sociedade brasileira. Serão considerados três discursos que serão denominados respectivamente de (1 “determinismo cultural”, (2 “anti-religiosidade seletiva” e (3 “laicismo estatal”. A intenção do artigo é apontar para os erros lógicos e categoriais e para as incoerências presentes nesses discursos que dominam o atual debate sobre o lugar da religião em geral e do Islã em particular nas sociedades ocidentais.

  8. Normative Language Policy: Interface and Interfences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Yael

    2014-01-01

    The emerging interdisciplinary work in language politics and language policy and planning studies demonstrates a rising interest among researchers in the interface between sociolinguistics, political science and philosophy. Much of the resulting cross-disciplinary work, however, tends to focus on the subject matters (politics, language) themselves…

  9. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  10. An Improved Triangular Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Grønne, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    by rotations in the corner nodes. Compared to Allman's plane element which was the first succesfull implementation of drilling rotations the proposed element has extra displacements in the mid-side nodes parallel to the element sides. The performance should therefore be better and closer to the LST...

  11. Determination of toxic elements in Malaysian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Z.; Wood, A.K.H.; Mahmood, C.S.; Hamzah, S.

    1988-01-01

    This project is concentrating on the analysis of toxic elements content in seafoods including fishes, mussel, squid and prawn. Samples were collected from various places throughout Malay Peninsular. Samples were prepared according to RCA research protocol - nuclear techniques for toxic element in foodstuffs. Techniques used for elemental analysis were neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical) and anodic stripping voltametry. (author). 9 refs, 9 tabs

  12. Diffractive optical elements for space communication terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Hans-Peter; Ehbets, Peter; Teijido, Juan M.; Weible, Kenneth J.; Heimbeck, Hans-Joerg

    2007-01-01

    The potential of diffractive optical elements for advanced laser communication terminals has been investigated. Applications include beam shaping of high- power laser diode arrays, optical filter elements for position detection and hybrid (refractive/diffractive) elements. In addition, we present a design example of a miniaturized terminal including diffractive optics.

  13. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  14. On higher order pyramidal finite elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, L.; Davies, K.B.; Křížek, Michal; Guan, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2011), s. 131-140 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : pyramidal polynomial basis functions * finite element method * composite elements * three-dimensional mortar elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2011

  15. Element Cycles: An Environmental Chemistry Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippins, Tracy; Anderson, Cody M.; Poindexter, Eric F.; Sultemeier, S. Whitney; Schultz, Linda D.

    2011-01-01

    "Element Cycles" is an activity designed to reinforce correlation of essential elements and their different forms in the ecosystem. Students are assigned essential elements to research as homework, then share results, and construct game boards with four ecosphere sections: geosphere (earth), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere…

  16. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  17. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this section... elemental mercury (CAS. No. 7439-97-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. Elements of a Spatial Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by factors such as the increasingly mobile use of the web and the proliferation of geo-positioning technologies, the web is rapidly acquiring a spatial aspect. Specifically, content and users are being geo-tagged, and services are being developed that exploit these tags. The research...... community is hard at work inventing means of efficiently supporting new spatial query functionality. Points of interest with a web presence, called spatial web objects, have a location as well as a textual description. Spatio-textual queries return such objects that are near a location argument...... and are relevant to a text argument. An important element in enabling such queries is to be able to rank spatial web objects. Another is to be able to determine the relevance of an object to a query. Yet another is to enable the efficient processing of such queries. The talk covers recent results on spatial web...

  20. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases. 13 claims, 5 drawing figures