habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...
Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola
Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...
Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.
Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.
van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.
Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in
van Gasteren, H.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ginati, A.; Garofalo, G.
Every year billions of birds migrate from breeding areas to their wintering ranges, some travelling over 10,000 km. Stakeholders interested in aviation flight safety, spread of disease, conservation, education, urban planning, meteorology, wind turbines and bird migration ecology are interested in information on bird movements. Collecting and disseminating useful information about such mobile creatures exhibiting diverse behaviour is no simple task. However, ESA’s Integrated Application Promo...
Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.
Full Text Available Migratory waterfowl of the world are the natural reservoirs of influenza viruses of all known subtypes. However, it is unknown whether these waterfowl perpetuate highly pathogenic (HP H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses. Here we report influenza virus surveillance from 2001 to 2006 in wild ducks in Alberta, Canada, and in shorebirds and gulls at Delaware Bay (New Jersey, United States, and examine the frequency of exchange of influenza viruses between the Eurasian and American virus clades, or superfamilies. Influenza viruses belonging to each of the subtypes H1 through H13 and N1 through N9 were detected in these waterfowl, but H14 and H15 were not found. Viruses of the HP Asian H5N1 subtypes were not detected, and serologic studies in adult mallard ducks provided no evidence of their circulation. The recently described H16 subtype of influenza viruses was detected in American shorebirds and gulls but not in ducks. We also found an unusual cluster of H7N3 influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls that was able to replicate well in chickens and kill chicken embryos. Genetic analysis of 6,767 avian influenza gene segments and 248 complete avian influenza viruses supported the notion that the exchange of entire influenza viruses between the Eurasian and American clades does not occur frequently. Overall, the available evidence does not support the perpetuation of HP H5N1 influenza in migratory birds and suggests that the introduction of HP Asian H5N1 to the Americas by migratory birds is likely to be a rare event.
Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G
The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.
Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Buler, Jeffrey J
Excessive or misdirected artificial light at night (ALAN) produces light pollution that influences several aspects of the biology and ecology of birds, including disruption of circadian rhythms and disorientation during flight. Many migrating birds traverse large expanses of land twice every year at night when ALAN illuminates the sky. Considering the extensive and increasing encroachment of light pollution around the world, we evaluated the association of the annual mean ALAN intensity over land within the geographic ranges of 298 nocturnally migrating bird species with five factors: phase of annual cycle, mean distance between breeding and non-breeding ranges, range size, global hemisphere of range, and IUCN category of conservation concern. Light pollution within geographic ranges was relatively greater during the migration season, for shorter-distance migrants, for species with smaller ranges, and for species in the western hemisphere. Our results suggest that migratory birds may be subject to the effects of light pollution particularly during migration, the most critical stage in their annual cycle. We hope these results will spur further research on how light pollution affects not only migrating birds, but also other highly mobile animals throughout their annual cycle.
Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.
Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.
Smith, James A.
How will migrating birds respond to changes in the environment under climate change? What are the implications for migratory success under the various accelerated climate change scenarios as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change? How will reductions or increased variability in the number or quality of wetland stop-over sites affect migratory bird species? The answers to these questions have important ramifications for conservation biology and wildlife management. Here, we describe the use of continental scale simulation modeling to explore how spatio-temporal changes along migratory flyways affect en-route migration success. We use an individually based, biophysical, mechanistic, bird migration model to simulate the movement of shorebirds in North America as a tool to study how such factors as drought and wetland loss may impact migratory success and modify migration patterns. Our model is driven by remote sensing and climate data and incorporates important landscape variables. The energy budget components of the model include resting, foraging, and flight, but presently predation is ignored. Results/Conclusions We illustrate our model by studying the spring migration of sandpipers through the Great Plains to their Arctic breeding grounds. Why many species of shorebirds have shown significant declines remains a puzzle. Shorebirds are sensitive to stop-over quality and spacing because of their need for frequent refueling stops and their opportunistic feeding patterns. We predict bird "hydrographs that is, stop-over frequency with latitude, that are in agreement with the literature. Mean stop-over durations predicted from our model for nominal cases also are consistent with the limited, but available data. For the shorebird species simulated, our model predicts that shorebirds exhibit significant plasticity and are able to shift their migration patterns in response to changing drought conditions. However, the question remains as to whether this
van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.
Although radar has been used in studies of bird migration for 60 years, there is still no network in Europe for comprehensive monitoring of bird migration. Europe has a dense network of military air surveillance radars but most systems are not directly suitable for reliable bird monitoring. Since
van Loon, E.E.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Davis, S.L.
Many soaring bird species migrate southwards in autumn from their breeding grounds in Europe and Central Asia towards their wintering grounds. Our knowledge about interactions between migrating birds, thermal selection during migration and mechanisms that lead to flocking or convergent travel
Ruth, Janet M.; Felix, Rodney K.; Dieh, Robert H.
To ensure full life-cycle conservation, we need to understand migrant behavior en route and how migrating species use stopover and migration aerohabitats. In the Southwest, birds traverse arid and mountainous landscapes in migration. Migrants are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrant density varies across the Southwest seasonally and annually, and how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Furthermore, we lack information about migrant flight altitudes, speeds, and directions of travel, and how these patterns vary seasonally and annually across the Southwest. Using weather surveillance radar data, we identified targets likely dominated by nocturnally migrating birds and determined their flight altitudes, speeds, directions over ground, and variations in abundance. Migrating or foraging bats likely are present across the region in some of these data, particularly in central Texas. We found that migrants flew at significantly lower altitudes and significantly higher speeds in spring than in fall. In all seasons migrants maintained seasonally appropriate directions of movement. We detected significant differences in vertical structure of migrant densities that varied both geographically within seasons and seasonally within sites. We also found that in fall there was a greater and more variable passage of migrants through the central part of the borderlands (New Mexico and west Texas); in spring there was some suggestion of greater and more variable passage of migrants in the eastern borderlands (central and south Texas). Such patterns are consistent with the existence of at least two migration systems through western North America and the use of different migration routes in spring and fall for at least some species. Using radar data and satellite land cover data, we determined the habitats with which migrants are associated during migration stopover. There were significant differences in bird densities among
Coppack, Timothy; Becker, Simon F; Becker, Philipp J J
Many species of migratory birds migrate in a series of solitary nocturnal flights. Between flights, they stop to rest and refuel for the next segment of their journey. The mechanism controlling this behaviour has long remained elusive. Here, we show that wild-caught migratory redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) are consistent in their flight scheduling. An advanced videographic system enabled us to determine the precise timing of flight activity in redstarts caught at a northern European stopover site during their return trip from Africa. Birds were held captive for three days in the absence of photoperiodic cues (constant dim light) and under permanent food availability. Despite the absence of external temporal cues, birds showed clear bimodal activity patterns: intense nocturnal activity alternating with diurnal foraging and resting periods. The onset of their migratory activity coincided with the time of local sunset and was individually consistent on consecutive nights. The data demonstrate that night-migrating birds are driven by autonomous circadian clocks entrained by sunset cues. This timekeeping system is probably the key factor in the overall control of nocturnal songbird migration.
Smith, Matthew M.; Ramey, Andy M.
To understand the role of migratory birds in the movement and transmission of haematozoa within and between continental regions, we examined 804 blood samples collected from eleven endemic species of South American waterfowl in Peru and Argentina for infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and/or Leucocytozono blood parasites. Infections were detected in 25 individuals of six species for an overall apparent prevalence rate of 3.1%. Analysis of haematozoa mitochondrial DNA revealed twelve distinct parasite haplotypes infecting South American waterfowl, four of which were identical to lineages previously observed infecting ducks and swans sampled in North America. Analysis of parasite mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed close phylogenetic relationships between lineages originating from waterfowl samples regardless of continental affiliation. In contrast, more distant phylogenetic relationships were observed between parasite lineages from waterfowl and passerines sampled in South America for Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, suggesting some level of host specificity for parasites of these genera. The detection of identical parasite lineages in endemic, South American waterfowl and North American ducks and swans, paired with the close phylogenetic relationships of haematozoa infecting waterfowl on both continents, provides evidence for parasite redistribution between these regions by migratory birds.
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.; Alon, D.; Alpert, P.; Yom-Tov, Y.; Leshem, Y.
Aims Different aspects of soaring-bird migration are influenced by weather. However, the relationship between weather and the onset of soaring-bird migration, particularly in autumn, is not clear. Although long-term migration counts are often unavailable near the breeding areas of many soaring birds
Many species of birds migrate every year thousands of kilometers, relying on sight, memory, magnetic sensors and instincts to find their way across continents. Many juvenile birds travel complicated migration routes without the guidance of more experienced adults. To successfully accomplish this they need instincts that utilizes multiple navigational senses together with a time dependent schedule. Little is known of the genetics behind migration behavior and which cellular processes are invol...
Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.
Highly pathogenic clade 184.108.40.206 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 220.127.116.11 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 18.104.22.168 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.
Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel
Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...
Hahn, S.M.; Bauer, S.; Liechti, F.
The Palaearctic–African migration system comprises enormous numbers of birds travelling between Europe and Africa twice each year. Migratory birds may form strong links between the two continents given they can act as both transport vehicles for parasites and diseases as well as temporary consumers
The life cycle of many bird species involves the twice-annual movement between a breeding ground and a wintering ground that we refer to as `migration'. To complete these journeys, birds must successfully navigate many obstacles including a dynamic atmosphere. To make optimal use of this
McLaren, J.D.; Buler, J.J.; Schreckengost, T.; Smolinsky, J.A.; Boone, M.; van Loon, E.E.; Dawson, D.K.; Walters, E.L.
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne
La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A
The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.
Visser, M.E.; Perdeck, A.C.; van Balen, J.H.; Both, C.
Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season
Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan
Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season
Cooper-Mullin, Clara; McWilliams, Scott R
During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration. Here, we use bird migration as an example to discuss how RS are produced during endurance exercise and how the complex antioxidant system can protect against cellular damage caused by RS. Understanding how a bird's antioxidant system responds during migration can lend insights into how antioxidants protect birds during other life-history stages when metabolic rate may be high, and how antioxidants protect other vertebrates from oxidative damage during endurance exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.
Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 159-164 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migratory birds * phenology * spring arrival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/159-164.pdf
Boyle, W Alice
Migration is among the best studied of animal behaviors, yet few empirical studies have tested hypotheses explaining the ultimate causes of these cyclical annual movements. Fretwell's (1980) hypothesis predicts that if nest predation explains why many tropical birds migrate uphill to breed, then predation risk must be negatively associated with elevation. Data from 385 artificial nests spanning 2,740 m of elevation on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica show an overall decline in predation with increasing elevation. However, nest predation risk was highest at intermediate elevations (500-650 m), not at lowest elevations. The proportion of nests depredated by different types of predators differed among elevations. These results imply that over half of the altitudinal migrant bird species in this region migrate to safer breeding areas than their non-breeding areas, suggesting that variation in nest predation risk could be an important benefit of uphill migrations of many species.
McLaren, J.D.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.
Many migrating birds divide their journeys into nocturnal flights interspersed by stopovers where they build up energy reserves (fuel) for subsequent flights. Given the difficulty in monitoring fuel loads of individual migrants over long distances, theoretical models are often used to interpret
Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Piersma, Theunis
Migrant birds face a choice where to spend the winter. Presumably there is a trade-off between migration distance (costs) and the quality of the wintering site (benefits). Wintering site fidelity is often high and increases with age. Hypotheses to explain such a pattern assume that wintering site
During modern birds history, climatic and environmental conditions have evolved on wide scales. In a continuously changing world, landbirds annual migrations emerged and developed. However, models accounting for the origins of these avian migrations were formulated with static ecogeographic perspectives. Here I reviewed Cenozoic paleoclimatic and paleontological data relative to the palearctic paleotropical long distance (LD) migration system. This led to propose a new model for the origin of LD migrations, the ‘shifting home’ model (SHM). It is based on a dynamic perspective of climate evolution and may apply to the origins of most modern migrations. Non-migrant tropical African bird taxa were present at European latitudes during most of the Cenozoic. Their distribution limits shifted progressively toward modern tropical latitudes during periods of global cooling and increasing seasonality. In parallel, decreasing winter temperatures in the western Palearctic drove shifts of population winter ranges toward the equator. I propose that this induced the emergence of most short distance migrations, and in turn LD migrations. This model reconciliates ecologically tropical ancestry of most LD migrants with predominant winter range shifts, in accordance with requirements for heritable homing. In addition, it is more parsimonious than other non-exclusive models. Greater intrinsic plasticity of winter ranges implied by the SHM is supported by recently observed impacts of the present global warming on migrating birds. This may induce particular threats to some LD migrants. The ancestral, breeding homes of LD migrants were not ‘northern’ or ‘southern’ but shifted across high and middle latitudes while migrations emerged through winter range shifts themselves.
Tøttrup, Anders P.; Rainio, Kalle; Coppack, Timothy
and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory birds. In order to better understand migration phenology and adaptation in environmental changes, we here assess the scale at which weather affects timing of spring migration in passerine birds. We use three commonly used proxies of spring......-time climatic conditions: (1) vegetation "greenness" (NDVI) in Europe, (2) local spring temperatures in northern Europe, and (3) the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) as predictors of the phenology of avian migration as well as the strength of their effect on different subsets of populations...... breeding area. Local temperature was the best single predictor of phenology with the highest explanatory power achieved in combination with NAO. Furthermore, early individuals are more affected by climatic variation compared to individuals on later passage, indicating that climatic change affects subsets...
Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.
Dusek, Robert J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.
To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Migration routes used by Nearctic migrant birds can cover great distances; they also differ among species, within species, and between years and seasons. As a result, migration routes for an entire migratory avifauna can encompass broad geographic areas, making it impossible to protect continuous stretches of habitat sufficient to connect the wintering and breeding grounds for most species. Consequently, ways to enhance habitats converted for human use (i.e. for pasture, crop cultivation, human settlement) as stopover sites for migrants are especially important. Shelterbelts around pastures and fields, if planted with species targeted to support migrant (and resident) bird species that naturally occupy mature forest habitats and that are at least partially frugivorous, could be a powerful enhancement tool for such species, if the birds will enter the converted areas to feed. I tested this approach for Nearctic migrant birds during the spring migration through an area in Chiapas, Mexico. Mature forest tree species whose fruits are eaten by birds were surveyed. Based on life form, crop size and fruit characteristics, I selected three tree species for study: Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae), Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) and Trophis racemosa (Moraceae). I compared the use of fruits of these species by migrants and residents in forest with their use of the fruits of isolated individuals of the same species in pasture and cropland. All three plant species were useful for enhancing converted habitats for forest-occupying spring migrants, although species differed in the degree to which they entered disturbed areas to feed on the fruits. These tree species could probably enhance habitats for migrants at sites throughout the natural geographic ranges of the plants; in other geographic areas for other target bird groups, other tree species might be more appropriate.
Ramadan Jaradi, Gh.; Ramadan Jaradi, M.
Beale and Ramadan Jaradi initiated in 2001 the first large scale survey in Lebanon to trace the main routes of migrating raptors and other soaring birds, aiming at contributing to the conservation of flyways and stopover sites through the identification of areas where protection is most needed. Nowadays, the study of the flyways and stopover sites at micro level becomes necessary following the development of the national wind atlas map that will assist among others in locating potential wind farms which on their turn may influence the migratory birds flyways, especially that the wind farms use winds for their function and the soaring birds use wind for their transportation. The present work starts from where the work of Beale and Ramadan-Jaradi ended but in an attempt toprovide policy makers, scientists and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with wind farms impacts and to prevent collisions of birds with blades of wind urbines. The study is meant to be conducted during spring and autumn passage ofbirds. This paper concerns the spring migration as at the time of writing it the autumn migration didn't start yet. The present spring season study revealed among others that the migratory soaring birds that may use the wind ridge lifts for their soaring travel in windy areas are more influenced by two other main factors:1) presence of depressions perpendicular to mountains ridgesand 2) abundance of the thermals in these depressions, a matter that naturally reduce the impact of wind turbines by attracting the birds away from their blade. (author)
Igl, Lawrence D.; Ballard, Bart M.
We report on the habitat associations of 21 species of grassland birds overwintering in or migrating through southern Texas, during 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. Ninety percent of our grassland bird observations were made during winter and spring, and only 10% occurred during fall. Grassland species made up a high proportion of the total bird densities in grassland and shrub-grassland habitats, but much lower proportions in the habitats with more woody vegetation. Fewer grassland species were observed in grassland and woodland than in brushland, parkland, and shrub-grassland habitats. Grassland birds generally were found in higher densities in habitats that had woody canopy coverage of < 30%; densities of grassland birds were highest in shrub-grassland habitat and lowest in woodland habitat. Species that are grassland specialists on their breeding grounds tended to be more habitat specific during the nonbreeding season compared to shrub-grassland specialists, which were more general in their nonbreeding-habitat usage. Nonetheless, our data demonstrate that grassland birds occur in a variety of habitats during the nonbreeding season and seem to occupy a broader range of habitats than previously described.
Full Text Available Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.
Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.
U.S .Gantaloo; Sangeeta B Dongare
Environmental changes are now a day’s happening regularly day to day increase in temperature ,Scarcity of rainfall ,Drying of lakes have strong implication on Biodiversity .) .Global warming has set in motion and is affecting the timing of migration of birds .Birds are reliable indicator of environment change for centuries and their arrival indicate start of winter and departure summer in study area .There are many example of the effect of climate change on birds from all around t...
Tian, Huaivu; Zhou, Sen; Dong, Lu; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Cui, Yujun; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiao, Xiangming; Wu, Yarong; Cazelles, Bernard; Huang, Shanqian; Yang, Ruifu; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Xu, Bing
The spatial spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and its long-term persistence in Asia have resulted in avian influenza panzootics and enormous economic losses in the poultry sector. However, an understanding of the regional long-distance transmission and seasonal patterns of the virus is still lacking. In this study, we present a phylogeographic approach to reconstruct the viral migration network. We show that within each wild fowl migratory flyway, the timing of H5N1 outbreaks and viral migrations are closely associated, but little viral transmission was observed between the flyways. The bird migration network is shown to better reflect the observed viral gene sequence data than other networks and contributes to seasonal H5N1 epidemics in local regions and its large-scale transmission along flyways. These findings have potentially far-reaching consequences, improving our understanding of how bird migration drives the periodic reemergence of H5N1 in Asia.
Guglielmo, Christopher G
Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified. Migratory bats have high aerobic capacity and fatty acid oxidation potential; however, endurance flight fueled by adipose-stored fat has not been demonstrated. Patterns of fattening and expression of muscle fatty acid transporters are inconsistent, and bats may partially fuel migratory flight with ingested nutrients. Changes in energy intake, digestive capacity, liver lipid metabolism and body temperature regulation may contribute to migratory fattening. Although control of appetite is similar in birds and mammals, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal changes in fuel store set-points in migrants remain poorly understood. Triacylglycerol of birds and bats contains mostly 16 and 18 carbon fatty acids with variable amounts of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 depending on diet. Unsaturation of fat converges near 70% during migration, and unsaturated fatty acids are preferentially mobilized and oxidized, making them good fuel. Twenty and 22 carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may affect membrane function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. However, evidence for dietary PUFA as doping agents in migratory birds is equivocal and requires further study. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Hassanalian, M; Abdelmoula, H; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A
The thermal impact of the birds' color on their flight performance are investigated. In most of the large migrating birds, the top of their wings is black. Considering this natural phenomenon in the migrating birds, such as albatross, a thermal analysis of the boundary layer of their wings is performed during the year depending on the solar insulation. It is shown that the temperature difference between the bright and dark colored top wing surface is around 10°C. The dark color on the top of the wing increases the temperature of the boundary layer over the wing which consequently reduces the skin drag force over the wing. This reduction in the drag force can be considered as one of the effective factors for long endurance of these migrating birds. This research should lead to improved designs of the drones by applying the inspired colors which can help drones increase their endurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva
Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, James A.; Blattner, Tim; Messmer, Peter
The broad-scale reductions and shifts that may be expected under climate change in the availability and quality of stopover habitat for long-distance migrants is an area of increasing concern for conservation biologists. Researchers generally have taken two broad approaches to the modeling of migration behaviour to understand the impact of these changes on migratory bird populations. These include models based on causal processes and their response to environmental stimulation, "mechanistic models", or models that primarily are based on observed animal distribution patterns and the correlation of these patterns with environmental variables, i.e. "data driven" models. Investigators have applied the latter technique to forecast changes in migration patterns with changes in the environment, for example, as might be expected under climate change, by forecasting how the underlying environmental data layers upon which the relationships are built will change over time. The learned geostatstical correlations are then applied to the modified data layers.. However, this is problematic. Even if the projections of how the underlying data layers will change are correct, it is not evident that the statistical relationships will remain the same, i.e. that the animal organism may not adapt its' behaviour to the changing conditions. Mechanistic models that explicitly take into account the physical, biological, and behaviour responses of an organism as well as the underlying changes in the landscape offer an alternative to address these shortcomings. The availability of satellite remote sensing observations at multiple spatial and temporal scales, coupled with advances in climate modeling and information technologies enable the application of the mechanistic models to predict how continental bird migration patterns may change in response to environmental change. In earlier work, we simulated the impact of effects of wetland loss and inter-annual variability on the fitness of
Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.
Bødker, Rene; Vrbová, Erika; Højgaard, Jesper
Since the end of the ice age, spring migrating birds from Africa and Europe and autumn migrating birds from Northern Scandinavia have entered Denmark, and recently a small wave of long migrating carnivores have started arriving in Denmark from Central Europe. Theoretically, migrating birds could...... introduce new tick species as well as tick-associated pathogens to Denmark. These migrating animals may also carry ticks and pathogens which already exist in native tick populations in Denmark. The potential supplement of native ticks and existing pathogens to the established high density tick populations...... in Danish forest and nature areas can be expected to be of little practical importance. However, some of the infected ticks, introduced by migrating birds, may be deposited in private gardens and public parks that are otherwise not able to sustain a viable tick population. Migrating birds may therefore...
Kellermann, Jherime L.; van Riper, Charles
Migratory birds exploit seasonal variation in resources across latitudes, timing migration to coincide with the phenology of food at stopover sites. Differential responses to climate in phenology across trophic levels can result in phenological mismatch; however, detecting mismatch is sensitive to methodology. We examined patterns of migrant abundance and tree flowering, phenological mismatch, and the influence of climate during spring migration from 2009 to 2011 across five habitat types of the Madrean Sky Islands in southeastern Arizona, USA. We used two metrics to assess phenological mismatch: synchrony and overlap. We also examined whether phenological overlap declined with increasing difference in mean event date of phenophases. Migrant abundance and tree flowering generally increased with minimum spring temperature but depended on annual climate by habitat interactions. Migrant abundance was lowest and flowering was highest under cold, snowy conditions in high elevation montane conifer habitat while bird abundance was greatest and flowering was lowest in low elevation riparian habitat under the driest conditions. Phenological synchrony and overlap were unique and complementary metrics and should both be used when assessing mismatch. Overlap declined due to asynchronous phenologies but also due to reduced migrant abundance or flowering when synchrony was actually maintained. Overlap declined with increasing difference in event date and this trend was strongest in riparian areas. Montane habitat specialists may be at greatest risk of mismatch while riparian habitat could provide refugia during dry years for phenotypically plastic species. Interannual climate patterns that we observed match climate change projections for the arid southwest, altering stopover habitat condition.
McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J
1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.
Clausen, Niels-Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.
The objective of this paper is to present part of The Wind Atlas for Egypt project aiming at developing a firm basis for planning and utilization of the vast wind energy resources available in Egypt. The project should recommend a common planning framework for wind farm development in Egypt...... is briefly introduced. As a case study to illustrate the planning process a 60 MW wind farm located at the Gulf of El-Zayt at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt will be analysed. This area is chosen for its very high wind energy potential and the high concentration of migrating birds during spring and autumn. During...... the site selection and layout of a wind farm the balancing of interests and land use will be described....
Waldenstrom, J.; Broman, T.; Carlsson, I.; Hasselquist, D.; Achterberg, R.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Olsen, B.
A total of 1,794 migrating birds trapped at a coastal site in southern Sweden were sampled for detection of Campylobacter spp. All isolates phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni and a subset of those identified as non-C. jejuni were identified to the species level by PCR-based
Bridge, Eli S.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Xiao, Xiangming; Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Yamage, Mat; Haque, Enam Ul; Islam, Mohammad Anwarul; Mundkur, Taej; Yavuz, Kiraz Erciyas; Leader, Paul; Leung, Connie Y.H.; Smith, Bena; Spragens, Kyle A.; Vandegrift, Kurt J.; Hosseini, Parviez R.; Saif, Samia; Mohsanin, Samiul; Mikolon, Andrea; Islam, Ausrafal; George, Acty; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott H.
Satellite-based tracking of migratory waterfowl is an important tool for understanding the potential role of wild birds in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However, employing this technique on a continental scale is prohibitively expensive. This study explores the utility of stable isotope ratios in feathers in examining both the distances traveled by migratory birds and variation in migration behavior. We compared the satellite-derived movement data of 22 ducks from 8 species captured at wintering areas in Bangladesh, Turkey, and Hong Kong with deuterium ratios (δD) in the feathers of these and other individuals captured at the same locations. We derived likely molting locations from the satellite tracking data and generated expected isotope ratios based on an interpolated map of δD in rainwater. Although δD was correlated with the distance between wintering and molting locations, surprisingly, measured δD values were not correlated with either expected values or latitudes of molting sites. However, population-level parameters derived from the satellite-tracking data, such as mean distance between wintering and molting locations and variation in migration distance, were reflected by means and variation of the stable isotope values. Our findings call into question the relevance of the rainfall isotope map for Asia for linking feather isotopes to molting locations, and underscore the need for extensive ground truthing in the form of feather-based isoscapes. Nevertheless, stable isotopes from feathers could inform disease models by characterizing the degree to which regional breeding populations interact at common wintering locations. Feather isotopes also could aid in surveying wintering locations to determine where high-resolution tracking techniques (e.g. satellite tracking) could most effectively be employed. Moreover, intrinsic markers such as stable isotopes offer the only means of inferring movement information from
Boyle, W.A.; Conway, C.J.; Bronstein, Judith L.
Annual migrations of birds profoundly influence terrestrial communities. However, few empirical studies examine why birds migrate, in part due to the difficulty of testing causal hypotheses in long-distance migration systems. Short-distance altitudinal migrations provide relatively tractable systems in which to test explanations for migration. Many past studies explain tropical altitudinal migration as a response to spatial and temporal variation in fruit availability. Yet this hypothesis fails to explain why some coexisting, closely-related frugivorous birds remain resident year-round. We take a mechanistic approach by proposing and evaluating two hypotheses (one based on competitive exclusion and the other based on differences in dietary specialization) to explain why some, but not all, tropical frugivores migrate. We tested predictions of these hypotheses by comparing diets, fruit preferences, and the relationships between diet and preference in closely-related pairs of migrant and resident species. Fecal samples and experimental choice trials revealed that sympatric migrants and residents differed in both their diets and fruit preferences. Migrants consumed a greater diversity of fruits and fewer arthropods than did their resident counterparts. Migrants also tended to have slightly stronger fruit preferences than residents. Most critically, diets of migrants more closely matched their preferences than did the diets of residents. These results suggest that migrants may be competitively superior foragers for fruit compared to residents (rather than vice versa), implying that current competitive interactions are unlikely to explain variation in migratory behavior among coexisting frugivores. We found some support for the dietary specialization hypothesis, propose refinements to the mechanism underlying this hypothesis, and discuss how dietary specialization might ultimately reflect past interspecific competition. We recommend that future studies quantify variation
Davenport, Lisa C; Goodenough, Katharine S; Haugaasen, Torbjørn
Seasonal flooding compels some birds that breed in aquatic habitats in Amazonia to undertake annual migrations, yet we know little about how the complex landscape of the Amazon region is used seasonally by these species. The possibility of trans-Andes migration for Amazonian breeding birds has largely been discounted given the high geographic barrier posed by the Andean Cordillera and the desert habitat along much of the Pacific Coast. Here we demonstrate a trans-Andes route for Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger cinerascens) breeding on the Manu River (in the lowlands of Manu National Park, Perú), as well as divergent movement patterns both regionally and across the continent. Of eight skimmers tracked with satellite telemetry, three provided data on their outbound migrations, with two crossing the high Peruvian Andes to the Pacific. A third traveled over 1800 km to the southeast before transmissions ended in eastern Paraguay. One of the two trans-Andean migrants demonstrated a full round-trip migration back to its tagging location after traveling down the Pacific Coast from latitude 9° South to latitude 37° S, spending the austral summer in the Gulf of Arauco, Chile. This is the first documentation of a trans-Andes migration observed for any bird breeding in lowland Amazonia. To our knowledge, this research also documents the first example of a tropical-breeding waterbird migrating out of the tropics to spend the non-breeding season in the temperate summer, this being the reverse pattern with respect to seasonality for austral migrants in general.
Information on spring migration routes, geographic linkages among winter, spring, and breeding locations, and potential geographic effects on arrival body condition of a variety of avian species is so far little known. Stable isotope ratios are exquisitely sensitive to the biochemistry of living organisms and the nutrients available to them. Isotope ratios provide detailed knowledge useful in a variety of fields, including birds migration, through a combination of stable-isotope measurements of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) isotopes of flight feathers and breast feathers of tissues representing different periods of dietary integration and body composition analyses. Associations among specific geographic areas, habitat use, and arrival condition can be elucidated through the measurement of these dual isotopes. We report here on the development of a novel laser spectroscopy based system for the simultaneous analysis of the stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) that is robust, easy-to-use, and is the first stable isotope ratio analysis system to combine the measurement of 13C/12C and D/H in one simple analysis from a bulk organic sample with an application to bird migration. The system comprises a combustion module to convert the organic sample into CO2 and H2O and a Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (CRDS) that analyzes the combustion species inside an optical cavity based on the molecular absorption of individual isotopomers. This CRDS uses dual lasers to target the four isotpomers of interest: 12CO2, 13CO2, H2O and HDO. The system delivers a typical precision of 0.1 permil for δ13C and 1.5 permil for δD that parallels that achieved by IRMS, but with an unprecedented simplicity that allows ecologists to leverage the science and elucidate the avian migration patterns.
McGrath, Laura J.; van Riper, Charles
Executive Summary Neotropical migrant birds make choices about which habitats are most likely to provide successful foraging locations during migration, but little is known about how these birds recognize and process environmental clues that indicate the presence of prey species. Aspects of tree phenology, notably flowering of trees along the lower Colorado River corridor, coincide with the migratory stopovers of leaf-gleaning insectivorous songbirds and may be an important indicator of arthropod prey species availability. Shifting tree flowering and leaf flush during the spring migration period presents avian insectivores with an assortment of foraging opportunities. During two field seasons at Cibola National Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Arizona, we examined riparian tree species to test whether leaf-gleaning insectivorous birds are attracted to the flowering condition of trees in choosing foraging sites. We predicted that flowering trees would host more insect prey resources, would thus show increased visit rates, length of stays and attack ratios of migrant avian insectivores, and that those arthropods would be found in the stomach contents of the birds. Paired trees of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), displaying heavy and light degrees of flowering were observed to test these predictions. To test whether birds are tracking arthropods directly or are using flowers as a proximate cue, we removed flowers from selected trees and paired these treated trees with neighboring high flowering trees, which served as controls. Avian foraging behavior, avian diets, arthropods, and phenology data were collected at the same time to control for temporal differences in insect availability, plant phenology, and differences in stopover arrivals of birds. We documented five patterns from this study: 1) Higher abundance and richness of arthropods were found on honey mesquite trees with greater numbers of flowers. 2) Arthropod abundance and richness increased as flowering
A 6-megawatt, 11 turbine wind power development was constructed by Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, southern Vermont, in 1996. To determine whether birds were impacted, a series of modified BA (Before, After) studies was conducted before construction (1993-1996), during (1996), and after (1997) construction on the project site. The studies were designed to monitor changes in breeding bird community (species composition and abundance) on the site, examine the behavior and numbers of songbirds migrating at night over the site and hawks migrating over the site in daylight, and search for carcasses of birds that might have collided with the turbines.
Szövényi, P; Terracciano, S; Ricca, M; Giordano, S; Shaw, A J
Several lines of evidence suggest that recent long-distance dispersal may have been important in the evolution of intercontinental distribution ranges of bryophytes. However, the absolute rate of intercontinental migration and its relative role in the development of certain distribution ranges is still poorly understood. To this end, the genetic structure of intercontinental populations of six peatmoss species showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution was investigated using microsatellite markers. Methods relying on the coalescent were applied (IM and MIGRATE) to understand the evolution of this distribution pattern in peatmosses. Intercontinental populations of the six peatmoss species were weakly albeit significantly differentiated (average F(ST) = 0.104). This suggests that the North Atlantic Ocean is acting as a barrier to gene flow even in bryophytes adapted to long-range dispersal. The im analysis suggested a relatively recent split of intercontinental populations dating back to the last two glacial periods (9000-289,000 years ago). In contrast to previous hypotheses, analyses indicated that both ongoing migration and ancestral polymorphism are important in explaining the intercontinental genetic similarity of peatmoss populations, but their relative contribution varies with species. Migration rates were significantly asymmetric towards America suggesting differential extinction of genotypes on the two continents or invasion of the American continent by European lineages. These results indicate that low genetic divergence of amphi-Atlantic populations is a general pattern across numerous flowering plants and bryophytes. However, in bryophytes, ongoing intercontinental gene flow and retained shared ancestral polymorphism must both be considered to explain the genetic similarity of intercontinental populations.
Liechti, F.; Dokter, A.; Shamoun, J.; van Gasteren, H.; Holleman, I.
For military training flights bird strikes en route are still a severe problem. To reduce collisions an international project has been launched by the European Space agency (ESA), aiming 1) for a compilation of information on current bird movements by various sensors, 2) to combine them in a single
.... Birding is one of the fastest growing recreational activities in the United States. The economic impacts associated with this recreational activity on local communities have only recently been recognized...
Lucas, Manuela de; Janss, Guyonne, F.E.; Ferrer, Miguel
The interaction between birds and wind turbines is an important factor to consider when a wind farm is constructed. A wind farm and two control areas were studied in Tarifa (Andalusia Province, southern Spain, 30STF590000–30STE610950).Variables were studied along linear transects in each area and observations of flight were also recorded from fixed points in the wind farm. The main purpose of our research was to determine the impact and the degree of flight behavioural change in birds flights...
Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Cervera, J.; Ferrero, J.L.
The radionuclides 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 90 Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated
Lameris, T.K.; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, S.; Cobben, M.M.P.; Ens, B.J.; Nolet, B.A.
Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset
McWilliams, S.R.; Guglielmo, C.; Pierce, B.; Klaassen, M.R.J.
Unlike exercising mammals, migratory birds fuel very high intensity exercise (e.g., flight) with fatty acids delivered from the adipose tissue to the working muscles by the circulatory system. Given the primary importance of fatty acids for fueling intense exercise, we discuss the likely limiting
Vardanis, Yannis; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas
As the evolutionary responses to environmental change depend on selection acting on individual differences, disentangling within- and between-individual variation becomes imperative. In animal migration research, multiyear tracks are thus needed to estimate the individual consistency of phenotypic
Using data primarily from the Honolulu Destination Survey (HDS), which is part of the Philippine Migration Study (a study of a migration system that has its origins in Ilocos Norte, a largely rural province in the Philippines), the author examines migration decision making among Philippine immigrants in Hawaii. The HDS, conducted in 1981, interviewed 1484 residents of Honolulu who immigrated from the Ilocos Region after the US immigration law was liberalized in 1965. Results from the Philippine Migration Study (PMS) survey show that of those who did not have any intentions to move within 2 years in 1980, 88% did not move between 1980 and 1982. Of those who said they were certain to move within 2 years, 54% actually moved, while only 36% who were fairly certain and 31% who were uncertain moved. Virtually all of those who actually moved to Hawaii from 1980-1982 had intended to move to Hawaii in 1980. It thus appears that most migration is planned well in advance. For those who have already migrated, their behavior in the destination is influenced by their expectations about future migration. An estimated 20-38.7% of legal immigrants to the US from the Philippines in 1971 had emigrated as of January 1979. 49% of HDS respondents said that they did not intend to move out of Hawaii any time in the future. Among those who intend to move in the future, 69% want to return to Ilocos and 26% intend to move to the US mainland. 40% want to leave Hawaii for economic reasons and 27% for affiliation purposes. The value expectancy framework used in the PMS measures expectations of achieving one's most important goals in alternative locations. The analysis employs both binomial and multinomial logit analysis to identify significant determinants of future migration intentions. The 7 conceptual categories are: wealth, status, comfort, stimulation, autonomy, affiliation, and morality. 90% consider "having a peaceful life" followed by "getting ahead in the world" the most important
Gohli, J.; Lifjeld, J. T.; Albrecht, Tomáš
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-52 ISSN 0394-9370 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : autosomes * female promiscuity * introns * seasonal migration * Z chromosome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2016
Full Text Available Observations on the autumn migration of raptors were carried out on the Calabrian Appennines in the area where the Italian peninsula is only 30 km wide. We used three different watch points at the same time between 24 August and 12 September 2005 and 2006. We observed 4,842 raptors in 2005 and 5,324 in 2006; most of these were Honey Buzzards, Black Kites, Marsh Harriers and Montagu’s Harriers.
Haest, Birgen; Hüppop, Ommo; Bairlein, Franz
Many migrant bird species that breed in the Northern Hemisphere show advancement in spring arrival dates. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is one of the climatic variables that have been most often investigated and shown to be correlated with these changes in spring arrival. Although the NAO is often claimed to be a good predictor or even to have a marked effect on interannual changes in spring migration phenology of Northern Hemisphere breeding birds, the results on relations between spring migration phenology and NAO show a large variety, ranging from no, over weak, to a strong association. Several factors, such as geographic location, migration phase, and the NAO index time window, have been suggested to partly explain these observed differences in association. A combination of a literature meta-analysis, and a meta-analysis and sliding time window analysis of a dataset of 23 short- and long-distance migrants from the constant-effort trapping garden at Helgoland, Germany, however, paints a completely different picture. We found a statistically significant overall effect size of the NAO on spring migration phenology (coefficient = -0.14, SE = 0.054), but this on average only explains 0%-6% of the variance in spring migration phenology across all species. As such, the value and biological meaning of the NAO as a general predictor or explanatory variable for climate change effects on migration phenology of birds, seems highly questionable. We found little to no definite support for previously suggested factors, such as geographic location, migration phenology phase, or the NAO time window, to explain the heterogeneity in correlation differences. We, however, did find compelling evidence that the lack of accounting for trends in both time series has led to strongly inflated (spurious) correlations in many studies (coefficient = -0.13, SE = 0.019). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)
England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Adamowicz, Sarah J; Petrusek, Adam; Colbourne, John K; Hebert, Paul D N; Witt, Jonathan D S
Molecular studies have enlightened our understanding of freshwater zooplankton biogeography, yet questions remain regarding the scale and commonality of geographic speciation. Here, we present a mtDNA-based phylogenetic hypothesis for 92 Daphnia species from all seven continents, with a focus on North and South America, Europe, and Australia, and use it to explore the frequency, scale, and geographical orientation of allopatric divergence events. Allopatric speciation can conservatively account for at least 42% of cladogenetic events among the species included in our study; most of these involve intercontinental splits. Closely related species pairs are concentrated in the circumarctic region and between northern and southern continents, aligned with bird migration routes, suggesting recent dispersal. By contrast, deeper phylogenetic patterns are consistent with vicariance scenarios linked to continental fragmentation. The possible reasons for the puzzling persistence of these ancient patterns in light of the eroding force of dispersal are considered. Our results demonstrate the high frequency and complex pattern of allopatric speciation in this ancient, passively dispersed genus.
Mead, Reginald; Paxton, John; Sojda, Richard S.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.
Radar ornithology has provided tools for studying the movement of birds, especially related to migration. Researchers have presented qualitative evidence suggesting that birds, or at least migration events, can be identified using large broad scale radars such as the WSR-88D used in the NEXRAD weather surveillance system. This is potentially a boon for ornithologists because such data cover a large portion of the United States, are constantly being produced, are freely available, and have been archived since the early 1990s. A major obstacle to this research, however, has been that identifying birds in NEXRAD data has required a trained technician to manually inspect a graphically rendered radar sweep. A single site completes one volume scan every five to ten minutes, producing over 52,000 volume scans in one year. This is an immense amount of data, and manual classification is infeasible. We have developed a system that identifies biological echoes using machine learning techniques. This approach begins with training data using scans that have been classified by experts, or uses bird data collected in the field. The data are preprocessed to ensure quality and to emphasize relevant features. A classifier is then trained using this data and cross validation is used to measure performance. We compared neural networks, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Empirical evidence is provided showing that this system can achieve classification accuracies in the 80th to 90th percentile. We propose to apply these methods to studying bird migration phenology and how it is affected by climate variability and change over multiple temporal scales.
civilian and military flights. Since 1985, nearly 38,000 bird-military aircraft collisions have been reported. These collisions have killed 33 pilots...stations in the contiguous United States. Edges of the circles are at 124 nautical mile range (230 km). and 2004, approximately 194 people were killed ... Mockingbird Wilson’s Snipe Pileated Woodpecker American Wigeon Red-bellied Woodpecker American Coot Red-cockaded Woodpecker Black-crowned Night
Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus
A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....
Bazzi, Gaia; Podofillini, Stefano; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Cecere, Jacopo G; Spina, Fernando; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego
The timing of major life-history events, such as migration and moult, is set by endogenous circadian and circannual clocks, that have been well characterized at the molecular level. Conversely, the genetic sources of variation in phenology and in other behavioral traits have been sparsely addressed. It has been proposed that inter-individual variability in the timing of seasonal events may arise from allelic polymorphism at phenological candidate genes involved in the signaling cascade of the endogenous clocks. In this study of a long-distance migratory passerine bird, the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus , we investigated whether allelic variation at 5 polymorphic loci of 4 candidate genes ( Adcyap1 , Clock , Creb1 , and Npas2 ), predicted 2 major components of the annual schedule, namely timing of spring migration across the central Mediterranean sea and moult speed, the latter gauged from ptilochronological analyses of tail feathers moulted in the African winter quarters. We identified a novel Clock gene locus ( Clock region 3) showing polyQ polymorphism, which was however not significantly associated with any phenotypic trait. Npas2 allele size predicted male (but not female) spring migration date, with males bearing longer alleles migrating significantly earlier than those bearing shorter alleles. Creb1 allele size significantly predicted male (but not female) moult speed, longer alleles being associated with faster moult. All other genotype-phenotype associations were statistically non-significant. These findings provide new evidence for a role of candidate genes in modulating the phenology of different circannual activities in long-distance migratory birds, and for the occurrence of sex-specific candidate gene effects.
Background The Ampelopsis clade (Ampelopsis and its close allies) of the grape family Vitaceae contains ca. 43 species disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Australia, and is a rare example to study both the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere intercontinental disjunctions. We reconstruct the temporal and spatial diversification of the Ampelopsis clade to explore the evolutionary processes that have resulted in their intercontinental disjunctions in six continents. Results The Bayesian molecular clock dating and the likelihood ancestral area analyses suggest that the Ampelopsis clade most likely originated in North America with its crown group dated at 41.2 Ma (95% HPD 23.4 - 61.0 Ma) in the middle Eocene. Two independent Laurasian migrations into Eurasia are inferred to have occurred in the early Miocene via the North Atlantic land bridges. The ancestor of the Southern Hemisphere lineage migrated from North America to South America in the early Oligocene. The Gondwanan-like pattern of intercontinental disjunction is best explained by two long-distance dispersals: once from South America to Africa estimated at 30.5 Ma (95% HPD 16.9 - 45.9 Ma), and the other from South America to Australia dated to 19.2 Ma (95% HPD 6.7 - 22.3 Ma). Conclusions The global disjunctions in the Ampelopsis clade are best explained by a diversification model of North American origin, two Laurasian migrations, one migration into South America, and two post-Gondwanan long-distance dispersals. These findings highlight the importance of both vicariance and long distance dispersal in shaping intercontinental disjunctions of flowering plants. PMID:22316163
Full Text Available The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (δ(2H of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.
Ramos, Raül; Song, Gang; Navarro, Joan; Zhang, Ruiying; Symes, Craig T; Forero, Manuela G; Lei, Fumin
Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.
The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has
Investigation of influenza in migrating birds, the primordial reservoir and transmitters of influenza in Brazil Investigação de influenza em aves migratórias, principal reservatório e transporte de influenza no Brasil
Adélia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto
Full Text Available Birds are the most important reservoirs of the influenza virus. Its maintenance in its natural hosts, including man, allows the influenza virus to reassorts its strains. The recent report of an avian influenza A (H5N1 virus in humans, was in a child with fatal respiratory illness in China, 1997. The current study was conducted to elucidate the transportation of the influenza by birds that migrate, annually, through the both Northern and Southern hemispheres, with special attention paid to the Vireo olivaceus [Juruviara(BR or Red-eyed vireo(USA] species, which travels from the USA to Brazil, and vice versa, and the Elaenia mesoleuca [Tuque(BR or (USA] species that flies over the entire Southern Hemisphere. There are two species of birds, which breed and migrate in São Paulo State, Brazil, and which were demonstrated to carry Influenza virus, were selected. The viral particles isolated were observed by electron microscopy. The influenza virus was detected by the House Duplex/PCR and Gloria molecular biology tests. The results demonstrated that the Elaenia mesoleuca and Vireo olivaceus bird species are carrying the Influenza virus whilst crossing both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. To understand the role that these migrating birds may play in epidemic influenza, in Brazil, characterization of avian influenza subtypes will be done.Os mais importantes reservatórios do vírus influenza são os pássaros. A manutenção do vírus influenza em hospedeiros naturais, inclusive o homem, permite que esse vírus realize rearranjos entre as suas cepas. O recente relato de uma cepa influenza aviária A(H5N1, em humanos, se deu em uma criança com doença respiratória fatal, na China em 1977. O presente estudo foi conduzido para elucidar o transporte da influenza por pássaros que migram, anualmente, através de ambos hemisférios o do Norte e do Sul, com especial atenção voltada à espécies Vireo olivaceo [Juruviara(BR e Red-eyed vireo(USA] que
Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Ouellet, J.F.; Pelletier, N.; Gallant, F.; Lavoie, J. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
The global production of electricity from wind power has increased significantly in recent years. As part of Hydro-Quebec's plans to increase wind power production, Cartier Wind Power plans to install 61 wind turbines at Baie-des-Sables on Quebec's Gaspe Peninsula where wind energy is abundant. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on birds and their habitat and migration patterns. In particular, it characterized the migratory passage of birds in the area through 900 hours of visual and auditory observation beginning with spring migration, spring nesting to autumnal migration. The behavior of different migratory birds as well as local species was studied and the results of the ornithological inventory were revealed in terms of species abundance and diversity; distribution and use of the territory by birds; migratory activities; period and importance of migration; characterization of displacement; height of flight; direction of migration; and, use of the territory by the avifauna. The inventory identified 121 species of birds including 14 species of raptors which moved mainly along the river and flew very high. The study revealed that although the bird habitats at Baie-des-Sables were already strongly disturbed by agricultural activities, it is unlikely that the turbines will not have any impact on the avifauna. However, most of the wind turbines will be installed in farmers fields, and as such, will not exert additional pressure on the forest medium. The factors that influence the rate of bird collisions with wind turbines were discussed. In order to lessen the impact on birds, it was suggested that installation work should occur outside of the nesting season and that the electrical supply networks should be hidden to limit the harmful effects posed by power lines. 16 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs., 11 maps, 9 appendices.
Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Kus, Barbara E.
Executive SummaryWe operated a bird banding station on the Point Loma peninsula in western San Diego County, California, during spring and summer from 2011 to 2015. The station was established in 2010 as part of a long-term monitoring program for neotropical migratory birds during spring migration and for breeding birds as part of the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program.During spring migration (April and May), 2011–15, we captured 1,760 individual birds of 54 species, 91 percent (1,595) of which were newly banded, fewer than 1 percent (3) of which were recaptures that were banded in previous years, and 9 percent (143 hummingbirds, 2 hawks, and 17 other birds) of which we released unbanded. We observed an additional 22 species that were not captured. Thirty-four individuals were captured more than once. Bird capture rate averaged 0.49 ± 0.07 captures per net-hour (range 0.41–0.56). Species richness per day averaged 6.87 ± 0.33. Cardellina pusilla (Wilson’s warbler) was the most abundant spring migrant captured, followed by Empidonax difficilis (Pacific-slope flycatcher), Vireo gilvus (warbling vireo), Zonotrichia leucophrys (white-crowned sparrow), and Selasphorus rufus (rufous hummingbird). Captures of white-crowned sparrow decreased, and captures of Pacific-slope flycatcher increased, over the 5 years of our study. Fifty-six percent of known-sex individuals were male and 44 percent were female. The peak number of new species arriving per day ranged from April 1 (2013-six species) to April 16 (2012-five species). A significant correlation was determined between the number of migrants captured each day per net-hour and the density of echoes on the Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images across all 5 years, and in each year except 2014. NEXRAD radar imagery appears to be a useful tool for detecting pulses in migration.Our results indicate that Point Loma provides stopover habitat during migration for 76 migratory species, including 20
Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei
We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ˜kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.
Willis, Charles E.; Leckie, Robert G.; Brink, Linda; Goeringer, Fred
The Telemedicine Spacebridge to Moscow was a series of intercontinental sessions sponsored jointly by NASA and the Moscow Academy of Medicine. To improve the quality of medical images presented, the MDIS Project developed a workstation for acquisition, storage, and interactive display of radiology and pathology images. The workstation was based on a Macintosh IIfx platform with a laser digitizer for radiographs and video capture capability for microscope images. Images were transmitted via the Russian Lyoutch Satellite which had only a single video channel available and no high speed data channels. Two workstations were configured -- one for use at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences in Bethesda, MD. and the other for use at the Hospital of the Interior in Moscow, Russia. The two workstations were used may times during 16 sessions. As clinicians used the systems, we modified the original configuration to improve interactive use. This project demonstrated that numerous acquisition and output devices could be brought together in a single interactive workstation. The video images were satisfactory for remote consultation in a grand rounds format.
Liao, Sheng-Kai; Cai, Wen-Qi; Handsteiner, Johannes; Liu, Bo; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Liang; Rauch, Dominik; Fink, Matthias; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Cao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Deng, Lei; Xi, Tao; Ma, Lu; Hu, Tai; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Koidl, Franz; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Steindorfer, Michael; Kirchner, Georg; Lu, Chao-Yang; Shu, Rong; Ursin, Rupert; Scheidl, Thomas; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Zeilinger, Anton; Pan, Jian-Wei
We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ∼kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive or operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was, on the one hand, the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a video conference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work clearly confirms the Micius satellite as a robust platform for quantum key distribution with different ground stations on Earth, and points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network.
Archibald, S Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R; Mathewes, Rolf W; Greenwood, David R
Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene.
Archibald, S. Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Greenwood, David R.
Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene. PMID:21543354
Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)
Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at L'Anse-a-Valleau wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de l'Anse-a-Valleau : rapport preliminaire
Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at L'Anse-a-Valleau in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 100.5 MW wind turbine park in L'Anse-a-Valleau was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between April 1 and May 14, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2003. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds over a 12 day period in L'Anse-a-Valleau as well as Lac du Grand Etang. During the 12 day observation period, bird watching took place for about four hours a day, from 10:00 to 15:00, given favourable weather conditions such as absence of rain and good visibility. Overall, 14 birds of prey were observed over a period of 44 hours. With 5 sightings, the red-tailed hawk was the most frequently observed species during this study. Very few signs of migration were noticed in L'Anse-a-Valleau. The results indicate that this region is not on the migratory path of birds of prey during their flight on the south side of the Saint-Lawrence River. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs., 3 appendices.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...
Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.
Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...
Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at the Baie-des-Sables wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de Baie-des-Sables : rapport preliminaire
Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at Baie-des-Sables in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 109.5 MW wind turbine park in Baie-des-Sables was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between March 31 and May 23, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2004. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds during the monitoring period. Nine species of birds of prey were identified. Overall, 448 individual birds were observed over a total period of 92 hours. With 137 sightings of the red-tailed hawk and 95 sightings of the rough-legged hawk, these 2 species were the most frequently indexed species, accounting for 51.8 per cent of the sightings. No evidence of nesting particular to birds of prey was observed at the site. The flight patterns of the birds were also observed with reference to height and direction of flight. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices.
Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...
Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Ruan, Luzhang; Casler, Bruce; Dondua, Alexei; Gates, River H.; Johnson, J. Matthew; Kendall, Steven J.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Tracy, Diane; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.
Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are the most common wild vectors of influenza A viruses. Due to their migratory behavior, some may transmit disease over long distances. Migratory connectivity studies can link breeding and nonbreeding grounds while illustrating potential interactions among populations that may spread diseases. We investigated Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a shorebird with a subspecies (C. a. arcticola) that migrates from nonbreeding areas endemic to avian influenza in eastern Asia to breeding grounds in northern Alaska. Using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, we illustrate genetic structure among six subspecies: C. a. arcticola, C. a. pacifica, C. a. hudsonia, C. a. sakhalina, C. a. kistchinski, and C. a. actites. We demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA can help distinguish C. a. arcticola on the Asian nonbreeding grounds with >70% accuracy depending on their relative abundance, indicating that genetics can help determine whether C. a. arcticola occurs where they may be exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) during outbreaks. Our data reveal asymmetric intercontinental gene flow, with some C. a. arcticola short-stopping migration to breed with C. a. pacifica in western Alaska. Because C. a. pacifica migrates along the Pacific Coast of North America, interactions between these subspecies and other taxa provide route for transmission of HPAI into other parts of North America.
Zaugg, S.; Saporta, G.; van Loon, E.; Schmaljohann, H.; Liechti, F.
Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...
Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America
Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert; Ip, Hon S.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America. We evaluated three hypotheses about novel HPAIV introduced into wild and domestic bird hosts: (i) transmission of novel HPAIVs in wild birds was restricted by mechanisms associated with highly pathogenic phenotypes; (ii) the HPAIV poultry outbreak was not self-sustaining and required viral input from wild birds; and (iii) reassortment of the EA H5N8 generated reassortant EA/NA AIVs with a fitness advantage over fully Eurasian lineages in North American wild birds. We used a time-rooted phylodynamic model that explicitly incorporated viral population dynamics with evolutionary dynamics to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and viral migration among host types in domestic and wild birds, as well as between the EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. We did not find evidence to support hypothesis (i) or (ii) as our estimates of the transmission parameters suggested that the HPAIV outbreak met or exceeded the threshold for persistence in wild birds (R0 > 1) and poultry (R0 ≈ 1) with minimal estimated transmission among host types. There was also no evidence to support hypothesis (iii) because R0 values were similar among EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. Our results suggest that this novel HPAIV and reassortments did not encounter any transmission barriers sufficient to prevent persistence when introduced to wild or domestic birds.
Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.
This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings
Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.
Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.
Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J
Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kim, Jin-Yong; Lee, Sanghun; Shin, Man-Seok; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Seo, Changwan; Eo, Soo Hyung
Altitudinal patterns in the population ecology of mountain bird species are useful for predicting species occurrence and behavior. Numerous hypotheses about the complex interactions among environmental factors have been proposed; however, these still remain controversial. This study aimed to identify the altitudinal patterns in breeding bird species richness or density and to test the hypotheses that climate, habitat heterogeneity (horizontal and vertical), and heterospecific attraction in a temperate forest, South Korea. We conducted a field survey of 142 plots at altitudes between 200 and 1,400 m a.s.l in the breeding season. A total of 2,771 individuals from 53 breeding bird species were recorded. Altitudinal patterns of species richness and density showed a hump-shaped pattern, indicating that the highest richness and density could be observed at moderate altitudes. Models constructed with 13 combinations of six variables demonstrated that species richness was positively correlated with vertical and horizontal habitat heterogeneity. Density was positively correlated with vertical, but not horizontal habitat heterogeneity, and negatively correlated with migratory bird ratio. No significant relationships were found between spring temperature and species richness or density. Therefore, the observed patterns in species richness support the hypothesis that habitat heterogeneity, rather than climate, is the main driver of species richness. Also, neither habitat heterogeneity nor climate hypotheses fully explains the observed patterns in density. However, vertical habitat heterogeneity does likely help explain observed patterns in density. The heterospecific attraction hypothesis did not apply to the distribution of birds along the altitudinal gradient. Appropriate management of vertical habitat heterogeneity, such as vegetation cover, should be maintained for the conservation of bird diversity in this area.
Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4 is found sporadically in wild birds worldwide, and it is an economically important poultry pathogen. Despite the existence of several published strains, very little is known about the distribution, host species, and transmission of APMV-4 strains. To better understand the relationships among these factors, we conducted an APMV-4 surveillance of wild birds and domestic poultry in six provinces of China suspected of being intercontinental flyways and sites of interspecies transmission. APMV-4 surveillance was conducted in 9,160 wild birds representing seven species, and 1,461 domestic poultry in live bird markets (LMBs from December 2013 to June 2016. The rate of APMV-4 isolation was 0.10% (11/10,621, and viruses were isolated from swan geese, bean geese, cormorants, mallards, and chickens. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolated viruses indicated that all the isolates belonging to genotype I were epidemiologically connected with wild bird-origin viruses from the Ukraine and Italy. Moreover, chicken-origin APMV-4 strains isolated from the LBMs were highly similar to wild bird-origin viruses from nearby lakes with free-living wild birds. In additional, a hemagglutination-negative APMV-4 virus was identified. These findings, together with recent APMV-4 studies, suggest potential virus interspecies transmission between wild birds and domestic poultry, and reveal possible epidemiological intercontinental connections between APMV-4 transmission by wild birds.
Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel
Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....
stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory birds in the ...
Wouterse, F.S.; Berg, van den M.M.
This paper uses a system of labour supply equations and data from Burkina Faso collected in 2003 to test the conditions underlying two different migratory movements: continental and intercontinental migration. We provide theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence that heterogeneity in migration is
A. M. Fiore
Full Text Available Changing land-use and climate may alter emissions of biogenic isoprene, a key ozone (O3 precursor. Isoprene is also a precursor to peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and thus affects partitioning among oxidized nitrogen (NOy species, shifting the balance towards PAN, which more efficiently contributes to long-range transport relative to nitric acid (HNO3 which rapidly deposits. With a suite of sensitivity simulations in the MOZART-2 global tropospheric chemistry model, we gauge the relative importance of the intercontinental influence of a 20% increase in North American (NA isoprene and a 20% decrease in NA anthropogenic emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC and NOx + NMVOC + carbon monoxide + aerosols. The surface O3 response to NA isoprene emissions (ΔO3_ISOP in surface air over NA is about one third of the response to all NA anthropogenic emissions (ΔO3_ANTH; although with different signs. Over intercontinental distances, ΔO3_ISOP is relatively larger; in summer and fall, ΔO3_ISOP in surface air over Europe and North Africa (EU region is more than half of ΔO3_ANTH. Future increases in NA isoprene emissions could thus offset decreases in EU surface O3 resulting from controls on NA anthropogenic emissions. Over the EU region, ΔPAN_ISOP at 700 hPa is roughly the same magnitude as ΔPAN_ANTH (oppositely signed. Outside of the continental source region, the percentage changes in PAN are at least twice as large as for surface O3, implying that long-term PAN measurements at high altitude sites may help to detect O3 precursor emission changes. We find that neither the baseline level of isoprene emissions nor the fate of isoprene nitrates contributes to the large diversity in model estimates of the anthropogenic emission influence on intercontinental surface O
G. Gunnarsson (Gunnar); N. Latorre-Margalef (Neus); K.A. Hobson (Keith); S.L. van Wilgenburg (Steven); J. Elmberg (Johan); B. Olsen (Björn); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J. Waldenström (Jonas)
textabstractThe mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and
Weinzierl, Bernadett; Petzold, Andreas; Fiebig, Markus; Huntrieser, Heidi; Minikin, Andreas; Stohl, Andreas; real, Elsa; Law, Kathy; Cozic, Julie; Weingartner, Ernest
In summer 2004 the long-range transport of particles emitted from large forest fires in Canada and Alaska contributed significantly to the aerosol loading of the free troposphere over Europe . Airborne in situ measurements on the intercontinental transport of aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic origin were performed at the European west coast as a part of the ICARTT-ITOP study (Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors). During the study the German Falcon 20 E-5 research aircraf...
Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD
The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.
Townsend, Ted M; Leavitt, Dean H; Reeder, Tod W
Intercontinental dispersal via land bridge connections has been important in the biogeographic history of many Holarctic plant and animal groups. Likewise, some groups appear to have accomplished trans-oceanic dispersal via rafting. Dibamid lizards are a clade of poorly known fossorial, essentially limbless species traditionally split into two geographically disjunct genera: Dibamus comprises approximately 20 Southeast Asian species, many of which have very limited geographical distributions, and the monotypic genus Anelytropsis occupies a small area of northeastern Mexico. Although no formal phylogeny of the group exists, a sister-taxon relationship between the two genera has been assumed based on biogeographic considerations. We used DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and six nuclear protein-coding genes to construct a phylogeny of Dibamidae and to estimate divergence times within the group. Surprisingly, sampled Dibamus species form two deeply divergent, morphologically conserved and geographically concordant clades, one of which is the sister taxon of Anelytropsis papillosus. Our analyses indicate Palaearctic to Nearctic Beringian dispersal in the Late Palaeocene to Eocene. Alternatively, a trans-Pacific rafting scenario would extend the upper limit on dispersal to the Late Cretaceous. Either scenario constitutes a remarkable long-distance dispersal in what would seem an unlikely candidate.
Chatfield, Robert B.; Guo, Zitan
The Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling Group is participating in an international effort to explore the projected interactions of the atmosphere with biota, human activity, and the natural environment over the next three decades. The group uses computer simulations and statistical analyses to compare theory and observations of the composition of the lower atmosphere. This study of global habitability change is part of a more ambitious activity to understand global habitability. This broad planetary understanding is central to planetary habitability, biomarker detection, and similar aspects of Astrobiology. The group has made highly detailed studies of immense intercontinental plumes that affect the chemistry of the global atmosphere, especially the region below the ozone (O3) layer whose chemical composition defines the conditions for healthy humans and the biosphere. For some decades there has been concern about the pollution from cities and industrial burning and its possible effect in increasing smog ozone, not only in continental regions, but also in plumes that spread downwind. Recently, there has been new concern about another kind of pollution plume. Projections for a greatly expanded aircraft fleet imply that there will be plumes of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) from jet exhaust in the Northern Hemisphere downwind of major air traffic routes. Both of these are tied to large-scale O3 in the troposphere, where it is toxic to humans and plant tissues.
D. Smith,; H. Timonen,; D. Jaffe,; Griffin, Dale W.; M. Birmele,; Perry, K.D.; Ward, P.D.; M. Roberts,
Microorganisms are abundant in the upper atmosphere, particularly downwind of arid regions, where winds can mobilize large amounts of topsoil and dust. However, the challenge of collecting samples from the upper atmosphere and reliance upon culture-based characterization methods have prevented a comprehensive understanding of globally dispersed airborne microbes. In spring 2011 at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory in North America (2.8 km above sea level), we captured enough microbial biomass in two transpacific air plumes to permit a microarray analysis using 16S rRNA genes. Thousands of distinct bacterial taxa spanning a wide range of phyla and surface environments were detected before, during, and after each Asian long-range transport event. Interestingly, the transpacific plumes delivered higher concentrations of taxa already in the background air (particularly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes). While some bacterial families and a few marine archaea appeared for the first and only time during the plumes, the microbial community compositions were similar, despite the unique transport histories of the air masses. It seems plausible, when coupled with atmospheric modeling and chemical analysis, that microbial biogeography can be used to pinpoint the source of intercontinental dust plumes. Given the degree of richness measured in our study, the overall contribution of Asian aerosols to microbial species in North American air warrants additional investigation.
Tricia A. Miller; Brooks Robert P.; Michael J. Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Junior A. Tremblay; Jay Wilhelm; Adam Duerr; Todd E. Katzner
Migration is costly in terms of time, energy and safety. Optimal migration theory suggests that individual migratory birds will choose between these three costs depending on their motivation and available resources. To test hypotheses about use of migratory strategies by large soaring birds, we used GPS telemetry to track 18 adult, 13 sub-adult and 15 juvenile Golden...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...
Xudong Zhou; Treena I. Burgess; Z. Wilhelm De Beer; Francois Lieutier; Annie Yart; Kier Klepzig; Angus Carnegie; Julio Mena Portales; Brenda D. Wingfield; Michael J. Wingfield
Ophiostoma ips is a common fungal associate of various conifer-infesting bark beetles in their native ranges and has been introduced into non-native pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the population biology of O. ips in native (Cuba, France, Morocco and USA) and non-native (...
Mohammed Y. Shobrak
Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.
Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.
Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...
Julia Ruiz Di Giovanni
Full Text Available The proposal of this text is to present the questions raised by the World March of Women participation in the III Intercontinental Youth Camp. The activities and actions put forward by young feminists from all continents reveal that the experiences of this new political generation update and renew the fundamental questions of womens movements organising.
Mounting evidence for intercontinental transport of aerosols suggests that aerosols from a region could significantly affect climate and air quality in downwind regions and continents. Current assessment of these impacts for the most part has been based on global model simulations that show large variability. The aerosol intercontinental transport and its influence on air quality and climate involve many processes at local, regional, and intercontinental scales. There is a pressing need to establish modeling systems that bridge the wide range of scales. The modeling systems need to be evaluated and constrained by observations, including satellite measurements. Columnar loadings of dust and combustion aerosols can be derived from the MODIS and MISR measurements of total aerosol optical depth and particle size and shape information. Characteristic transport heights of dust and combustion aerosols can be determined from the CALIPSO lidar and AIRS measurements. CALIPSO liar and OMI UV technique also have a unique capability of detecting aerosols above clouds, which could offer some insights into aerosol lofting processes and the importance of above-cloud transport pathway. In this presentation, I will discuss our efforts of integrating these satellite measurements and models to assess the significance of intercontinental transport of dust and combustion aerosols on regional air quality and climate.
Brunet, R. [Genivar SEC, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)
This PowerPoint presentation described some of the inventories and instrumentation available for monitoring winged fauna in and around wind farms. In addition to visual observations, bird calls and songs can be recorded to determine the amount and different types of birds located at wind farm sites. Radio-telemetry devices are also used to evaluate bird activities, and nest searches are conducted to determine the amount of eggs or young birds that will soon add to the bird population. Between 90 and 100 percent of birds and bats migrate at night. Acoustic radar, Doppler radar, and maritime surveillance radar instruments are used to monitor night-time activities in wind farm locations. Doppler radar is also used to detect bird and bat migration corridors. Screen-shots of various radar interfaces were presented. tabs., figs.
Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G.; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Juste, Javier
Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreov...
Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye
The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation? Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1 1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...
Ellis, D.H.; Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Clegg, K.R.; Duff, J.W.; Gee, G.F.; Lewis, J.C.
In 15 experiments from 1993-2002, we led cranes, geese, or swans on their first southward migration with either ultralight aircraft or vehicles on the ground. These experiments reveal that large birds can be readily trained to follow and most will return north (and south) in subsequent migrations unassisted. These techniques can now be used to teach birds new (or forgotten) migration paths. Although we are constantly improving our training techniques, we now have an operational program that can be broadly applied to those species where juveniles learn migration routes from their parents.
Kuehne, Thomas; Blanchette, Victor; Buchanan, George R.; Ramenghi, Ugo; Donato, Hugo; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; Rischewski, Johannes; Berchtold, Willi; Imbach, Paul
Background. Splenectomy is an effective procedure for children and adults with severe or refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Data regarding pediatric patients are limited. Procedure. Sixty-eight Intercontinental Childhood ITP Study Group (ICIS) investigators from 57 institutions in
The main objective of the present dissertation is to examine the importance of the Public Relations (PR) in the Marketing Mix through a case analysis of the PR office at the Athenaeum InterContinental Athens and its multifunctional operation within the hotel. Initially, a quite detailed analysis of the PR advantages and disadvantages as well as its main objectives, methods, tools and tactics are presented. The second chapter introduces us to the Case Study of the Athenaeum InterContinental At...
Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi
Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...
Breeding of marine birds on Farwa Island, western Libya. ... They provide food, shelter and nesting grounds for many avifauna during their migration ... northern part of the island and at Ras-Attalgha, beside the plant cover of the island itself.
Helseth, Anders; Lindström, Åke; Stervander, Martin
We compared the differences between spring and autumn in migration speed, fuelling rates and fuel loads of migrating Red Knots Calidris canutus. As a basis we used ringing data from Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeastern Sweden, collected 1948–2003, with morphometrical data from 1990–2003. Numbers ringed varied between 0 and 301 per year (average 56). Morphometrics, recoveries and recaptures of ringed birds indicated that most birds belonged to the Afro-Siberian subspecies C. c. canutus, poss...
ABSTRACT. Among the most complex and fascinating behaviour in birds is their long, non-stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory ...
Breaching events were associated with a change in feeding groups from waders to pursuit feeders, and a decrease in total bird numbers, most likely due to loss of potential littoral zone foraging habitat for waders resulting from reduced water levels. The highest bird numbers were recorded in winter reflecting the migration of ...
Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...
Wuebbles, Donald J.; Lei, Hang; Lin, Jintai
The intercontinental transport of aerosols and photochemical oxidants from Asia is a crucial issue for air quality concerns in countries downwind of the significant emissions and concentrations of pollutants occurring in this important region of the world. Since the lifetimes of some important pollutants are long enough to be transported over long distance in the troposphere, regional control strategies for air pollution in downwind countries might be ineffective without considering the effects of long-range transport of pollutants from Asia. Field campaigns provide strong evidence for the intercontinental transport of Asian pollutants. They, together with ground-based observations and model simulations, show that the air quality over parts of North America is being affected by the pollutants transported from Asia. This paper examines the current understanding of the intercontinental transport of gases and aerosols from Asia and resulting effects on air quality, and on the regional and global climate system. - Air quality over parts of North America is being affected by pollutants transported from Asia
Oort, van E.D.
Since May of this year the Museum of Natural History at Leyden is carrying into execution the inquiry into migration and other movements of birds in the Netherlands by means of aluminium rings. The results will be published in this periodical and at the same time in Dutch in the periodical of the
Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter
Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....
The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...
Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)
The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)
Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.
The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)
Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the
Antoinette J Piaggio
Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.
Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders
Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances
Florian T Muijres
Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate
The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report attention is paid to the disturbance of the bird's biotope. The results show that four species of grassland birds, breeding in the park, were hardly disturbed by the wind turbines. For feeding and resting birds, however, disturbance effects were noted, even at a distance of 500 meters from the outside wind turbine array. The present number of bird species reduced 60-95%, dependent on the species, after the wind park was put into operation. Also the behavior of migrating birds was influenced by the wind park, showed in clustering of groups or avoiding the wind park, sometimes up to 67% of the birds did so. It is therefore recommended not to implement new wind parks in important bird migration and bird feeding or bird resting areas. Bird popular areas, however, are mostly windy areas. 15 figs., 25 tabs., 56 app., 128 refs
Cererols, N.; Martinez, A.; Ferrer, M.
This paper shows the conclusions of a 16 month study of the possible impacts on the local and migrating population of birds of a wind farm located in the passageway of migrating birds between Africa and Europe. On the whole, the wind farm did not prove to represent an important impact on the birds present in its surroundings and, on the contrary, created a new habitat for some species not present in adjacent areas. (author)
Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Pedersen, Lykke
The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like...... frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration. We use...... of the life cycle. Accelerometer recording of the annual activity patterns of individual birds will open up a new dimension in bird migration research....
Osborn, R.G.; Dieter, C.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.
During 1994-1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82-84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22-55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.
Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.
Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.
Brunke, Adam J; Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Metscher, Brian D; Wolf-Schwenninger, Karin; Solodovnikov, Alexey
Massive biotic change occurred during the Eocene as the climate shifted from warm and equable to seasonal and latitudinally stratified. Mild winter temperatures across Arctic intercontinental land bridges permitted dispersal of frost-intolerant groups until the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, while trans-Arctic dispersal in thermophilic groups may have been limited to the early Eocene, especially during short-lived hyperthermals. Some of these lineages are now disjunct between continents of the northern hemisphere. Although Eocene climate change may have been one of the most important drivers of these ancient patterns in modern animal and plant distributions, its particular events are rarely implicated or correlated with group-specific climatic requirements. Here we explored the climatic and geological drivers of a particularly striking Neotropical-Oriental disjunct distribution in the rove beetle Bolitogyrus, a suspected Eocene relict. We integrated evidence from Eocene fossils, distributional and climate data, paleoclimate, paleogeography, and phylogenetic divergence dating to show that intercontinental dispersal of Bolitogyrus ceased in the early Eocene, consistent with the termination of conditions required by thermophilic lineages. These results provide new insight into the poorly known and short-lived Arctic forest community of the Early Eocene and its surviving lineages.
Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.
... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...
National Audubon Society, New York, NY.
Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…
... the IntercontinentalExchange, Inc., Does Not Perform a Significant Price Discovery Function AGENCY...'') under sections 2(h)(3)-(5) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA'' or the ``Act''), performs a significant price discovery function pursuant to section 2(h)(7) of the CEA. The Commission undertook this...
The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forest dwelling neotropical migratory birds require intact forested stopovers during migration. The number of paths that pass through a HUC highlight that huc's...
Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich
Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Horowitz, Larry W.
In this second of two companion papers, we quantify for the first time the global impact on premature mortality of the inter-continental transport of fine aerosols (including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, and mineral dust) using the global modeling results of (Liu et al., 2009). Our objective is to estimate the number of premature mortalities in each of ten selected continental regions resulting from fine aerosols transported from foreign regions in approximately year 2000. Our simulated annual mean population-weighted (P-W) concentrations of total PM2.5 (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are highest in East Asia (EA, 30 μg m -3) and lowest in Australia (3.6 μg m -3). Dust is the dominant component of PM2.5 transported between continents. We estimate global annual premature mortalities (for adults age 30 and up) due to inter-continental transport of PM2.5 to be nearly 380 thousand (K) in 2000. Approximately half of these deaths occur in the Indian subcontinent (IN), mostly due to aerosols transported from Africa and the Middle East (ME). Approximately 90K deaths globally are associated with exposure to foreign (i.e., originating outside a receptor region) non-dust PM2.5. More than half of the premature mortalities associated with foreign non-dust aerosols are due to aerosols originating from Europe (20K), ME (18K) and EA (15K); and nearly 60% of the 90K deaths occur in EA (21K), IN (19K) and Southeast Asia (16K). The lower and higher bounds of our estimated 95% confidence interval (considering uncertainties from the concentration-response relationship and simulated aerosol concentrations) are 18% and 240% of the estimated deaths, respectively, and could be larger if additional uncertainties were quantified. We find that in 2000 nearly 6.6K premature deaths in North America (NA) were associated with foreign PM2.5 exposure (5.5K from dust PM2.5). NA is least impacted by foreign PM2.5 compared to receptors on the Eurasian continent. However, the
Liu Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L
In this study, we compare the potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on the air quality of (different) continental regions. We use a global chemical transport model, Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), to quantify the source-receptor relationships of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols among ten regions in 2000. In order to compare the importance of foreign with domestic emissions and to estimate the effect of future changes in emissions on human exposure, we define an 'influence potential' (IP). The IP quantifies the human exposure that occurs in a receptor region as a result of a unit of SO 2 emissions from a source region. We find that due to the non-linear nature of sulfate production, regions with low SO 2 emissions usually have large domestic IP, and vice versa. An exception is East Asia (EA), which has both high SO 2 emissions and relatively large domestic IP, mostly caused by the spatial coincidence of emissions and population. We find that inter-continental IPs are usually less than domestic IPs by 1-3 orders of magnitude. SO 2 emissions from the Middle East (ME) and Europe (EU) have the largest potential to influence populations in surrounding regions. By comparing the IP ratios (IPR) between foreign and domestic SO 2 emissions, we find that the IPR values range from 0.000 01 to 0.16 and change with season. Therefore, if reducing human exposure to sulfate aerosols is the objective, all regions should first focus on reducing domestic SO 2 emissions. In addition, we find that relatively high IPR values exist among the EU, ME, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and African (AF) regions. Therefore, on the basis of the IP and IPR values, we conclude that a regional agreement among EA countries, and an inter-regional agreement among EU, ME, FSU and (north) AF regions to control sulfur emissions could benefit public health in these regions
Colin J. Pennycuick
Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....
Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk
Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003
Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...
Kingsley, A.; Whitman, B.
As the number of new wind power generating stations in Canada grows, so do concerns regarding the environmental impact of turbines on birds, particularly on raptors and migrating songbirds. These birds are generally at greatest risk of injury or death from turbines, but the impact of these structures on all bird species must be considered on a site-by-site basis. Disturbance to breeding and wintering as a result of turbines must be better researched. This report reviews the literature on the effects of wind turbines on birds, with reference to the North Cape, Prince Edward Island. It recommends ways to reduce potential impacts of turbines on birds in that area, and suggests a program whereby the potential effects of wind turbines on birds can be monitored. The bird groups likely to be seen at North Cape include water birds, raptors, songbirds, and 5 bird species that are considered to be provincially rare. The main causes of bird mortality at wind powered energy facilities are birds flying into rotating turbine blades. Migrating birds are attracted to warning lights on the turbines and collide with the structures and they also collide with the power lines connected to the station. Poor weather conditions, such as fog, increase the occurrence of collisions with towers. Several studies have shown that most migrating and wintering bird species alter their flight paths to avoid turbines. Studies also indicate that bird mortalities at wind energy facilities are not biologically significant and that impacts are not likely to be significant if wind turbines are located in areas of poor habitat and low bird densities. 61 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.
Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.
Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G
The influence of air humidification in aircraft, on perception of cabin air quality among airline crew (N = 71) was investigated. In-flight investigations were performed in the forward part and in the aft part on eight intercontinental flights with one Boeing 767 individually, equipped with an evaporation humidifier combined with a dehumidifying unit, to reduce accumulation of condensed water in the wall construction. Four flights had the air humidification active when going out, and turned off on the return flight. The four others had the inverse humidification sequence. The sequences were randomized, and double blind. Air humidification increased relative air humidity (RH) by 10% in forward part, and by 3% in aft part of the cabin and in the cockpit. When the humidification device was active, the cabin air was perceived as being less dry (P = 0.008), and fresher (P = 0.002). The mean concentration of viable bacteria (77-108 cfu/m(3)), viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and respirable particles (1-8 microg/m3) was low, both during humidified and non-humidified flights. On flights with air humidification, there were less particles in the forward part of the aircraft (P = 0.01). In conclusion, RH can be slightly increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. The cabin air quality was perceived as being better with air humidification. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Relative air humidity is low (10-20%) during intercontinental flights, and can be increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganism in cabin air. Air humidification could increase the sensation of better cabin air quality.
Sojda, R.; Ruth, J.M.; Barrow, W.C.; Dawson, D.K.; Diehl, R.H.; Manville, A.; Green, M.T.; Krueper, D.J.; Johnston, S.
Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.
Levison, Matthew E
Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).
Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...
Diehl, Robert Howard
The challenge for migratory bird conservation is habitat preservation that sustains breeding, migration, and non-breeding biological processes. In choosing an appropriately scaled conservation arena for habitat preservation, a conservative and thorough examination of stopover habitat use patterns by migrants works back from the larger scales at which such relationships may occur. Because the use of stopover habitats by migrating birds occurs at spatial scales larger than traditional field techniques can easily accommodate, I quantify these relationship using the United States system of weather surveillance radars (popularly known as NEXRAD). To provide perspective on use of this system for biologists, I first describe the technical challenges as well as some of the biological potential of these radars for ornithological research. Using data from these radars, I then examined the influence of Lake Michigan and the distribution of woodland habitat on migrant concentrations in northeastern Illinois habitats during stopover. Lake Michigan exerted less influence on migrant abundance and density than the distribution and availability of habitat for stopover. There was evidence of post-migratory movement resulting in habitats within suburban landscapes experiencing higher migrant abundance but lower migrant density than habitats within nearby urban and agricultural landscapes. Finally, in the context of hierarchy theory, I examined the influence of landscape ecological and behavioral processes on bird density during migratory stopover. Migrant abundance did not vary across landscapes that differed considerably in the amount of habitat available for stopover. As a result, smaller, more isolated patches held higher densities of birds. Spatial models of migrant habitat selection based on migrant proximity to a patch explained nearly as much variance in the number of migrants occupying patches (R2 = 0.88) as selection models based on migrant interception of patches during
Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...
Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter
The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....
Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Hazelwood, Rob
The importance of migration stopover sites in ensuring that migratory birds successfully accomplish their journeys between breeding and non-breeding ranges has come to the forefront of avian research. Migratory birds that breed in western United States (US) and Canada and overwinter primarily in western Mexico migrate across the arid region of northern Mexico and southwestern US. Many of these migrants use lowland riparian stopover habitats, which comprise less than 0.1% of the western U.S. landscape. These habitats represent a significant conservation priority.
Willemoes, Mikkel; Blas, Julio; Wikelski, Martin
Migrating birds follow innate species-specific migration programs capable of guiding them along complex spatio-temporal routes, which may include several separate staging areas. Indeed, migration routes of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus show little variation between individuals; yet, satellite...... tracks of 11 experimentally displaced adults revealed an unexpected flexibility in individual navigation responses. The birds compensated for the translocation to unfamiliar areas by travelling toward population-specific staging areas, demonstrating true navigation capabilities. Individual responses...
Jack C. Capp; David Mehlman
Over five billion birds move each year across the Americas, flying great distances over almost every location and habitat on the continents (Weidensaul 1999). Over 350 of the over 800 bird species in the United States migrate each year to Latin America and the Caribbean (Degraaf and Rappole 1995). Some fly each way over 4000 miles, chasing the seasons across oceans and...
I. P. Stamat
Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.
Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)
Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, M; Ellis-Soto, D; Safi, K; O'Mara, M Teague
Migratory decisions in birds are closely tied to environmental cues and fat stores, but it remains unknown if the same variables trigger bat migration. To learn more about the rare phenomenon of bat migration, we studied departure decisions of female common noctules ( Nyctalus noctula ) in southern Germany. We did not find the fattening period that modulates departure decisions in birds. Female noctules departed after a regular evening foraging session, uniformly heading northeast. As the day of year increased, migratory decisions were based on the interactions among wind speed, wind direction and air pressure. As the migration season progressed, bats were likely to migrate on nights with higher air pressure and faster tail winds in the direction of travel, and also show high probability of migration on low-pressure nights with slow head winds. Common noctules thus monitor complex environmental conditions to find the optimal migration night. © 2017 The Authors.
Møller, A P; Rubolini, D; Saino, N
Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 European migratory bird species. Species with larger aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, may hinder phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Roč. 40, č. 4 (2004), s. 639-659 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Arboviruses * birds * migration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2004 http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/40/4/639
... are also capable of producing oil. Nature based tourism and recreation, such as the viewing of wildlife coupled with; management of migratory birds promotes market for other industrial goods such as lead shot, guns and binocular. Keywords: Migration; Recreation and Tourism; Trophies; Ornament; Food; Production of Oil ...
Scott H. Stoleson
Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...
Frank R. Moore; Mark S. Woodrey; Jeffrey J. Buler; Stefan Woltmann; Ted R. Simons
The development of comprehensive conservation strategies and management plans for migratory birds depends on understanding migrant-habitat relations throughout the annual cycle, including the time when migrants stopover en route. Yet, the complexity of migration makes the assessment of habitat requirements and development of a comprehensive...
Sidney A. Gauthreaux; Carroll G. Belser
It is possible to study with surveillance radar the movements of migrating birds in the atmosphere at different spatial scales. At a spatial scale within a range of 6 kilometers, high-resolution, 3-centimeter wavelength surveillance radar (e.g. BIRDRAD) can detect the departure of migrants from different types of habitat within a few kilometers of the radar. The radar...
This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...
Zhuang, Jiawei; Jacob, Daniel J.; Eastham, Sebastian D.
Chemical plumes in the free troposphere can preserve their identity for more than a week as they are transported on intercontinental scales. Current global models cannot reproduce this transport. The plumes dilute far too rapidly due to numerical diffusion in sheared flow. We show how model accuracy can be limited by either horizontal resolution (Δx) or vertical resolution (Δz). Balancing horizontal and vertical numerical diffusion, and weighing computational cost, implies an optimal grid resolution ratio (Δx / Δz)opt ˜ 1000 for simulating the plumes. This is considerably higher than current global models (Δx / Δz ˜ 20) and explains the rapid plume dilution in the models as caused by insufficient vertical resolution. Plume simulations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (GFDL-FV3) over a range of horizontal and vertical grid resolutions confirm this limiting behavior. Our highest-resolution simulation (Δx ≈ 25 km, Δz ≈ 80 m) preserves the maximum mixing ratio in the plume to within 35 % after 8 days in strongly sheared flow, a drastic improvement over current models. Adding free tropospheric vertical levels in global models is computationally inexpensive and would also improve the simulation of water vapor.
Full Text Available Chemical plumes in the free troposphere can preserve their identity for more than a week as they are transported on intercontinental scales. Current global models cannot reproduce this transport. The plumes dilute far too rapidly due to numerical diffusion in sheared flow. We show how model accuracy can be limited by either horizontal resolution (Δx or vertical resolution (Δz. Balancing horizontal and vertical numerical diffusion, and weighing computational cost, implies an optimal grid resolution ratio (Δx ∕ Δzopt ∼ 1000 for simulating the plumes. This is considerably higher than current global models (Δx ∕ Δz ∼ 20 and explains the rapid plume dilution in the models as caused by insufficient vertical resolution. Plume simulations with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (GFDL-FV3 over a range of horizontal and vertical grid resolutions confirm this limiting behavior. Our highest-resolution simulation (Δx ≈ 25 km, Δz ≈ 80 m preserves the maximum mixing ratio in the plume to within 35 % after 8 days in strongly sheared flow, a drastic improvement over current models. Adding free tropospheric vertical levels in global models is computationally inexpensive and would also improve the simulation of water vapor.
Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Christopher, S. A.; Prins, E. M.; Justice, C. O.; Richardson, K. A.; Reid, E. A.; Eck, T. F.
With the aid of fire products from GOES and MODIS, the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) successfully monitors and predicts the formation and transport of massive smoke plumes between the continents in near real time. The goal of this system, formed under the joint Navy, NASA, and NOAA sponsored Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project, is to provide 5 day forecasts of large biomass burning plumes and evaluate impacts on air quality, visibility, and regional radiative balance. In this paper we discuss and compare the mechanisms of intercontinental transport from the three most important sources in the world prone to long range advection: Africa, South/Central America, and Siberia. We demonstrate how these regions impact neighboring continents. As the meteorology of these three regions are distinct, differences in transport phenomenon subsequently result, particularly with respect to vertical distribution. Specific examples will be given on prediction and the impact of Siberian and Central American smoke plumes on the United States as well as transport phenomena from Africa to Australia. We present rules of thumb for radiation and air quality impacts. We also model clear sky bias (both positive and negative) with respect to MODIS data, and show the frequency to which frontal advection of smoke plumes masks remote sensing retrievals of smoke optical depth.
Full Text Available Through interviews, workshops, conferences and sociocultural meeting, is carried out the linking of three communities from the high area of Gran Piedra to the studies and counts of migratory raptors birds developed in the east of Cuba. These small communities are near to one of the two points of count of migratory raptors of the region. During the interviews we could verify that some residents possessed basic knowledge on the raptors birds, but didn't know about the migration of these birds. 100 % of the interviewees coincided in that the main local problematic is the loss of birds of pen due to the attack of raptors, specifically the endemic Cuban threatened Accipitter gundlachi. The workshops were able to create spaces of exchange and reflection about the importance of the raptor’s conservation in the region. This linkage of cooperation and increasing awareness, allow an approaching between the communitarians and the researchers and volunteers that work in the counts of raptor birds in Cuba and the feedback of the scientific knowledge with the popular knowledge.
Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher
Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...
de Matos, Ricardo
Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.
Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew
1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....
In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.
All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.
California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...
Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B
In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mossop, D.H. [Yukon College, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)
A five-year study was conducted to determine if birds were at risk of collision with an experimental wind turbine on a 1,500 metre mountain near the major Shakwak migration corridor used by many thousands of birds. More than 100 ground searches at the turbine site and about 80 hours of migration watch were conducted. In five years, six birds hit the control tower, none hit the turbine tower. All strikes were in winter and none of the birds killed were in migration. Waterfowl were found to navigate in the valley centre about 1,000 feet below the turbine. Small birds were rarely found at the altitude where the turbine was located. Raptors were the most common birds found near the site, but they were able to avoid the tower. It was concluded that birds using the migration corridor near Whitehorse were not at great risk of collision with towers above 1,200 metre altitude. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.
Adam E. Duerr; Tricia A. Miller; Michael Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Kieran O' Malley; Charles Maisonneuve; Junior A. Tremblay; Todd. Katzner
Animals respond to a variety of environmental cues, including weather conditions, when migrating. Understanding the relationship between weather and migration behaviour is vital to assessing time- and energy limitations of soaring birds. Different soaring modes have different efficiencies, are dependent upon different types of subsidized lift and are weather dependent...
Goymann, Wolfgang; Spina, Fernando; Ferri, Andrea; Fusani, Leonida
Migration remains one of the great mysteries of animal life. Small migratory birds rely on refuelling stopovers after crossing ecological barriers such as deserts or seas. Previous studies have suggested that fuel reserves may determine stopover duration but this hypothesis could not be tested because of methodological limitations. Here, we provide evidence that subcutaneous fat stores determine stopover duration by measuring the permanence of migratory garden warblers (Sylvia borin) on a small Mediterranean island during spring migration with telemetry methods. Garden warblers with large amounts of fat stores departed the island significantly sooner than lean birds. All except one fat bird left the island on the same evening after capture, with a mean total stopover estimate of 8.8 hours. In contrast, the mean estimated total stopover duration of lean birds was 41.3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures the true minimum stopover duration of a songbird during migration. PMID:20164077
This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...
Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.
Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…
Two large-scaled aerogenerators were erected in Sweden in 1980-82. Questions about how birds react on the generators were raised early. Theoretical calculations about the risk for collisions between migrating birds and the generators, together with data on the bird collision frequencies at radio- and television towers in Sweden were presented in a report in 1978. It was assumed that the collision frequency will normally not exceed five birds per night during nights with normal traffic rate of migrating birds, and with maximum of about 50 birds on special occasions (few cases per season). In 1979-1982 the local breeding bird fauna was censused in the immediate vicinities of the sites (arable land and grazed bushland) where the aerogenerators has been erected. The results obtained so far, do not indicate any effect at all on species diversity or abundance when comparing the situation before and after the erection of the arerogenerators. Some species have successfully colonized the areas, obviously exploiting resources created by the building activities. Two such species are Oenanthe oenanthe and Delichon urbica. Reactions of migrating birds when passing close to the generators will be studied in the nearest future (autumn 1983) when the plants will be in continous work.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on using data mining technology to efficiently and accurately discover habitats and stopovers of migratory birds. The three methods we used are as follows: 1. a density-based clustering method, detecting stopovers of birds during their migration through density-based clustering of location points; 2. A location histories parser method, detecting areas that have been overstayed by migratory birds during a set time period by setting time and distance thresholds; and 3. A time-parameterized line segment clustering method, clustering directed line segments to analyze shared segments of migratory pathways of different migratory birds and discover the habitats and stopovers of these birds. Finally, we analyzed the migration data of the bar-headed goose in the Qinghai Lake Area through the three above methods and verified the effectiveness of the three methods and, by comparison, identified the scope and context of the use of these three methods respectively.
Wilmore, Sandra L.; Glowacki, Gary A.; Grundel, Ralph
Between 1999 and 2004, Save the Dunes Conservation Fund's Miller Woods Bird Banding Program monitored migrating and breeding bird populations within a high quality black oak, dry-mesic sand savanna/woodland with ridge and swale topography. The objectives of this program were to collect consistent and reliable demographic and abundance data on the bird populations, to investigate long-term population trends, and to contribute to improved land management decisions at regional and national scales. The technique employed involved capturing birds in mist nets that were deployed for set periods of time at 17 net sites in two banding areas in Miller Woods.
Pedersen, Lykke; Tøttrup, Anders P.; Thorup, Kasper
Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between the European and African continent. The fascinating behaviour of migration that we are witnessing today is assumed to have evolved through a series of dispersal events from Africa into Europe since the last glaciation period....... Recent technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our...... understanding of entire species migration systems is thus still limited. In this project we analyse the spatio-temporal migration schedule of Red-backed Shrikes, Lanius collurio, using tracking data from individuals originating from geographically distinct breeding populations (Scandinavia, the Netherlands...
Blew, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Nehls, G. [BioConsult SH (Germany)
This study investigates the collision risks of birds in operating offshore wind farms, focussing on all bird species present in the direct vicinity of the wind farms, their altitude distribution and reactions. The project was conducted jointly by BioConsult SH and the University of Hamburg in the two Danish offshore wind farms Horns Rev (North Sea) and Nysted (Baltic Sea) in the framework of a Danish-German cooperation and financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2006, using a ship anchored at the edge of the offshore wind farms. In this way, bird species of all sizes could be considered. Daytime observations yielded data on species composition, flight routes and potential reactions of the birds. Radar observations provided altitude distributions inside and outside the wind farm area and also reactions. The results shall help to further describe and assess the collision risk of different species groups. Since data analysis is still running, exemplary results will be presented here. 114 species have been recorded in Nysted and 99 in Horns Rev, approximately 65% of which have been observed inside the wind farm areas. Migrating birds seem to avoid flying into the wind farms, whereas individuals present in the areas for extended time periods utilize areas within the wind farms. While a barrier effect exists for species on migration, resident species probably have a higher collision risk. Raptors migrating during daylight frequently enter the wind farm area on their flight routes, correcting their flight paths in order to avoid collisions. Radar results show that during times of intensive migration, the proportion of birds flying at high altitudes and thus above windmill height is higher than in times of low migration intensity. Consequently, there is a lower proportion of migrating birds flying within the risk area. Data will be further analysed to
Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Pastor-Beviá, David; García-Mudarra, Juan L; Juste, Javier
Recently, several species of aerial-hawking bats have been found to prey on migrating songbirds, but details on this behaviour and its relevance for bird migration are still unclear. We sequenced avian DNA in feather-containing scats of the bird-feeding bat Nyctalus lasiopterus from Spain collected during bird migration seasons. We found very high prey diversity, with 31 bird species from eight families of Passeriformes, almost all of which were nocturnally flying sub-Saharan migrants. Moreover, species using tree hollows or nest boxes in the study area during migration periods were not present in the bats' diet, indicating that birds are solely captured on the wing during night-time passage. Additional to a generalist feeding strategy, we found that bats selected medium-sized bird species, thereby assumingly optimizing their energetic cost-benefit balance and injury risk. Surprisingly, bats preyed upon birds half their own body mass. This shows that the 5% prey to predator body mass ratio traditionally assumed for aerial hunting bats does not apply to this hunting strategy or even underestimates these animals' behavioural and mechanical abilities. Considering the bats' generalist feeding strategy and their large prey size range, we suggest that nocturnal bat predation may have influenced the evolution of bird migration strategies and behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.
Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A
Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nemeth, Nicole M; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Bowen, Richard A
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are emerging zoonotic arboviruses that have recently undergone intercontinental expansion. Both JEV and WNV are naturally transmitted between mosquito vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts, including birds. A potential route of JEV introduction from Asia to western North America is via the Hawaiian archipelago, while the spread of WNV from mainland North America to Hawai'i is also considered an impending threat. We surveyed resident, non-native bird sera for antibodies to JEV and WNV on two Hawaiian Islands from 2004-2005. Three of 1,835 birds (0.16%) had evidence of antiflavivirus antibodies, demonstrating neutralizing activity to JEV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). These detections could represent a limited transmission focus of either, or both, JEV and SLEV, or cross-reactive antibodies due to primary infection with an alternate flavivirus. Frequent air traffic from both Asia and North America to Hawai'i, along with the presence of probable competent vectors and amplifying vertebrate hosts in Hawai'i, increases the likelihood of introduction and maintenance of novel flaviviruses. Therefore, it is important to monitor for the presence of these viruses.
Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A
Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...
Muzyczyn, Adam; Shaw, Leah B.
The H5N1 strain of avian influenza has spread worldwide, and this spread may be due to seasonal migration of birds and mixing of birds from different regions in the wintering grounds. We studied a multipatch model for avian influenza with seasonally varying migration rates. The bird population was divided into two spatially distinct patches, or subpopulations. Within each patch, the disease followed the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model for epidemic spread. Migration rates were varied periodically, with a net flux toward the breeding grounds during the spring and towards the wintering grounds during the fall. The case of two symmetric patches reduced to single-patch SIR dynamics. However, asymmetry in the birth and contact rates in the breeding grounds and wintering grounds led to bifurcations to longer period orbits and chaotic dynamics. We studied the bifurcation structure of the model and the phase relationships between outbreaks in the two patches.
The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy
The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.
At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...
The impact of wind power plants on birds has been studied. The risk of migrating birds colliding with high buildings has been investigated. Different hazards and accidents are described and reported in 12 appendices. Preliminary data from the sites of wind power plants are presented.
Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.
Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a
Crandall, Lee S.
When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not
Brian Roy Lockhart
Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (
Gibbings, J. C.
The article in your animal physics special issue on the use of magnetic field sensing in bird navigation (November 2012 pp38-42) reminded me of a comment made regarding a paper that I presented in the US many years ago.
Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone
Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...
Brothers, Chris; Fortner, Rosanne W.
This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on the adaptations of shorebird beaks for a variety of habitats and food sources, and the effect of toxic chemicals in the food chain on the birds. In activity A, students discover how shorebirds are…
Ngo, Nicole S; Bao, Xiaojia; Zhong, Nan
China is among the greatest emitters of air pollution in the world and one concern is the effects of intercontinental air pollution traveling across the Pacific Ocean from China to the U.S. We exploit a natural experiment by observing the effects of changes in intercontinental air pollution associated with Chinese New Year, a 7-day national holiday, and sandstorms from China on air quality and morbidity in California. The timing of these events are unlikely correlated to other factors affecting air quality and health in California. Chinese New Year follows the Lunar New Year which varies each traditional calendar year while sandstorms are a naturally occurring phenomenon. We examine effects on morbidity using restricted emergency department and inpatient hospitalization data for the universe of patients with respiratory and heart disease between 2005 and 2012 in California. This is the first study to use patient-level data to examine the effects of trans-Pacific air pollution from China on morbidity in the U.S. We show that heavy sandstorms are associated with a modest increase in acute respiratory disease per capita, representing 0.5-4.6% of average weekly hospitalizations. However, we find no significant effect on morbidity in California from Chinese New Year. Results suggest that policymakers could prepare for changes in air quality following major sandstorms in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aagaard, Kevin; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Lonsdorg, Eric V.
Climate and weather affect avian migration by influencing when and where birds fly, the energy costs and risks of flight, and the ability to sense cues necessary for proper navigation. We review the literature of the physiology of avian migration and the influence of climate, specifically temperature, on avian migration dynamics. We use waterfowl as a model guild because of the ready availability of empirical physiological data and their enormous economic value, but our discussion and expectations are broadly generalizable to migratory birds in general. We detail potential consequences of an increasingly warm climate on avian migration, including the possibility of the cessation of migration by some populations and species. Our intent is to lay the groundwork for including temperature effects on energetic gains and losses of migratory birds with the expected consequences of increasing temperatures into a predictive modeling framework. To this end, we provide a simulation of migration progression exclusively focused on the influence of temperature on the physiological determinants of migration. This simulation produced comparable results to empirically derived and observed values for different migratory factors (e.g., body fat content, flight range, departure date). By merging knowledge from the arenas of avian physiology and migratory theory we have identified a clear need for research and have developed hypotheses for a path forward.
or drive the birds away. However, the droppings of the birds provide a rich source of fertilizer and this ... birds of India are under severe threat and require urgent protection. he~ries'(Box 1), can ... there will be no fish and then suddenly a school.
Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo
West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.
Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R
Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations
Skwarzec, B.; Fabisiak, J.
The aim of this work was to determine the 210 Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210 Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210 Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210 Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water
Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha
The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.
Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, Gary P.; Lobón-Cerviá, Javier; Fernandez, Gustavo Gonzolez; McHugh, Peter; McIntosh, Angus; Vøllestad, Lief Asbjørn; Becares, Eloy; Jellyman, Phillip
Purposeful species introductions offer opportunities to inform our understanding of both invasion success and conservation hurdles. We evaluated factors determining the energetic limitations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in both their native and introduced ranges. Our focus was on brown trout because they are nearly globally distributed, considered one of the world's worst invaders, yet imperiled in much of their native habitat. We synthesized and compared data describing temperature regime, diet, growth, and maximum body size across multiple spatial and temporal scales, from country (both exotic and native habitats) and major geographic area (MGA) to rivers and years within MGA. Using these data as inputs, we next used bioenergetic efficiency (BioEff), a relative scalar representing a realized percentage of maximum possible consumption (0–100%) as our primary response variable and a multi-scale, nested, mixed statistical model (GLIMMIX) to evaluate variation among and within spatial scales and as a function of density and elevation. MGA and year (the residual) explained the greatest proportion of variance in BioEff. Temperature varied widely among MGA and was a strong driver of variation in BioEff. We observed surprisingly little variation in the diet of brown trout, except the overwhelming influence of the switch to piscivory observed only in exotic MGA. We observed only a weak signal of density-dependent effects on BioEff; however, BioEff remained 2.5 fish/m2. The trajectory of BioEff across the life span of the fish elucidated the substantial variation in performance among MGAs; the maximum body size attained by brown trout was consistently below 400 mm in native habitat but reached 600 mm outside their native range, where brown trout grew rapidly, feeding in part on naive prey fishes. The integrative, physiological approach, in combination with the intercontinental and comparative nature of our study, allowed us to overcome challenges associated with context
Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.
Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity
Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiaobo; Sun, Yuxin; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiangrong; Qin, Xiaoquan; Gao, Yongli; Mai, Bixian
A broad suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, were analyzed in pectoral muscle of eight terrestrial passerine bird species from an extensive e-waste recycling site in South China. Concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs in bird samples ranged from 1260-279,000, 121-14,200, and 31-7910ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Insectivorous birds had significantly higher levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs than those in granivorous birds. Concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds were significantly greater than those in migrant insectivorous birds. PCBs were the predominant pollutants in all bird species from the e-waste site, followed by PBDEs and DDTs, indicating that PCBs were mainly derived from e-wastes. The granivorous birds had higher proportions of hepta-CBs in total PCBs and higher proportions of octa- to deca-BDEs in total PBDEs compared with the insectivorous birds. The various dietary sources, migration behavior, and possible biotransformation were suspected as reasons of the distinct profiles of POPs in different bird species. The δ 15 N values were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds, but not in other passerine bird species, suggesting the influence of trophic levels on bioaccumulation of POPs in resident insectivorous birds. The resident insectivorous birds seem to be promising bio-sentinel of POPs in terrestrial environment around the e-waste sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...
Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali
The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration
This article discussed the bird deterrent practices that several Canadian operators have in place at their tailings ponds. Regulations require that oilsands operators prevent birds from coming into contact with toxic tailings. Canadian Natural Resources Limited has a 2-man team constantly monitoring bird landings at its Horizon tailings pond. The team fires flares at birds or harasses them in boats to stop them from landing on the pond. Remote sensing technologies are used, including long-range acoustic devices, propane cannons, human effigies, balloons, and pyrotechnics. The vegetation around the pond is controlled to make the area inhospitable to birds, and highly desirable bird habitat was created as an alternative bird landing site. Following a high-mortality incident in 2008, Syncrude now deploys 190 shore-based sound canons at all tailings settling basins and open-water areas and uses scarecrows and effigies fitted with reflectors to deter waterfowl from landing. A radar-based migration monitoring system helps the company to optimize its deterrent system. At its Muskeg River Mine, Shell Canada Limited uses an on-demand radar-activated bird-deterrent program, which is what major airports use to deter birds. In the presence of a bird, the system launches a radio signal that sets off strobe lights, propane cannons, scarecrows, and mechanical models of falcons. 1 fig.
Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.
The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. In 2003 the studies focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging species. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be important for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)
Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino
Full Text Available The migration of unaccompanied foreign minors (menores extranjeros no acompañados, MENA represents a new model for international mobility in Spain, one with its own particularities compared with other migratory flows. The dual nature of being unaccompanied and unauthorized leads to conflicts in the care and integration of these new migrants. However, this dual nature is one of the main prerequisites for the development of this mobility model (but not the only one and for developing strategies specific to this group. The Canary Islands, because of their position on the southern intercontinental border and their insularity, offer particular models of individual migration flows of primarily highly vulnerable African children and a close relationship with human smuggling and trafficking networks.
Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.
Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.
Full Text Available Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological
Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T
A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.
Moeller, N W; Poulsen, E
The objective of this study is an investigation of potential conflicts between windmills and birds. Emphasis is on frightening, collision risk and biotopic changes due to windmill systems. The study is based on the environment of Koldby and Nibe windmills (South Jutland). Biotopic changes were not observed around the existing windmills. Drainage of mill grounds at Nibe had probably no effect on water level in the area around; a longer observation is necessary to draw any decisive conclusions.(EG).
Willem W. Verstraeten
Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.
Winkelman, J E
The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report attention is paid to the disturbance of the bird's biotope. The results show that four species of grassland birds, breeding in the park, were hardly disturbed by the wind turbines. For feeding and resting birds, however, disturbance effects were noted, even at a distance of 500 meters from the outside wind turbine array. The present number of bird species reduced 60-95%, dependent on the species, after the wind park was put into operation. Also the behavior of migrating birds was influenced by the wind park, showed in clustering of groups or avoiding the wind park, sometimes up to 67% of the birds did so. It is therefore recommended not to implement new wind parks in important bird migration and bird feeding or bird resting areas. Bird popular areas, however, are mostly windy areas. 15 figs., 25 tabs., 56 app., 128 refs.
van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas
The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may...... abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern...... Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring...
Hein, Andrew M; Hou, Chen; Gillooly, James F
Animal migration is one of the great wonders of nature, but the factors that determine how far migrants travel remain poorly understood. We present a new quantitative model of animal migration and use it to describe the maximum migration distance of walking, swimming and flying migrants. The model combines biomechanics and metabolic scaling to show how maximum migration distance is constrained by body size for each mode of travel. The model also indicates that the number of body lengths travelled by walking and swimming migrants should be approximately invariant of body size. Data from over 200 species of migratory birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates support the central conclusion of the model - that body size drives variation in maximum migration distance among species through its effects on metabolism and the cost of locomotion. The model provides a new tool to enhance general understanding of the ecology and evolution of migration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Faaborg, John; Holmes, Richard T; Anders, Angela D; Bildstein, Keith L; Dugger, Katie M; Gauthreaux, Sidney A; Heglund, Patricia; Hobson, Keith A; Jahn, Alex E; Johnson, Douglas H; Latta, Steven C; Levey, Douglas J; Marra, Peter P; Merkord, Christopher L; Nol, Erica; Rothstein, Stephen I; Sherry, Thomas W; Sillett, T Scott; Thompson, Frank R; Warnock, Nils
Migratory bird needs must be met during four phases of the year: breeding season, fall migration, wintering, and spring migration; thus, management may be needed during all four phases. The bulk of research and management has focused on the breeding season, although several issues remain unsettled, including the spatial extent of habitat influences on fitness and the importance of habitat on the breeding grounds used after breeding. Although detailed investigations have shed light on the ecology and population dynamics of a few avian species, knowledge is sketchy for most species. Replication of comprehensive studies is needed for multiple species across a range of areas, Information deficiencies are even greater during the wintering season, when birds require sites that provide security and food resources needed for survival and developing nutrient reserves for spring migration and, possibly, reproduction. Research is needed on many species simply to identify geographic distributions, wintering sites, habitat use, and basic ecology. Studies are complicated, however, by the mobility of birds and by sexual segregation during winter. Stable-isotope methodology has offered an opportunity to identify linkages between breeding and wintering sites, which facilitates understanding the complete annual cycle of birds. The twice-annual migrations are the poorest-understood events in a bird's life. Migration has always been a risky undertaking, with such anthropogenic features as tall buildings, towers, and wind generators adding to the risk. Species such as woodland specialists migrating through eastern North America have numerous options for pausing during migration to replenish nutrients, but some species depend on limited stopover locations. Research needs for migration include identifying pathways and timetables of migration, quality and distribution of habitats, threats posed by towers and other tall structures, and any bottlenecks for migration. Issues such as human
Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.
This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal
The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...
Shorey, Rainy I.; Scribner, Kim T.; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Samuel, Michael D.; Libants, Scot V.
Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced.
Ruth, Janet M.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Manville, Albert; Green, Michael T.; Krueper, David J.; Johnston, Scott
Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected or proposed across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.
Morrison, M. L.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts of wind development to birds along the lower Gulf Coast, including both proposed near-shore and offshore developments. The report summarizes wind resources in Texas, discusses timing and magnitude of bird migration as it relates to wind development, reviews research that has been conducted throughout the world on near- and offshore developments, and provides recommendations for research that will help guide wind development that minimizes negative impacts to birds and other wildlife resources.
Bridge, Eli S.; Thorup, Kasper; Bowlin, Melissa S.
networks, solar geolocation, radar, and information technology are improving our understanding of when and where birds go during their annual cycles and informing numerous scientific disciplines, including evolutionary biology, population ecology, and global change. The recent developments described......Basic questions about the life histories of migratory birds have confounded scientists for generations, yet we are nearing an era of historic discovery as new tracking technologies make it possible to determine the timing and routes of an increasing number of bird migrations. Tracking small flying...
MaKinster, James; Trautmann, Nancy; Burch, Carol; Watkins, Michelle
Species richness, migration, habitats, ecological niches, adaptations: Concepts such as these come alive when students explore and analyze landscapes, environmental characteristics, and related biological features represented on digital maps. Most students are familiar with navigation tools integrated into smartphone apps but may be surprised to…
nuptial migration period, in parts of the wintering grounds most distant from the breeding area. Birds breeding at the highest latitudes are the latest to depart on prenuptial migration, and so can take advantage of this surge by extending their ...
Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch
Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...
This paper presents the results of a satellite tracking study of seven adult Abdim's Storks Ciconia abdimii that were followed from the nesting areas in southern Niger across the equator to the non-breeding range and back. Post-breeding migration started between early November and early December when all birds ...
We analysed migration strategies of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on the poorly studied Eastern European– East African flyway. Four adult birds were equipped with GPS-based satellite-transmitters or data-loggers in their breeding sites in Estonia (north-eastern Europe) and tracked to their wintering grounds in Africa and ...
Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.
Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 22.214.171.124); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 126.96.36.199 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464
Jaffré, Mikaël; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Éric; Jiguet, Frédéric; Kjellén, Nils; Troost, Gerard; Dubois, Philippe J.; Leprêtre, Alain; Luczak, Christophe
Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010) of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency. PMID:24223888
Full Text Available Climate change is having a discernible effect on many biological and ecological processes. Among observed changes, modifications in bird phenology have been widely documented. However, most studies have interpreted phenological shifts as gradual biological adjustments in response to the alteration of the thermal regime. Here we analysed a long-term dataset (1980-2010 of short-distance migratory raptors in five European regions. We revealed that the responses of these birds to climate-induced changes in autumn temperatures are abrupt and synchronous at a continental scale. We found that when the temperatures increased, birds delayed their mean passage date of autumn migration. Such delay, in addition to an earlier spring migration, suggests that a significant warming may induce an extension of the breeding-area residence time of migratory raptors, which may eventually lead to residency.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...
Revell, Christopher; Somveille, Marius
In this paper, we introduce a mechanistic model of migratory movement patterns in birds, inspired by ideas and methods from physics. Previous studies have shed light on the factors influencing bird migration but have mainly relied on statistical correlative analysis of tracking data. Our novel method offers a bottom up explanation of population-level migratory movement patterns. It differs from previous mechanistic models of animal migration and enables predictions of pathways and destinations from a given starting location. We define an environmental potential landscape from environmental data and simulate bird movement within this landscape based on simple decision rules drawn from statistical mechanics. We explore the capacity of the model by qualitatively comparing simulation results to the non-breeding migration patterns of a seabird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris). This minimal, two-parameter model was able to capture remarkably well the previously documented migration patterns of the Black-browed Albatross, with the best combination of parameter values conserved across multiple geographically separate populations. Our physics-inspired mechanistic model could be applied to other bird and highly-mobile species, improving our understanding of the relative importance of various factors driving migration and making predictions that could be useful for conservation.
Schwartz, Susan Savitt (ed.)
Most conservation groups support the development of wind energy in the US as an alternative to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. However, concerns have surfaced over the potential threat to birds, bats, and other wildlife from the construction and operation of wind turbine facilities. Co-sponsored by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop was convened to examine current research on the impacts of wind energy development on avian and bat species and to discuss the most effective ways to mitigate such impacts. On 18-19 May 2004, 82 representatives from government, non-government organizations, private business, and academia met to (1) review the status of the wind industry and current project development practices, including pre-development risk assessment and post-construction monitoring; (2) learn what is known about direct, indirect (habitat), and cumulative impacts on birds and bats from existing wind projects; about relevant aspects of bat and bird migration ecology; about offshore wind development experience in Europe; and about preventing, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts; (3) review wind development guidelines developed by the USFWS and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife; and (4) identify topics needing further research and to discuss what can be done to ensure that research is both credible and accessible. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed.
Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves.
Podlaszczuk, Patrycja; Kamiński, Maciej; Włodarczyk, Radosław; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Minias, Piotr
Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap. The effect of juvenile plumage quality on the occurrence of moult-migration overlap was studied in a migratory shorebird, the common snipe Gallinago gallinago . Ca. 400 of first-year common snipe were captured during their final stage of autumn migration through Central Europe. The quality of juvenile feathers was assessed as the mass-length residuals of retained juvenile rectrices. Condition of migrating birds was assessed with the mass of accumulated fat reserves and whole-blood hemoglobin concentration. Path analysis was used to disentangle complex interrelationships between plumage quality, moult and body condition. Snipe which grew higher-quality feathers in the pre-fledging period were less likely to initiate moult during migration. Individuals moulting during migration had lower fat loads and hemoglobin concentrations compared to non-moulting birds, suggesting a trade-off in resource allocation, where energetic costs of moult reduced both energy reserves available for migration and resources available for maintenance of high oxygen capacity of blood. The results of this study indicate that a major life-history trade-off in a migratory bird may be mediated by the quality of juvenile plumage. This is consistent with a silver spoon effect, where early-life investment in feather quality affects future performance of birds during
Sparling, D.W.; Barzen, J.A.; Lovvorn, J.R.; Serie, J.R.
Regression equations that use mensural data to estimate body condition have been developed for several water birds. These equations often have been based on data that represent different sexes, age classes, or seasons, without being adequately tested for intergroup differences. We used proximate carcass analysis of 538 adult and juvenile canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria ) collected during fall migration, winter, and spring migrations in 1975-76 and 1982-85 to test regression methods for estimating body condition.
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.
This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…
Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert
The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.
Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...
Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.
Roč. 7, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 4 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Ixodes minor * bird migration * bird reservoir host * multilocus sequence analysis * multilocus sequence typing * recombinant genotypes * Southeastern United States Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014
Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.
Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang
The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges
McGuire, Liam P.; Jonasson, Kristin A.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.
Bats and birds must balance time and energy budgets during migration. Migrating bats face similar physiological challenges to birds, but nocturnality creates special challenges for bats, such as a conflict between travelling and refueling, which many birds avoid by feeding in daylight and flying at night. As endothermic animals, bats and birds alike must expend substantial amounts of energy to maintain high body temperatures. For migratory birds refueling at stopovers, remaining euthermic during inactive periods reduces the net refuelling rate, thereby prolonging stopover duration and delaying subsequent movement. We hypothesized that bats could mitigate similar ambient-temperature dependent costs by using a torpor-assisted migration strategy. We studied silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans during autumn migration using a combination of respirometry and temperature-sensitive radiotelemetry to estimate energy costs incurred under ambient temperature conditions, and the energy that bats saved by using torpor during daytime roosting periods. All bats, regardless of sex, age, or body condition used torpor at stopover and saved up to 91% of the energy they would have expended to remain euthermic. Furthermore, bats modulated use of torpor depending on ambient temperature. By adjusting the time spent torpid, bats achieved a rate of energy expenditure independent of the ambient temperature encountered at stopover. By lowering body temperature during inactive periods, fuel stores are spared, reducing the need for refuelling. Optimal migration models consider trade-offs between time and energy. Heterothermy provides a physiological strategy that allows bats to conserve energy without paying a time penalty as they migrate. Although uncommon, some avian lineages are known to use heterothermy, and current theoretical models of migration may not be appropriate for these groups. We propose that thermoregulatory strategies should be an important consideration of future
La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel
A number of terrestrial bird species that breed in North America cross the Atlantic Ocean during autumn migration when travelling to their non-breeding grounds in the Caribbean or South America. When conducting oceanic crossings, migratory birds tend to associate with mild or supportive winds, whose speed and direction may change under global warming. The implications of these changes for transoceanic migratory bird populations have not been addressed. We used occurrence information from eBird (1950-2015) to estimate the geographical location of population centres at a daily temporal resolution across the annual cycle for 10 transatlantic migratory bird species. We used this information to estimate the location and timing of autumn migration within the transatlantic flyway. We estimated how prevailing winds are projected to change within the transatlantic flyway during this time using daily wind speed anomalies (1996-2005 and 2091-2100) from 29 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models implemented under CMIP5. Autumn transatlantic migrants have the potential to encounter strong westerly crosswinds early in their transatlantic journey at intermediate and especially high migration altitudes, strong headwinds at low and intermediate migration altitudes within the Caribbean that increase in strength as the season progresses, and weak tailwinds at intermediate and high migration altitudes east of the Caribbean. The CMIP5 simulations suggest that, during this century, the likelihood of autumn transatlantic migrants encountering strong westerly crosswinds will diminish. As global warming progresses, the need for species to compensate or drift under the influence of strong westerly crosswinds during the initial phase of their autumn transatlantic journey may be diminished. Existing strategies that promote headwind avoidance and tailwind assistance will likely remain valid. Thus, climate change may reduce time and energy requirements and the chance of mortality or
Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N
The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.
Full Text Available This paper develops a game-theoretic model to analyze the competition between two container freight transportation modes (shipping and railway using competitive game strategic interactions method, namely, deterrence, by taking account of the most cost-effective scale of the transportation capacity settings. The competition was set against the background of China’s Belt and Road (B&R Initiative as a new situation for intercontinental Sino-Europe container freight transportation. The behavior of each mode (modeled as a carrier, resp. is characterized by an optimization model with the objective of minimizing its cost by setting optimal basic freight rate and transportation deployment. A firm can use this method to compare the difference in the time value of the cargos and reduce the expense during the whole transportation process. Finally, the developed model is numerically evaluated by a case study of intercontinental transportation between Hefei (China and Hamburg (Germany. The results show that deterrence effects largely depend on the deterrence objective, and the differential in the cost of two transportation modes tends to be stable with higher values in the deterrence objective. In the new intercontinental circumstance, the mode of railway transportation provides a new way to transport the cargos between China and Europe.
Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.
Thompson, J.; Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [Vision Quest Windelectric Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)
An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, to determine the impact of wind turbines on birds. The wind farm includes a total of 60 turbines. The study consisted of 30 observation days between March and December 2001 during which time nearly 2000 birds were monitored. These included 27 different species, including 181 raptors, 1021 waterfowl, and 821 passerines. The observations focused on spring and fall migration of birds. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. In total, 4 dead birds were found over the 9 month period, which translates to 0.15 birds per turbine per year. This study demonstrates that there are few bird fatalities associated with wind turbines, therefore it was concluded that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. The results of this study are consistent with international studies. 2 figs.
Whittam, B.; Kingsley, A.
The issue of birds being killed by wind turbines is discussed. The substance of the argument is that contrary to beliefs held primarily by those opposed to wind turbine developments, when correctly sited, wind turbines appear to have relatively little impact on birds. Historically, 'bird-kill' was a significant factor in the 1980s when a significant number of raptors were killed by wind turbines and their associated power lines in California, Tennessee, Spain and the Netherlands, where many turbines were located on major bird migration routes. Based on experiences learned from these occurrences, several countries have produced bird-focused guidelines for the siting of wind turbines. In Canada, Bird Studies Canada was recently contracted by Environment Canada to produce guidelines for the environmental assessment of wind turbine projects related to birds. The objective of the guidelines is to help prevent adverse impacts on birds, whether the impact is related to habitat disturbance or collision. Based on American studies, it is estimated that 2.19 birds are killed annually at each wind turbine in California; the estimated fatality rate elsewhere in the United States is 1.83. That works out to 33,000 dead birds (based on 15,000 wind turbines), a large number, but relatively small when compared with the millions of birds that travel over windfarms each year, or when compared to the many millions of birds that die annually due to collisions with transmission lines, vehicles, buildings and communication towers. Nevertheless, there is room for concern. Bird Studies Canada is particularly concerned about the growing offshore wind industry and its potential to disrupt songbird migration, waterfowl staging areas and the prey base of seabirds. In general, Bird Studies Canada advises against siting large wind facilities in areas heavily travelled by birds, and is firmly opposed to placing wind turbines in areas known to provide critical habitat for Species At Risk
Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A
Access to water along a bird's migratory flyway is essential during the vital process of migration. Because of the scarcity of water in some environments, there is potential for migratory birds to encounter and drink from contaminated bodies of water. Ingestion of contaminated water may cause injury and compromise flying ability, leading to a disruption of migration. To determine injury to birds from potential exposure, it is essential to know not only the concentration of a given contaminant in the water but also the quantity and rate of water consumption by the birds. Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were used in a series of experiments to determine differences in drinking behavior after various flights and after periods of resting. Results from the present study demonstrate that homing pigeons' water consumption is dramatically different when assessed according to activity, flight distance, and time elapsed after flight. This suggests that the drinking rates of birds during migration are extremely important and much greater than estimated using traditional exposure assessment procedures. Thus, exposure to contaminants via drinking water may be greatly underestimated, and the rate of water consumption should be considered when estimating potential exposure risk to avian species. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:870-876. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.
Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W
We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change.
Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.
Christopher E. Moorman; Liessa T. Woen; John C. Kilgo; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Michael D. Ulyshen
We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and...
Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.
Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.
Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...
Eugene N. Anderson
Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.
Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.
Lundin, Patrik; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Cocola, Lorenzo; Runemark, Anna; Åkesson, Susanne; Svanberg, Sune
We present a method based on passive spectroscopy with aim to remotely study flying birds. A compact spectrometer is continuously recording spectra of a small section of the sky, waiting for birds to obscure part of the field-of-view when they pass the field in flight. In such situations the total light intensity received through the telescope, looking straight up, will change very rapidly as compared to the otherwise slowly varying sky light. On passage of a bird, both the total intensity and the spectral shape of the captured light changes notably. A camera aimed in the same direction as the telescope, although with a wider field-of-view, is triggered by the sudden intensity changes in the spectrometer to record additional information, which may be used for studies of migration and orientation. Example results from a trial are presented and discussed. The study is meant to explore the information that could be gathered and extracted with the help of a spectrometer connected to a telescope. Information regarding the color, size and height of flying birds is discussed. Specifically, an application for passive distance determination utilizing the atmospheric oxygen A-band absorption at around 760 nm is discussed.
Ryan T. DiGaudio
Full Text Available To address the loss of wetlands and riparian forests in California, private lands habitat programs are available through U.S. federal and state government agencies to help growers, ranchers and other private landowners create and enhance wildlife habitat. The programs provide financial and technical assistance for implementing conservation practices. To evaluate the benefits of these programs for wildlife, we examined bird use of private wetlands, postharvest flooded croplands and riparian forests enrolled in habitat programs in the Central Valley and North Coast regions of California. We found that private Central Valley wetlands supported 181 bird species during the breeding season. During fall migration, postharvest flooded croplands supported wetland-dependent species and a higher density of shorebirds than did semipermanent wetlands. At the riparian sites, bird species richness increased after restoration. These results demonstrated that the programs provided habitat for the species they were designed to protect; a variety of resident and migratory bird species used the habitats, and many special status species were recorded at the sites.
Full Text Available The electricity generated from renewable energy resources is an environmentally-preferred alternative to the conventionally produced electricity from fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. As the demand for a clean energy increases, the wind power generating stations are being constructed across Europe. However, concerns have been raised about the possible environmental impact of these turbines on birds. A research in this area has focused primarily on the mortality caused by birds striking turbine blades and associated wires. The disturbance to breeding, wintering or staging birds as a result of turbines has not been examined in detail. With respect to avian mortality at wind power generating stations, the greatest concern has been for raptors and migrating songbirds. The concern for raptors generally stems from the fact that many populations are small and thus even a few deaths can lead to declines. Songbirds are also considered at risk because they are known to fly into human-made structures (e.g. office towers, TV/microwave towers causing, on occasion, mass kills of thousands of individuals. While raptors and songbirds are generally at greatest risk of injury or death from turbines, the impact of such structures on all bird species should be considered on a site-by-site basis. Generally is possible to say that collisions with transmission and distribution lines, automobiles, trucks, tall building, residential house windows and lighted communication towers are more important for the avian mortality than the wind power generating stations.
Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P
Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play
Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes
Sechrist, Juddson D.; Paxton, Eben H.; Ahlers, Darrell D.; Doster, Robert H.; Ryan, Vicky M.
In 2009, we studied the migration of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo by capturing 13 breeding birds on the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, and attaching a 1.5-g Mk 14-S British Antarctic Survey geolocator to each bird. In 2010, we recaptured one of the cuckoos, enabling us to download its geolocation data. The cuckoo had flown approximately 9500 km during its southward migration, traveling through Central America to winter in portions of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. The spring migration route differed somewhat from the fall route, with the cuckoo bypassing Central America to migrate through the Caribbean. Additionally, it moved between New Mexico and Mexico at the end of summer in 2009 and again in 2010 before being recaptured at its breeding site. Our results, albeit from one individual, hint at a dynamic migration strategy and have broad implications for the ecology and conservation of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo, a species of conservation concern.
Schultz, Rudolph Kirk R; Baker, Kevin Scott; Boelens, Jaap J; Bollard, Catherine M; Egeler, R Maarten; Cowan, Mort; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lankester, Arjan; Locatelli, Franco; Lawitschka, Anita; Levine, John E; Loh, Mignon; Nemecek, Eneida; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Prasad, Vinod K; Rocha, Vanderson; Shenoy, Shalini; Strahm, Brigitte; Veys, Paul; Wall, Donna; Bader, Peter; Grupp, Stephan A; Pulsipher, Michael A; Peters, Christina
More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation's Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Children's Oncology Group's Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. All rights reserved.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...
Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Straatman, Wessel; Nijenhuis, Nico; Venner, Cornelis H.; Stramigioli, Stefano
Ever since the start of aviation, birds and airplanes have posed a mutual risk: Birds are killed when struck by aircraft, but, in return, bird strikes cause billions in damage to the aviation industry. Airports employ bird-control methods such as audiovisual deterrents (like scarecrows, lasers, and
Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).
The development and activities of the 'World of Birds' Wildlife. Sanctuary, near Cape Town, are .... For the time being the benefit for school outings will be mainly visual ... feed, sing, display, build nests, incubate, feed chicks - and even fight.
Stepanian, P. M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Horton, K. G. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
Remote sensing techniques are playing a greater role in ornithology, and radar has proven a valuable tool for high resolution, long-term observations of airborne animals. The major disadvantage in radar remote sensing is the current inability to gain taxonomic information from these measurements. One solution is the incorporation of collocated acoustic monitoring that can provide recordings of species-specific nocturnal flight calls of migrating birds in flight. In addition, by taking multichannel recordings of these calls, the position of the calling bird can be calculated and linked to collocated radar measurements.
Full Text Available Conducting migration studies is of vital importance to Turkey, a country which has been experiencing migration throughout history due to its “open doors policy”. The objective of this study is to evaluate the strategic management of migration in Turkey in order to deal with the issue of migration. The main focus of the study is Syrian migrants who sought refuge in Turkey due to the civil war that broke out in their country in April 2011. This study demonstrates the policies and processes followed by Turkey for Syrian migration flow in terms of the social acceptance and harmonisation of the migrants within a democratic environment. The study addresses some statistical facts and issues related to Syrian migration as it has become an integral part of daily life in Turkey. The study also reviews how human rights are protected in the migration process. The study will provide insights for developing sound strategic management policies for the migration issue.
Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.
Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities
Eugene N. Anderson
The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...
..., and by what means such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...
..., carriage, or export of any * * * bird, or any part, nest, or egg'' of migratory game birds can take place... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird...
Hall, Jeffrey S; Franson, J Christian; Gill, Robert E; Meteyer, Carol U; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J; Ip, Hon S
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds. Wild dunlin were inoculated intranasally and intrachoanally various doses of HPAIV H5N1. The birds were monitored daily for virus excretion, disease signs, morbidity, and mortality. The infectious dose of HPAIV H5N1 in dunlin was determined to be 10(1.7) EID(50)/100 μl and that the lethal dose was 10(1.83) EID(50)/100 μl. Clinical signs were consistent with neurotropic disease, and histochemical analyses revealed that infection was systemic with viral antigen and RNA most consistently found in brain tissues. Infected birds excreted relatively large amounts of virus orally (10(4) EID(50)) and smaller amounts cloacally. Dunlin are highly susceptible to infection with HPAIV H5N1. They become infected after exposure to relatively small doses of the virus and if they become infected, they are most likely to suffer mortality within 3-5 days. These results have important implications regarding the risks of transport and transmission of HPAIV H5N1 to North America by this species and raises questions for further investigation. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...
Hill, Nichola J.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Boyce, Walter M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.
Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008–2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality.
Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.
Brlík, Vojtěch; Ilieva, M.; Lisovski, S.; Voigt, C. C.; Procházka, Petr
(2018) ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bird migration * Indo-European flyway * Light-level geolocation * Migration direction Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016
Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.
Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of
Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao
Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pulido, Francisco; Berthold, Peter
Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in a population of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) to test for evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Using a common garden experiment in time and captive breeding we demonstrated a genetic reduction in migratory activity and evolutionary change in phenotypic plasticity of migration onset. An artificial selection experiment further revealed that residency will rapidly evolve in completely migratory bird populations if selection for shorter migration distance persists. Our findings suggest that current alterations of the environment are favoring birds wintering closer to the breeding grounds and that populations of migratory birds have strongly responded to these changes in selection. The reduction of migratory activity is probably an important evolutionary process in the adaptation of migratory birds to climate change, because it reduces migration costs and facilitates the rapid adjustment to the shifts in the timing of food availability during reproduction.
Mabey, Sarah; Cooper, Brian
This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The session was arranged to convey what is known about avian migration, particularly in the eastern US. The first presentation ''Migration Ecology: Issues of Scale and Behavior'' by Sarah Mabey frames the issue of migratory bird interactions with wind energy facilities from an ecological perspective: when, where, and why are migrant bird species vulnerable to wind turbine collision. The second presentation ''Radar Studies of Nocturnal Migration at Wind Sites in the Eastern US'' by Brian Cooper reported on radar studies conducted at wind sites in the eastern US, including Mount Storm, Clipper Wind, and others.
Full Text Available The degree of inhospitable terrain encountered by migrating birds can dramatically affect migration strategies and their evolution as well as influence the way we develop our contemporary flyway conservation responses to protect them. We used telemetry data from 44 tagged individuals of four large-bodied, Arctic breeding waterbird species (two geese, a swan and one crane species to show for the first time that these birds fly non-stop over the Far East taiga forest, despite their differing ecologies and migration routes. This implies a lack of suitable taiga refuelling habitats for these long-distance migrants. These results underline the extreme importance of northeast China spring staging habitats and of Arctic areas prior to departure in autumn to enable birds to clear this inhospitable biome, confirming the need for adequate site safeguard to protect these populations throughout their annual cycle.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...
.... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...
Ramey, Andy M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E.; Stallknecht, David E.
Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.
Ramey, Andrew M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E
Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S
Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.
Bespalov, A. F.; Belyaev, A. N.
The dynamics of fauna and population of birds from agricultural lands near Kazan International Airport has been studied for one year. A total of 60 bird species have been registered, of which 26 species must be considered as highly dangerous to flying aircraft. With regard to seasonal activity, the nesting period (April - June) is the most hazardous, since it is characterized by maximum species richness and total population density of birds, as well as their high species diversity. Furthermore, a serious danger is posed by the period of postnesting nomadic movements and the onset of migrations (July - September) when the species diversity turns out to be the highest and the total population density begins to decrease. It has been recommended based on the obtained results that the current crops should be replaced by cultivars that will be less attractive to birds. In spring and autumn, certain bird hazing and frightening measures must be taken on a more regular basis.
Musters, C.J.M.; Noordervliet, M.A.W.; Ter Keurs, W.J.
The impact of wind turbines on birds was investigated for an estuary, situated near the North Sea coast in the Dutch province of Zeeland, with large amount of bird migration. Five 250 kW, three-bladed 25m, 40 rpm turbines were installed on the western side of a dike. The distance between the turbines is 125 m. Since 1 April 1990 the turbines have been in action almost continuously. The study on the title subject was set up to investigate the number of bird casualties caused by the five wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak and the number that may be expected to be caused by a total of 20 turbines. The study also focused on the number of casualties among rare birds in relation to those among the common birds as a result of the wind turbines in the Kreekrak area. An area of 125 x 125 m around each wind turbine, consisting partly of land and partly of water, was searched for dead birds every other day during a period of one year (28 April 1990 - 29 April 1991). During this one-year period, the bodies of 26 birds of 17 different species were found; six birds were certainly or almost certainly killed by the turbines. In three other cases, the birds may have died because of the turbines, while in the case of eight birds, it was not possible to determine the cause of death. The remaining nine birds were not killed by the wind turbines. The annual number of bird victims expected following the installation of 20 wind turbines was estimated at a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 142. For each species a correlation was found between the number of victims and the estimated number of visitors to the area. This suggests that the rare species among the birds were not excessively endangered by the turbines. The number of bird casualties per turbine was low in comparison with the results of other Dutch investigations. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that there is no reason to advise against increasing the number of wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak to 20. 3
Iwajomo, Soladoye B.; Hedenström, Anders; Ottosson, Ulf
not significantly vary over the years. Median passage dates were 24 August, 30 August and 2 September for adults, juveniles and birds of unknown age, respectively. Median passage did not change significantly over the years. Among adults, larger individuals passed the observatory earlier than smaller individuals......Trapping and ringing near ecological barriers can provide useful information about the migration strategies of bird species. In this paper we analyzed ringing data of the Garden Warbler, collected within the period of 1950-2008 at the Ottenby Bird Observatory, south-eastern Sweden, and describe...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.
Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)
A new method for monitoring of bird collisions has been developed using video and audio registrations that are triggered by sound and vibration measurements. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. After the successful proof of principle and evaluation on small land-based turbines the system is now being designed for offshore wind farms. Currently the triggering system and video and audio registration are being tested on large land-based wind turbines using bird dummies. Tests of three complete prototype systems are planned for 2005.
Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)
A new method for registration of bird collisions has been developed using video cameras and microphones combined with event triggering by acoustic vibration measurement. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. Currently a prototype system is being tested on an offshore-scale land-based wind turbine using bird dummies. After these tests we planned to perform endurance tests on other land-based turbines under offshore-like conditions.
Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.
Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.
Forster, Caroline; Cooper, Owen; Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; James, Paul; Dunlea, Edward; Nicks, Dennis K.; Holloway, John S.; Hübler, Gerd; Parrish, David D.; Ryerson, Tom B.; Trainer, Michael
On the basis of Lagrangian tracer transport simulations this study presents an intercontinental transport climatology and tracer forecasts for the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation 2002 (ITCT 2K2) aircraft measurement campaign, which took place at Monterey, California, in April-May 2002 to measure Asian pollution arriving at the North American West Coast. For the climatology the average transport of an Asian CO tracer was calculated over a time period of 15 years using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. To determine by how much the transport from Asia to North America during ITCT 2K2 deviated from the climatological mean, the 15-year average for April and May was compared with the average for April and May 2002 and that for the ITCT 2K2 period. It was found that 8% less Asian CO tracer arrived at the North American West Coast during the ITCT 2K2 period compared to the climatological mean. Below 8-km altitude, the maximum altitude of the research aircraft, 13% less arrived. Nevertheless, pronounced layers of Asian pollution were measured during 3 of the 13 ITCT 2K2 flights. FLEXPART was also successfully used as a forecasting tool for the flight planning during ITCT 2K2. It provided 3-day forecasts for three different anthropogenic CO tracers originating from Asia, North America, and Europe. In two case studies the forecast abilities of FLEXPART are analyzed and discussed by comparing the forecasts with measurement data and infrared satellite images. The model forecasts underestimated the measured CO enhancements by about a factor of 4, mainly because of an underestimation of the Asian emissions in the emission inventory and because of biomass-burning influence that was not modeled. Nevertheless, the intercontinental transport and dispersion of pollution plumes were qualitatively well predicted, and on the basis of the model results the aircraft could successfully be guided into the polluted air masses.
Norbäck, Dan; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla
This study evaluates the influence of air humidification in aircraft on symptoms, tear-film stability, nasal patency, and peak expiratory flow. Commercial air crew (N=71) were given a medical examination during eight flights from Stockholm to Chicago and eight flights in the opposite direction. Examinations were done onboard one Boeing 767 aircraft equipped with an evaporation humidifier in the forward part of the cabin. The investigators followed the air crew, staying one night in Chicago and returning with the same crew. Four of the flights had the air humidification device active in-flight to Chicago and deactivated when returning to Stockholm. The other four flights had the inverse humidification sequence. The humidification sequence was randomized and double blind. Hygienic measurements were performed. The humidification increased the relative air humidity by 10% in the 1st row in business class, by 3% in the last row (39th row) in tourist class, and by 3% in the cockpit. Air humidification increased tear-film stability and nasal patency and decreased ocular, nasal, and dermal symptoms and headache. The mean concentration of viable bacteria [77-108 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3)], viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and particulate matter (1-8 microg/m(3)) was low, both during the humidified and non-humidified flights. Relative air humidity is low (10-12%) during intercontinental flights and can be increased by the use of a ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. Air humidification could increase passenger and crew comfort by increasing tear-film stability and nasal patency and reducing various symptoms.
Athanasoulis, C.A.; Roberts, A.C.; Brown, K.; Geller, S.C.; Waltman, A.C.; Eckstein, M.R.
A randomized clinical study was conducted comparing the percutaneously introduced bird's nest inferior vena cava (IVC) filter and the Kimray-Greenfield IVC filter. Study end points included recurrent pulmonary embolism, new or worse leg venous stasis symptoms, IVC thrombosis, and ease of filter introduction. Of the 109 patients in the study, 58 were randomly assigned to the BN and 51 to the KG filter. Demographic factors were comparable between the two groups. Follow-up entailed cavography, noninvasive assessment of the femoral veins, and standardized telephone interviews. The follow-up period was extended to 1 year after filter insertion. Results for the bird's nest versus the Kimray-Greenfield filter respectively were as follows: death due to massive pulmonary embolism, 3% versus 5%; recurrent pulmonary embolism, 1.5% versus 7.5%; filter migration, 1.1% versus 0.0%; IVC thrombosis, 6% versus 2.5%; new or worse leg edema, 28.5% versus 22%; ease of introduction (qualitative), maximal versus minimal; patient discomfort (qualitative), minimal versus maximal. The authors conclude the bird's nest filter is better than the Kimray-Greenfield filter in terms of prevention of recurrent pulmonary embolism and ease of introduction. In terms of venous stasis, the bird's nest filter is not better and may be worse than the Kimray-Greenfield filter. Filter migration is a problem with the bird's nest filter
Full Text Available The instinct for survival leads migratory birds to exploit seasonal opportunities for breeding habitats and food supplies. Consequently, they travel across national and international borders. These birds are distinguished in local migrants, short-distance, long-distance and vagrant and nomadic migrants. They can transfer micro-organisms across the globe and play a significant role in the ecology and circulation of pathogenic organisms. They are implicated in the transmission of zoonoses as biological and mechanical carriers and as hosts and carriers of infected ectoparasites. They can cause water-borne, tick-borne and insect-borne diseases. Favourable agents, such as seasonality and stress due to migration, influence the transmission of pathogens. The migration of birds is a natural phenomenon that is followed by the unavoidable repercussions of the participation of these birds as carriers or hosts in the transmission of pathogens. It is not possible to interrupt this sequence but risks can be minimised by controlling and preventing perilous situations. Surveillance of wetlands, ‘stopovers’, places of destination and wintering regions can be done. Furthermore, the implementation strict biosecurity measures that reduce contact with migratory birds will limit the transmission of pathogens.
Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme
Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...
Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David
Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...
The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. This report deals with the results of searches for dead birds killed as a consequence of collisions with obstacles in the wind park in the spring of 1986-1991 and in the autumn of 1986-1988 and 1991. During the six spring periods and four autumn periods searches were made on 642 different days during which 2907 times an obstacle was searched for dead birds. During these days 76 birds were found (25 species), of which 36% were certainly or very probably killed as a result from a collision with a wind turbine, and 22% were possibly so. Of 34% the cause of death was unknown, and 7% died from other causes. Of the 76 birds found 17% were wounded but still alive. There were no nights with large kills. Also attention is paid to the distribution of the bird victims over the wind park area, their individual positions with regard to the obstacles, and the weather conditions in relation to the number of victims at a certain day. On average less than 0.1% of the birds passing the wind park during the night collided with an obstacle in the wind park, and less than 0.01% did so when the diurnal migration is included. When all resting and feeding birds are also added less than 0.008% collided in autumn (in spring less than 0.06%, breeding birds included). When the possible collisions are included these figures are 0.2%, 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.1% respectively. 9 figs., 22 tabs., 19 app., 83 refs
Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.
A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation
Ronconi, Robert A; Allard, Karel A; Taylor, Philip D
Thousands of oil and gas platforms are currently operating in offshore waters globally, and this industry is expected to expand in coming decades. Although the potential environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas activities are widely recognized, there is limited understanding of their impacts on migratory and resident birds. A literature review identified 24 studies and reports of bird-platform interactions, most being qualitative and half having been peer-reviewed. The most frequently observed effect, for seabirds and landbirds, is attraction and sometimes collisions associated with lights and flares; episodic events have caused the deaths of hundreds or even thousands of birds. Though typically unpredictable, anecdotally, it is known that poor weather, such as fog, precipitation and low cloud cover, can exacerbate the effect of nocturnal attraction to lights, especially when coincidental with bird migrations. Other effects include provision of foraging and roosting opportunities, increased exposure to oil and hazardous environments, increased exposure to predators, or repulsion from feeding sites. Current approaches to monitoring birds at offshore platforms have focused on observer-based methods which can offer species-level bird identification, quantify seasonal patterns of relative abundance and distribution, and document avian mortality events and underlying factors. Observer-based monitoring is time-intensive, limited in spatial and temporal coverage, and suffers without clear protocols and when not conducted by trained, independent observers. These difficulties are exacerbated because deleterious bird-platform interaction is episodic and likely requires the coincidence of multiple factors (e.g., darkness, cloud, fog, rain conditions, occurrence of birds in vicinity). Collectively, these considerations suggest a need to implement supplemental systems for monitoring bird activities around offshore platforms. Instrument-based approaches, such as radar
Full Text Available Migration is a commonly described phenomenon in nature that is often caused by spatial and temporal differences in habitat quality. However, as migration requires energy, the timing of migration may depend not only on differences in habitat quality, but also on temporal variation in migration costs. Such variation can, for instance, arise from changes in wind or current velocity for migrating birds and fish, respectively. Whereas behavioural responses of birds to such changing environmental conditions have been relatively well described, this is not the case for fish, although fish migrations are both ecologically and economically important. We here use passive and active telemetry to study how winter migrating roach regulate swimming speed and distance travelled per day in response to variations in head current velocity. Furthermore, we provide theoretical predictions on optimal swimming speeds in head currents and relate these to our empirical results. We show that fish migrate farther on days with low current velocity, but travel at a greater ground speed on days with high current velocity. The latter result agrees with our predictions on optimal swimming speed in head currents, but disagrees with previously reported predictions suggesting that fish ground speed should not change with head current velocity. We suggest that this difference is due to different assumptions on fish swimming energetics. We conclude that fish are able to adjust both swimming speed and timing of swimming activity during migration to changes in head current velocity in order to minimize energy use.
Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten
Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...
The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...
Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L
Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.
foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.
Petersen, Anne Ring
This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...
Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian
We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...
The study concerns 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. The flight behavior of birds approaching the wind park system during daylight is also dealt with. For at least a fifth of the observations it was noted whether the birds passing within 100 meters distance of a turbine showed a reaction or not. The proportion of the reactions was related to the wind park in operation or not in operation, and to the distance between the wind turbines, species, flight height, the passing distance, wind direction and wind force. Secondly the flight path of birds approaching the wind park from eastern directions during daylight (real autumn migration) and from southern directions during late afternoon (flights of gulls to night roosts) was studied in detail. Significantly more reactions (11-18%) were recorded with the wind park fully operational compared to the wind park not operational (2%). In total 2203 flight paths of birds approaching the wind park were recorded during 151 hours of observation. The test results showed that a passing distance of less or more than 100 meters of the nearest wind turbine did not affect the proportion of reactions. Several reaction types and combinations were noted, varying from gradual and calm reactions (circa 75%), and panic reactions, occurring just before or while passing the wind turbines. The reactions are shift in the flight path in the horizontal plane (30%), shift in the flight path in the vertical plane (14%), one passing attempt (87%), an accelerated wing beat (14%), an alteration of the angle of the body (21%)
Falkdalen, Ulla; Falkdalen Lindahl, Lars; Nygaard, Torgeir
A survey of the bird populations in Oldfjaellen in Jaemtland county, Sweden, was initiated in 2003 prior to the construction of a wind-farm on two adjacent hills, Storrun and Froesoerun by the lake Oevre Oldsjoen. After a gap in the surveys in 2004, comprehensive studies were continued during 2005 - 2008, prior to the construction. The construction-work started during autumn 2008, and the turbines were erected during 2009. Power production was started during the autumn of 2009. The post-construction bird studies were carried out in 2010 and 2011. This report summarizes all the studies that were performed before and after the construction of the wind-farm. Many of the separate studies were made using a BACI method (Before-After-Control-Impact) enabling comparisons of the situation before and after development, using a control area. In addition, a study of collision rates and scavenger removal rates is reported. As expected, the movement and migration of birds over Storrun was of rather limited magnitude. Although the majority of observations during the investigated periods spring and autumn are assumed to be migrating birds, larger flocks of birds are rare in the area. Ca. 20 % of all the birds that passed through or near the wind-farm area flew in heights comparable to the rotor-swept zone. However, more than 40 % of the raptors and waders passed through in that zone, which implies a collision risk. These two groups of birds have shown to be particularly prone to collisions with rotor blades in other studies.
Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Moorman, Christopher E.
Abstract. Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which temporal or spatial variation in food availability influences avian habitat use. We used an experimental approach to investigate whether bird use differed between treated (arthropods reduced through insecticide application) and control (untreated) forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Gaps were two- to three-year-old group selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted during four bird use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in 2002 and 2003. Arthropods were reduced in treated gaps by 68% in 2002 and 73% in 2003. We used mist-netting captures and foraging attack rates to assess the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use. Evidence that birds responded to arthropod abundance was limited and inconsistent. In 2002, we generally captured more birds in treated gaps of the smallest size (0.13 ha) and fewer birds in treated gaps of the larger sizes. In 2003, we recorded few differences in the number of captures in treated and control gaps. Foraging attack rates generally were lower in treated than in control gaps, indicating that birds were able to adapt to the reduced food availability and remain in treated gaps. We conclude that arthropod abundance was not a proximate factor controlling whether forest birds used our gaps. The abundance of food resources may not be as important in determining avian habitat selection as previous research has indicated, at least for passerines in temperate subtropical regions.
Teitelbaum, Claire S; Converse, Sarah J; Fagan, William F; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas
Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.
Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle
The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...... covering the entire migration period every year from observatories located in the Middle East and northern Europe, we show that passage of the Sahara Desert is delayed and correlated with improved conditions in the wintering areas. By contrast, migrants travel more rapidly through Europe, and adjust...... the migration cycle, or whether recently reported phenological changes are caused by plastic behavioural responses or evolutionary change. Here, we investigate how environmental conditions in the wintering areas as well as en route towards breeding areas affect timing of migration. Using data from 1984 to 2004...
Teitelbaum, Claire S.; Converse, Sarah J.; Fagan, William F.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lacy, Anne E; Mueller, Thomas
Anthropogenic changes in climate and land use are driving changes in migration patterns of birds worldwide. Spatial changes in migration have been related to long-term temperature trends, but the intrinsic mechanisms by which migratory species adapt to environmental change remain largely unexplored. We show that, for a long-lived social species, older birds with more experience are critical for innovating new migration behaviours. Groups containing older, more experienced individuals establish new overwintering sites closer to the breeding grounds, leading to a rapid population-level shift in migration patterns. Furthermore, these new overwintering sites are in areas where changes in climate have increased temperatures and where food availability from agriculture is high, creating favourable conditions for overwintering. Our results reveal that the age structure of populations is critical for the behavioural mechanisms that allow species to adapt to global change, particularly for long-lived animals, where changes in behaviour can occur faster than evolution.
Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...
Weindler, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang
WHEN young birds leave on their first migration, they are guided by innate information about their direction of migration. It is generally assumed that this direction is represented twice, namely with respect to celestial rotation and with respect to the Earth's magnetic field1,2. The interactions between the two cue systems have been analysed by exposing hand-raised young birds during the premigratory period to cue-conflict situations, in which celestial rotation and the magnetic field provided different information. Celestial rotation altered the course with respect to the magnetic field3-7, whereas conflicting magnetic information did not seem to affect the course with respect to the stars8,9. Celestial information thus seemed to dominate over magnetic information. Here we report that the interaction between the two cue systems is far more complex than this. Celestial rotation alone seems to provide only a tendency to move away from its centre (towards geographical south), which is then modified by information from the magnetic field to establish the distinctive, population-specific migratory direction.
Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.
Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.
We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement
Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.
Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001
During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.
and birds has inspired poetry, art, l~terature, science and tech- nology. In Monsoon, Wilbur ... Henk Tennekes, an aerospace engineering professor at Pennsyl- vania State University, USA, has a different story to tell in his popular book The ...
Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.
Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...
... such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed, possessed, sold...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on... Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird...
Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.
This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…
Borylo, A.; Skwarzec, B.
In the paper was presented results of our study about uranium 234 U and 238 U radioactivity in the marine birds samples, collected in the Polish area of the southern Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated that uranium is very irregularly distributed in organs and tissues of marine birds. The highest uranium content is characterized in liver, rest of viscera and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The uranium concentration was higher for carnivorous species (long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis), common eider (S. mollissima), lower for species eating fish (great cormorant (P. carbo), common guillemot (U. aalge), red-throated diver (G. stellata) and razorbill (A. tarda)), but the biggest amounts for herbivorous species [tufted duck (A. fuligula) and eurasian coot (F. atra)]. About 63-67% of uranium, which was located in feathers of two species of marine birds: razorbill (A. tarda) and long-tailed duck (C. hymealis), was apparently adsorbed, which suggests that uranium adsorption on the feathers may be an important transfer from air to water. (author)
Zamora-Orozco, Elvia Margarita; Carmona, Roberto; Brabata, Georgina
Taxonomic composition, spatial and temporal distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons (LO) of La Paz city in south Baja California, Mexico, were determined during 24 censuses realized in two-week intervals (April/98-March/99). There are five lagoons of5 Ha each and 17 ha of terrains constantly flooded that serve as feeding areas for cattle and birds. One hundred twenty three species were observed, 75 of which were aquatic birds. A total of 46 041 observations were made (average 1 918 birds/census). Richness and abundance of aquatic birds were influenced mainly by migration of anatids and sandpipers. The first group had the greatest abundance due to its affinity towards fresh water bodies. The terrains were the favorite sites of dabbling ducks (Anas) and sandpipers. In contrast, two of the most abundant species (Oxyura jamaicensis, 12.5% of all species, and Fulica americana, 8.8 %) restricted their presence to the oxidation lagoons. LO presented a bird structure of its own and atypical, according to the dryness of the region.
The author examines the current knowledge on bird fatalities from wind turbines. As the number of turbines around the Finnish coast increases, concern has been voiced by some ornithologists for the safety of birds, particularly during migration. However, studies confirm that few birds collide with wind turbines during the day, with the exception of some large birds of prey that sometimes attempt to use the tower or blades for perching. At night the collision risk is somewhat higher, but average collision rates per kilometre of wind turbines placed in a row (including the space between individual machines) is no higher than that per kilometre of motorway, an acceptable figure in view of the relatively low numbers of machines compared to roads. Wind turbines can potentially do more serious damage to birds if they are erected too near large breeding concentrations, e.g. important coastal wetlands. Many groups of water and wading birds avoid feeding or nesting near turbines up to a range of 500-700 metres. (orig.)
The title study concerns the period 1984-1991. The wind park consists of 18 three-bladed 300 kW horizontal axis wind turbines of 35 meters height, and a rotor diameter of 30 meters, seven meteorological towers, and three cluster and control buildings. Aspects studied included disturbance of breeding, resting or feeding, and migrating birds, behavior of birds approaching the wind turbines during the day and night, and bird victims due to collision with the wind turbines and the meteorological towers. In this report data on the number of birds passing the wind park at night and the flight behavior of these birds during their passage are presented and discussed. The numbers were determined in the period 1985-1988 by using a search approach radar, two passive image intensifiers in combination with infrared spot lights, and a thermal image intensifier. Illumination of the wind turbines to avoid collisions is not believed to be necessary, because birds seem to be quite good at spotting the wind turbines, even during conditions of moderate visibility at night. 30 figs., 23 tabs., 18 app., 109 refs
Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by >2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorariusat least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present.
Mueller, L R; Duke, G E; Evanson, O A
The motor correlate of the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) was characterized in domestic turkeys, and feeding state, age, sex, and time of day were examined as possible factors influencing the motor activity observed. Strain gauge transducers, and in a few birds Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes, were implanted on the caudoventral thin muscle of the muscular stomach, the duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon. Contractility was recorded for 8-10 h per bird on alternating days for 2-3 wk, except in birds involved in four 24-h recording sessions during a 2-wk period. Intense motor activity characteristic of phase III of the MMC occurred only in the ileum; other phases could not be identified. The duration, propagation velocity, and percent of cyclic motor patterns propagating from one site to another were similar to those reported in other galliform species. The occurrence of cyclic motor activity appeared to be related to food consumption; the number of motor patterns occurring during an intense feeding session was less than the number observed 1.5-2 h after feeding. In addition, more motor patterns were recorded in fasted poults during the light period than in the dark; however, the reverse was observed in juveniles fed ad libitum. Cyclic motor activity recorded in fasted 18-wk-old birds was of longer duration than that in fasted 8-wk-old birds. No statistically significant differences were noted in the cyclic motor patterns of male vs. female poults.
Petersen, Anne Ring
"Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...
Trotter, Joe William, Jr.
Describes the migration of African Americans in the United States and the reasons why African Americans migrated from the south. Focuses on issues, such as the effect of World War I, the opportunities offered in the north, and the emergence of a black industrial working class. (CMK)
Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....
Fenske, Robert H.; And Others
This study examines the background characteristics of two large national samples of first-time enrolled freshmen who (a) attended college within their state of residence but away from their home community, (b) migrated to a college in an adjacent state, (c) migrated to a college in a distant state, and (d) attended college in their home community.…
Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel
Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environ...
Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for
(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...
Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jipseol; An, In-Jung; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Kim, Seol-Hee
Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus outbreaks have occurred five times in Korea, with four HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and one HPAI H5N8 outbreak. Migratory birds have been suggested to be the first source of HPAI in Korea. Here, we surveyed migratory wild birds for the presence of AI and compared regional AI prevalence in wild birds from September 2012 to April 2014 for birds having migratory pathways in South Korea. Finally, we investigated the prevalence of AI in migratory birds before and after HPAI H5N8 outbreaks. Overall, we captured 1617 migratory wild birds, while 18,817 feces samples and 74 dead birds were collected from major wild bird habitats. A total of 21 HPAI viruses were isolated from dead birds, and 86 low pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses were isolated from captured birds and from feces samples. Spatiotemporal distribution analysis revealed that AI viruses were spread southward until December, but tended to shift north after January, consistent with the movement of migratory birds in South Korea. Furthermore, we found that LPAI virus prevalences within wild birds were notably higher in 2013-2014 than the previous prevalence during the northward migration season. The data from our study demonstrate the importance of the surveillance of AI in wild birds. Future studies including in-depth genetic analysis in combination with evaluation of the movement and ecology of migratory birds might help us to bridge the gaps in our knowledge and better explain, predict, and ultimately prevent future HPAI outbreaks.
Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.
Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Jacobi, Sarah; Coppen, Jorge; Davis, Amélie Y.; Fox, Timothy J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Johnson, Rex; Jones, Tim; Kenow, Kevin P.; Lyons, James E.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Still, Shannon; Tavernia, Brian G.
Conserving migratory birds is made especially difficult because of movement among spatially disparate locations across the annual cycle. In light of challenges presented by the scale and ecology of migratory birds, successful conservation requires integrating objectives, management, and monitoring across scales, from local management units to ecoregional and flyway administrative boundaries. We present an integrated approach using a spatially explicit energetic-based mechanistic bird migration model useful to conservation decision-making across disparate scales and locations. This model moves a mallard-like bird (Anas platyrhynchos), through spring and fall migration as a function of caloric gains and losses across a continental scale energy landscape. We predicted with this model that fall migration, where birds moved from breeding to wintering habitat, took a mean of 27.5 days of flight with a mean seasonal survivorship of 90.5% (95% CI = 89.2%, 91.9%) whereas spring migration took a mean of 23.5 days of flight with mean seasonal survivorship of 93.6% (95% CI = 92.5%, 94.7%). Sensitivity analyses suggested that survival during migration was sensitive to flight speed, flight cost, the amount of energy the animal could carry and the spatial pattern of energy availability, but generally insensitive to total energy availability per se. Nevertheless, continental patterns in the bird-use days occurred principally in relation to wetland cover and agricultural habitat in the fall. Bird-use days were highest in both spring and fall in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and along the coast and near-shore environments of South Carolina. Spatial sensitivity analyses suggested that locations nearer to migratory endpoints were less important to survivorship; for instance, removing energy from a 1,036 km2 stopover site at a time from the Atlantic Flyway suggested coastal areas between New Jersey and North Carolina, including Chesapeake Bay and the North Carolina piedmont, are
King, Sammy L.; Pierce, Aaron R.; Hersey, Kent R.; Winstead, Nicholas; Hartup, Barry K.
In this study we trapped wintering sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) in Louisiana and fitted them with satellite transmitters to determine their migration routes. Four of the 6 sandhill cranes with validated locations and a terminus point used the Central Flyway for spring migration; 2 of these 4 (the only 2 for which we have data) also used the Central Flyway for fall migration. Two of the 6 birds used the Mississippi Flyway for spring migration. The results of this study suggest that reintroduced whooping cranes (G. americana) that intermix and migrate with sandhill cranes that winter in Louisiana may enter the Central Flyway. In addition, the Mississippi Flyway is a viable option to use as a migration route for whooping cranes if they are reintroduced in Louisiana.
Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Hasselquist, Dennis; Lindstrom, Ake; Koolhaas, Anita; Piersma, Theunis; Lindström, Åke
During endurance flight most birds do not feed and have to rely on their body reserves. Fat and protein is catabolised to meet the high energetic demands. Even though the hormonal regulation of migration is complex and not yet fully understood. the adrenocortical hormone corticosterone crystallizes
Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Bulluck, Lesley P; Carlson, John C; Sabo, Roy T
Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.
Daniel T C Cox
Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.
This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.
Vivien G Dugan
Full Text Available We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of mixed subtype infection. Through a phylogenetic analysis of the largest data set of AIV genomes compiled to date, we were able to document a remarkably high rate of genome reassortment, with no clear pattern of gene segment association and occasional inter-hemisphere gene segment migration and reassortment. From this, we propose that AIV in wild birds forms transient "genome constellations," continually reshuffled by reassortment, in contrast to the spread of a limited number of stable genome constellations that characterizes the evolution of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses.
Martin, P L
"A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt
Still, D.; Carver, H.; Little, B.; Lawrence, S.G.
Blyth Harbour Wind Farm, constructed upon an exposed pier, is not a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is designated to become a RAMSAR location because of the presence of a significant population of the Purple Sandpiper. A study of the effect of the wind farm on the birds was started before the wind farm was constructed and is ongoing. Initial evidence of how the wind turbines have affected the 110 varieties of birds recorded within the harbour will be presented and compared to previous research carried out in Europe and the USA. Methodology has included intensive beach surveys, visits to wind farms in the UK and USA and consultations with wildlife advisory bodies. The study will continue until 1996. (Author)
Redlisiak, Michał; Remisiewicz, Magdalena; Nowakowski, Jarosław K
Climate warming causes the advancement of spring arrival of many migrant birds breeding in Europe, but the effects on their autumn migration are less known. We aimed to determine any changes in the timing of Song Thrush captured during spring and autumn migrations at the Polish Baltic coast from 1975 to 2014, and if these were related to long-term changes of temperature at their breeding grounds and migration routes. The timing of spring migration at Hel ringing station in 1975-2014 did not show long-term advance, but they had responded to environmental conditions on the year-to-year basis. The warmer the temperatures were in April on their migration route, the earlier were the dates of the median and the end of spring migration at Hel. The beginning of autumn migration at the Mierzeja Wiślana ringing station advanced by 5 days between 1975 and 2014. The warmer the April on route, and the July at the Song Thrushes' breeding grounds, the earlier young birds began autumn migration across the Baltic coast. We suggest this was a combined effect of adults' migration and breeding early during warm springs and young birds getting ready faster for autumn migration during warm summers. The average time span of 90% of the autumn migration was extended by 5 days, probably because of early migration of young birds from first broods and late of those from second broods enabled by warm springs and summers. The response of Song Thrushes' migration timing to temperatures on route and at the breeding grounds indicated high plasticity in the species and suggested it might adapt well to climate changes.
Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA
Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern
Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.
Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern
Both, Christiaan; te Marvelde, Luc
Bird breeding and spring migration phenology have advanced in response to climate change, but the effects differ between sites. Here, we examine the geographical variation in laying-date trends in a short-distance migrant, the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, and a long-distance migrant, the pied
Piersma, Theunis; Bairlein, F.
Shorebirds, or waders, form an ecologically (but not phylogenetically) homogenous group of birds that, despite this homogeneity, exhibits clear correlated contrasts in habitat use and migration distance between closely related species pairs. In addition, within species there is distinct variation in
birds, butterflies, plants , soil type, and precipitation (Whitmore and Prance 1987); (C) study populations based largely on neo-tropical lowland...Caballero, A. 1994. Developments in the prediction of effective population size. Heredity 73:657- 679. Camargo, A., R. O. De Sa, and W. R. Heyer. 2006...157-183. Hamrick, J. L., and M. J. W. Godt. 1996. Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philosophical Transactions Of
Graham, Joyce L.
This study involves a comprehensive examination of one book, Maya Angelou's autobiographical I Know Why Why the Caged Bird Sings, since it was first published in 1970. Recognized as an important literary work, the novel is used in many middle and secondary school classrooms throughout the united States. Additionally, the work often is challenged in public schools on the grounds of its sexual and/or racial content. The purpose of this study included establishing th...
Csörgő Tibor; Harnos Andrea; Rózsa Lajos; Karcza Zsolt; Fehérvári Péter
The present paper acts as an introduction to a series that will describe the exploratory analyses of migration phenology and morphometrics of the most common passerine species at the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station. This station is situated in the Ócsa Landscape Protection Area that belongs to the Duna–Ipoly National Park, Hungary. The area is somewhat cooler and more humid than the surrounding agricultural fields and tree plantations, covered by a mosaic of diverse hygrophilous vegetation patches....
Mărcuţan, Ioan-Daniel; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Vasile, Cozma; Sándor, Attila D
Birds are important hosts and dispersers of parasitic arthropods and vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. Particularly migratory species may carry these parasites over long distances in short time periods. Migratory hotspots present ideal conditions to get a snapshot of parasite and pathogen diversity of birds migrating between continents. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from birds at a migratory hot-spot in the Danube Delta, Romania, eastern Europe. DNA was extracted from ticks that were collected from migratory birds in the Danube Delta during migratory seasons in 2011-2012. Two 360 bp fragments of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and a 381 bp fragment Gene gltA were PCR amplified and analyzed by sequence analysis (performed at Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Nucleotide sequences were compared to reference sequences available in the GenBank database, using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Four hundred ticks of four different species were found on 11 bird species. The prevalence of Rickettsia spp. infection was 14 % (56/400, CI: 11.7-29.1), with significantly more nymphs hosting rickettsial infection compared to larvae (48 vs 7; P birds migrating through eastern Europe may carry ticks infected with a high diversity of rickettsial pathogens, with four Rickettsia spp. recorded. Migratory direction was important for pathogen burden, with seasonal differences in the occurrence of individual Rickettsia species. Here we report the first individual records of different Rickettsia spp. in H. concinna (R. monacensis), I. arboricola (R. helvetica, R. massiliae) and I. redikorzevi (R. helvetica) and also the first geographical record of occurrence of R. massiliae in Romania, representing the easternmost observation on the continent.
Full Text Available The present paper acts as an introduction to a series that will describe the exploratory analyses of migration phenology and morphometrics of the most common passerine species at the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station. This station is situated in the Ócsa Landscape Protection Area that belongs to the Duna–Ipoly National Park, Hungary. The area is somewhat cooler and more humid than the surrounding agricultural fields and tree plantations, covered by a mosaic of diverse hygrophilous vegetation patches. Bird trapping is mostly based on Japanese mist-net lines crossing different plant communities. During the period of 1984–2015, a total of 422,862 birds were trapped and ringed here, while 202,739 local, 1,235 within country, and 443 foreign recaptures were also recorded. Each bird is characterized by the following data: location and time of capture, species, age, sex, scores of fat, pectoral muscle, wing tip abrasion, and moult, length of wing, 3rd primary, and tail, and body mass. After subjected to a rigorous quality check, digital data are deposited in the archive of the Hungarian Bird Ringing Centre, and the EURING data base. From time to time, other research projects also utilized the accessibility of wild birds captured here, thus collection of blood samples, ecto- and endoparasites was carried out at the station. The relatively long time span, large number of species and individuals, and the readily available environmental (weather, vegetation, etc. data makes the avian data collected here a suitable base for studies of various disciplines like capture methodology, habitat preferences, breeding, migration, and wintering, effects of weather and climate change, and epidemiology of viruses and parasites.
Steven D. Leavitt
Full Text Available Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs. However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions. The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens is found on all continents, except Antarctica and occurs in BSCs across diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine habitats. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon P. decipiens, along with the closely related taxa P. crenata and P. saviczii. We generated a multi-locus sequence dataset based on a worldwide sampling of these taxa in order to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and explore phylogeographic patterns. Both P. crenata and P. decipiens were not recovered as monophyletic; and P. saviczii specimens were recovered as a monophyletic clade closely related to a number of lineages comprised of specimens representing P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions belonging to well-separated, monophyletic lineages. South African populations of P. crenata were further divided into well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed for the nominal taxon P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian specimens representing
... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...
Christiansen, Connie Carøe
Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....
This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.
Tøttrup, Anders Peter; Thorup, Kasper; Rahbek, Carsten
Although studies of changes in the timing of passerine spring migration are numerous, less is known about timing of their autumn departure. We present phenological data on 22 species based on mist-netted birds caught on the Baltic island of Christiansø during autumn migration between 1976 and 1997...... departure (-0.0426 days year-1, P = 0.40). Testing the 12 species for which the entire migration period was included (thus excluding many long-distance migrants), we found an overall earlier departure (-0.18 days year-1, P = 0.007). Short-distance migrants tended to show earlier departure, while long...
Hays, Graeme C.; Fossette, Sabrina; Katselidis, Kostas A.
Long distance migration occurs in a wide variety of taxa including birds, insects, fishes, mammals and reptiles. Here, we provide evidence for a new paradigm for the determinants of migration destination. As adults, sea turtles show fidelity to their natal nesting areas and then at the end...... dispersion that would be experienced by hatchlings. Hence, the prevailing oceanography around nesting areas may be crucial to the selection of foraging sites used by adult sea turtles. This environmental forcing may allow the rapid evolution of new migration destinations if ocean currents alter with climate...
Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J
This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.
Background A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Rickettsia-infected ticks. Methods Ticks were collected from a total of 14,789 birds during their seasonal migration northwards in spring 2009 and 2010 at bird observatories on two Mediterranean islands: Capri and Antikythira. All ticks were subjected to RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis and individually assayed with a real-time PCR targeting the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. For species identification of Rickettsia, multiple genes were sequenced. Results Three hundred and ninety-eight (2.7%) of all captured birds were tick-infested; some birds carried more than one tick. A total number of 734 ticks were analysed of which 353 ± 1 (48%) were Rickettsia-positive; 96% were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii and 4% with Rickettsia africae or unidentified Rickettsia species. The predominant tick taxon, Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato constituted 90% (n = 658) of the ticks collected. The remaining ticks were Ixodes frontalis, Amblyomma sp., Haemaphysalis sp., Rhipicephalus sp. and unidentified ixodids. Most ticks were nymphs (66%) followed by larvae (27%) and adult female ticks (0.5%). The majority (65%) of ticks was engorged and nearly all ticks contained visible blood. Conclusions Migratory birds appear to have a great impact on the dissemination of Rickettsia-infected ticks, some of which may originate from distant locations. The potential ecological, medical and veterinary implications of such Rickettsia infections need further examination. PMID:25011617
Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.
Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.
Ryan G Drum
Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.
Radmanović Darko P.
Full Text Available Based on current published and unpublished research results, a total of 16 vertebrate species members of mammal (Mammalia, bird (Aves and osteichthyes (Osteichthyes classes have been registered at 11 archaeological sites from the Roman Period in Vojvodina. Mammals dominate with 12 species and one genus, birds are present with 3 species, and osteichthyes with one. From the Migration Period, at 9 sites, 22 vertebrate species have been registered, of which 13 species and one genus of mammals, 4 species and one genus of birds, and 5 species from the Osteichthyes class. At 8 sites from the Medieval Period, 16 vertebrate species have been registered. Mammals are the most numerous class with 10 species and one genus, while birds are present with 4 species and one genus. Furthermore, two species of osteichthyes have also been registered.
Travis W Horton
Full Text Available To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean.
Himmelgreen, David A; Cantor, Allison; Arias, Sara; Romero Daza, Nancy
The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact that globalization and migration (e.g., intra-/intercontinental, urban/rural, and circular) have had on diet patterns, diet quality, and energy balance as reported on in the literature during the last 20 years. Published literature from the fields of anthropology, public health, nutrition, and other disciplines (e.g., economics) was collected and reviewed. In addition, case studies from the authors' own research are presented in order to elaborate on key points and dietary trends identified in the literature. While this review is not intended to be comprehensive, the findings suggest that the effects of migration and globalization on diet quality and energy balance are neither lineal nor direct, and that the role of social and physical environments, culture, social organization, and technology must be taken into account to better understand this relationship. Moreover, concepts such as acculturation and the nutrition transition do not necessarily explain or adequately describe all of the global processes that shape diet quality and energy balance. Theories from nutritional anthropology and critical bio-cultural medical anthropology are used to tease out some of these complex interrelationships. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto
The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.
Carlisle, J.D.; Skagen, S.K.; Kus, B.E.; van Riper, Charles; Paxton, K.L.; Kelly, J.F.
Our knowledge of avian behaviors during the nonbreeding period still lags behind that of the breeding season, but the last decade has witnessed a proliferation in research that has yielded significant progress in understanding migration patterns of North American birds. And, although historically the great majority of migration research has been conducted in the eastern half of the continent, there has been much recent progress on aspects of avian migration in the West. In particular, expanded use of techniques such as radar, plasma metabolites, mist-netting, count surveys, stable isotopes, genetic data, and animal tracking, coupled with an increase in multi-investigator collaborations, have all contributed to this growth of knowledge. There is increasing recognition that migration is likely the most limiting time of year for migratory birds, increasing the importance of continuing to decipher patterns of stopover ecology, identifying critical stopover habitats, and documenting migration routes in the diverse and changing landscapes of the American West. Here, we review and briefly synthesize the latest findings and advances in avian migration and consider research needs to guide future research on migration in the West. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.
Montalvo-Corral, M; López-Robles, G; Hernández, J
A two-year survey was carried out on the occurrence of avian influenza in migrating birds in two estuaries of the Mexican state of Sonora, which is located within the Pacific flyway. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 1262 birds, including 20 aquatic bird species from the Moroncarit and Tobari estuaries in Sonora, Mexico. Samples were tested for type A influenza (M), H5 Eurasian and North American subtypes (H5EA and H5NA respectively) and the H7 North American subtype (H7NA). Gene detection was determined by one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). The results revealed that neither the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5 of Eurasian lineage nor H7NA were detected. The overall prevalence of avian influenza type A (M-positive) in the sampled birds was 3.6% with the vast majority in dabbling ducks (Anas species). Samples from two birds, one from a Redhead (Aythya americana) and another from a Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), were positive for the low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus of North American lineage. These findings represented documented evidence of the occurrence of avian influenza in wintering birds in the Mexican wetlands. This type of study contributes to the understanding of how viruses spread to new regions of North America and highlights the importance of surveillance for the early detection and control of potentially pathogenic strains, which could affect animal and human health. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available An intense dust storm occurred during 19–20 May 2007 over the Taklimakan Desert in northwestern China. Over the following days, the space-borne lidar CALIOP tracked an optically thin, highly elevated, horizontally extensive dust veil that was transported intercontinentally over eastern Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean. A global aerosol transport model (SPRINTARS simulated the dust veil quite well and provided a three-dimensional view of the intercontinental dust transport. The SPRINTARS simulation revealed that the dust veil traveled at 4–10 km altitudes with a thickness of 1–4 km along the isentropic surface between 310 and 340 K. The transport speed was about 1500 km/day. The estimated dust amount exported to the Pacific was 30.8 Gg, of which 65% was deposited in the Pacific and 18% was transported to the North Atlantic. These results imply that dust veils can fertilize open oceans, add to background dust, and affect the radiative budget at high altitudes through scattering and absorption.
The injection mechanism that lifts dust particles into the free atmosphere is important for understanding the formation of the dust veil and subsequent long-range transport. We used a regional dust transport model (RC4 to analyze the dust emission and injection over the source region. The RC4 analysis revealed that strong northeasterly surface winds associated with low pressures invaded the Taklimakan Desert through the eastern corridor. These winds then formed strong upslope wind along the high, steep mountainsides of the Tibetan Plateau and blew large amounts of dust into the air. The updraft lifted the dust particles farther into the upper troposphere (about 9 km above mean sea level, MSL, where westerlies are generally present. The unusual terrain surrounding the Taklimakan Desert played a key role in the injection of dust to the upper troposphere to form the dust veil.
Daniel J D Natusch
Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.
Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard
Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica) migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds). These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria) near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs) beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season). Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys) aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold) under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.
Rohwer, Vanya G.; Pauw, Anton; Martin, Paul R.
Characterizing many species interactions as mutualisms can be misleading because some members of the interaction derive greater fitness benefits at the expense of other members. We provide detailed natural history data on a suspected bird?plant mutualism in South Africa where many species of birds use fluffy Eriocephalus seed material to construct their nests, potentially dispersing seeds for the plant. We focus on a common bird, Prinia maculosa, which invests heavily in gathering Eriocephalu...
Established in 2009, the Green Energy Act aims to increase the use of renewable energy sources including wind, water, solar and bioenergy in Ontario. The development of these resources is a major component of the province's plan, which aims to mitigate the contribution to climate change and to involve the Ontario's economy in the improvement of the quality of the environment. The Green Energy Act also considers as important the implementation of a coordinated provincial approval process, suggesting the integration of all Ministry requirements into a unique process during the evaluation of newly proposed renewable energy projects. The Ministry of the Environment's Renewable Energy Approval Regulation details the requirements for wind power projects involving significant natural features. Birds are an important part of Ontario's biodiversity and, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources, their habitats are considered as significant wildlife habitat (SWH). The Renewable Energy Approval Regulation and this guideline are meant to provide elements and guidance in order to protect bird SWH during the selection of a location of wind power facilities. . 27 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.
Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund
Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.
Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.
Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H
Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.
Virkkala, Raimo; Lehikoinen, Aleksi
Species richness is predicted to increase in the northern latitudes in the warming climate due to ranges of many southern species expanding northwards. We studied changes in the composition of the whole avifauna and in bird species richness in a period of already warming climate in Finland (in northern Europe) covering 1,100 km in south-north gradient across the boreal zone (over 300,000 km 2 ). We compared bird species richness and species-specific changes (for all 235 bird species that occur in Finland) in range size (number of squares occupied) and range shifts (measured as median of area of occupancy) based on bird atlas studies between 1974-1989 and 2006-2010. In addition, we tested how the habitat preference and migration strategy of species explain species-specific variation in the change of the range size. The study was carried out in 10 km squares with similar research intensity in both time periods. The species richness did not change significantly between the two time periods. The composition of the bird fauna, however, changed considerably with 37.0% of species showing an increase and 34.9% a decrease in the numbers of occupied squares, that is, about equal number of species gained and lost their range. Altogether 95.7% of all species (225/235) showed changes either in the numbers of occupied squares or they experienced a range shift (or both). The range size of archipelago birds increased and long-distance migrants declined significantly. Range loss observed in long-distance migrants is in line with the observed population declines of long-distance migrants in the whole Europe. The results show that there is an ongoing considerable species turnover due to climate change and due to land use and other direct human influence. High bird species turnover observed in northern Europe may also affect the functional diversity of species communities.
Zakaria, Anne Lassen; Bruun, Charlotte
been left behind in global economic development, it is important to recognise that interventions, such as within tourism, cannot start on a tabula rasa. Hence, in this paper we argue that geographical locations are living systems where different stakeholders, formal and informal institutions......, environment with its wildlife, etc., all interact and influence interventions and outcomes. In metaphorical terms developing locations through tourism is like attempting to make a bird fly in a desired direction: One can never predict completely the direction in which it will fly. On the contrary throwing...
Two lines form the southern North Sea, with known velocity inhomogeneities in the overburden, have been pre-stack depth migrated. The pre-stack depth migrations are compared with conventional processing, one with severe distortions and one with subtle distortions on the conventionally processed sections. The line with subtle distortions is also compared with post-stack depth migration. The results on both lines were very successful. Both have already influenced drilling decisions, and have caused a modification of structural interpretation in the respective areas. Wells have been drilled on each of the lines, and well tops confirm the results. In fact, conventional processing led to incorrect locations for the wells, both of which were dry holes. The depth migrated sections indicate the incorrect placement, and on one line reveals a much better drilling location. This paper reports that even though processing costs are high for pre-stack depth migration, appropriate use can save millions of dollars in dry-hole expense
Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe
In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....
Xu, Yanjie; Gong, Peng; Wielstra, Ben; Si, Yali
The highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease, threatening humans, poultry and wild birds. The role of wild birds in the spread of HPAI H5N1 has previously been investigated by comparing disease spread patterns with bird migration routes. However, the different roles that the southward autumn and northward spring migration might play in virus transmission have hardly been explored. Using direction analysis, we analyze HPAI H5N1 transmission directions and angular concentration of currently circulating viral clades, and compare these with waterfowl seasonal migration directions along major waterfowl flyways. Out of 22 HPAI H5N1 transmission directions, 18 had both a southward direction and a relatively high concentration. Differences between disease transmission and waterfowl migration directions were significantly smaller for autumn than for spring migration. The four northward transmission directions were found along Asian flyways, where the initial epicenter of the virus was located. We suggest waterfowl first picked up the virus from East Asia, then brought it to the north via spring migration, and then spread it to other parts of world mainly by autumn migration. We emphasize waterfowl autumn migration plays a relatively important role in HPAI H5N1 transmission compared to spring migration.
Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven; Bensusan, Keith J; Perez, Charles E; Tryjanowski, Piotr
The Mediterranean Sea is known as an ecological barrier for numerous migratory birds flying from European breeding grounds to African wintering sites. Birds generally avoid migration over open sea and fly over land. In the Mediterranean Basin, few land bridges or bottlenecks for migratory birds exist. The narrowest are at the western and eastern extremes: the Strait of Gibraltar and Israel. Comparative studies between these locations are extremely rare to date. Therefore, in order to elucidate the differences between the two flyways, we compared data collected simultaneously for two sister leaf warbler species, the Bonelli's Warbler complex, Phylloscopus bonelli and Phylloscopus orientalis, at ringing stations in the western Mediterranean Basin Gibraltar, and the eastern Eilat, Israel. Data on biometrics and passage dates of individuals trapped at Gibraltar and Eilat were used, and it was found that mean arrival date of Western Bonelli's Warblers at Gibraltar was 15 days later than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers at Eilat. Furthermore, Western Bonelli's Warblers had shorter wings than Eastern Bonelli's Warblers. On the other hand, birds in Eilat were in poorer body condition than individuals in Gibraltar. The comparison between geographically distant stop-over sites contributes to furthering our understanding of the development of migration strategies across ecological barriers in sibling species. Our study showed that populations that breed in southwestern Europe migrate through Gibraltar and winter in West Africa are able to accomplish migration in comparatively good body condition. This is in contrast to those that winter in East Africa, migrate through Israel and have to endure the combined challenge of crossing the Sahel, Sahara and Sinai deserts before reaching their breeding grounds across southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Hence, the discrepancies described between the western and the eastern flyway suggest that individuals in the west, in general, migrate
Ma. del Coro Arizmendi; Laura Marquez Valdelamar; Humberto Berlanga
Many species in Mexico are threatened and in need of protection. At least seventy species are considered to be globally threatened, yet conservation actions have been scarce and not coordinated. In 1996 BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas Program was initiated in Mexico to identify a network of the most important places in Mexico for birds, with the...
..., accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a history, was... purposes during the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were amended...-0066; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY70 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska...
... rulemaking, accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a... the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were recently amended for... rural Alaska. The amendments to the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico recognize the...
... Convention and the subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian...
...-0037; FF09M21200-134-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in California. We specify the counties in...
...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...
Full Text Available In 2014, 162 bird species were recorded during the bird ringing activities in Slovenia. Of 155 species, 62,275 birds were ringed, and 107 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 148 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1395 local recoveries were recorded. The most frequently ringed species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla and Great Tit Parus major. As far as ringed nestlings are concerned, Great Tits and Barn Swalllows Hirundo rustica predominated. Considering the recoveries ringed of found birds abroad, the commonest were Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus and Mute Swans Cygnus olor. The farthest recovery was a Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (5171 km away. Among the more interesting finds was also the so far southernmost recovery of a Sand Martin Riparia riparia found in Israel. Let us also mention the first recovery of a Corncrake Crex crex, which bred and was ringed in 2013 at Planinsko polje (central Slovenia and was found in the 2014 breeding season in the Czech Republic. Among rare species, two Little Buntings Emberiza pusilla were caught and ringed. After nine years, the Roller Coracias garrulus bred again in Slovenia in 2014 and its nestlings were ringed. The paper also brings the description of the migration route of the first African migrant, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra, marked with a GPS/GSM telemetric device, which migrated across the Adriatic Sea, Sicily and Sahara to Nigeria.
Schütze, Laura Maria
Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....
Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C
Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.
Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.
Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L
A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.
Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene
The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.
Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian
Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.
During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts
Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing
Olwig, Karen Fog
a strong sense of agency and self-empowerment. In the post-WWII period, numerous Caribbean women trained in nursing at British hospitals that have been described as marred by race and gender related inequality and associated forms of exploitation. Yet, the nurses interviewed about this training emphasised......Youths from the Global South migrating for further education often face various forms of discrimination. This Caribbean case study discusses how conditions in the home country can provide a foundation for educational migration that helps the migrants overcome such obstacles and even develop...... in which it enabled these Caribbean women to stake out a new life for themselves....
Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.
Mora, Miguel A
Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001-2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p'-DDE (100%), p,p'-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p'-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 microg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, deltaD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. deltaD values also were negatively and significantly correlated
Møller, A P
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) constitutes the minimal metabolic rate in the zone of thermo-neutrality, where heat production is not elevated for temperature regulation. BMR thus constitutes the minimum metabolic rate that is required for maintenance. Interspecific variation in BMR in birds is correlated with food habits, climate, habitat, flight activity, torpor, altitude, and migration, although the selective forces involved in the evolution of these presumed adaptations are not always obvious. I suggest that BMR constitutes the minimum level required for maintenance, and that variation in this minimum level reflects the fitness costs and benefits in terms of ability to respond to selective agents like predators, implying that an elevated level of BMR is a cost of wariness towards predators. This hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between BMR and measures of risk taking such as flight initiation distance (FID) of individuals approached by a potential predator. Consistent with this suggestion, I show in a comparative analysis of 76 bird species that species with higher BMR for their body mass have longer FID when approached by a potential predator. This effect was independent of potentially confounding variables and similarity among species due to common phylogenetic descent. These results imply that BMR is positively related to risk-taking behaviour, and that predation constitutes a neglected factor in the evolution of BMR.
Full Text Available The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni. We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.
Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel
The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.
Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A.; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel
The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region. PMID:24647442
Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.
The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to
Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S
An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.
de ext. Korte, J.; Volkov, A.E; Gavrilo, M.V
Fieldwork in different parts of Severnaya Zemlya in 1985, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and aerial surveys in 1994 revealed a limited bird fauna with a total of 17 breeding species. The most numerous breeding birds are cliff-nesting seabirds, comprising little auk (Alle alle), 10 000-80 000 pairs; kittiwake
Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.
Bird strikes have the potential to cause severe damage to aircraft. Therefore, measures to reduce the risk of bird strikes are performed at airports. However, this risk is not limited to the airport but is increased in the arrival and departure corridors as well. Consequently, a significant amount
Caro, S.P.; Balthazart, J.
Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing
Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav
A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…
H. Ken Cordell; Nancy G. Herbert
What are the "field marks" of the entry-level birder of the past few years? She is probably between 40 and 59 years old and is white. She puts in about 10 birding days or fewer per year, trying to squeeze birding into a busy life, although she also finds herself engaged in related activities: walking for pleasure, attending family outdoor gatherings...
Jun 1, 2014 ... Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University P.M.B 3011 Kano, Nigeria ... Birds were randomly picked and viewed under day light with the aid of hand lens and dissecting forceps to facilitate ... another when birds are kept in close contact (Price et al., 2003). They are ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.
Amo, L.; Visser, M.E.; Van Oers, K.
The role of olfaction for predation risk assessment remains barely explored in birds, although predator chemical cues could be useful in predator detection under low visibility conditions for many bird species. We examine whether Great Tits Parus major are able to use the odour of mustelids to
The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses
Raharimanga, V; Soula, F; Raherilalao, M J; Goodman, S M; Sadonès, H; Tall, A; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Raharimalala, L; Duchemin, J B; Ariey, F; Robert, V
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in native Malagasy birds. Among the 387 birds, belonging to 43 species sampled at six localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 139 (35.9%) showed at least 1 hemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus (19.9%), microfilariae (13.7% of 387 birds), Leucocytozoon (11.1%) and Trypanosoma (1.0%). An analysis to further elucidate these observations took into account the interaction of different environmental variables (altitude, season, site of collection) or aspects of the birds (age, weight, sex). There is evidence that some parasites preferentially infect some bird species or families. The largest male birds harboured the highest prevalences and densities of haemoparasite, regardless of species. These findings extend knowledge of bird/blood parasite relationships of Malagasy birds and provide interesting insights, especially concerning the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by insect vectors.
The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...
Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J
The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a
The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…
European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...
Olwig, Karen Fog
Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...
Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...
van der Brug, W.; D' Amato, G.; Berkhout, J.; Ruedin, D.
Why are migration policies sometimes heavily contested and high on the political agenda? And why do they, at other moments and in other countries, hardly lead to much public debate? The entrance and settlement of migrants in Western Europe has prompted various political reactions. In some countries
This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.
This study looked at diffusive migration through three types of deformation; the projectile pathways, hydraulic fractures of the sediments and faults, and was divided into three experimental areas: autoradiography, the determination of diffusion coefficients and electron microscopy of model projectile pathways in clay. For the autoradiography, unstressed samples were exposed to two separate isotopes, Pm-147 (a possible model for Am behaviour) and the poorly sorbed iodide-125. The results indicated that there was no enhanced migration through deformed kaolin samples nor through fractured Great Meteor East (GME) sediment, although some was evident through the projectile pathways in GME and possibly through the GME sheared samples. The scanning electron microscopy of projectile pathways in clay showed that emplacement of a projectile appeared to have no effect on the orientation of particles at distances greater than two projectile radii from the centre of a projectile pathway. It showed that the particles were not simply aligned with the direction of motion of the projectile but that, the closer to the surface of a particular pathway, the closer the particles lay to their original orientation. This finding was of interest from two points of view: i) the ease of migration of a pollutant along the pathway, and ii) possible mechanisms of hole closure. It was concluded that, provided that there is no advective migration, the transport of radionuclides through sediments containing these defects would not be significantly more rapid than in undeformed sediments. (author)
Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till
Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil...
de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Miura, Ana Carolina; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects domestic and wild animals. Canids are considered to be definitive hosts since they may shed oocysts into the environment through their feces. The disease is recognized as one of the major causes of bovine abortion worldwide, leading to important economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have reported N. caninum infection in different species of birds; infection in birds has been associated with increased seroprevalence and reproductive problems in dairy cattle. Although the role of birds in the epidemiological cycle of neosporosis is unknown, birds are exposed to infection because they feed on the ground and could thus contribute to parasite dissemination. This review is focused on the current state of knowledge of neosporosis in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K
Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.
Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.
Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers
Brusatte, Stephen L; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Jarvis, Erich D
Birds are one of the most recognizable and diverse groups of modern vertebrates. Over the past two decades, a wealth of new fossil discoveries and phylogenetic and macroevolutionary studies has transformed our understanding of how birds originated and became so successful. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic (around 165-150 million years ago) and their classic small, lightweight, feathered, and winged body plan was pieced together gradually over tens of millions of years of evolution rather than in one burst of innovation. Early birds diversified throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous, becoming capable fliers with supercharged growth rates, but were decimated at the end-Cretaceous extinction alongside their close dinosaurian relatives. After the mass extinction, modern birds (members of the avian crown group) explosively diversified, culminating in more than 10,000 species distributed worldwide today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce
World Bank Group
This Migration and Development Brief reports global trends in migration and remittance flows, as well as developments related to the Global Compact on Migration (GCM), and the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators for volume of remittances as percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (SDG indicator 17.3.2), reducing remittance costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1) and recruitment costs (SD...
Lyons, James E.; Winn, Bradford; Keyes, Timothy; Kalasz, Kevin S.
Red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) have 3 distinct nonbreeding regions: 1 in the southeastern United States and Caribbean, another on the northeast coast of Brazil in the Maranhão region, and a third along the Patagonian coasts of Chile and Argentina. Effective conservation and recovery of this threatened long-distance migrant will require knowledge of population structure, migration ecology, and abundance and distribution throughout the annual cycle. We conducted a stopover population and biogeographic assessment of knots at the Altamaha River Delta, Georgia, an important stopover area in the southeastern United States. We estimated stopover population size and stopover duration during post-breeding migration in 2011 at the Altamaha study area using mark-resight data, and we inferred nonbreeding regions for this stopover population using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in feathers, and observations (sightings and captures) during boreal winter from across the hemisphere. With an integrated Bayesian analysis of all these data, we also estimated the number of birds in the southeastern United States and northern Brazil during boreal winter. For mark-resight analyses in Georgia, we made observations of marked individuals during 14 weeks from early August to early November 2011 and detected 814 individually marked birds. We used the Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model and estimated the southbound passage population at approximately 23,400 red knots. In ongoing studies elsewhere, isotope samples were collected from 175 (21%) of the 814 birds detected in our study, and ≥1 sighting or capture record during boreal winter was located in data repositories for 659 birds (81%). Isotopic signatures and boreal winter records indicate that the majority (82–96%) of the birds that stopped at the Altamaha Delta spend the boreal winter in the northern part of the nonbreeding range (southeast USA, Caribbean, and northern Brazil). Knots migrating to the southeastern
Full Text Available In our contemporary democratic society the migration phenomenon meets unknown valences in any previous societies. Free will and right to self-determination, much exploited by the XX century society., raised the possibility of interpretation of migration
Klaassen, Raymond H G; Hake, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas
Wind and ocean currents may potentially have important effects on travelling animals, as an animal which does not respond to lateral flow will be drifted from its intended direction of movement. By analysing daily movements of migrating ospreys Pandion haliaetus and marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus, as recorded by satellite telemetry, in relation to global wind data, we showed that these raptors allow on average 47 per cent drift. Furthermore, our analyses revealed significant geographical and temporal variation in the response to crosswinds. During some parts of the migration, the birds drifted and in other parts they compensated or even overcompensated. In some regions, the response of marsh harriers depended on the wind direction. They drifted when the wind came from one side and (over)compensated when the wind came from the opposite side, and this flexible response was different in different geographical regions. These results suggest that migrating raptors modulate their response to crosswinds at different places and times during their travels and show that individual birds use a much more varied repertoire of behavioural responses to wind than hitherto assumed. Our results may also explain why contrasting and variable results have been obtained in previous studies of the effect of wind on bird migration.
Coppack, Timothy; Kulemeyer, Christoph; Schulz, Axel; Steuri, Thomas; Liechti, Felix
Full text: Offshore wind farms may negatively affect migrating birds, especially at night, by increased photo tactic attraction and risk of collision. Under favourable weather conditions (clear skies, tail wind) the majority of migrants probably fly well above the reach of wind turbine blades. Under unfavourable conditions (sea fog, precipitation, head wind), however, nocturnal migrants could get attracted by brightly lit wind farms, and the risk of collision would hence increase. To assess these potential effects, migration rates and collision probabilities need to be empirically quantified at existing wind farms. This is not an easy task, given the setting and dimension of an offshore wind farm and the sheer quantity and diversity of small-bodied birds potentially passing by. Nocturnal passerine migrants are impossible to count accurately over extended periods with observational methods, and even classic radar technology fails to pro-vide hard-wired information. Complementing the 'Standards for Environmental Impact Assessment' issued by Germany.s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH), we have developed and installed a novel radar system (BirdScan) on the research platform FINO 1, situated around 50 km offshore next to the wind farm 'alpha ventus' in the German North Sea. BirdScan operates on the basis of defined detection volumes (fixed radar beam), allowing a precise quantification of passerine and non-passerine radar echoes. Our study design includes alternating measurements within and outside the wind farm in order to assess avoidance and/or photo tactic aggregation behaviour of migrants under various weather situations. At the same time, we are investigating the photo tactic attraction of birds at a smaller spatial scale using motion-controlled infrared cameras directly mounted on the nacelle and shaft of a wind turbine. Through this approach, disoriented birds (and even bats) can be automatically ground-proofed and set in
My bachelor thesis explores the connection between international migration and gender. Gender, defined as a social, not a biological term, has a huge impact on the migration process. Statistics and expert studies that have been gender sensitive since 1970s demonstrate that women form half of the amount of the international migrants depending on the world region and representing a wide range of the kinds of international migration: family formation and reunification, labour migration, illegal ...
Abrera-mangahas, M A
International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the
Peterjohn, Bruce G.
communities. This project involved parks within three NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) networks, Mid-Atlantic, National Capital, and Eastern Rivers and Mountains. Five parks were selected for the initial focus of this study, all of which maintain open landscapes for interpreting historic events. Most parks were selected because they contain the most extensive grassland habitats within their networks, although some also support shrubby successional habitats. The five parks included in this study are Antietam National Battlefield, Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Gettysburg National Battlefield, Manassas National Battlefield, and Monocacy National Battlefield. This conceptual ecological model is one product of this project. The information presented below allows NPS network coordinators to understand which factors should be considered when making decisions concerning shrubland management within their networks. This model provides park resource managers with information on shrubland ecology in the Mid-Atlantic Region, the ecological requirements of shrubland birds likely to occur in their parks, and management issues influencing whether significant breeding populations can occupy shrublands created and maintained in the parks. Resource managers can then make informed decisions concerning their ability to create and maintain shrubland habitats. The emphasis of this conceptual model is restricted to management of breeding shrubland birds. Additional species occur during migration and winter, and habitat requirements of shrubland birds during nonbreeding seasons may differ from those described for the breeding season.
Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya
This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...
Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L
Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.
Since the second half of the 1960s of the 20th century, a profound cultural innovation was accompanied to the radical change in the social, political and economic climate. The anthropological notion of culture as opposed to idealistic vision, the unusual and strong interest in material culture, the enunciation of the concept of cultural property by the Franceschini Commission, the luck of the Public History bring a change of the disciplinary statutes of historical sciences, which begin to attend to social history, focusing on the spontaneous sources of information and initiating experiences of oral history. To all this a remarkable transformation of the themes and of the social function of museums is added. This paper illustrates, in relation to this more general context, the foundation and the dissemination of museums dedicated to the history of migration in Italy and in the world, enunciates their possible social utility for the integration of present migrants in Italy and illustrates, by way of example, the museum recently opened in Recanati.